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Professional best practice from the Institution of Lighting Professionals

March 2019

CROSSING THE TEES How dynamic, colour-changing lighting has transformed the north east’s Newport Bridge DATA SAFE IoT could be a game-changer for emergency lighting, but lighting professionals must tread carefully CITY OF BEACONS What New York can tell us about future ‘mega bright’ cities


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March 2019 Lighting Journal




Newport Bridge, the historic, Grade II* listed, vertical-lift structure crossing the River Tees, has been transformed by a dynamic, colour-changing lighting scheme, write Steve Edwards and Elizabeth Harrison


As well as driving smart cities, could connected LED lighting be used to ease urban congestion and overcrowding? A project is looking into precisely this, as Alan Grant and Miguel Lira outline


With more local authorities taking their first steps into smart, adaptive street lighting, Slough Borough Council has shown how close collaboration and careful testing and evaluation is key, as YLP member Georgia Thomas explains




Are local authorities wanting to ‘go smart’ with urban infrastructure expecting too much, too fast from their hard-pressed lighting engineers, asks Ray Wescott


The ‘Internet of Things’ could be a game-changer for how emergency lighting systems are monitored and maintained. But this must not be at the expense of functionality or compliance, an expert panel agreed at LuxLive


The ILP’s ‘How to be brilliant…’ lectures ventured to Edinburgh for the first time in October, where academic Malcolm Innes spoke about ‘True colours: explorations in art, design and research’, as Chloe Martina Salvi reports


In the last of our three-part series, Paul Middleton outlines how his council, Central Bedfordshire, is working to be compliant with the new WellManaged Highway Infrastructure: a code of practice


Closed for two years, Iceland’s spectacular ‘Lava Tunnel’ has been brought back to life through a creative and visually stunning lighting installation



The launch of the ILP’s 2019 ‘How to be brilliant…’ programme, and the ILP mourns the loss of Derek Foster


With more and more cities like New York becoming ‘mega brights’, perhaps we need an honest debate about what our cites will look and feel like in future, questions YLP member Leah Xandora



Newport Bridge over the River Tees, showing off its stunning new lighting scheme by Stainton Lighting Design Services. Photograph by Roger Moody

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March 2019 Lighting Journal

Editor’s letter

Volume 84 No 3 March 2019 President Colin Fish IEng MILP Chief Executive Tracey White Editor Nic Paton BA (Hons) MA Email: Editorial Board Tom Baynham MEng MA (Cantab) Emma Cogswell IALD Mark Cooper IEng MILP Kevin Dugdale BA (Hons) IEng MILP Graham Festenstein CEng MILP MSLL IALD Nathan French John Gorse BA (Hons) MSLL Alan Jaques IEng FILP Lora Kaleva MSc Assoc IALD Nigel Parry IEng FILP Georgia Thomas (YLP rep) BA (Hons) Paul Traynor Richard Webster Graphic Designer Sacha Robinson-Forster BA (Hons) Email: Advertising Manager Andy Etherton Email: Published by Matrix Print Consultants Ltd on behalf of Institution of Lighting Professionals Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby CV21 2PN Telephone: 01788 576492 E-mail: Website: Produced by

Matrix Print Consultants Ltd Unit C, Northfield Point, Cunliffe Drive, Kettering, Northants NN16 9QJ Tel: 01536 527297 Email: Website: © ILP 2019 The views or statements expressed in these pages do not necessarily accord with those of The Institution of Lighting Professionals or the Lighting Journal’s editor. Photocopying of Lighting Journal items for private use is permitted, but not for commercial purposes or economic gain. Reprints of material published in these pages is available for a fee, on application to the editor.


have to confess to not being entirely honest with you. The past few months have been a bit of a rollercoaster for me in that before Christmas I went into hospital to have (planned) heart valve replacement surgery. It’s not something I’ve mentioned up to now in my editor’s letter, mostly because I’m not one to make a fuss or be overly ‘confessional’ in my writing. I am very glad to say everything went totally smoothly. I was in and out of hospital in a week – thank you, NHS! – and back home in good time for Christmas. I was then able to spend most of January recuperating and recovering, helped in no small part by an ‘emergency’ gift of cake supplied by the ILP (and thank you to all the team at Rugby, and Jo Bell in particular, for such thoughtful generosity). But it was nevertheless good last month finally to begin easing back into all-things lighting, with the ILP-supported Light School at the Surface Design Show being my very first post-operative work ‘excursion’. Although I am well aware ILP CPD takes place all year round, for me Light School always heralds the start of a fascinating new CPD year. And this year was no exception. On the day I attended – the middle Wednesday – there were inspiring talks by Magdalena Gomez of Elektra Lighting Design, Juan Ferrari at Hoare Lea, Christopher Knowlton at 18 Degrees, Benz Roos of Speirs + Major, Brad Koerner of Koerner Design, and Paul Kerrigan of Crossrail. A very eclectic mix! In next month’s edition there will be a review of the three-day event but, more widely for those of you who were unable to attend, over the coming months we’ll work to bring you articles based around a selection of this year’s ‘Light Talks’. So, watch this space. Later this month, as we highlight in this edition, we will see the return of the ILP’s ‘How to be brilliant…’ lectures, which for 2019 are kicking off with a talk by Luke Edwards of Cue Design all about his work as the lighting designer for Gary Numan’s ‘Savage’ North America tour. I, for one, hope to be there and I hope as many of you as possible will support this year’s programme, both in London and Edinburgh. Then, of course, looking further into the year, we have the Professional Lighting Summit to look forward to in June, this year in Newcastle upon Tyne (and there will be more detail on this in upcoming editions), where we will see the launch of the ILP’s new national CPD curriculum. So, one way or another, just three months in, 2019 is already panning out to be a strong and exciting year for ILP CPD. Long may that continue.

Nic Paton Editor


ILP members receive Lighting Journal every month as part of their membership. You can join the ILP online, through Alternatively, to subscribe or order copies please email Diane Sterne at The ILP also provides a Lighting Journal subscription service to many libraries, universities, research establishments, non-governmental organisations, and local and national governments.


March 2019 Lighting Journal

Bridge lighting

q Photo courtesy of Roger Moody



Newport Bridge, the historic, Grade II* listed, vertical-lift structure, crossing the River Tees has been transformed by a dynamic, colour-changing lighting scheme that is also helping to stimulate the region’s night-time economy and restore civic pride By Steve Edwards and Elizabeth Harrison


ewport Bridge is a vertical-lift bridge located in the north east of England and spanning the River Tees. It links Stockton-on-Tees with Middlesbrough and is a short distance upriver from the Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge. The bridge is an excellent example of its kind, drawing attention as a striking structure and exceptional piece of architecture. Designed by Mott, Hay and Anderson and built by local company Dorman Long, who were also responsible for the iconic Tyne Bridge and Sydney Harbour Bridge, it was the UK’s first large vertical-lift bridge and opened to traffic on 28 February, 1934. Constructed around twin 55m lifting towers, the 82m bridge span weighs 2,700 tons and was once lifted using two electric motors at 16m-per-minute to its maximum height of 37m. In the unfortunate occurrence of a failure, there was a back-up petrol engine

available to allow the use of the bridge to still take place. In the extremely unfortunate event that this also failed, then there was the option of manually raising and lowering the span using a winch mechanism – although this will have taken a considerable amount of time! In fact, it was estimated by the longtime bridge master Mr R Batty in 1963 that ‘it would take 12 men eight hours’ to complete the movement by hand. The bridge was originally manned 24 hours a day between 12 men, requiring four to drive it at any given time. During the 1940s and early 1950s the central span was operated for business and trade up to twice a day, with an average of 800 vessels per year passing under it, so you can only imagine what impact a failure would cause. However, regrettably, as the number of ships needing to sail up to Stockton-on-Tees declined, so did the usage of the bridge. The result of this decline led to the removal of

the legal requirement to lift the bridge for shipping traffic in 1989, with mechanical decommissioning and the final lift taking place on 18 November, 1990. Until recent years, it was repainted in its original green and some minor maintenance took place on the wire ropes and counterbalances that still take much of the bridge load.


This historic vertical-lift bridge has a complex steel construction that dominates the industrial skyline; each viewpoint offers something new but always impressive. Even though it is now dormant, it still serves as a key distributor road, carrying considerable traffic as part of the A1032, despite the presence of the A19 viaduct that runs alongside only a short distance away. A recent refurbishment provided the prospect to illuminate its extraordinary design features, providing an opportunity to

March 2019 Lighting Journal

highlight its scale and complexity whilst also celebrating the excellence of early 20th century British engineering. In 1985 the structure was granted Grade II* listed status. As such, the scheme had to be in keeping and respectful of this but still offer an alternative viewing experience to the daytime. In 2014, we at Stainton Lighting Design Services (SLDS) were commissioned to undertake a desk-top study into the feasibility of renewal of the outdated decorative floodlighting originally installed in 2003.


The possibility of a new lighting scheme had to be considered in the context of wider maintenance work on the bridge, including – significantly – a major repainting project to honour the bridge’s 80th anniversary, with works starting in July 2014. But unfortunately, due to some hitches, this wasn’t completed until October 2015. To that end, even though the lighting works were still upcoming at that point, SLDS was consulted on the paint colour selection in anticipation of this. This led to the primary paint choice of a light grey being chosen for the bulk of the structure. The reason for this was that light grey would provide an excellent canvas for colour, in preparation for the new lighting, whilst the daytime appearance of the bridge would be enhanced through key features of the structure being highlighted in red. Furthermore, from this study, it became apparent the existing lighting methodology was no longer appropriate and the existing equipment was in poor condition. A decision was therefore made to undertake a more substantial feasibility exercise into a potential complete replacement and redesign of the decorative lighting. SLDS was again commissioned to undertake these works as part of Stockton Borough Council’s ‘Big plans, bright future’ initiative, which has seen several areas around the borough regenerated, with decorative lighting featuring heavily. For example, the council completed a £20m regeneration of Stockton-on-Tees’ high street, including improvements to transport networks, dedicated infrastructure for events and specialist markets and lighting improvements. The project aimed to completely transform the area meeting the demands of a modern town centre. For regular readers, reference to this project can be found in the October 2015 edition of Lighting Journal (volume 80, no. 9) ‘North East Passage: putting light at the heart of the regeneration of Stockton-on-Tees’.


p Photo courtesy of Roger Moody

The council has had a clear strategy for linking the decorative areas and features within the borough, including utilising the ability to add harmonised colour or dynamic colour change options to all projects at the same time for specialist events, but in all instances defaulting back to scheme-appropriate architecture and context for each individual feature under normal use. When it came to Newport Bridge, this meant there was a desire from the outset to provide detailed key focal elements whilst creating dynamic, varied themes, including focusing colour to specific attributes and using a

diverse colour palette to complement the overall atmosphere of the scheme.


In early May 2016 several night-time trials were undertaken to look at lighting options, visual effects and impact from several key approaches. This process concluded with a client demonstration of the promoted solution, with many key stakeholders from the council in attendance. Extensive site trialling helped us to develop an innovative design methodology whereby structural features of the bridge

March 2019 Lighting Journal

Bridge lighting

q TThe new lighting scheme immerses you as you drive over the bridge, in the process offering a range of diverse, unique and beautiful perspectives

Photo courtesy of Tony Raine


were broken down into individual aspects, such as the main span, roof and upper wheel house, towers and tower crowns. This splitting of the bridge into critical areas of illumination assisted with funding bids. Careful positioning and detailed selection of equipment ensured elements could be implemented independently whilst, most importantly, at the same time delivering a harmonious lighting scheme that was visually coherent. One key element of our design ethos was, wherever possible, to make the illumination source invisible from the key viewpoints. The feedback from this demonstration was overwhelmingly positive and it was decided the scheme should be developed into a deliverable scheme including all required consents.


SLDS opted for an ‘inside out’ design ethos to best highlight the complex maze of interconnecting steelwork. This ethos offered varying relief, shadowing and emphasis of three-dimensional depth. The methodology highlighted the intricate construction elements – such as steelwork, webbing and riveting – where other lighting methods would have delivered a flat, two-dimensional appearance. To accentuate the intricacy of the bridge, the new scheme utilised 137 lighting units compared to the original 76. This, of course, could suggest more energy use

THE LIGHTING SCHEME being required. In fact, through careful product selection and placement of equipment, the LED scheme made significant energy and maintenance savings (see the figures and costs panel for more on this). The bridge’s Grade II* listed structure status meant that any lighting scheme had to be considerate, suitable, refined and respectful. A key element of the planning and heritage constraints was the requirement not to affect the fabric of the structure. Therefore, no holes were drilled, no welding took place and all equipment had to be removable without residual impact. In the development of detailed solutions, one of the main challenges faced by the design team was to develop minimal impact solutions. This led to the creation of a number of inventive, bespoke and non-invasive fixing methods that, in many instances, utilised inexpensive, preparatory construction solutions in innovative ways. For example, we used a mix of bespoke clamping arrangements, free-standing units and proprietary girder clips and clamps. Where applicable and necessary during installation, a long-lasting Butyltype rubber strip was used to protect the steelwork or paintwork. As an additional due diligence measure, all mounting arrangements were checked and approved by a structural engineer prior to construction.

The delivery of a striking lighting scheme with the adaptability to be subdued and modest yet also vibrant and dynamic when the occasion required pointed to an LED luminaire solution. To achieve the required variation for the scheme, we selected a four-channel RGBW arrangement allowing pure white, pastels and various adaptive colours to be implemented easily and cost-effectively. The final scheme protocol uses a ‘blue and white’ programme day-to-day while giving the council the control and flexibility to use the colour-change capability to support and celebrate notable local and national events/awareness days. Some pre-agreed and programmed schemes include, World Autism Awareness Day (blue), World Blood Donor Day (red), National Breast Cancer Month (pink) and local events such as Armed Forces Week (red, white and blue) and local football team Middlesbrough match days (red and white). In addition, there is a process in place to ensure other world events can be honoured if appropriate. To control the dynamic elements, we specified a fully wired DMX control system throughout the scheme. A wired system was chosen over wireless as the DMX cable is small, so assisting installation restraints by following existing routes where possible and meaning there were no concerns over interference from the

March 2019 Lighting Journal

Bridge lighting

structure. Furthermore, this allows any individual luminaire to be independently changed to deliver the desired colour palette along with dynamic visual effects. Electrically, the innovative design implemented a ‘plug and play’ system. This reduced installation time, minimised potential theft and was, again, non-invasive to the structure.



The lighting has transformed the bridge to look stunning against the river vista from distance viewpoints. But it has also allowed you to immerse yourself within the scheme itself as you drive over the bridge, through the structure. In doing so offering totally diverse, unique and beautiful perspectives. The use of LED technology has provided a much wider array of optical solutions than would have been available with traditional high-intensity discharge lighting. Added to this has been the ability to have one ‘base’ luminaire to which its optical performance is altered by use of secondary ‘refracting lens’ technologies. This, along with the ability of LED to be easily dimmed, has allowed the final on-site design to make subtle changes to reduce the environmental impact without unduly affecting the visual aesthetic. The scheme required many different luminaire distributions, with some non-standard optics required to achieve the best visual result. There is very little spill light, as most of the lighting units being used have maximum wattages below 50 watts and, wherever appropriate, are aimed in a downward direction. The careful specification of precision optics ensures the light is in the right place and the scheme has excellent utilisation, especially considering the physical construction. The resulting light intrusion towards the river has been significantly reduced when considered against the previous solution. The few luminaires that did have to be aimed upward because of the structure and use of the bridge were individually aimed on site at commissioning stage. They also employ secondary ‘refracting lens’ technology, which allows the beam angle and general distribution to be easily altered. Great care was taken at this stage to ensure the scheme had little or no impact on flight paths, the rail network, road users, the waterway and adjacent properties. As part of the overall process, multiple stakeholders were consulted to ensure the scheme didn’t impact on their operations or safety. Network Rail, in particular was a key stakeholder in this process, as its infrastructure runs parallel to the River Tees.


In summary, the Newport Bridge scheme has been extremely well received, with a great deal of positive reaction, locally and through social media. The overall profile of the bridge has been raised by the lighting scheme, which has also received national recognition with leading engineering societies visiting from all over the UK to witness the fully orchestrated, dynamic lighting display. It is a testament to Stockton Borough Council that it commissioned the project, especially in such times of austerity. The council understands the role good lighting can play in stimulating the night-time economy of a region as well as civic pride. Overall, the design development and implementation of the project was a wellworked partnership between client, designer and installation crew. The design brief from the offset posed several foreseeable design aspects that had the potential of becoming problematic. Working together allowed us to develop solutions and overcome all obstacles that may have presented themselves along the way. The result has been the delivery of an outstanding, celebration of light. With determination, perseverance, belief and artistic vision this powerful structure has been respectfully brought back to life. Steve Edwards BSc is design manager (specialist lighting) and Elizabeth Harrison BA (Hons) is lighting designer at Stainton Lighting Design Services

p Photo courtesy of Roger Moody

FIGURES AND COSTS The previous lighting scheme operated dusk till dawn, which seemed excessive. Given that the new scheme is a decorative project, we have promoted the lighting being in operation only between key viewing times, namely dusk until midnight, dusk until 11pm and from 5am until dawn. The existing scheme consisted of 4 x Type A Holophane PBM 1000 MVT S–1109W, 4 x Type B Holophane PBM 1000 MVT W–1109W, 64 x Type C Holophane–86W and 4 x Type D Holophane–471W. The previous energy consumption (total kW) being 16.26 with the overall energy consumption per year (kWh) based on 4,200 burning hours (dusk till dawn) was calculated at 68,292. The existing scheme burning dusk till dawn cost approximately £8,195 per year to run.

The new scheme, by comparison, consists of 89 Urbis SculpFlood 60 27W, 28 Urbis SculpFlood 150 80W, 8 Philips ColorReach 180W, 2 Philips ColorReach Compact 90W and 10 Philips ColorGraze MX4 48W. The new energy consumption (total kW) being 6.81 with the overall energy consumption per year (kWh), based on the new lighting regime illuminated between dusk and midnight, means that 2,200 burning hours has been predicted at 14.974 – so providing a considerable saving. Furthermore, there is a potential CO2 saving calculated at 28 tons annually, 520 tons over the life of the new scheme. At current energy rates this offers, roughly, a yearly energy saving of £6,400, or a 78% reduction in energy combined with a significant reduction in maintenance liability.

March 2019 Lighting Journal

Smart cities




ne of the biggest issues impacting our growing and crowded cities is how we keep people safe as they travel from A to B. As our cities continue to grow, congestion on our roads, pavements and transport hubs will only continue to worsen. Signs and signage can of course help. But the problem with signage is that we are often slow to find and then process the information they give us. Especially if we are in a new or unfamiliar environment, excessive signage can result in cognitive overload, which actually slows us – and the crowd around us – down. Could light, and especially lighting enabled with ‘smart’ or ‘Internet of Things’ (IoT) functionality, be one answer?

To find out, exterior lighting manufacturer DW Windsor and IoT specialist (and sister company) Urban Control have partnered in a large public sector (Innovate UK)-funded project – and working with the University of Nottingham and the Railway Safety Standards Board – to better understand how light can influence people’s behaviour in crowded situations. IoT, of course, is already a key element within, and attraction of, smart cities. One of the common features of smart cities around the world has been their adoption of connected and IoT-enabled street lighting, which has the ability to provide services such as car parking sensors and pedestrian counting on high streets.

LED street lighting, especially Internet of Things-enabled lighting, is well-recognised as one of the key drivers in the development of ‘smart’ connected cities. But can light be used to influence behaviour in crowded situations? By Alan Grant and Miguel Lira


We know light can influence our mood and even our ability to perform certain tasks, but what our new project is addressing is how light can also be used to provide wayfinding information and to influence the speed people move in busy public areas. If we can use lighting to reduce congestion and crowding, we can improve the experience of users. This, in turn, could help to increase the capacity of existing infrastructure – roads, pavements or public buildings – therefore making it a financially attractive option. Although going beyond what is often meant when we use the term ‘smart city’, this would very much be a ‘smart’ solution for many cities, and one with measurable, tangible benefits.

March 2019 Lighting Journal

Smart cities


The advantage of using light rather than signage to address congestion and crowding is that we have a much quicker, intuitive response to light. For example, people have a strong preference for well illuminated entrances and exits, while pulsing lighting could provide information on direction and speed of movement. One of the challenges here is that understanding how light influences behaviour is a hugely complex area. There is a vast amount of research on the effects of light and lighting upon behaviour, and it is well-recognised that people often have a very individual physiological and cultural response to light, but the fact there are so many variables means studies have sometimes had contradictory results or been inconclusive.


Nevertheless, research does suggest a number of key parameters of light that can influence behaviour. These include: • Light intensity • Colour • Frequency of pulsing or flashing • Direction of light All of these can nowadays be varied and adjusted with LED technology. We have the means to remotely control lighting using cloud-based Central Management Systems which, in turn, can allow us easily to change light parameters in each connected fitting. We also have effective and affordable smart sensors that can be used

to record the response of people to different lighting parameters at different moments of the day, in a real-world situation. We can therefore collect large volumes of sensor data, managed through a secure data platform, which we can analyse to understand the effectiveness of different lighting interventions. Ultimately the application of artificial intelligence will provide new algorithms that can be integrated to existing systems. If we can combine new, adaptable LED lighting that has greater functionality with modern IoT technology and analytics, we believe we will be better able to understand how the behaviour of individuals and crowds is influenced by different lighting parameters. In turn, our aim is to create a network of connected lighting products that can dynamically respond to congestion and crowding levels and therefore help to keep our cities moving. We are just at the start of our journey: enhancing the functionality of existing products so that we can test these at a trial site. Our academic partners will be undertaking a rigorous assessment of the effectiveness of the technology and the benefits that arise, but it is a journey we believe has the potential to bring a real and positive impact to the development of our towns and cities. As the results start to come through we will share our findings in the hope that we can encourage the lighting industry as a whole to champion the power of light as

more than just an urban asset but also as an influencer of urban behaviour. Alan Grant is design and development director at DW Windsor and Miguel Lira is innovation and development director at Urban Control

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Lightweight design due to patented V-Max modular chevron concept (V4: 11kg & V8: 17kg)


Low profile design achieves exceptionally low windage. V-Max chevron concept permits free movement of air reducing mechanical stress on fixing points (V4: 0.043m2 & V8: 0.051m2)


Safety assured. V-Max has successfully passed independent vibration testing to the 4.20 Rough Service Luminaires section of the UNE-EN 60598-1:2009 standard and section 5. Luminaire Vibration Test of the ANSI C136.31-2010 standard. Additionally, V-Max has successfully passed independent environmental salt spray testing to BS EN ISO 9227 NSS standard.


March 2019 Lighting Journal

Smart cities

COUNCIL BUILDING More and more local authorities are taking their first steps into smart, adaptive street lighting. As this case study from Slough Borough Council shows, the key to getting the most from this new technology is close collaboration with partners and a regime of careful testing and evaluation


By Georgia Thomas


treetlights are widely recognised as the ‘gateway’ to smart cities. They are conveniently situated at regular intervals adjacent to the roads and footpaths that connect our towns and cities; they have a power supply and the light source is mounted on secure infrastructure high above the carriageway. Many local authorities have already invested in Central Management Systems (CMS) to allow total flexibility and control for lighting policy, resulting in efficiency gains and substantial financial savings. The resulting connected network now offers multiple possibilities and opportunities to assist with the development and deployment of smart applications. From the monitoring and reporting of air quality, noise, road temperature, gully status,

waterways, weather conditions, footfall and vehicle counts, through to EV charging and dynamic lighting control, the applications are infinite, resulting in more efficient and intelligent use of resources. However, for local authorities looking to implement smart applications, which after all can potentially impact every single resident within the boundaries of the city or county, it is imperative to trial such technology. This is exactly what Slough Borough Council has done with the assistance of Mayflower Smart Control and Hyperion Infrastructure Consultancy – work that this article is going to focus on and highlight.


Early in 2016, Slough Borough Council

made its first steps into ‘smart’ by installing our CMS.  The inclusion of Mayflower CMS with LED lanterns into its borough-wide street lighting upgrade project is now delivering energy savings of 43%. It is also providing the council with the ability to manage and regulate its lighting dynamically, whilst directly monitoring the performance of its streetlights. Following the completion of the upgrade project in 2017, the council opted to maximise its investment in CMS and LED by commissioning Hyperion to undertake an adaptive street lighting trial. This took place over a period of two months (between February to March 2018) and was designed to determine a number of factors that could affect implementation of the CMS into any new lighting policy. This included: • Ease of applying profiles to lighting output • Success of communication • Number of adjustments needed to the defined lighting regime • Number of times system had to be overridden by CCTV team • Complaints from the public • Reduction in energy consumption and CO2 levels. During this time Hyperion worked closely with both us at Mayflower and energy consultancy Power Data Associates to ensure the trial would reach its intended objectives. Prior to the rollout of the trial, extensive risk assessment and contingency planning was also carried out to ensure minimal potential disruption to council residents. One element of this was gauging the impact of dimming on CCTV imagery, as it was essential to determine the optimal dimming level for streetlights near CCTV cameras that would still maintain the clarity of CCTV images. Extensive pre-trial testing concluded that dimming regimes of up to 50% displayed no visual depreciation of image quality.


Following an in-depth proposal from Hyperion, two areas in the borough, Chatford Road and Common Road, were selected as the test-beds for the dimming regimes. The trial dimming was in effect from the hours of 10pm until 6am every day over a period of two months in these areas.

March 2019 Lighting Journal

17 q

A total of 923 individual streetlights in the areas (out of a total stock of 10,752 or 9% of the total) were dimmed in accordance with the lighting regime as shown in figure 1 opposite.


Arguably, of course, the most important stakeholder for any local authority is its residents. Upgrading to LED can sometimes lead to complaints from residents, with – to cite just two recent examples – councils in Stockton and Liverpool experiencing media storms following a switchover to LED [1]. In the case of Slough, given the time and geographical scale of the trial, no prior information was communicated to residents other than through Slough’s Disability Forum. This, it was recognised, did create the possibility of a potential adverse reaction from residents of the borough, particularly those in the trial areas. However, it is pleasing to report that during the trial period there was no adverse reaction from residents to the dimming. Safety is also naturally paramount when working with any client, but particularly the public sector and emergency services. To be able to respond to emergency service requests for additional lighting in areas that were dimmed, we


Figure 1. How Slough’s trial dimming programme was distributed Above: Slough high street





















created a login for Hyperion and Slough’s CCTV and care teams to override the preset lighting profiles. However, again, during the trial period there were no requests from the emergency services or other instances where the CCTV and care team had to override the lighting profiles that were set.


Following the two-month trial period, it was recommended that adaptive street lighting be applied across the borough. Resulting from an in-depth risk and geographical analysis, it has been forecasted

the diming regime can be applied to 5,618 lighting columns (52% of the total) within the Slough Borough Council network. This is dimming beyond the default of 70% for LEDs. As highlighted earlier, Slough’s existing successful LED replacement programme, which covers the whole of the borough, has already generated extensive savings, notably reducing CO2 emissions by 43%. There has also been a 26% reduction in energy costs from LED replacement alone. Following the trial period, it was concluded that implementing our CMS across the borough would result in multiple

March 2019 Lighting Journal

Smart cities

tional savings for Slough, including: • Reducing energy consumption by a further 7% per year • Saving in consumption charges of 8% per year • Reducing CO2 emissions by a further 8% per year



By 2050, it is projected that 68% of the world’s population will be living in urban areas (United Nations, 2018) and this increasing population, combined with the development of new technologies will lead to the future of smart cities sooner than we think [2]. But it must be recognised this future will not become a reality without collaboration from colleagues, clients and industry partners alike. In the case of this trial, it was the continual collaboration of multiple parties – Slough’s care and CCTV teams, Slough Disability Forum, Hyperion Infrastructure Consultancy, Slough Borough Council itself and us at Mayflower Smart Control – that made it possible. And don’t just take our word for it. Here are comments from some of the key stakeholders. Chris Spong, director of Hyperion Infrastructure Consultancy, said: ‘This has been an excellent opportunity to demonstrate the real savings that can be achieved through adaptive street lighting as well the practical application of the riskbased approach set out in the ILP’s PLG08 guidance on the application of adaptive lighting in the public realm and advocated in Well Managed Highway Infrastructure: a Code of Practice.’ Sing-Wai Yu, service manager at Slough, Reading and Wokingham LED Upgrade Project, added: ‘Working with reliable, informed and collaborative partners made this experience straightforward, interesting and enjoyable. Investment in a CMS is paying dividends above the savings from the LED/CMS investment and we continue to explore many additional applications and opportunities with our CMS partner Mayflower Smart Control to enable a smart environment for the residents of Slough.’ Ultimately, it is the combined efforts of all parties that have provided a justified use case for Slough Borough Council and allowed for substantial energy usage savings. By working collaboratively in this way, Slough Borough Council has taken the first steps to becoming a ‘smarter’ city and,


The success of the adaptive street lighting pilot means it will now be applied across the borough by Slough Borough Council

through further continued partnership and collaborative working, we fully expect it to realise the true potential of smart city technology. I’ll leave the final word to Patrick Mitchell, head of Mayflower Smart Control, who has said of the project: ‘This project shows just how committed Slough Borough Council is in maximising the benefits of the installed Mayflower CMS. Using the Mayflower technology and Hyperion’s project management expertise this trial has provided sufficient data to allow Slough Borough Council to determine exactly what lighting levels are best for which areas across the borough. We continue to work with SBC on smart applications utilising the Mayflower network in collaboration with our smart sensor partners.’ Georgia Thomas is a YLP member and marketing and bid associate at Mayflower Smart Control

REFERENCES [1] ‘Stockton’s “too dark” LED lights defended by council’, 01 December 2018, BBC News,; Residents say Liverpool Council’s £7m new street lights are ‘dimmer than candles’, 18 May 2018, Liverpool Echo, liverpool-news/residents-say-liverpool-councils-7m-14674894; ‘Residents slam “useless” streetlights turning neighbourhood into “robbers paradise”,’ 08 January 2019, Liverpool Echo, https://www.liverpoolecho. [2] ‘68% of the world population projected to live in urban areas by 2050, says UN’, the United Nations 2018 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects, published May 2018, desa/en/news/population/2018-revision-of-world-urbanization-prospects.html

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March 2019 Lighting Journal

Smart cities



We all know lighting columns have the potential to be the pivot around which much of the connected, ‘smart’ city technological revolution can revolve. But are local authorities pushing hard to ‘go smart’ expecting too much, too fast from their hard-pressed lighting engineers? By Ray Wescott


rofessor Klaus Schwab, founder of the World Economic Forum, has argued that connected, digitalised urban spaces are arguably an important driver of what he has termed the ‘fourth industrial revolution’ [1]. This is the technological revolutions we are seeing in areas such as robotics, AI, the ‘Internet of Things’ (IoT), 5G, 3D printing, autonomous vehicles, nanotechnology and much, much more. Street lighting and lighting columns, as lighting professionals know only too well, are already a linchpin infrastructure element of this urban revolution and, if anything, ‘the humble lamppost’ is set to become even more pivotal as time goes on. Lighting columns can provide the vital base infrastructure – a plug socket – for

smart city sensors. In addition to hanging baskets and festive lights, lighting columns are now being used for everything from EV charging points through to air quality and temperature sensors; the monitoring of pedestrian and people movement through to CCTV cameras; communication and mobile phone charging points through to Wi Fi hot spots and so on. Indeed, as Alan Grant and Miguel Lira argue on the previous pages, could IoT-enabled street lighting even in time become a driver or influencer of human behaviour within the urban space?


So, at one level, the potential and possibilities of smart and connected technology

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March 2019 Lighting Journal

Smart cities


appear limitless. The challenge, however, is how or even whether the ‘humble’ under-pressure local authority street lighting engineer wrestling with a limited budget, limited team and ever-expanding in-tray can ever hope to deliver on this vision of boundless possibility. ‘Deliver us a smart city concept’, ‘we want to embrace smart’, ‘give us these wonderful LED and IoT savings everyone is talking about’ – the edicts come down from on high. But what does this mean on the ground, on paper, in reality, for us as lighting professionals – engineers and manufacturers – working in a constrained and increasingly challenging environment? One of the first challenges local authority lighting engineers face is simply understanding what our municipal leaders mean when they talk about the ‘smart city’. Is the drive towards ‘smart’, connected cities simply about tinkering with existing infrastructure to bolt extra functionality on to lighting assets so as to (as already highlighted) better manage and monitor traffic flows, energy consumption and so on? Is it simply about connecting urban spaces to offer citizens free Wi Fi hot spots? Or is the drive towards smart something we need to be thinking about at a much deeper level: as a way to tackle and address global warming; a tool to kickstart better health and wellbeing and work-life balance; a driver (perhaps through data analytics) towards transforming how we communicate, engage, collaborate and even behave as citizens?


Then, too, does the poor lighting engineer need to be taking into account some of the potentially ‘darker’ questions about this drive towards connecting all facets of urban life? Is ‘smart’ the thin end of the wedge of ever-deeper ‘big brother’ monitoring of public spaces? Who controls or owns all this data and what happens to it? Is lighting and lighting infrastructure at risk of becoming, or being perceived as, little more than the ‘useful idiot’ facilitating the tech juggernauts as they take over our increasingly data-driven lives? Do we as citizens even care about such issues if this connected world at our fingertips gives us what we desire? These are, of course, complex questions well beyond the ‘pay grade’ of most lighting professionals just trying to do their job to the best of their ability. But they are discussions and debates we all need to be

having (or at least thinking about) alongside the practicalities of delivering smart projects, installing CMS, enabling IoT functionality and so on. After all, whenever we press the green light on a ‘smart’ project, there does need to be some clarity as to why we’re doing this. Why are we making this time and money investment? What, for us, should ‘smart’ look and feel like? Are we taking people along with us or is it something we’re just ‘doing’, whether citizens want it or not? It is increasing clear that lighting columns, the ‘humble lamppost’, are set to be one of the, if not potentially the most, important enabler of smart city connectivity. Yet, too often, smart city projects are still enacted on a piecemeal basis by local and municipal authorities without enough thought given (ironically) to how best they should be connected. At one level this is unsurprising, given the siloed way so much of our local infrastructure is constructed, managed and financed these days. It is perhaps unrealistic to suggest that hard-pressed local authority lighting engineers have the capacity or the skillset to become this ‘glue’ that binds smart city investment and delivery. But if the fourth industrial revolution is to become as truly transformational as thinkers such as Professor Schwab have

suggested, the drive towards smart and connected cities will at some point need this leadership, this overarching, binding, collaborative vision. The local authority lighting engineer can play an important part, and definitely needs to have an important voice. But local authority leaders – don’t expect them to work miracles. Ray Wescott is European street lighting and smart cities business development manager at Telematics Wireless

REFERENCES [1] The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Professor Klaus Schwab, The World Economic Forum,

HOW TELEMATICS WIRELESS IS ENABLING SMART CITIES The significant energy savings that can be made by adopting LED street lighting are well recognised nowadays. The provision of CMS, it is also increasingly well understood, enables lighting levels to be pre-set on the basis of environmental need, thereby driving additional energy savings still further. This combination of CMS and LED provides a radio communications platform – springboard if you like – to leverage benefit from smart city sensor communications. As such, more and more products and innovations are now coming into this growing market. At Telematics Wireless, for example, our T Light pro Mesh CMS solution has recently been used within an energy saving project in Southend on Sea where noise and flood level

monitoring sensors have been reporting via the street lighting radio communications platform. Our light control unit/node also has the capability to act as a Wi Fi ‘hot spot’ to accommodate high data volume sensors on the network. Our parent company, ST Engineering, has developed an IoT platform, WISX (World of IoT Sense & Exchange) that is device and network ‘agnostic’. The platform is designed to integrate multiple IoT solutions into a common platform that facilitates data exchange and analysis within the smart city realm. In addition, the platform facilitates cross-domain analytics, utilising an advanced AI engine to generate insights and predictive actions.

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March 2019 Lighting Journal

Emergency lighting and the ‘Internet of Things’



The Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to transform how emergency lighting systems are monitored and maintained, through the use of real-time data analytics. But this must not be at the expense of core functionality or compliance with standards, an expert panel agreed at LuxLive in November By Nic Paton


he Internet of Things (IoT) is a great tool for lots of things. But maybe we could start with getting some of the basics in place first – for example compliance – in terms of emergency lighting? I know there are lots of compliant buildings, but there are also lots of non-compliant buildings. So why don’t we start with there, and then see how far we get maybe with the IoT?’ So said Peter Earle, business

development manager at Philips OEM Technology at Signify, at LuxLive in November, in the process setting the stage for what was a fascinating four-strong panel discussion on emergency lighting’s role in the IoT. The debate took place in the show’s emergency lighting ‘Escape Zone’ on the morning of the second day. What follows is an encapsulation of some of the themes and arguments teased

out within the 30-minute discussion. Alongside Peter on the panel were Stephen Thomas, business development manager at BSI, Ashley Bateup, head of technology and connected buildings at FM Conway and a partner of Chess Wise, and Gary Gundry, a freelance electrical safety expert who mainly works for CORGI, the Electrical Contractors’ Association and the Institution of Engineering and Technology.

March 2019 Lighting Journal

The backdrop for the discussion was the sense that, as it is in so many other areas of lighting these days, digitalisation is starting to make inroads into emergency lighting, including IoT. IoT, in theory at least, could make the monitoring and regular testing of an emergency lighting installations that much easier. But, not least post-Grenfell, is this really the case, or should lighting professionals be wary about allowing emergency lighting systems to become too dependent on IoT or, indeed, to potentially vulnerable internet connectivity generally?


Ashley Bateup, first, outlined what he felt IoT could bring to the emergency lighting table, as it were. ‘For me, it is about delivering real-time data. The emergency lighting asset is no different from any other asset; we want to understand its status. ‘Of course, there is a statutory obligation around the functionality of emergency lighting – it has to be tested on a regular basis,’ he added. Where IoT could potentially make a difference was in its ability to gather and harness data in real time so that an operator or buildings or facilities manager can run analytics. ‘So we can see that everything is functioning as it should be without manual intervention, without the cost to

people having to walk around buildings on a regular basis; to bring that data digitally, securely, to the Cloud where we can run analytics,’ he explained. ‘If you’re a responsible person, you need to know whether your building is compliant or not. And, if it is not, we need the information to act in a timely fashion to correct that issue.’ IoT could enhance our understanding of the function testing required for that fitting and highlight any areas where this is deficient, Ashley highlighted. ‘We can then send an engineer to fix it in a timely fashion with the right hardware to the right location to make sure that fitting is managed and the building is compliant. ‘When you look at the current standards and the way things are going, somebody will walk around that building checking every emergency lighting in line with the risk assessment of that building. They then record that information, put it somewhere and squirrel that information away, for when they might need it when they get a visit from health and safety. ‘What IoT allows you to do is to aggregate all that information in real time on a daily basis and takes away the need for visual checks, and puts it in a single location that is secure and robust, where those records are attainable at any point,’ he added. Despite his earlier cautionary note,

p Panelist Gary Gundry highlighted the need for

joined-up thinking and working collaboratively


q Peter Earle speaking at LuxLive. Peter agreed IoT could have an important role in emergency lighting in future, but stressed lighting

professionals will need to be careful in their approach

March 2019 Lighting Journal

Emergency lighting and the ‘Internet of Things’

Peter Earle outlined that IoT could well have an important place within emergency lighting in the future. ‘Within Philips we think emergency lighting is one of the best use cases within the lighting industry for IoT. For exactly the reasons Ashley just explained,’ he said. ‘The scenario that Ashley explained is the ideal scenario for managing that. But you can’t forget that it [emergency lighting] is a safety product; it is meant to save lives – it does other things as well, but ultimately that is its intention,’ Peter added.



A theme that came out of a number of talks during LuxLive was the growing need for collaboration between lighting, technology and software professionals; of the digitalisation of lighting requiring almost a multi-disciplinary approach, even if the lighting professional remained at the centre. And this was no different in the content of emergency lighting and the IoT, as Peter outlined. ‘Philips is a lighting company; we’re experts in lighting. We know about lighting and the quality of light, we know about how to deal with that stuff – the component technology, the electronics, all that stuff. But we’re not necessarily IoT experts or integrators.’ It was important everyone worked together, ‘that we don’t have this belief


that we can do it on our own’, he added. Stephen Thomas highlighted how the growth market in IoT was currently the residential space but, even here, it has not been without teething issues. ‘When you ask the question of most people about residential IoT – what are the concerns? – it is all centred around security. There have been more breaches within residential products. ‘Some of those residential products are moving to the commercial space, and we’re all consumers, whether you’re a director of a company, you’re still a consumer. So those risks just carry over. You talk about testing products because you want it to be functional; you want it to be correct and safe. Adding IoT can create additional layers of vulnerability and security issues,’ he said. ‘We need to start with the basics,’ agreed Ashley Bateup. ‘The basics with emergency lighting is you need an emergency lighting solution in the first instance. It’s got to be consistent; it’s got to do what it’s designed to do. “The second part is around the connectivity. I don’t come from the lighting industry; I come from the defence industry. I spent 25 years looking at security of platforms, systems and data within the defence environment – and they obviously take it very seriously. ‘When I started looking at solutions for IoT buildings and lighting in general, and emergency lighting very specifically, we looked at the lighting industry and the way it was going with IoT. And we realised that, actually, we’re not the experts in IoT. ‘So, we need to find people who have that expertise in connectivity, with systems and services that are proven; and they may not come from the lighting industry. How

do we create connectivity from those lighting assets in a secure way? How do we do that agnostically because, actually, we may need to have a number of lighting suppliers in a particular project? We may need to have emergency lighting from different suppliers. ‘But the common denominator, from an IoT point of view, is making sure those systems are fit for purpose. There are lots of proprietary IoT systems out there and they are proprietary and therefore affordable, and that’s why we find them in our domestic environment, because they’re low cost. But you cannot just take proprietary systems off the shelf and plug them into your emergency lighting package, in my view. It takes a different approach,’ he emphasised. This was a point echoed by Peter Earle. ‘If the lights go out in an emergency, then that is a life or death situation, there and then, within a few seconds. We know how quickly things can go wrong if you don’t have any lights. So, you’ve got to find that balance between having a quality product that does what it is supposed to do, in a system not just on its own, and the cost of that, and who is prepared to pay for that.’ For lighting companies, one dilemma and challenge was how to source, recruit, collaborate with or retain this sort of often expensive out-of-industry expertise, the panel emphasised. As Ashley Bateup put it: ‘Is it right the lighting companies should be experts in these fields? Or do they go and acquire companies that already have that proof of expertise, and maybe not try and invest in themselves? I think it is a whole new discipline that from a lighting background, you may not have the expertise to deploy.’ A lot of people in this context were ‘definitely analogue’, agreed Gary Gundry. ‘It is about producing safe protocols and education. Joined-up thinking is the way to do it, and working collaboratively,’ he said. ‘Irrespective of the type of system used, the message to designers, installers and anyone with the responsibility of maintaining emergency lighting systems is always to stick with the quality products versus cheap over-the-counter products, and always use skilled persons that are competent in this type of work.’ ‘We have a responsibility to keep saying this stuff, to keep talking about compliance, to keep working with the industry bodies on the standards and proposed standards and so forth, whatever your area of specialism, whether it is emergency

March 2019 Lighting Journal

lighting or something else. We have to do that. But we also have to keep getting up on stages like this and talking about this stuff,’ emphasised Peter Earle. ‘We have to think: what benefits are we trying to achieve; what are the best tools to deliver that? Is it wireless, wired, this product, that product, this or that technology? What is the best combination of technologies to deliver those benefits?’

integrators, engineers – to make sure we are helping our customers to understand this. So I think there is a large education piece to be done with customers, not about IoT but just on some of the basics. ‘The lighting industry is very far behind where the IoT industry is, in all sorts of sectors. It is beholden on the lighting industry to take a wider look at what is happening within IoT and to leverage some of the best practices and some of the technologies that are already well established. It is about leveraging that expertise into the lighting industry,’ Ashley added.


As the discussion came to a conclusion, the panel were in agreement that, as an industry, lighting must never get into a situation where emergency lighting becomes reliant on being connected, given that connectivity is something that can go down or fail, especially of course in an emergency situation. ‘First and foremost, emergency lighting should do the job it should do,’ emphasised Stephen Thomas. ‘When you add IoT connectivity, you are looking at efficiencies and great functionality, flexibility, interoperability and all those sorts of things. ‘But it should not be dependent on connectivity. And that should be the same across any market and any industry. It should not be dependent on connectivity; it should function correctly. What it [IoT] should be giving you is efficiencies and great functionality,’ he added. ‘It is about doing the right things for the right reasons,’ agreed Ashley Bateup. ‘That does not mean an open cheque book, don’t

get me wrong. It is about making sure we are providing value that is going to provide peace of mind, the due diligence and the records around these emergency fittings that are in their estates. And doing it in a way that hopefully does provide efficiencies and some cost savings. ‘My biggest driver when I talk IoT to customers is not about how can we drive out all costs, because if we did that we would be missing the bigger picture. It is about how can we make sure your business is more robust? How can we make sure you have peace of mind? How can we hold you up as an exemplar to other businesses and your constituents to make sure you are doing the right things? It is beholden on the industry, very much so – manufacturers, system


q Internet of Things connectivity could transform how emergency lighting installations are monitored and tested. But, especially post-Grenfell, is there a risk of

the industry becoming too dependent on such new technologies?

March 2019 Lighting Journal

The ILP’s ‘How to be brilliant…’ lectures: Edinburgh

COLOUR CONSCIOUS The ILP’s ‘How to be brilliant…’ lecture programme ventured out of London for the first time in October, to Edinburgh, where Edinburgh Napier University reader Malcolm Innes spoke about ‘True colours: explorations in art, design and research’. Lighting Journal was there By Chloe Martina Salvi

t The astounding stained glass of Saint Chapelle in Paris. Although there are masses of colours, the natural light entering through the glass creates an overall effect of slightly warm white



was very excited to hear about the first ‘How to be brilliant…’ lecture in Edinburgh, just a few weeks after attending the excellent talk by Rebecca Hutchinson on ‘inspirational lighting design for the home’ (Home Truths, Lighting Journal, vol 83, no 10, November-December 2018). I had made the journey down south from Scotland for that event eager to experience the ‘industry buzz’, participate in hands-on workshops and to meet former Edinburgh master’s classmates who had started working for lighting design firms in

the capital and hear about their experiences. I was therefore thrilled for some of that same buzz to land in my city shortly after. Edinburgh is home to some of the best lighting design firms around and to a lighting design master’s course. But I had always felt there was somehow a lack of networking events for people newly joining the industry. It was exciting to attend the event, which was held at Edinburgh Napier University’s Merchiston Campus. It was

immediately clear it was a popular event, as the room was full of both familiar and less familiar faces: fellow students, local lighting designers, engineers, manufacturers and end users. I already knew Malcolm Innes as a tutor, having just finished the MA in Lighting Design that he leads at Edinburgh Napier. I was familiar with his multi-faceted approach to lighting, which skilfully mixes his knowledge in the fields of art, architecture and research to allow students to explore their own informed creative

March 2019 Lighting Journal

u Monet’s ‘Haystacks’ and (below) a self-portrait by Malcolm Innes. Malcolm’s lecture investigated how our brain can sometimes accept ‘wrong’ colours in favour of pattern recognition. Self-portrait courtesy of Malcolm Innes

29 lighting design projects. I was curious to hear more about his research and experiences in the field. Malcolm’s ‘How to be brilliant…’ lecture turned out to be a great demonstration of how these interests can open up our ways of looking at colours and light, providing food for thought and engaging the audience with practical demonstrations. Malcolm took us on an engaging and often humorous journey about colour through his personal experience, demonstrating the importance of embracing subjectivity in the practice of lighting design and in our understanding of colour and its use in design. Starting with an example from his childhood, Malcolm told us an anecdote of how he had changed his favourite colour from purple to orange as a child in order to fit in, therefore introducing the subjective elements of colour preference. He liked the complexity of purple being both a cool and warm colour but thought orange would be a more ‘acceptable’ choice. This introduced the concept of how we are influenced in our colour preferences by the need to agree with others. Through examples of his self-portraits and paintings by Claude Monet (such as his iconic

‘Haystacks’), we looked at how the brain can sometimes accept ‘wrong’ colours in favour of pattern recognition. If we recognise a face for example, we can accept any combination of colour displayed. This means it might be difficult to see colour for what it really is. We need to remember that we do not see through the eyes, we ‘see’ through our brain. By painting the same subject in different lights, Monet tried really hard to see real colour, to capture reality as it would look like in a photograph without switching on the white balance function. Malcolm recalled seeing for the first time a blue shadow on snow, and showed us how shadows can reveal colour due to daylight’s complex mix. As he explained, this can be turned to a designer’s advantage. ‘If we can train yourself to see what is in front of us rather than what we expect to see we can see magical things,’ he said.


Malcolm then discussed the difficulty in applying scientific systems to our understanding of colour. He talked about the colour wheels often used by artists, which

March 2019 Lighting Journal

The ILP’s ‘How to be brilliant…’ lectures: Edinburgh

u The ‘Wizard of Oz’


have been around for over 300 years, from Newton’s 1704 Colour Wheel to today’s Adobe Colour CC. Colour wheels are interesting because they are man-made conceits. This is not the spectrum, which is linear, it is actually taking the spectrum to make sense of our perception of colour rather than the physics of it. ‘These abstractions of reality are all about us as human beings trying to take control over colour and understand it,’ as Malcolm put it. There are lots of rules within colour wheels, such as rules for complementary colours that, although somehow arbitrary, can be usefully applied to design and lighting design. Malcolm gave us an example of a lighting design project he had worked on some years ago with Kevan Shaw for a whisky distillery. The oak material of the barrels warmed the light so much that the public had become desensitised to it. Therefore, in order to get people to see the amber and oranges as more vibrant and exciting, they created a staircase of complementary colours, with blue light that the public would have to cross before entering the space. Through live examples with the audience, and by demonstrating contradicting examples from the history of methods around colours, Malcolm showed us how relative the science of colours can be, and how we should use caution when relying too much on rules or set methods.

production created by students on Malcolm Innes’s MA course. The students used amber LED light to recreate the sepia-desaturated Kansas, contrasted by a mix of white, red, green and blue light to create a super-saturated effect reminiscent of the hyper-colourful land of Oz. Photographs by Mu Thitaporn

Malcolm also introduced us to the issue of language in relation to colour. Language is, of course, a very important and often-overlooked part of our perception of the boundaries between colours; it defines our understanding of colour, with Malcolm highlighting the work of Guy Deutscher in his Through the Language Glass: Why The World Looks Different In Other Languages. Through the results of colour preference tests Malcolm had carried out in his undergraduate class, it was noticeable how preferences change year by year and between male and female. Colour preference, it is clear, is very personal. Your mental image of colour could be completely different from my perception of the same colour. There is no right or wrong answer, perception of colour is fundamentally subjective.

That means that, as designers, we should design for the colour preference of the end user, not the client (unless of course they are one and the same).


In relation to colour lighting effect on colour, Malcolm showed us the example of an experiment he carried out where he arranged a line of coloured pens under a sodium streetlight. The pens were first arranged according to perceived brightness. The same arrangement under white light showed a result that was completely different, proving the great shift in colour that different light temperatures can have. Moreover, it was not just colour that was disappearing under sodium light, but tonal value. Malcolm showed us an example of this concept being applied creatively in the

March 2019 Lighting Journal

The ILP’s ‘How to be brilliant…’ lectures: Edinburgh


lighting design of the amateur dramatics theatre production of The Wizard of Oz, as part of the MA’s ‘Lighting and Projection’ module in 2017. Amber LED light was used to recreate the black and white initial section of the movie set in Kansas – by creating a sepia desaturated lighting effect. The arrival in OZ’s ‘Munchkinland’ was then a switch to white light plus red, green and blue to create a super-saturated effect, which was not just colourful but super-colourful, super-saturated. With volunteers from the audience Malcolm then demonstrated experiments of different types of coloured light on coloured cards, showing again how we perceive colours can change in different lights. As a designer, these means colour can be any colour I want it to be because I have control of the quality of light. If we can change the colour of an object just by changing the light on it, then colour is not an inherent quality of an object but a potential state. It’s a sort of ‘Shrödinger’s Cat’ situation of lighting design. As Newton identified, colour and light are intimately intertwined. As lighting designers, we understand that and we play with colour mixing all the time; we have all done lots of RGB colour mixing. Shadows also generate interesting colours. It is possible to find white from

two coloured light sources if we hit the right quantities of mixing. As an example of this from architecture, Malcolm showed us the stained glass in Sainte Chapelle, Paris. There are masses of colours – reds, greens, blues and so on – but the reality of the quality of natural light entering through the glass ends up creating an effect of slightly warm white.


From his extensive professional experience working with museums, Malcolm then moved on to the conversations he had had over the years with curators on projects about how the lighting should be. The most common assumption was that daylight was always going to be the ‘best’ light for a gallery. The problem with this is that the only constant thing about daylight is that it changes all the time. It shifts in temperature, colour, at different times of day, different times of year. There can also, of course, be spectral variation in the same time and place depending on where the light is coming from. So, in that context, what is the ‘right’ daylight? The one the artist painted in? Which daylight do we actually want? How can we ever know? Slight colour temperature changes and or changes in the lighting angles can make material colours change dramatically. If

t A colour wheel. From Newton’s 1704 Colour Wheel to modern-day variants, colour wheels are interesting because they are man-made conceits; they are taking the colour spectrum to make sense of our perception of colour rather than the physics of it

we make a choice of lighting, we must therefore do it for good reasons. Malcolm showed us how there is a lot of research on the best colour temperature in museums – but often producing different, and often contradictory, conclusions. Malcolm questioned the role and limits of the colour rendering index (CRI) that has been with us since the 1950s. We now have better metrics that give us more information, but are we actually using the best measures, comparisons or standards? ‘If I wanted to know if an orange tastes better than an apple, why would I use a banana to find that out?’ as Malcolm put it, compellingly. ‘All the colour metrics that we work with are working on this sort of basis. We need something better,’ he added. Malcolm concluded his lecture by arguing that, even though he has researched colour extensively, he still has a lot of questions. This is inherent in the complexity of the subject. As an example, he cited the algorithmic suggestion that Google comes up when you start to search ‘what are all the colours…?’. The fourth is ‘what are all the colours in the world?’. This shows, if nothing else, that this is a question frequently asked and considered by peopleand it shows there is the room – and appetite – for us as designers to play with colours. As Malcom said: ‘As designers we have a different view; can see things in different ways. But we should grasp that because it’s valid. We should grasp that we have a way of looking at things. We can say, “what happens if we do this?”. A lot of other professions can’t say that.’

Chloe Martina Salvi has recently graduated from Edinburgh Napier University’s MA in Lighting Design, but also has a BA in art from Glasgow School of Art

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March 2019 Lighting Journal

Asset management

q Bedford Bridge illuminated at night. With 23,000 lighting assets, Paul Middleton conceded that the new code did pose some challenges for Central Bedfordshire Council



In the last of our three-part series building on the ILP’s October Lightscene CPD event on asset management, Paul Middleton outlines how his council, Central Bedfordshire, is working to be compliant with the new Well-Managed Highway Infrastructure: a code of practice By Paul Middleton


m not a lighting engineer; I’m more of a pavement one, so my apologies for swearing! Central Bedfordshire Council has been a unitary since 2009, so we’re a fairly young authority. We are a Conservative-majority council and sit in the Oxfordshire/Cambridgeshire corridor and serve a population of around 280,000 people. When it comes to asset management, just like in many local authorities these days, we are a thin team. We have one person looking after carriageways and footways, one for structures, one for lighting, and one for drainage.

We’ve not got a massive network for street lighting, but it is a fair size – 23,000 assets. We also have 1,400 carriageways and footways, 50,000 gullies, 290 structures and then traffic lights signals and public rights of way. We have a number of market towns and rural villages with heritage status. So, we have those challenges as well as the normal day job of just repairing, replacing and managing assets. From a council perspective, there are 20-odd recommendations in the Code of Practice that are especially relevant. We think there are a number that are really achievable and actually give us value. For

the purpose of this presentation I’ve focused on three of them.


The first is the risk-based approach, which is the headline of everything. It’s the Department for Transport essentially saying to us ‘there you go, you manage your risk, we’re not being prescriptive, you define what your risk is and how you’re going to manage it and handle your claims’. The second is inventory – which is what I would class as the foundation of anything we do. And the third is whole-life and design and maintenance.

March 2019 Lighting Journal

Asset management


For the risk-based approach, you can look at it purely from an asset perspective. But actually, like any organisation, we’ve got risks beyond this that are both commercial and non-commercial, such as political and public risk One of the interesting things from a lighting perspective is that it is one of our biggest areas where we get complaints. Over half of our customer enquiries and complaints are around carriageways and lighting. Yet when it comes to insurance claims, lighting is way down. Between 2009 and 2016, 99.6% of our claims were around carriageways, compared with 0.4% around lighting. In fact, there have been just eight insurance claims against a lighting asset in the past seven years. Therefore, when we talk about the Code of Practice and taking a risk-based approach, from an insurance-perspective do we even need to change our approach? As an authority we’re not at risk of paying out lots of money on insurance claims or getting hauled in front of a judge to defend our position. But even if the commercial risk is very low, we have to take into account the public/political risk, which is very high from a lighting perspective.

So, we need to understand more about where our assets are and how they’re being affected. And that means looking at the reason for the lighting. Is it at a crossing, outside a school; or is it in the back end of beyond? Again, if it’s outside a school and it is after when the clocks change, we might want to react in a different level because it could be when the school is closed. And then the type of defect needs to be considered. We’ve got various different assets out there, and some of them will have a defect and that defect might be manageable on that type of asset but not on another. We just need to gather and feed that information in to understand how we’re going to manage a risk-based approach.


Which leads me on to recommendation nine, around network inventory. As I said, we’ve got circa 23,000 assets. We have a good quantity of data and, if anything, too much legacy information. For example, we’ve still got showing in our system Central Bedfordshire lights, Bedfordshire Borough lights and we have some Highways England lights. So we need to review that because the

quality of data is not where we’d like it to be. We need to understand more about our various different types of asset. For example, we have several queries on a weekly basis as to who owns lights and we have questions with the adoption of assets. We have issues with town and parish councils around who owns assets in the network, and then it comes back to energy costs and everything associated. So that should all be held within the inventory, and we do need to refine that. Without a decent inventory you cannot do any lifecycle planning or understand what your capital investment profile is going to look like going forward. You wouldn’t build a house without foundations, so in my mind that’s the bedrock of anything going forward. What are the benefits of having a good inventory going to give us back? There will be better visibility to plan capital works. We are looking to implement a CMS potentially, hopefully incrementally. But, again, we need first to understand which of our lanterns on the network are capable of doing that. And then there is managing the revenue budget. At the moment, we are always in a sense waiting in anticipation as to what is

q Central Bedford from the River Ouse. The region is expected to be a big growth area, with as many as 100,000 new homes being built in the coming years. So asset management is also about ensuring the adaptability of the region’s lighting assets to meet the needs of this future growth

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March 2019 Lighting Journal

Janu ar y 20 19 Lighti ng Jo urnal

Asse t man ag e

Asset management



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This, in turn, leads on to capital planning and lifecycle planning, and how we’re designing for maintenance. Central Bedfordshire is a massive growth area. Central government has said there are going to be at least 100,000 new homes within and around our region. So how will our assets need to adapt to meet the needs of that growth? Among things we’re doing, we’re developing a design guide across all assets so that developers know what are our expectations. We’re also looking at the procurement of hinged columns, and have got a pilot outside the theatre in Dunstable. This is because of vandalism in the area but also just because it takes the door element away from the column and means we don’t have to get big cherry-pickers in. But do we, for example, over-engineer a lantern, knowing that the road capacity or volumes will be increased? Then there is the issue of our capacity as a team. As I say, we’re a team of five, plus a few extra; we can’t do this on our own. We work with Ringway Jacobs and it reaches back into its wider group, Ringway,


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Eurovia and Jacobs, both for contracting and consultancy. We’ve recently got ISO 4040001, we’re also a member of the Eastern Highways Alliance and have a lot of dialogues with Buckinghamshire County Council. But it is a challenge. Finally, where do we got from here? At the end of the day Code of Practice is just recommendations. That is our view on life; it has recommended that we implement these changes. The proof in the pudding with the risk-based approach will be whether, if you get hauled in front of a judge, can you defend it? And the previous two articles have mentioned, the key is documenting things and putting processes in place, flowcharts and so on; tailoring it to your needs and recognising there is no one-size-fits-all. For us, it is implementing incremental step change. It is about looking at the recommendations as we are and focusing our resources. And then looking at individuals and companies and organisations within the industry that can support us; we can’t do it on our own. We need ILP members, both commercial and public sector, to support the industry as a whole. And that will hopefully lead to implementation consistencies and everybody who works in the public not getting much pain from either a judge or politicians. Paul Middleton MCIHT MIAM is highways asset manager at Central Bedfordshire Council

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Janu Lighti ar y 2019 ng Jo urnal



p Paul Middleton’s article, and the previous two in the series (illustrated above), have highlighted the importance under the new code of keeping on top of documentation and process management when it comes to asset management

Well-Managed Highway Infrastructure: a code of practice is available to download from the UK Roads Liaison Group, at

March 2019 Lighting Journal

Tunnel lighting



After being closed for two years, Iceland’s spectacular ‘Lava Tunnel’ has been brought back to life through a creative and visually stunning lighting installation. But temperature, humidity, light spill and simply the sheer difficulty of the terrain all proved challenging By Nic Paton


celand’s spectacular 1,360m ‘Lava Tunnel’ near the capital Reykjavik used to be a popular haunt with tourists. Unsurprisingly so, since the tunnel, which is in places 30m wide and with up to 10m of headroom, is an intricate and breath-taking collage of colours and geological textures formed out of massive volcanic eruptions 5,000 years ago. But its popularity proved to be its undoing, as rising numbers of visitors led to incidents of vandalism, littering and health and safety concerns and in 2016 the site was closed to the public.

However, that is all now changing, in large part thanks to a new lighting installation and elevated walkway installed by the t u n n e l ’s o p e r a t i n g c o m p a n y Raufarhólshellir. The installation has been created by Agust Gunnlaugsson, senior lighting designer at Oslo, Norway and Reykjavik, Iceland-based company EFLA Engineers, and used more than 100 LED fixtures from manufacturer Anolis.


A total of 64 Anolis ArcSource Outdoor 24

MC RGBWs and 36 Anolis ArcSource Outdoor 48 MC RGBWs, all with various lenses, have been scattered over the bed of the cave, including being secreted behind rock sills and tucked into crevices. The installation required the help of a team of professional climbers to ensure the units were located completely out sight of visitors. For each illuminated area, an ArcSource with suitable lumen output and beam angle is positioned, aimed, focused and colour-adjusted to capture the intricacies, colours and surfaces of the lava rocks. The fixtures are powered by 25 Anolis ArcPower 192 Outdoor power supplies, running back to five distribution points along the tunnel, which in turn are fed via by the country’s national grid. To get the precise colours needed to show off the aesthetics of the tunnel in its full glory, DMX control is used.


The lighting equipment was delivered to the project by Anolis’s Icelandic distributor Luxor, together with a selection of full and half top hats, plus some modified barn doors. Visitors to the site pass through the entrance and walk 400m down the path in

March 2019 Lighting Journal

p The ‘Lava Tunnel’ in Iceland. A creative lighting installation has helped to give the breathtaking natural site a new lease of life. Pictures by Petur Thor Ragnarsson

41 total darkness and complete silence – apart from the odd water droplet – to reach a peak in the lava formation The lights are on when the guests reach this end stop. However, the tour then comes to a halt and the guide switches the lights off for around a minute, using a hand-held remote. The lighting then starts firing up in a pre-programmed sequence activated by the guide, with each element of the rock and lava sections illuminated individually at the same time as their related geology

and history is explained. As well as the challenges of physical installation, it was important the fittings had to be unobtrusive, fitted and concealed with minimal impact on the environment, biology and ecosystem of the tunnel. It was also important to minimise any external light spillage to protect the night skies outside the tunnel, as Iceland is a major destination for the Northern Lights because of its dark skies and minimal no light pollution. A further challeng e was the

temperatures and humidity. From the entrance to the middle section of the pathway, the temperature mimics the external temperature, while openings in the celling emit rain and snow. When the temperature drops below freezing, this part of the tunnel therefore can become treacherous as ice covers the stone pathway. Deeper inside, the temperature remains static most of the year round at 5degC, although humidity is high most of the year, as rainwater seeps through the lava and drips from the ceiling.

March 2019 Lighting Journal

ILP and industry news


T 42

he ILP’s ‘How to brilliant…’ programme of lectures has been announced for 2019. The first lecture for 2019 will take place later this month, on 27 March, and will see Luke Edwards of Cue Design speaking about his work as the lighting designer for Gary Numan’s ‘Savage’ North America tour. This year’s London ‘How to be brilliant…’ lectures will take place in Islington, north London, primarily at Body & Soul on Rosebery Avenue. Luke’s lecture will be followed by a talk by Linda Salamoun, senior lighting designer at Steensen Varming, on 24 April, who will be speaking about ‘the story of light’. Then John Bullock, lighting designer and industry champion from the Light Review, will be talking about light and life in relation to Brexit on 22 May.


Looking forward to the autumn, Arfon Davies and Nicola Rigoni, director and lighting designer respectively with Arup, will present a special ‘daylight, experiencae and wellbeing’ session on 19 September. This will be taking place within Darc Room, as part of London Design Week. Then Neil Knowles, director and



he European Union’s CE mark will be replaced with a UKCA (UK Conformity Assessed) mark should the UK crash out of the EU without a deal at the end of this month, the government has said. In guidance published at the beginning of February, the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy suggested that, in the event of no deal, in the short term the UK would unilaterally continue to recognise the CE mark for most goods. ‘If the UK leaves the EU without a deal

founder of Elektra Lighting Design, will return to Body & Soul on 23 October to speak about circadian lighting. Finally for 2019, Colin Ball and Lora Kaleva, senior lighting designers at BDP, will close the series on 20 November with a lecture entitled ‘The Colour Blue’. During 2018, the ‘How to be brilliant…’ programme expanded out of London for the first time, with talks taking place in Edinburgh. This will continue in 2019, and four Edinburgh sessions are currently in development, although dates and venues have still to be confirmed. ‘How to be brilliant…’ is being sponsored for 2019 by Zumtobel. The lecture series is totally free to attend and is designed to

you will still, in the majority of cases, be able to use the CE marking to demonstrate compliance with the legal requirements and to sell products on the UK market after 29 March 2019. However, in some cases you will need to apply the new UKCA marking to products being sold in the UK,’ it said. It added: ‘The rules around using the new UKCA marking will mirror those which currently apply for the application of the CE marking.’ In most cases the CE mark would also still be able to be used for products being placed on the UK market, the department emphasised. ‘However, if your products require third party assessment of conformity, and if this has been carried out by a UK conformity

p Gary Numan’s Savage North America tour. Luke Edwards of Cue Design will be speaking about his work as the tour’s lighting designer in the first ‘How to be brilliant…’ lecture of 2019. Photo by Sarah Rushton-Read,

offer fun, friendly and informative evening sessions for anyone involved in, or with an interest in, light and lighting. However, the emphasis is on giving less experienced students and staff an opportunity to meet renowned industry experts face to face in a confidence-building atmosphere of encouragement and inclusion. All sessions include CPD time. For more details on ‘How to be brilliant…’ go to

assessment body, you will have to apply the new UKCA marking after 29 March 2019 (where required by legislation). This will not be the case if the certificate of conformity has been transferred to an EU-recognised body (in which case the CE marking would apply),’ it added. How long this transitionary recognition process would last for is, as yet, unclear, although the guidance emphasised that industry will be consulted and notice provided before any change. There is also a question-mark over whether, or how, the EU might recognise the new UKCA mark. Manufacturers would also have to supply a UK ‘Declaration of Conformity’ for products bearing the UKCA marking to show that it had met the relevant statutory requirements, the guidance argued.

March 2019 Lighting Journal




he ILP with great sadness reports that the Right Honourable Lord Derek Foster of Bishop Auckland died on the 05 January, 2019 after a long illness, writes ILP Professional Services Manager Stuart Bulmer. Before his elevation to the House of Lords, Derek was the member of Parliament for Bishop Auckland from 1979 until he stood down in 2005. He will be best remembered as an outstanding chief whip for the Parliamentary Labour Party, a post which he held for an unprecedented ten years. Derek was born in Sunderland; his father was a shipyard fitter. He grew up in a working class community, which moulded his passion for social justice and improved living standards for all, particularly as in his formative years he witnessed firsthand the devastating effects of poverty. This spurred him on in his education. He gained a place in the Sunderland Bede Grammar school for boys eventually going on to become its head boy. Following this he entered Oxford University, where he gained a degree in politics, economics and philosophy. Derek first entered politics in local government and his ability was soon realised when he was appointed parliamentary candidate for the Bishop Auckland constituency, which he successfully won in the 1989 general election. His career continued to build success on success and, after a short spell as parliamentary private secretary (PPS) to the then opposition leader Neil Kinnock, he was elected to the post of chief whip for the opposition. After serving on a number of committees, one as chairman of the education

committee, Derek retired in 2005 and was granted a peerage in the dissolution honours.


As he served in the Bishop Auckland constituency and was a member of the Privy Council, he took the title of Rt Hon Lord Foster of Bishop Auckland. His motto, taken from the second verse of a well-known Charles Wesley hymn To Serve the Present Age is something in which he never faltered to uphold throughout his career. During his years in parliament, Derek joined the All-Party Parliamentary Lighting Group and supported the aims of the ILP to such an extent that he was made a ‘Companion of the ILP’. Lord Foster’s support for the lighting profession ensured that our voice was heard in the highest offices of government. He viewed street lighting as a force in the battle against street crime and as something that all should have the benefit of. Many senior members of both Houses of Parliament gave tributes to Lord Foster and his singleness of purpose when it came to social justice for all members of the community. The current chief whip of the Labour party in the House of Commons, Nick Brown, commented: ‘As the longest serving chief whip to the Parliamentary Labour Party in modern times, his shrewd judgment and fair-mindedness won the respect of his colleagues on both sides of the House. He was passionate about the North East and in particular the jobs, pay and life chances of those living in the region.’ In addition, the leader of the party,


Jeremy Corbyn stated that: “As chief whip he was always kind to me and supportive of new MPs… he served with distinction.” The final tribute to Lord Foster was the capacity attendance at the celebration and thanksgiving for his life. Those in attendance included the leader and chief whip of the Parliamentary Labour party, the Queen’s representatives, along with representatives from the Speaker of the House of Commons, members of the House of Lords, local politicians and many friends from the brass banding fraternity, which he strongly supported, as well as many members of the Salvation Army, of which Lord Foster was a lifelong and fully committed member. Our sympathies are with Derek’s wife, Lady Anne Foster, his family and friends.

March 2019 Lighting Journal

Lighting design



New York is famed for its soaring skyline. But with more and more cities becoming ‘mega brights’, do we need a more honest debate about what our cites need to look and feel like? What is better: ‘curated’ and complementary or ‘honest’ yet potentially chaotic or clashing? New York-based lighting designer and YLP member Leah Xandora investigates By Leah Xandora


ew York City is famed for its bright lights, grand scale and for a skyline constantly pushing skyward. Coined as ‘the city that never sleeps’, it arguably lives up to its name and is as vibrant a city at night as day. But what does it mean as a designer to light a ‘spire’ in a cityscape of beacons? And will New York continue to strike a balance in its relationship with the night sky, or is it its future to become one of the ‘mega brights’, like Las Vegas, Shanghai or Hong Kong? In London, where I lived previously, architecturally the skyline is still fairly planar, with the exception of certain select

clusters: Bank, Liverpool Street and Canary Wharf, to name a few. Although there are some very famous towers in the city, their presence at night is relatively muted; as if it is the intention (or more likely a result of city regulations) that they quietly disappear against the night sky. By contrast, New York has a jubilant vibrancy to its skyline; with newly appearing towers that seem to climb higher and brighter than the last. As a resident New Yorker for the past year, I have had the opportunity to work on the illumination of a wide range of new towers for the city, both residential and commercial. Each lighting solution developed for

p Lower east Manhattan. This image illustrates some of the challenges faced by lighting designers working in areas of intense vertical density

these has been unique in context; each scheme tailored to building, type, materiality, placement and client. And though the lighting may follow the sophistication and complexity of these new structures, their increasing height floats the crowns, these ‘beacons’, in an ever-escalating canopy above the city. Before 1890, the night skyline of New York was a muted one, with artificial light coming primarily from the interior of buildings and street lamps. The very first example of exterior façade lighting was in 1890 at the roof of publisher Joseph Pulitzer’s World Building. When built, the 309ft office building was the tallest in New York City and the world, and the architect George B Post saw an opportunity in using the new electrical technology to highlight the crown of his building at night. Setting rows of small incandescent bulbs across each of the individual ribs of the roof’s cupola, he created the first glowing beacon in the otherwise dark landscape of the city [1].


The World Building continued to be the city’s only crown lighting until 1908, when the Singer Building was constructed. Its

March 2019 Lighting Journal

bright exterior floodlighting was complemented by 1,600 concealed incandescent lamps set along its main tower. In 1913 the construction of the Woolworth Building marked a third beacon. As incandescent and filament technology developed, this plethora of different façade applications enabled the lighting of icons such as the Empire State Building; with its tiers of graduating uplights impressing the scale and sheer height of the structure, and the Chrysler building, with its crown of diffuse geometric shapes forming one of the most distinctive profiles in the city. In recent years, it is however perhaps the development of LED that has had the most significant technological impact on the use of electric light for façade, and something which has dramatically changed how we see the city at night. Yet, although LEDs now enable a more economical treatment in terms of power usage, heat control and lifespan, the resulting ability to light ever greater surfaces of a building for less creates perhaps more troubling trends in light pollution than it reduces. Although many pre-existing or historical buildings through New York City still have little or no façade lighting this has become rarer for new builds, particularly in the commercial sector; as the link between light and visibility, visibility and economical success, influences the use of exterior lighting. Although façade lighting often uses only a small portion of a building’s overall energy budget, energy consumption and power is always significant factor to consider, both at a project scale, and at the scale of the city. A report in 2012 noted Midtown Manhattan was using more power than the entire country of Kenya in a single night and, although a great proportion of energy consumed in a building is via domestic or commercial appliances, a portion of this is still its lighting [2]. In 2011, researchers at Columbia University’s Modi research group developed an interactive marker map that displays the city’s energy usage by area, and it is unsurprising to see that the more power-hungry areas on the map correlated directly with locations of vertical density and commercial development, such as midtown Manhattan [3]. Although façade lighting often only contributes to a small percentage of a building’s power, when considered at a city scale, this soon escalates. Using a standard New York City block as an example; and assuming a single run of 20w/m LED graphic linear light to subtly ‘frame’

the building’s roof (perhaps one of the most economical scenarios, as here the block is not subdivided into multiple towers with their own lighting and energy systems) this block would consume an average of 41,347.2 kWh per year for façade alone. This calculation is based on an average nightly usage of eight hours a night, and assuming an average block size of 80m x 274m. In cities often regarded as ‘bright cities’, such as Hong Kong or Las Vegas, light as advertising, or building-wide branding, has long been the status quo, and is now one of the defining aesthetics of these cities. With each advertisement designed to be brighter than the next – different, louder – buildings become a tapestry of light; the spill washing across all surfaces, vertical or otherwise. Though the lighting in New York City may be vastly different to Las Vegas or Hong Kong, with the gradual expansion of areas like Times Square and Midtown, and with ‘supertalls’ and ‘superslims’ now rising higher and higher above the city, is this the natural trajectory, or will we be able to ensure a balance, and

what kinds of additional legislation might need to be imposed to do this? Current and pending ‘dark sky’ legislation moves against the unwanted egress of light upward, as well as considering light trespass and glare [4]. Yet in somewhere as vertically dense as Manhattan, do we need to create something based more on the cumulative effect of the city itself, or something perhaps more subjective: a city-wide curation? To understand New York City’s skyline, it is useful to understand some of the factors that influenced its development to what we know today. One of the first stages in this evolution was the development of the ground-plan that the buildings themselves stand upon. Originally designed in 1811 by commissioners Governor Morris, John Rutherfurd, and Simeon De Witt, the grid system of Manhattan was as a revolutionary, thoroughly ‘modern’ way to plan a city [5]. By dividing landmass in this way, it meant the city was organised into a system without a ‘centre point’, as with London and Paris, where every street or block

45 q William Bridges’ 1807 plan of New York city. Before 1890, the night skyline of New York was a muted one, with artificial light coming primarily from the interior of buildings and street lamps

March 2019 Lighting Journal

Lighting design

could be theoretically as important as the next. Every land plot was approximately the same size and, although each of these blocks were then typically subdivided, it meant no person or company could develop an area bigger than a single module of the grid.



Between the early 1800s and 1900s, the city’s population grew rapidly and, with the revolutionary inventions of the elevator and steel framed structures, buildings began to grow upward. The introduction of the 1916 zoning laws, however, had a dramatic effect on the modern New York skyline of today. Whereas previously developments had been allowed to build vertically from the street up, the impact this had on natural light, fresh air and density had prompted

p Manhattan and Brooklyn Bridge by night. New York has a jubilant vibrancy to its skyline, with newly appearing towers that seem to climb higher and brighter all the time

the first real impetus placed upon construction in the city. It meant architects had to resolve buildings so that they gradually stepped away from the street level as they grew taller. This created in some cases a ‘layer cake’ or pyramid effect, as developers maximised the available space they had and focused even more keenly on height as a way to gain area in their development. As a result, architects began to develop further, more economical ways to achieve maximum space, devising buildings that stepped in ingenious ways but also that grew significantly taller. While the following laws of 1961 restricted otherwise

‘limitless’ buildings by the introduction of a ratio between building footprint and height, this was used partially as a means to incentivise the building of public plazas adjacent to the buildings. As anticipated, the desire to build taller did not diminish, and a large number of public plazas were developed as result of these ever-escalating buildings. Through the late 1900s technology and engineering developed rapidly, allowing new means of construction and enabling new methods of design; resulting in the creation of new shapes, the use of new materials, and allowing of the expansion of the buildings skyward. A recent trend in super-slim and supertall structures over the past ten years, for example, has created a significant and relatively rapid change to the skyline in a relatively short period. It is clear from its stratified skyline that New York’s architecture is a mix of all eras, genres and influences. There are neoGothic spires and deco stacks, modernist totems, postmodernist shapes and parametric curvature. Some are more famous than most, and at night light renders these icons as distinctive markers in the city’s topography, architectural annotation to the history of its development.


p Through the late 1900s technology and engineering developed rapidly, allowing the expansion of the city’s buildings skyward. At night it is light that renders these icons as distinctive markers

Despite their unique differences – or perhaps because of them – a question that is important to ask is: what happens when every building has its own distinct nighttime personality? As they continue to

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March 2019 Lighting Journal

Lighting design


push higher, is there an increasing need to legislate lighting more by its style, its personality, than by its power and light level? There seems, in my own experience, to be a common perception among those leading these new developments that each lighting scheme should compete with, rather than complement, the surrounding buildings it sits amongst. I have in the past received requests for projects that a new tower be given a ‘clean’ skyline to sit against, in other words one devoid of its future rivals. This is despite the fact that, when built, it will be set against a backdrop of new and even taller structures. Often the request is to ‘dim down’ the competing skyline in renders or give the building more ‘punch’. I have even been asked to crop out or remove famous buildings so as to ‘show a clean image’ for the new tower to sit against – the Empire State building did stay in, after all it was there first! This type of ‘whitewashing’ is perhaps not the fault of the architect or developer. It is understandable in a profession where projects change constantly, that the ‘future city’ may not be included; it would be a feat to try render a guess of what all these other structures will look like. Despite this, there is still a need for more realism about what these new builds mean to a city at the level of massing and light, particularly when working at a scale of five to ten years. The lack of want from some developers to factor in future competition should be a concern, not just for the lighting designer in how they contextualise their lighting but for the client also, who may have expected theirs to be the only new build with a glowing golden halo at its crown. The epitome, or even solution to this architectural race for ‘spires’ is found in larger developments, such as Hudson Yards. One of the largest single development projects throughout the United States at 28 acres, and equating to more than 17 million sq ft of commercial and residential space, it is an example of infrastructure truly at a city scale. It includes five towers of commercial, residential and mixed use all being built above the Hudson River Railroad, along with public gardens, plazas and food courts. The development of such a number of towers simultaneously creates something beyond the scale of a typical development; it starts to define a neighbourhood and, as result, impacts how we read the skyline as a whole. Some have argued these types of developments are ruinous to the spirit of a city

overall; that each building should have their unique identity, its chance to ‘shout’, and that an area this size should develop organically, not be created based on a single set of aesthetics or intent [6]. Still, despite being built as one masterplan, developers Related and Oxford Properties Group opted for a combination of highly different architects for each tower. This has led to a varied collection, where each is distinctive but where hierarchy is considered, and their status related to the other. As night falls, each crown lights up with its own scheme; a carefully curated display, grand in both height and scale. Once complete, the development will represent a section of the city never seen before, marking a revolutionary step for construction in New York. In the context of Hudson Yards, and as New York City’s skyline continues to develop, the question arises as to whether we should push for a more ‘curated’ master view of a city; one in which buildings are tailored more to complement than compete with their contemporaries. Or whether we are satisfied to let it continue as is: a clash of styles, intent, colours,

u Two picture postcards from the 1890s showing the World Building by day and by night. At 309ft, it was at the time both the tallest in the city and the very first example of exterior façade lighting

q A succession of images showing how New York’s skyline has evolved – and risen – over the years

Especially for students, interns, apprentices and new entrants to the lighting profession The Institution of Lighting Professionals invites you to these FREE, fun, friendly evening talks


Meet an inspiring expert who will talk about lighting in a way formal education doesn’t always cover 2019 LONDON SCHEDULE 27 March: Luke Edwards, Cue Design 24 April: Linda Salamoun, Steensen Varming 22 May: John Bullock, Light Review 19 September: Arfon Davies and Nicola Rigoni, Arup at Darc Room (different venue)

Photos © Zumtobel

23 October: Neil Knowles, Elektra Lighting Design 20 November: Colin Ball and Lora Kaleva, BDP How To Be Brilliant is brought to you by the Institution of Lighting Professionals in collaboration with Zumtobel. Their generous support means we don’t charge to attend.

Want our Edinburgh schedule? Any queries? Please contact us on 01788 576492

Book your free place: USUAL VENUE:

Body & Soul, Rosebery Avenue, London EC1R 4RE

March 2019 Lighting Journal

Lighting design

brightness, but also ‘honest’, and as joyfully chaotic as the street below. The effective pairing of light and architecture can render a simple structure majestic; it can reveal hidden details, textures or impressions not seen in daylight; it can tease out the nuances and intentions of a building in a way that is beautiful, poetic, sculptural. However, we should also consider what harm ‘throwaway’ lighting does to a city. The odd linear halo here, the strange ‘speed stripes’ there, the vertical articulation of windows and mullions – all these add to the visual ‘noise’ of the city, creating a canopy of light that means fixtures need to be brighter, schemes bolder, buildings taller in an effort to stand out in a skyline of beacons.

Leah Xandora is senior lighting designer at L’Observatoire International


p In cities that have become ‘mega brights’, such as Las Vegas, advertising and building-wide branding has long been the status quo

REFERENCES [1] ‘Skyline’. (2018) Exhibition. The Skyscraper Museum, New York City. July 2018-January 2019. [2] Howerton, Michael. New York City Energy Use All Over the Map, Metropolis, Wall Street Journal, Feb 1, 2012 12:28 pm ET. Retrieved from: metropolis/2012/02/01/new-york-city-energy-use-all-over-the-map/ [3] B. Howard, L, Parshall, Thompson, J, Hammer S, Dickinsond J, Modi, V. ‘Spatial

distribution of urban building energy consumption by end use’, 141–151, Energy and Buildings 45, Elsevier 2012. Retrieved from: uploads/blog/2018/publications/ Spatial-Distribution-of-Urban-Building-Energy-Consumption-by-End-Use.pdf [4] Assembly Bill A3216. ‘Enacts the healthy, safe and energy efficient outdoor lighting act to reduce harmful outdoor lighting’. 20172018 Legislative Session. 27 January, 2017.

Retrieved from: legislation/bills/2017/A3216 [5] ‘The greatest Grid’ Museum of the City of New York, 2015. Retrieved from: http://thegreatestgrid.mcny. org/greatest-grid/the-1811-plan [6] Davidson, Justin. ‘Superhuman City’, Intelligencer. Retrieved from: http://nymag. com/intelligencer/2018/04/superhumancity-a-walk-through-hudson-yards.html?gtm=bottom

Published 23, October, 2000. Retrieved from: Features/Lights/lights_3.php Fletcher, Tom. ‘New York Architecture’. Retrieved from: Globe at Night. ‘What does your nighttime sky look like? Are you observing light pollution in your sky?’ Retrieved from: Hossain,Farhana. ‘The New New York Skyline’, National Geographic. Retrieved from: IDS International Dark Sky Association. Retrieved from: Kadaba, Dipika ‘Big Cities, Bright Lights: Ranking the Worst Light Pollution on Earth’. The Revelator. 21 June, 2018. Retrieved from:

ies-ranked-light-pollution/ Koolhaas, Rem. ‘Delirious New York’, The Monacelli Press, 1978 National Conference of State Legislators, ‘States shut out light pollution’, 23 May 2016. Retrieved from: environment-and-natural-resources/ states-shut-out-light-pollution.aspx Noko, Emily. ‘Hudson Yards wants to become NYC’s next great neighborhood’. Curbed, New York. 19, September, 2018. Retrieved from: www.ny.curbed. com/2018/9/19/17861164/hudson-yards-new-york-development-related-companies Roberts, Sam ‘200th Birthday for the Map That Made New York’ New York Times, 20 March 2011. Retrieved from: www.nytimes. com/2011/03/21/nyregion/21grid.html

FURTHER LIST OF REFERENCES Bedell, JP. ‘New York State Has Adopted a New Law for Outdoor Lighting and It’s a Big Deal’ 21.12.2014, Lighting Tips, SDA. Retrieved from: new-york-state-has-adopted-a-new-law-for-outdoor-lighting-and-its-a-big-deal/ Bramley, Ellie Violet. ‘Urban light pollution: why we’re all living with permanent “mini jetlag”,’ The Oct 2014. Retrieved from: oct/23/-sp-urban-light-pollution-permanentmini-jetlag-health-unnatural-bed Daly, Natasha. ‘See How Cities Across the World Light Up at Night’, National Geographic. 7, February, 2018 Retrieved from: www. urban-expeditions/green-buildings/ cities-light-pollution-office-building-LED/ Earth Observatory, NASA, ‘Seeing the Light’


March 2019 Lighting Journal


This directory gives details of suitably qualified, individual members of the Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) who offer consultancy services.

Steven Biggs

Allan Howard

Alan Tulla

Skanska Infrastructure Services


Alan Tulla Lighting


Peterborough PE1 5XG

T: +44 (0) 1733 453432 E:

BEng(Hons) CEng FILP FSLL London WC2A 1AF

T: 07827 306483 E:


Winchester, SO22 4DS

T: 01962 855720 M:0771 364 8786 E:

Award winning professional multi-disciplinary lighting design consultants. Extensive experience in technical design and delivery across all areas of construction, including highways, public realm and architectural projects. Providing energy efficient design and solutions.

Professional artificial and daylight lighting services covering design, technical support, contract and policy development including expert advice and analysis to develop and implement energy and carbon reduction strategies. Expert witness regarding obtrusive lighting, light nuisance and environmental impact investigations.

Simon Bushell

Alan Jaques

Michael Walker

SSE Enterprise Lighting


McCann Ltd


Portsmouth PO6 1UJ T: +44 (0)2392276403 M: 07584 313990 E: Professional consultancy from the UK’s and Irelands largest external lighting contractor. From highways and tunnels, to architectural and public spaces our electrical and lighting designers also provide impact assessments, lighting and carbon reduction strategies along with whole installation packages.


Nottingham, NG9 2HF

T: +44 (0)115 9574900 M: 07834 507070 E:

Professional consultancy providing technical advice, design and management services for exterior and interior applications including highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning. Site surveys of sports pitches, road lighting and offices. Architectural lighting for both interior and exterior. Visual Impact Assessments for planning applications. Specialises in problem solving and out-of-the-ordinary projects.


Nottingham NG9 6DQ M: 07939 896887 E: Design for all types of exterior lighting including street lighting, car parks, floodlighting, decorative lighting, and private lighting. Independent advice regarding light trespass, carbon reduction and invest to save strategies. Asset management, data capture, inspection and testing services available.

Lorraine Calcott

Tony Price

Peter Williams

it does Lighting Ltd

Vanguardia Consulting

Williams Lighting Consultants Ltd.


T: 01908 560110 E:

Award winning lighting design practice specialising in interior, exterior, flood and architectural lighting with an emphasis on section 278/38, town centre regeneration and mitigation for ecology issues within SSSI’s/SCNI’s.Experts for the European Commission and specialists in circadian lighting

BSc (Hons) CEng MILP MSLL Oxted RH8 9EE

T: +44(0) 1883 718690

Bedford, MK41 6AG T: 01234 630039 E:

Chartered engineer with wide experience in exterior and public realm lighting. All types and scales of project, including transport, tunnels, property development (both commercial and residential) and sports facilities. Particular expertise in planning advice, environmental impact assessment and expert witness.

Specialists in the preparation of quality and effective street lighting design solutions for Section 38, Section 278 and other highway projects. We also prepare lighting designs for other exterior applications. Our focus is on delivering solutions that provide best value.

Mark Chandler

Alistair Scott

MMA Lighting Consultancy Ltd

Designs for Lighting Ltd


Reading RG10 9QN

BSc (Hons) CEng FILP MHEA Winchester SO23 7TA

T: 0118 3215636 E:

T: 01962 855080 M: 07790 022414 E:

Exterior lighting consultant’s who specialise in all aspects of street lighting design, section 38’s, section 278’s, project management and maintenance assistance. We also undertake lighting appraisals and environmental lighting studies

Professional lighting design consultancy offering technical advice, design and management services for exterior/interior applications for highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on lighting and energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

John Conquest


4way Consulting Ltd Stockport, SK4 1AS

T: 0161 480 9847 E:

Anthony Smith IEng FILP

Stainton Lighting Design Services Ltd Stockton on Tees TS23 1PX

T: 01642 565533 E:

Providing exterior lighting and ITS consultancy and design services and specialising in the urban and inter-urban environment. Our services span the complete Project Life Cycle for both the Public and Private Sector

Specialist in: Motorway, Highway Schemes, Illumination of Buildings, Major Structures, Public Artworks, Amenity Area Lighting, Public Spaces, Car Parks, Sports Lighting, Asset Management, Reports, Plans, Assistance, Maintenance Management, Electrical Design and Communication Network Design.

Stephen Halliday

Nick Smith


Nick Smith Associates Limited


Manchester M50 3SP


Chesterfield, S40 3JR

T: 0161 886 2532 E:

T: 01246 229444 F: 01246 270465 E:

Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways applications. PFI technical advisor and certifier support, HERS registered personnel.

Specialist exterior lighting consultant. Private and adopted lighting and electrical design for highways, car parks, area and sports lighting. Lighting Impact assessments, expert witness and CPD accredited Lighting design AutoCAD and Lighting Reality training courses


This space available Please call Andy on 01536 527297 or email for more details

This space available Please call Andy on 01536 527297 or email for more details

Go to: for more information and individual expertise

Neither Lighting Journal nor the ILP is responsible for any services supplied or agreements entered into as a result of this listing.



CPD Accredited Training • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • Lighting Reality • Lighting Standards

• Lighting Design Techniques • Light Pollution • Tailored Courses please contact

Venues by arrangement Contact Nick Smith

Nick Smith Associates Ltd

t: 01246 229 444 f: 01246 588 604 e: w:

36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR M 07795 903858 T 01202 530166 E

We offer straightforward, no-nonsense, professional advice and solutions to all those involved in street lighting and the highway assets maintenance: to implement integrated asset management programmes in a cost effective, sustainable manner.

Your contact is Martin Wyeth


Multi-Award Winning Structural Testing Business

BSI Cert No. FS607666 I BSI Cert No. OHS 660317 I HERS Reg No. SSR539


Delivering Decorative Lighting Festoons for over 25 years

ILLUMINATING THE WAY Survey, design, energy management & distribution of road, commercial, industrial & architectural lighting solutions.

To illuminate your next project, contact our lighting team on 01236 458000 or 0191 217 0119.

European distributors of StormSpill®, only system specified by: • London 2012 Olympic Games • Glasgow 2014 Commonwealths

We create bespoke low energy, durable festoon lighting for architects, designers, retail chains, sign makers, ship builders, and more. Contact us to discuss your lighting project. 01245 329 999

Patented Raised Lamppost Banner System that significantly reduces loading on columns and prevents banners twisting and tearing. Column testing and guarantee service available. The most approved system by Highways Engineers

Cumbernauld Newcastle Aberdeen Dingwall Great Yarmouth Light & Energy Distribution, formerly known as MacLean Electrical Lighting Division. Part of the MacLean Electrical Group.

0208 343 2525

March 2019 Lighting Journal

Meter Administrator Meadowfield, Ponteland, Northumberland, NE20 9SD, England Tel: +44 (0)1661 860001 Fax: +44 (0)1661 860002 Email: Manufacturers and Suppliers of Street lighting and Traffic Equipment • Fuse Units • Switch Fuse Units • Feeder Pillars and Distribution Panels • The Load Conditioner Unit (Patent Pending) • Accessories

Power Data Associates Ltd are Power Associates the leadingData meter administrator in Great Britain. We Ltd are the achieve leading accurate energy calculations meter assuring youadministrator of a cost effective quality in service. Great Offering Britain. We independent consultancy advice achieve to ensure correct accurate inventory coding, unmetered energy forecasting and energy calculations impact of market developments.

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so are your potential customers! claim your spot for the year in the lighting directory Contact Andy on 01536 527297 or email for more details

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March 2019 Lighting Journal


THE DIARY 20 March

15 May

26 March (but closing date 18 March)

21 May

Electric know-how for architectural lighting designers Venue: Conway Hall, 25 Red Lion Square, London

Ready Steady Light (SLL event) Venue: Rose Bruford College, Sidcup Details p


Luke Edwards of Cue Design. Luke will be the first ‘How to be brilliant...’ speaker of 2019, and will be talking about his work as lighting designer for Gary Numan’s ‘Savage’ North America tour. Photo by Sarah Rushton-Read,

08-17 March

British Science Week Details:

14 March

Joint ILP LSE/CIBSE Southern Region technical seminar Venue: Eastleigh, Hampshire

14 March

YLP meeting and CPD event Venue: Tofco, Unit 4 Ponteland Industrial Estate, Newcastle upon Tyne

27 March

How to be brilliant (London)… with Luke Edwards of Cue Design Venue: Body & Soul, Rosebery Avenue, London EC1R

24 April

How to be brilliant (London)… with Linda Salamoun of Steensen Varming Venue: Body & Soul, Rosebery Avenue, London EC1R

Electric know-how for architectural lighting designers Venue: Conway Hall, 25 Red Lion Square, London Bats and Artificial Lighting Symposium, organised by the Bat Conservation Trust Venue: Arup London Enquiries:

22 May

How to be brilliant (London)… with John Bullock of Light Review Venue: Body & Soul, Rosebery Avenue, London EC1R

12-13 June

The ILP 2019 Professional Lighting Summit Venue: Newcastle upon Tyne

25 April

LSE Technical CPD seminar Venue: The IET, Savoy Place, London

08 May

For full details of all ILP events, go to:

Fundamental Lighting Course Venue: ILP, Regent House, Rugby

IN THE APRIL ISSUE SUBURBAN NIGHTS Unpicking how street lighting upgrades can affect night-time suburban environments

LIGHT TALKS Learning, and networking, at this year’s Light School at the Surface Design Show

COMMUNITY VOICES Behind the scenes at last year’s LewesLight and Light Odyssey light festivals

OrangeTek have taken a number of measures to prepare for the inevitable supply chain disruption that will commence whatever the outcome on 29th March. We have over 5000+ units of our IGNIS range in stock and thanks to our LumenBoost feature these can be rapidly customised to any drive current before dispatch.

5000+ units in UK stock UK based assembly line for modifications 10 years experience of international import/ export

Visit our website for full product details.

Deal or No Deal Are you prepared? RANGE

Specify your product online

Experts in exterior LED lighting

w: e: t: 01283 716690

Profile for Matrix Print Consultants Ltd

Lighting Journal March 2019  

Lighting Journal March 2019