Lighting Journal April 2017

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April 2017 Lighting Journal

Professional best practice from the Institution of Lighting Professionals

April 2017


Putting stories at the heart of public realm lighting projects EXIT STRATEGY

Five ways you may be breaking the law on emergency lighting BURIED MEANING

What to do if you uncover human remains

The publication for all lighting professionals

April 2017 Lighting Journal





Emergency lighting is a vital part of any lighting project, but will often end up lower down the list of priorities (and spending) than it should. Even if you think you’re ticking the boxes, there are five ways you might still be breaking the law, as Steve Saville explains


Listed and heritage buildings pose specific challenges when it comes to emergency lighting, not least ensuring the installation can do its job while not being intrusive or damaging the fabric. Geraldine O’Farrell-Wallum takes a tour



The redevelopment of a Grade II listed building in Bristol into an ‘eco’ housing project required a sympathetic and cost-effective LED retrofit emergency lighting scheme


For public realm lighting projects truly to be embraced by their communities, the inspiration has to be more than a lighting designer playing around with a computer. Listening to, and telling, stories are vital for long-term success, argues Michael Grubb


Amid ongoing debate about LEDs, health and blue light, especially within the mainstream media, Kelly Smith argues lighting professionals need to be making a stronger case for modern lighting – up-to-date, well-designed and well-controlled – for a modern world


On any lighting project involving excavation there is always the chance you will come across buried human remains. Would you know what to do? Amanda Reece guides you through


Lighting controls provisions need to be on the agenda right from the outset of any renovation project, outlines David Ribbons. That’s, at least, if you want to avoid the five most common pitfalls of a retrofit lighting project


Unlike conventional light sources, LEDs are operated at low voltages and are therefore potentially extremely sensitive to overvoltages. Piotr Dudek explains how to surge-protect your luminaire


The government’s new apprenticeship ‘levy’ starts this month. Given that big lighting design firms will be paying it, isn’t it high time there were more apprenticeship-based ways into our industry, asks Emma Cogswell?


With more than 5,000 visitors, this year’s Light School proved to be an excellent showcase for the power of lighting design. Lighting Journal sat up straight, eyes front


A vinyl floor tile embedded with LED lighting that flashes up offers and promotions is being tested by Philips and flooring firm Tarkett with retailers in Europe and North America


Bournemouth Garden of Light Festival by Michael Grubb Studio: the project was an example of ‘storytelling’ through light to connect with the public

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April 2017 Lighting Journal

Editor’s Letter

Volume 82 No 4 April 2017 President Kevin Grigg, Eng Tech AMILP Chief Executive Richard G Frost BA(Cantab) DPA HonFIAM Editor Nic Paton Email: Editorial Board Tom Baynham MEng MA (Cantab) Emma Cogswell IALD Mark Cooper IEng MILP Graham Festenstein CEng MILP MSLL IALD John Gorse BA (Hons) MSLL Alan Jaques IEng MILP Gill Packham BA (Hons) Nigel Parry IEng FILP Richard Webster Art Director Adriano Cattini Email: Advertising Manager Andy Etherton Email: Published by Matrix Print Consultants Ltd on behalf of Institution of Lighting Professionals Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby CV21 2PN Telephone: 01788 576492 E-mail: Website: Produced by


s something of a history buff, I was fascinated by Amanda Reece’s article in this edition on understanding the correct procedures to follow if or when you uncover buried human remains, even if (and I apologise in advance) some of the accompanying images are a little gruesome. It’s the sort of issue that can very easily get overlooked in the planning of a project – until it happens to you and throws a complete spanner in your carefully-planned schedule. But, of course, it’s going to be a risk on any lighting or construction project that involves excavation. What I found especially intriguing was the sheer range of boxes that need to be ticked, from legal to police, from procedural to licensing matters, from archaeological to ethical concerns, from health and safety through to the removal of remains (if appropriate). And then, too, the variety of questions that need to be considered in terms of expected versus unexpected remains, recent (and therefore potentially a crime scene) versus historic, partially disturbed versus articulated versus disarticulated, and so on. The majority of Amanda’s focus is on quite technical best practice matters, which is only right. However, she also makes what I feel is an important wider point; the important (if indirect) role lighting professionals – designers and engineers – can therefore play in terms of helping us as a nation to uncover, preserve and better understand our history. She cites as an example the massive archaeological treasure-trove uncovered during the Crossrail excavations in 2009. With more than 10,000 items discovered, this project alone (while very much about the future of the capital) has cast an invaluable spotlight on to London’s history, one that will keep archaeologists and historians busy for decades to come. When works uncover buried human remains, the potential importance and consequence of the discovery is vast, not just in terms of justice, family or relatives (in the case of recent remains) but also, in the case of more historic remains, for our society and heritage. Which, of course, makes it all the more important that lighting professionals, as a key part of the project team, know and understand what they’re dealing with and how best to proceed. I very much recommend you take the time to read Amanda’s article. Nic Paton Editor

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April 2017 Lighting Journal

Emergency lighting: keeping within the law


Emergency lighting is a vital part of any lighting project, but will often end up lower down the list of priorities (and spending) than it should. And even if you think you’re ticking the boxes, there are five ways you might inadvertently still be breaking the law By Steve Saville

April 2017 Lighting Journal



mergency lighting can be a lifeline for people trying to find their way out of a building if the mains lighting fails, and this is particularly important in the event of a fire or other emergency. It is reasonable to assume that most building owners, employers, landlords or any other responsible person realise their obligations in providing a safe environment for building occupants. Some choose to take a risk with the assumption that the likelihood of an event occurring where emergency lighting may be needed as being small, some offer a token gesture by installing or specifying ‘at least something’. The reality is a compliant emergency lighting scheme is a legal requirement in most buildings other than private dwellings. The Regulatory Reform Order (RRO) 2005 was published to consolidate and rationalise much of the existing fire safety legislation. Eleven guides were produced

to assist those who are required to conduct risk assessments and give guidance on safety equipment required. For emergency lighting, BS EN 5266 is referenced as the best available guidance for a compliant scheme. The fire authorities conduct their audits based upon these guidelines. Non-compliance could result in: ¢ Alterations notice (Article 29). This requires the responsible person to notify the Fire Authority of any proposed changes which may increase the risk in the premises. They are issued where the Brigade considers that the premises may constitute a serious risk. (This is a warning not an actual failure). ¢ Enforcement notices (Article 30). These are issued where the responsible person has failed to comply with the FSO and details corrective

April 2017 Lighting Journal

Emergency lighting: keeping within the law

sures that they are legally obliged to complete within a set timescale, to comply with the law. ¢ P rohibition notices (Article 31). These are issued where the use of the premises may constitute an imminent risk of death or serious injury to the persons using them. This may be a restriction of use, for example imposing a maximum number of persons allowed in the premises, or a prohibition of a specific use of the premises. ¢ Prosecutions. This would happen if the hazard is more serious than can be covered by the above actions. If you have responsibility for the health, safety and wellbeing of the occupants of a building, you need to make sure your emergency lighting solution is compliant.


What this article is looking at the following five ways you could still be non-compliant even if you are doing your upmost to comply. It is worth considering the following. [1] Design or application. Is your design in line with the latest standards? [2] Product. Are the products you are using compliant to the latest standards? [3] Testing. Are you conducting your test regime diligently and in line with the standards? [4] Maintenance. Are you maintaining your system to ensure continued compliance? [5] Risk assessment. Are you completing regular annual risk assessments?

Some of the key areas to consider are

Sufficient signage and illumination

Section 4.1 of BS EN 1838: 2013 states that ‘Signs which are provided at all exits intended to be used in an emergency and along escape routes shall be illuminated to indicate unambiguously the route of escape to a point of safety’. Where direct sight of an emergency exit is not possible, an illuminated directional sign (or series of signs) shall be provided to assist progression towards the emergency exit. These signs must comply to the colorimetric and photometric requirements specified in BS ISO 3864-4:2011. Signs that are not internally illuminated must have not less than 5 lux on the face in emergency conditions.

Points of emphasis

Emergency luminaires should also be provided at a range of points of emphasis, including these and other specified points detailed in BS EN 5266, as shown in Figure 1 right.


Understanding there is a need for emergency luminaires in a room or building is only the first step to compliance. You then have to look at what is actually needed to ensure your scheme fully complies. Simply installing an emergency luminaire into a room which requires emergency illumination is not sufficient, as it should meet or exceed the requirements stated in BS EN 5266. All areas, rooms, escape routes, points of emphasis and so on are stated within the latest version of BS EN 5266-1:2016 – Code of Practice for the Emergency Escape Lighting of Premises. This code is invaluable as a guide to compliance. Not only does it state where emergency lighting is required, but it also states what light level is required to help you design for compliance. It also draws reference from other associated standards also, with BS EN 1838 also being key to understanding the requirements.



Figure 1. Emergency luminaires should be provided at specific points of emphasis

April 2017 Lighting Journal

Escape route

Once the points of emphasis have been covered, it is essential to provide additional luminaires to ensure that minimum illuminance levels are met to enable the escape routes to be used safely. The minimum light level given is 1lux on the centre line, which can reduce to 0.5 lux across a one metre band, as shown in Figure 2 right.


Figure 2. Minimum illuminance levels to enable escape routes

Open areas

Areas greater than 60m2 require a minimum of 0.5 lux and an outer perimeter of half a metre. Smaller open areas may also require emergency lighting if an escape route runs through it, if there is an internal room or if any other risk is identified.

9 q

Figure 3. Locations, response time and the recommended light levels within BS EN 5266 LOCATION

Specific areas and high risk tasks

Both BS EN 5266 and BS EN 1838 draw reference to specific areas and high risk tasks requiring a higher level of light in emergency conditions. The Figure 3 table right shows given locations, response time and the recommended light levels within BS EN 5266. As you can see, these can be as high as 50 lux. BS EN 1838 states that high risk task areas should have a minimum light level of at least 10% of the normal light level but no less 15 lux on the task area plane.


To recap, this is essentially the question: are the products being used compliant to the latest standards? Emergency lighting can be something of a ‘grudge buy’ as there is no perceived immediate value from the purchase and the draw of low-cost products is inviting. Unfortunately, not all products being sold in the marketplace are compliant to the latest standards, BS EN 60598-2-22 and the






0.5 sec

15 Lux


Horizontal on working plane switches and cut-outs readily visible

First aid rooms

5 sec

15 Lux


Horizontal on working plane

Treatment rooms

0.5 sec

50 Lux


Horizontal on working plane


5 sec

5 Lux

Full rated

Horizontal on floor, vertical at wall mounted communication devices

Plant room

5 sec

15 Lux

Full rated

In plane of visual task

Fire alarm controls

5 sec

15 Lux

Full rated

In plane of visual task

Reception area

5 sec

15 Lux

Full rated

In plane of visual task

Panic bars and pads or security devices

5 sec

5 Lux

Full rated

Horizontal on plane of panic bar/pad; vertical at vertical mounted/wall mounted security devices

Swimming pool/ diving areas

0.5 sec

5 Lux

Full rated

Horizontal on floor and treads

April 2017 Lighting Journal

Emergency lighting: keeping within the law

following other related standards. ¢ CE marking ¢ BS EN60598-2-22 – Safety Standard for Emergency Luminaires ¢ Mains conversions (for CE compliance any converted mains luminaire needs to be retested, relabelled and recertified) ¢ EN1838 – Emergency Lighting Applications ¢ BS EN50171 – Central Power Systems ¢ BS EN 62034 – ATS Systems ¢ Low voltage directive ¢ EMC directive The best way to identify compliant product is to look for certification. This can be in the form of self-certification, signed by a senior member of the company. The greatest peace of mind would come from third party-certification such as the BSI kitemark. Third-party certification demonstrates that all the following attributes have been independently tested or verified.


¢ Performance data independently checked and tested ¢ Light output ¢ Light distribution ¢ IP rating ¢ Proof of component quality ¢ Proof of safety and reliability ¢ Proof of consistent product quality The RRO 2005 also recommends the use of certified products.


To ensure full compliance you must undertake the following minimum test requirements as stated by BS EN 5266. ¢ Daily inspection: The alarms of a central battery unit must be checked daily. ¢ At least once-a-month a function test: That the luminaire switches into test. That the lamp illuminates. It switches back into mains and recharges. ¢ At least once-a-year full duration test: The same process as above but the duration of the test is dictated by the rated duration of the system. The lamp must still be illuminated adequately at the end of that duration. Testing is mandatory and is covered under the RRO 2005


The RRO 2005 also states that it is not

quate just to complete the required testing. You must ensure that a robust process is in place to repair or replace faulty units in a timely manner. When replacing or repairing a product, you have to be mindful of the product application, performance and features and look for a like-for-like product or one that exceeds the performance of the original. Looking at the typical emergency lighting products available today, there is a huge gulf in performance. The spacing charts and data available show products that state anywhere from 3m to 19m in a typical escape route with a 3m mounting height. For example, consider a series of luminaires installed within an escape route with a performance that allows for 10m spacing between luminaires and one fails. If any product is randomly selected to replace it, usually one that is keenly priced but looks very similar, it may not have the same performance characteristics. If the product chosen has a lesser performance to give, say, only 5m between luminaires, then that scheme no longer complies – regardless of the new product being installed. This is a key factor therefore that you need to be considering when replacing any emergency luminaire.


You may or may not be aware that the introduction of the RRO in 2005 rendered existing fire certificates worthless. Assuming you are the responsible person, you must therefore make sure you carry out a fire-risk assessment, such as that shown in Figure 4, although you can pass this task to some other competent person. However, even if you do delegate in this way, be aware that you will still be responsible, in law, for meeting the order. The responsible person, either on their own or with any other competent person, must as far as is reasonably practical make sure that everyone on the premises can escape safely if there is a fire or any other urgent need that requires evacuation. The fire safety precautions of every premises now have to be regularly reviewed and a fire risk assessment needs to be completed, typically once a year. This could be because, in part the regulations are frequently reviewed and updated. But, of course, use of a building can also change regularly, so rendering a fire safety certificate issued many years ago completely redundant. In fact, risk assessments are the biggest

area of non-compliance found by the fire authorities after undertaking audits. Finally, to investigate more deeply what is a complex area, do make use of the government’s free guidance document, available through the main government portal, More detailed guidance is also provided within BS EN 5266.


Figure 4. An example fire-risk assessment. If you are the responsible person be aware that, if you delegate to someone else, you will still be responsible, in law, for meeting this requirement FIRE SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT


IDENTIFY FIRE HAZARDS IDENTIFY: Sources of ignition Sources of fuel; and Sources of oxygen


IDENTIFY PEOPLE AT RISK IDENTIFY: People in and around the premises; and people who are especially at risk


EVALUATE, REMOVE OR REDUCE, AND PROTECT FROM RISK Evaluate the risk of a fire starting Evaluate the risk to people from a fire Remove or reduce the fire hazards Remove or reduce the risks to people from a fire Protect people by providing fire precautions


RECORD, PLAN, INFORM, INSTRUCT, AND TRAIN Record any major findings and action you have taken Discuss and work with other responsible people Prepare an emergancy plan Inform and instruct relevant people Provide Training


REVIEW Review your fire-risk assessment regularly Make changes where necessary


Steve Saville is emergency lighting product manager, Lighting and Safety Products, at Eaton ¢

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April 2017 Lighting Journal

Emergency lighting in heritage interiors



Listed and heritage buildings pose specific challenges when it comes to emergency lighting, not least ensuring the installation can do its job while not being intrusive or damaging the fabric By Geraldine O'Farrell-Wallum

April 2017 Lighting Journal




The Shonnbruhn Palace in Vienna: the ornate and elaborate interior provided a challenge in the context of emergency lighting

April 2017 Lighting Journal

Emergency lighting in heritage interiors




mergency lighting is an important part of a lighting installation, as any building can be suddenly plunged into darkness following a mains power failure caused by a number of faults or incidents such as fire or an electrical disturbance. When considering installing emergency lighting in an historic building, listed buildings come in all shapes, sizes, ages and levels of importance, everything from Battersea Power Station through to Tower Bridge, to disused warehouses and royal palaces. Whether you’re dealing with a Grade I building, Grade II*, Grade II or Scheduled Monument, the variation is enormous and each building must be treated differently. But, in the context of emergency lighting, there are some common factors that can be applied whether you are dealing with a large multi-room mansion or a small medieval chapel, and this is what this article is to discuss. The first question that ought to be asked is: is permanent emergency lighting necessary? More often than not, the answer to this will be ‘no’. This may be because, for example, there is no public use made of the building after dark, or the need only arises very infrequently, or the public is not allowed access.



Figure 7. An example of single emergency lamps or very small LED fittings

Temporary installations can take the form of plug-in, free-standing units that are either floor-standing or mounted on an easily transportable framework and plugged into the nearest 13amp socket outlet. Some examples are shown in Figure 1 right. However, be aware this arrangement, if considered suitable, will need to be approved by the local fire officer. The sophisticated units shown in Figure 1 have been designed so as to blend in with their highly ornate surroundings. But the unit could easily be a simple wooden frame with a running man sign and suitable long lead, with a 13amp plug top to reach the building’s available socket outlets. Churches have often found this arrangement suitable, especially where this type of building is increasingly being used for non-ecclesiastical events such as concerts. Churches where alternative uses are not employed are exempt from having to provide emergency lighting or exit signs,

Figure 1. Plug-in freestanding units that are either floor-standing or mounted on an easily transportable framework can be a good temporary emergency lighting solution


Figure 2. ‘Reversibility’ means being able to remove or upgrade the installation without any sign to indicate the service was ever there, unlike in this example Figure 3. An example of low level, discreet emergency light fitting Figure 4. Examples of discreetly installed emergency lighting


Figure 5. The elaborate interior of the Shonnbruhn Palace in Vienna Figure 6. The emergency lighting is provided along with other essential services, such as fire alarms, sprinkler heads, audio speakers, switches and socket outlets


Figure 8. Skirting LED lighting: this provides illumination at low level directly on to the escape route and does not detract from the internal décor Figure 9. Although the running man sign is the accepted emergency lighting standard, there is nothing to prevent a bespoke fitting, such as these, as long as they pass the risk assessment for suitability Figure 10. You can install running man signs that have less visual impact


April 2017 Lighting Journal






although a lot are now installing them anyway. Another method for providing a safe egress is by using hand torches. If the site is large, such as some grand houses or cathedrals, and there are sufficient on-site staff, then they can guide visitors out in case of mains failure or some other emergency situation. However, this option will only comply with health and safety when there are sufficient numbers of staff, with the required level of knowledge and competency, to provide the required ratio of staff to visitors. This is often a method used when historic grand houses and such-like are open at night for specific events.


If it is necessary to have emergency lighting installed, then the following must be taken into account. Grade II: Permission will be required from the local authority conservation officer. Grade II* and Grade I: Permission will be required from the local authority conservation officer in consultation with Historic England. After making this decision, then consider which rooms the public will be allowed

access into. If it is only one or two, you can restrict the emergency lighting installation to those rooms and their fire escape routes. There is a lot of legislation associated with listed buildings and scheduled monuments, so if ever in doubt get in touch with your local conservation officer or Historic England for advice on what is permitted without formal consultation. And always remember this important maxim when working with heritage interiors: ‘It is a criminal offence to undertake works to a listed building or scheduled monument without detailed written consent.’ When installing any service into a heritage building, you must adhere, wherever possible, to the mantra of ‘reversibility’. This means all works must leave the minimum of permanent scarring to the building when the installation becomes obsolete, or requires renewal and upgrading. In other words, that there is no damage left to indicate the service was ever there. Figure 2 on the left is a good example of what not to do. The permanent damage highlighted in this illustration could have been reduced drastically if the mineral insulated cable to the emergency lighting test key switches had been clipped into the masonry joints and not directly into the stone. The mortar can be easily and cheaply replaced; the holes in the stone work cannot be rectified. Guidance on installing services into any listed building is available from the Historic England through its website (https:// Probably the most relevant applicable document is the 2008 BsEST Practice 1 – Principles of Conservation Practice: Engineering the past to meet the needs of the future. This can be found under ‘images and books’ and then searching for the title. It is worth being aware there are different approaches as to where to locate the emergency luminaires or packs. Firstly, you can consider the conversion of existing fittings. This may not be possible because the fitting (for example a chandelier) may have historic significance itself and therefore cannot be touched. Or it may be that it is mounted in a location or at a height not suited to the purpose. It is often preferred to have the emergency signs in discreet locations where


April 2017 Lighting Journal

Emergency lighting in heritage interiors


their presence makes less of an impact on the interior, whilst still performing the task they were installed for. In Figure 3, for example, the emergency fitting has been located in the door surround at low level where its light output is needed. Figure 4 shows some other discreet locations where emergency lighting has been effectively deployed. Low level lighting is often best, as people and objects can cause shadows. As the main objective is to illuminate the centre line of the escape route, sometimes using steps and door reveals are the best and most discreet options. There are, however, situations where the interior of a heritage building is so ornate and decorative that lateral thinking is required. For example, the Shonnbruhn Palace in Vienna has an extensively elaborate interior, as shown in Figure 5. The solution (Figure 6) was to combine emergency lighting with other essential services, such as fire alarms, sprinkler heads, audio speakers, switches and socket outlets. Other discreet methods can involve the use of single emergency lamps or very


small LED fittings, as shown in Figure 7. Another solution is skirting LED lighting, as shown in Figure 8. This provides illumination at low level directly on to the escape route and does not detract from the internal décor. Finally, it is worth remembering that, although the running man sign is the accepted standard, there is nothing to prevent a bespoke fitting being designed for a heritage location. Providing the fitting passes the risk assessment for suitability then there is nothing to stop anyone designing a fitting that better suits the interior design of their listed building. Figure 9 shows an example of this approach. Even if you do still go for the running man, there are lots of differing designs for this standard sign, some with less visual impact, as shown in Figure 10.

Geraldine O’Farrell-Wallum is senior building services engineer, Planning Group, at Historic England ¢

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April 2017 Lighting Journal

Emergency lighting: projects

WESTERN PROMISE The redevelopment of a Grade II listed building in Bristol into an ‘eco’ housing project required a sympathetic and cost-effective LED retrofit emergency lighting scheme. Lighting Journal checked it out By Nic Paton



he Lakeshore development in the rather wonderfully named Crox Bottom area of Bristol has transformed a Grade II Listed building, the former home of Imperial Tobacco, into a development of ‘eco’ homes sitting over their own lake. The 10-acre development, ranging from studios to one- to two-bedroom apartments, is located south of Bristol, approximately three miles from the city centre and some two miles from Temple Meads train station. It has been developed by developer Urban Splash. The development has achieved an ‘Excellent’ BREEAM EcoHomes rating from the Building Research Establishment, as well as a Housing Design Award and a Green Apple Award for its sustainable and green credentials. When it came to the development’s emergency lighting scheme, the listed status of the building was, clearly, an important consideration.


The solution was a partnership between energy and sustainability consultancy Longevity Partners and LED Eco Lights to retrofit nearly 1,000 individual lights (predominantly fluorescents) in the car parks, walkways and stairwells of the complex with LED to reduce operational costs as well as, of course, ensure compliance. Urban Splash was, naturally, keen to reduce both maintenance and energy costs,

especially as the lights can be on for twelve hours or more per night in winter, and wanted to achieve a 50,000-hour lifespan. The brand chosen was LED Eco Lights’ Goodlight range of commercial, retrofit LED products. Etienne Cadestin, managing director of Longevity Partners explains: ‘The operators are keen to maintain the complex to the highest possible standards. A failed light is clearly a compliance issue until it is replaced. It also reduces the confidence of residents moving around the complex after dark, creates a potential safety hazard and presents a poor image. We recommended LED lighting, which offers a long life as well as consuming very little energy. ‘We were also looking for a retrofit technology, which means we were able to use the existing fittings to achieve higher cost efficiency and reduce the project’s carbon footprint,’ Etienne adds. The project was implemented as a rolling programme, with each of the 957 lights on the complex being replaced with a suitable alternative from the range. This included 3W emergency downlights, T5 5ft LED tubes, emergency bulkheads, and PL lamps. ‘Many lights are battery backed-up, ensuring continued operation in the event of a power failure or other emergency,’ says Saima Shafi, sales and marketing director at LED Eco Lights. The project was completed in November last year. ¢


The Lakeshore development: the listed status of the building was an important consideration when it came to the emergency lighting



Nearly 1,000 individual lights (predominantly fluorescents) in car parks, walkways and stairwells were retrofitted to LED to reduce energy and maintenance costs

April 2017 Lighting Journal

Lighting design

I 20

TALES OF THE CITY For public realm lighting projects truly to be embraced by their communities, the inspiration has to be more than a lighting designer playing around with a computer. Listening to, and telling, stories are vital for long-term success By Michael Grubb

t can be soul destroying visiting towns and cities that once had a vision for their lighting project but now are looking rundown and unloved. Yet why does this happen? For many projects, it is because lighting schemes have not engaged enough with the public. Why not build an affiliation with them and create spaces that connect with people and the place?


At Michael Grubb Studio, we work hard to understand what connects people and the spaces they are part of. We look at giving the public content and, more importantly, overall control. This effectively helps to create a narrative that is inclusive of an area. Giving a reason for people to believe (and embrace) helps to produce a lighting scheme that has the greatest possible chance of succeeding. Not just in the next couple of years, but into the next generation. To take this stance, we have to practise what we preach. A storytelling approach can become beneficial for everyone. Storytelling enables a way to engage, entertain and make a message more poignant. Our initial conceptual work with Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon took this approach. The pioneering scheme will see a sixmile man-made breakwater wall built out from the coast, which fills up and empties with the tides. It is set to create electricity via the hydro turbines for 155,000 homes in the city over the next 120 years. Twice a day, each day, the Atlantic surges up on to the UK’s Continental Shelf and around our coastline. This creates one of the highest tidal ranges in the world – a vast untapped energy source. We brought the laws of gravity into the conversation, which proves (of course) that tides are affected by the gravitational pull of the moon. The newly-proposed visitor centre will be an iconic building that will respond to its environment. So we, in turn, proposed a lighting scheme that draws inspiration from the phases of the moon, tide levels and the generation of tidal energy. Our whole intention, via consultation and research, is to relate a lighting scheme

April 2017 Lighting Journal



Bournemouth Gardens of Light Festival: the festival was an all-encompassing, light-led experience that had powerful local resonance and connection

to a project and to provide ‘meaning’. This is the essence of storytelling – to teach, challenge and create context. The Gardens Of Light Festival is another perfect example of working in collaboration with community groups to engage and connect with the wider public. Working in conjunction with Bournemouth town centre Business Improvement District, the six-week festive period saw the town’s Lower Gardens lit up by a series of emphatic light-art displays. From the iconic balloon and bandstand to the meandering river, we utilised each dynamic of the Lower Gardens for an all-encompassing experience. The main attraction of the festival was the ten ‘Light Pods’. These were scattered along the paths linking Bournemouth town centre to the beachfront. Using the structures of traditional beach huts, the installation created used quirky interiors with innovative lighting designs to create optical illusions. We worked with many community groups and local organisations, such as AFC Bournemouth, Air Festival, BH Live and Malmesbury Park Primary School. About 1,000 people were expected for the opening event but, in the event, more than 4,000 arrived. The popularity was just as much to do with how we had connected with schools, businesses and community groups rather than relying on advertising to promote the event. The intention for the Gardens Of Light was to connect deeply with people by having local relevance and to introduce a fully inclusive experience. If something needs maintaining in the future, people will hopefully voice their concerns and take responsibility for keeping the project running. This is the truest meaning of ownership. We adopted the same logic for LiveWorks, a vibrant new space for public use on Newcastle’s Quayside. The project is part of the local theatre company Live Theatre’s evolving cultural quarter and its mission to engage with the community. The project team was presented with a fantastic opportunity to make and create a cultural hub. The new lighting scheme is both flexible and theatrical, to match the


April 2017 Lighting Journal

Lighting design


LiveWorks in Newcastle: the vibrant project on Newcastle’s Quayside allows community groups to adopt and make use of space, as well as to dramatically change the lit environment




Bournemouth Gardens of Light Festival: ten ‘Light Pods’ were scattered along the paths linking Bournemouth town centre to the beachfront

ethos of the entire project. It allows for community groups to adopt and use the space; they in turn can select ‘scenes’ and that dramatically changes the lit environments within the space. The space can transform from an elegant architectural arrangement to intimate space with hues of colour. It can be very colourful, but why not if it engages and inspires children and community groups?


The best projects are those driven and steered via collaboration, not leaving it to hopeful moments of clarity assigned to someone looking at a screen in an office. When you can join other people’s thoughts and experiences and encourage combined thinking, you can create a powerful narrative. The alternative is the project simply becomes the interpretation of a lighting designer and not a true meaning of the environment you are looking to translate and provide meaning to. For any lighting design project to become successful, a strategic approach is needed. You need to understand a town or city before any engagement is made. This is effectively the ‘why’ of the any project. To listen, interact and gain knowledge of a location is a totally different approach from the ‘we have done this project in [name of town/city] let’s do the same again’ – the equivalent of providing a customer with a shopping list and just asking them to tick off what they need. Bournemouth Pier dates back to 1896 and was inspired by Princess Eugenie of France. Our lighting scheme for Bournemouth Pier Approach (which followed the Gardens of Light Festival) took this venerable heritage very much on board. During the 19th century Bournemouth was well-known as a health spa resort; the princess visited Bournemouth on the advice of her physician. During her stay, candles lit the route through the gardens to the sea. This story has been celebrated in the town ever since with an annual celebration during the summer. This candle light narrative, perhaps unsurprisingly, was therefore the motivation for the project.


Although very different, Streatham High Road is a project that, similarly, took on board this local learning approach. We created a calendar of events relevant

April 2017 Lighting Journal


Streatham High Road: each building is visually connected with dynamic lighting through a ‘Streatham-wide’ lighting control system

to the local area, including those that inclusive for the whole community, such as July’s Streatham Festival. We developed an open brief into a single concept where each building is visually connected with dynamic lighting through a ‘Streatham-wide’ lighting control system. This was achieved by introducing Wi Fi-operated lighting for each building. Controlled remotely by a central system, it was then linked to a calendar of key dates and events, all of which were agreed in conjunction with local community groups. The buildings on the high road now celebrate key days in religious, social or community calendars with colourful and dynamic light scenes and sequences for each designated day. This includes birthdays of local residents past and present and days of remembrance, as well as making the local community aware of a full moon. There are more than 100 dates and events programmed with new special events being added as needed. This is an example of another project intended to give ownership to people. If the scheme has problems, it becomes noticeable and is attended to quickly. Even worse, if the lighting scheme loses the engagement of the community, it loses its soul. This is why lighting design has to have the ability to change and evolve and not just implement a tried and tested formula.



Bournemouth Pier Approach: the story of Princess Eugenie of France’s candle-lit route through the town sparked the inspiration for the project

Technology is helping us to create and deliver lighting in a more creative and innovative way. But retaining the same design logic that was applied five years ago seems like a slightly lazy and inappropriate way to behave. A storytelling approach is driven by giving purpose to a location, rather than a ready-made out-of-the box lighting solution. Storytelling is about educating, interpreting and then adding value within a competitive marketplace. So, let’s rise to the challenge of making people proud of the spaces they occupy.

Michael Grubb is creative director of Michael Grubb Studio ¢


April 2017 Lighting Journal

LEDs and blue light

Amid ongoing debate about LEDs, health and blue light, especially within the mainstream media, Kelly Smith argues lighting professionals need to be making a stronger case for modern lighting – up-to-date, well-designed and well controlled – for a modern world By Kelly Smith



ccasionally a topic comes up in lighting that attracts everyone’s attention, including members of the public and other disciplines. Currently this topic is blue light and its effect on humans and the environment. So, let us consider things from a simple first question – why do we light anything? There are several reasons – to be able to perform a visual task; for security; for ambience; for entertainment and for transportation. These all have one thing in common – we light for humans. Even the units we use – lumens, lux etc – are set up for humans, being linked to human eye responses. If human requirements are not a priority, then the question should be asked: should the area be lit? We now have seven billion people on the

planet, more and more of these people are making their way into towns and cities where they are living a lifestyle far removed from that of our ancestors. As we progress into cities our want for technology grows. It is now the norm in the Western world for people to have smartphones, tablets and laptop screens in their home. But who among us will switch them off an hour before bedtime to give our bodies time to wind down? Or, is the case that many of us take the offending item to bed with us? How many of us have TVs in our bedrooms and fall asleep watching them? Do we have a full set of experimental results on the effect this has on our sleep patterns? Our second question is not so easily answered: what effect does this light have on us?


There are two variables amongst many that have raised concerns. One is the ever-increasing use of LEDs, with improving efficacy and other benefits, for example the use of DC operation. With the energy savings they offer, many installations, both new and refurbished were done with new LED luminaires. To increase the energy savings these new luminaires were installed with LEDs of a higher colour temperatures than the public was used to seeing. This abrupt rather than gradual change to cool white light made it all the more noticeable. Although the energy consumption between differing colour temperature LEDs is getting smaller, initially it was the ones with increased blue that were used, as they

April 2017 Lighting Journal


Daylight in offices: workers who have more access to daylight are often more productive, yet we insist on having lighting that is artificial and inadequate in much of our working environment


gave much higher savings. At approximately the same time we had the discovery of a third receptor in the eye. We have known about the reactions of the natural world to sunlight for a very long time; in fact, the first idea of a floral clock was written about in the late 1600s and finally put into practice in 1751. Thomas Young postulated the existence of receptors in the eye sensitive to colour in 1802 – which we now know as cones – and we are still learning new things about them today. The third receptor, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells that is, was only discovered in the 1990s. But the effect of blind mice responding to light was initially shown in 1923 and then ‘re-discovered’ in 1991. So, we still have a lot of re-

search and catching up to do to know how these ganglion cells will affect us. Part of the concern is that we are still ruled by many of the responses our ancestors needed for survival. So, it is entirely possible many of these artificial devices will have an impact on our basic physiological and psychological wellbeing. Let’s think about all the artificial lighting we have in our lives. A large proportion of us nowadays will work in an environment that has artificial lighting of some description. Yet we have known for a very long time that daylight has a beneficial effect. Even Florence Nightingale wrote that patients who had access to daylight recovered faster than those who did not. We know students who have access to daylight

are absent less, and have better test results. Office staff exposed to more daylight are sick less and more productive, as are factory workers. But, as long as we have buildings, we insist on having lighting that is artificial and inadequate in much of our working environment. This extends to our home environment, too. We have artificial lighting there as well, although how much that is affecting natural cycle is still open to debate. So, with all of this change happening to us, why does there seems to be so much time spent in the media discussing socalled ‘zombie’ streetlights, or criticism of the effect of LEDs on skin pallor? Listening to the press, you’d have thought our street lighting is going to

April 2017 Lighting Journal

LEDs and blue light


A street at night showing light on the path and road, but minimised on the vegetation opposite


make us all sick and destroy the planet! The problem, in my view, comes down to rhythm. We all have natural rhythms throughout life – growing up and aging; yearly (we all know about SAD or ‘Seasonal Affective Disorder’); monthly and daily. And it is the latter than concerns us here. We have a natural rhythm of hormones that are released and supressed as the day progresses. Cortisol during the day to keep us active, and then melatonin at night to get us ready to sleep. One offsets the other. Your body needs darkness to make its melatonin, but you need to have the right light at the right time during the day and your darkness at the right time at night, to keep your hormone balance working properly. So, with this in mind, just how bad are streetlights for people and for the general environment?


We know that several things have an effect – the ‘quality’ of the light, how long you

spend under it and what the lighting level is. We also know that the sensitivity of the eye changes at night from 555nm (nanometres) for daytime vision (photopic) to 507nm for night-time vision (scotopic). When using street lighting we have a varying sensitivity (mesopic), and we use this to reduce lighting levels at night when the light has more of the wavelength we are sensitive to. The light level may be lower when read from an illuminance meter, but to the human eye it will appear brighter because of higher blue content. The human eye can also see in quite low lighting levels, for example a moonlit night with no clouds. Excepting the elderly, most of us can see obstacles clearly at that level. Maybe not enough to read, drive safely or see in great detail, but enough to be safe when we are careful. Unfortunately, humans are rather light insensitive compared to many other animals and insects. So, even with lower light-

ing levels for humans, it is probably still too much light for other creatures. Even if we switch off during the times we are not about we have still had a lot of extra artificial light at dawn or dusk, when many organisms are either going to sleep for diurnal, waking up for nocturnal or in full feeding mode for crepuscular. So, limiting the hours of use will only have a marginal effect. Then we have the problem of how farreaching our light is. Under close proximity, blue light scatters more; over long distances, red light scattering predominates; and under some conditions (such as high pollution) we move from Rayleigh scattering to Mie scattering, in which case the wavelength does not matter. So, what can we do to mitigate all these effects? ¢ Replace outdated products. Much of the street lighting stock is old, some even 40+ years and uses inefficient technology with badly controlled light sources. ¢ Do not use poorly designed products.

April 2017 Lighting Journal

Use a manufacturer you trust and not one who makes outrageous promises they cannot back up. And with a reputable manufacturer you can get a properly designed installation and one optimised to use the best light with an optimised consumption. Even some old LED stock may use poor phosphor technology which allowed blue light leakage and hence produced colder appearance light. ¢ Limit the duration and optimise the lighting level. This will help minimise, if not stop, the effect of the artificial light on the environment. ¢ Control the placement of the light. This will help reduce its impact; part of the reason to replace old stock is to help control the obtrusive light it emits. ¢ Match the light source to the application. A properly-qualified lighting designer will know that, just as you wouldn’t light a residential area to the same lighting level as a city centre, you can also use different light sources.


Here we come back to the ‘dreaded’ blue light. Yes, we know blue light has an effect on biological rhythms, so we would not use it in a residential area or a rural area. However, in a city centre, where no-one is trying to sleep and plant life/wildlife are already in an artificial environment, is there any reason why light sources with a high blue spectral content cannot be used? In fact, many plants and animals are sensitive to different parts of the spectrum compared to humans so the effect of the light may be completely different to humans. In other words, match light to the application! Finally, it is important to remember that some plants and insects can be attracted and influenced by wavelengths of light other than blue and by other light sources. Red light can affect the key stages in the lifecycle of flowering plants, including germination, shoot and leaf development and flowering right through to the onset of the dormant phase. Studies have also shown that insects are highly attracted to compact fluorescents more than LEDs, possibly because of heat or UV [1]. We have seen many publications over the last few years about blue light and circadian rhythms – a phrase that, of course, only came into being in the 1960s. I am certainly not going to insult anyone’s intelligence by quoting any more


[1] Attracting the effect of modern illuminants on nocturnal insects – results of a field study in Tyrol – Cooperative project Tiroler Landesumweltanwaltschaft & Tiroler Landesmuseen Betriebsgesellschaft m.b.H. [2] https://www. [3] http://www.lrc. newsroom/AMA.pdf. Mark S. Rea, PhD and Mariana G. Figueiro, PhD. Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 30 June 2016

studies. You can find them easily enough and from enough different viewpoints to suit any agenda. The only one I wish to make mention is one recently drafted by Mark Rea in response to a guidance document from the American Medical Association [2]. Ultimately, Rea’s response calls for more research [3]. We just don’t really know the effect we are having. Ultimately, as I have already stated, all light has an effect and light, at an artificial time and at an artificial level, will have an artificial effect. The question therefore is: do we want the benefits of living in a modern society, 24-hour lifestyle, feeling safe while walking at night, more comfortable driving at night amongst others? Or do we not?

Kelly Smith is applications engineer, Global Lighting Applications, at Thorn Lighting ¢


April 2017 Lighting Journal

Excavating human remains


BURIED MEANING On any lighting project involving excavation there is always the chance you will come across buried human remains. Would you know what to do? Lighting Journal offers a guide to the correct procedures, policies and law in terms of the discovery of human remains By Amanda Reece

April 2017 Lighting Journal



any lighting projects involve excavation of a site prior to construction and development. This can throw up one very specific and complicated challenge to deal with – coming across human remains. You might think this is rare or unlikely to happen to you, but it happens more frequently than you might assume. If it happened on a project you were associated with, would you know what to do? Defining the correct procedures, policies and law in terms of human remain discovery is a vastly complex topic, and certainly not one that cannot be fully covered within the confines of an article such as this. Nevertheless, it is an important area for lighting professionals to be aware of and, ideally, up to speed on.


Various laws, both secular and ecclesiastical, provide a framework for the treatment of human remains according to the type of burial place, the ownership of the land, and the future use to which the site is to be put.

The main Acts and regulations you need to be aware of are: ¢ Protection of Military Remains Act, 1986 ¢ Disused Burial Grounds Act, 1981 ¢ Town and Country Planning Act, 1990 ¢ HER (Historic Environment Records) Historic England


The removal of human remains within consecrated grounds comes under the jurisdiction of the Church of England. An application needs to be made to the Diocese for a Faculty order for any planned works within a site belonging to the Church of England. If the land is a recognised burial site but not on consecrated land the Disused Burial Grounds Act 1981 applies. If the land to be developed is bought by compulsory purchase, it will be covered under The Towns and Country Planning Regulations. The land cannot be redeveloped until notice to relatives and members of the public have been served and

April 2017 Lighting Journal

Excavating human remains

quently all human remains have been removed. The Town and Country Planning (Churches, Places of Religious Worship and Burial Grounds) Regulations 1950 require the serving of notices to personal representatives of the deceased and the denominational authority, and for publication of notices in a local newspaper. Personal representatives may then, on giving notice, remove the remains and monuments at the expense of the landowner; failing that, the landowner may carry out the removal and re-interment of the remains.



The Protection of Military Remains Act, 1986, is designed to protect the final resting place of military personnel (such as an aircraft crash site) or to ensure appropriate recovery. While the police need to be informed immediately on discovery of unexpected remains, if it is proven to be a site related to military interest, then it will be managed by the Ministry of Defence and only handed back to the contractor once all steps have been taken to protect the remains and transport them to a place of military order. If it is known to be a crash site where human remains might exist, prior permission and discussion with the Ministry of Defence is needed.


Exhumation licence applications under the Burial Act 1857 will be considered wherever human remains are buried in sites to which the Disused Burial Grounds (Amendment) Act 1981 or other burial ground legislation does not apply. Human remains less than 100 years old are subject to the Human Tissue Act 2004. Under this Act, a licence is required from the Human Tissue Authority (www. to hold material for a purpose scheduled under the Act. Such purposes include scientific research and public display. In the event of unexpected human remains, it is a legal requirement that the works halt and the police are informed. This reflects, of course, the possibility that you may have encountered a crime scene.


Having an archaeologist on site or on call can help with confirmation that the remains are human and not animal, with


plying for a Ministry of Justice licence (of which more later) and to ensure conditions are followed. An archaeologist can also advise police and the contractor as to age or context of the human remains. This is vital when a schedule of works is dependent on timing and funding. An archaeologist will understand if there is a research agenda, arrange storage and/or reburial and report the discovery to the Historic Environment Record. It is advised in most cases to seek the advice of an archaeologist from the onset. However, it is also worth being aware that, when dealing with large numbers of burials in known burial grounds, specialist burial clearance firms do also exist.


The Historic Environment Record (HER) contains recorded information of all archaeological remains previously reported. This is where any archaeologist you engage will get their data from. If in doubt, you can consult the HER directly to learn if human remains might be likely or predicted. Reporting discoveries (via your archaeologist) to the HER will help to improve future planning of projects as a picture builds up of where human remains have been found in the past.


When reports of human remains come to light, it is usually in the context of either an

expected or unexpected discovery. For each there are very important steps to follow, and each step needs to be sensitively handled. In all cases of expected finds of human remains where a faculty has been issued, the church should have already made plans for the removal, storage and reburial. This should mean the process is straightforward in terms of handling sensitively, such as the wishes of known relatives and reburial requirements. The best advice here is to allow the diocese to guide you, and remember to show dignity and respect to the human remains at all times. It is also possible you will have to deal with recorded human remains which lie outside of church land, for example a known ancient burial ground, such as Roman or Saxon cemeteries. The archaeological issues in this scenario, such as recording and study, are much greater. If disturbance to known human remains is planned (even though the burials might be ancient and non-Christian), a Ministry of Justice licence will need to be secured in advance. Any conditions attached to that licence will, naturally, need to be adhered to. In such cases, having archaeological advice and or an archaeologist in your planning team is vital. If the ground is a recognised burial ground but is not consecrated and human remains will be disturbed, the Disused Burial Grounds Act 1981 applies. If you know human remains will be encountered, permission and provision must be secured in advance and not left until discovery.


The likelihood of coming across unexpected human remains is surprisingly common. Being aware of what to do in this scenario is as vital as being prepared. The following steps are advised to be followed to avoid contravening the law. ¢ First, stop digging or causing any further interference. Remember, this potentially could be a crime scene. ¢ Second, report the discovery to the police, who will attend. They may send for an archaeologist (or if you have an archaeologist you may offer their services to speed up the process). The archaeologist will need to assess if the remains are modern or archaeological.

April 2017 Lighting Journal

The archaeologist must assess if the burial is more than 100 years old and whether it is a likely crime scene or not. If it is under 100 years old the police will also assess this, often through a forensic team. If it is a potential crime scene, the police will treat it as such. If not, the matter becomes an archaeological issue. This might be dealt with ‘in situ’ (in other words, where it is). Or it might require the removal of the remains. Once this has been determined, an application for a licence called an ‘Authority to Exhume Buried Human Remains For Archaeological Purposes’ needs to be obtained. A licence must be obtained from the Ministry of Justice for any works affecting human remains. In the case of unexpected discovery, it is possible to arrange such a licence over the phone in cases of urgency. If it is expected human remains that have been encountered, the licence should have been acquired in advance. The Ministry of Justice will need to know: ¢ Who the applicant is ¢ The nature of the archaeological site ¢ The regulations covering the site ¢ The size of the skeletal assemblage ¢ The person responsible for advising on and working with the human remains ¢ The nature of post-excavation analysis ¢ The storage location, if human remains are to be retained for any length of time


Be very clear – it is illegal to remove any human remains without this licence. You must also comply with any conditions attached to the licence. These might cover aspects such as reburial, handling with dignity, storage, screening from public gaze, and so on. An environmental health officer must be notified if there is organic material/tissue attached to the remains. This would tend to apply to recent burials, but can occur with older burials in some circumstances, for example in the case of a lead coffin or waterlogged conditions. This is to ensure any public health issues are addressed. Bear in mind, too, the legal requirements are different for Scotland and Ireland. Guidance, along with Ministry of Justice application forms, can be found using the British Archaeological Jobs Resource website ( Another useful resource is the newly released Guidance For Best Practice for the Treatment of Human Remains Excavated from Christian Burial Grounds in England 2017


The Crossrail 2009 excavation (here and overleaf) uncovered a vast range of archaeological items, including many human remains


April 2017 Lighting Journal

Excavating human remains

When it comes to long-term removal or storage, if the disturbance is extensive and/or the archaeological agenda is pressing, storage should be appropriate and compliant with any licence conditions. This is most likely to occur when the remains are ancient. Modern remains with living relatives are highly unlikely to be subject to storage or study. Be aware, too, disturbed remains may be on the spoil heap of an excavation and will therefore need to be collected and stored. The key is any remains should not be left on public display.



Archaeological study can be an important objective but does also have to comply with ethical considerations, and the ethics will outweigh scientific interest when necessary. Working and communicating with living relatives is the fundamental requirement when working with human remains. Their wishes (usually associated with work in a burial ground) are a major consideration to the works. It is therefore essential they are kept informed and made to feel involved and listened to.



Partial removal/disturbance needs to be recorded and logged, as it is usually intended that where ever possible all removed human remains will be reunited when reburying.

SOME USEFUL RESOURCES Archaeology at Liverpool Street sustainability/archaeology/liverpoolstreet/ ¢

Guidance for Best Practice for the Treatment of Human Remains Excavated from Christian Burial


Recovery of articulated remains is often expected on archaeological sites. It is usual that any remains lying outside of the limits of excavation should not be chased into the baulk, unless there is a good reason for doing so, but left in situ. However, partial removal of a skeleton brings with it the consideration of the need to return removed samples to the original site in time (or leave them in situ). Prior to removal, human remains need to be fully recorded so as to understand

Grounds in England, 2nd edition apabe/pdf/APABE_ToHREfCBG_ FINAL_WEB.pdf A Basic Overview for the Recovery of Human Remains From Sites Under Developments Through under ‘Guides’ ¢


In the case of disarticulated remains (or remains where the bones are separated at the joints and/or no longer lying as they would have in life), an osteoarchaeologist should be present to catalogue the site once they are confirmed as human. This is to ensure they can be reburied as soon as possible. An osteoarchaeologist may also be able to determine commingled ( joined or mixed together) material, or if the bones are disturbed remains belonging to one individual.

April 2017 Lighting Journal

their surrounding archaeological context. This needs to include recording any disturbances to the burial, identification of bones present, the recording of the position of the body and any associated archaeological artefacts, such a burial goods, personal adornment or coffin fittings. An osteoarchaeologist can decide whether the remains need to be block-lifted with the surrounding soil to preserve their integrity.


Generally, there are no extra precautions necessary when working with skeletal remains, above normal health and safety regulations. However, the presence of soft tissues on more recent remains, such as when removed from lead coffins, does require special consideration. A site safety officer should be appointed to ensure protection against threats such as anthrax, smallpox and lead poisoning. The environmental health officer for the district will need to be informed for these kinds of finds and will advise.


Once excavated and recorded, the remains will be ready for lifting out of the ground for study. Plastic bags will need to be provided for transportation. These do not need to be air-tight but they do need to have perforations to allow the fibres of the bones to remain stable and sturdy enough to withstand handling. Tags and labels will need to be attached in pairs to record the site code, skeleton number and so on. All bags will need to be placed in a large crate or box labelled so the bones can all be kept together. The storage facility will have been out-

lined in the Ministry of Justice licence and should be fit for purpose.


In 2009, Crossrail undertook one of the largest archaeological excavations known in the UK and in the process uncovered an incredible 10,000 items with a team of more than 1,000 archaeologists. With the future leading to even more areas needing redevelopment, who knows what we will discover next? But, beyond the historic and scientific interest, let us not forget these discoveries relate to people: a generation, a family. Being able to trace history and build knowledge for the future is great, but it should not be at the expense of dignity and respect to others. If you require more information and detailed drawings, please refer to Historic England ( uk/), British Archaeological Jobs and Resources ( and the Council for British Archaeology (http:// My special thanks go to David Hopkins (HCC county archaeologist) for his support in writing this paper and then reviewing it.


Amanda Reece is a street lighting engineer, Economy, Transport and Environment Department, at Hampshire County Council ¢

April 2017 Lighting Journal

Retrofit lighting control projects

RETRO STYLE Lighting controls provisions need to be on the agenda right from the outset of any renovation project. That’s, at least, if you want to avoid the five most common pitfalls of a retrofit lighting project


By David Ribbons


n a renovation project, at what point in the design process should the requirements for lighting controls be specified? I’d argue, right from the beginning! It is crucial to factor lighting controls provisions into renovation plans and budgets from the outset. That said, today’s light-source technologies, such as LED, and digital lighting control technologies, offer more freedoms than constraints. Here, then, are what I consider are the five main aspects architects, interior designers and lighting designers should be thinking about if they want avoid the most common pitfalls of a retrofit lighting project.


The European Union’s ban on inefficient directional halogen lamps, which progressed to a new step on 1 September last year, continues to fuel the acceleration in adoption of LED as the dominant light source.

LEDs, in turn of course, enable the reinvention of light design and the discovery of new, exciting, aesthetic possibilities. In addition, the use of addressable digital control methods enables fixtures to be controlled as a larger number of independent zones within a room. This gives more flexibility and increased artistic options for separate dimming levels in different parts of the space, instead of the traditional single zone of light. In essence, just because it’s a retrofit doesn’t mean you can’t think innovatively.


Architects too often think they do not have enough space to install dimming equipment for an increased number of zones in small spaces. Sophisticated lighting control systems require big electrical panels, right? Wrong! This notion belongs to the era of heavy-current mains dimmers, an era that is mostly now in the past as more efficient

April 2017 Lighting Journal


The Glumac reception area (and see story overleaf): the lighting control system controls all the lights, shades, daylight, and vacancy sensors


light sources take over. In this day and age, distributed systems – where the dimming capability is located within each fixture’s driver, rather than in a central panel – have taken over from centralised systems, thus freeing up the physical space taken by large electrical panels.



A retrofit project often doesn’t allow for the possibility of making holes inside walls to install new cables. Wireless lighting controls, including sensors, provide a convenient solution to this problem. However, do not use just any type of wireless connection. Wi-Fi (also known as 802.11), for example, is often too congested to provide adequate reliability for systems that require a rapid response speed, such as lights coming on instantly when a button is pressed. Specifiers should choose an RF technology which operates on a quiet and

well-regulated frequency band within the wireless spectrum. This means equipment such as audio or video streaming devices cannot swamp the control commands. This will also ensure lighting control works instantaneously every time – crucial to prevent user frustration.


Window treatments can be instrumental in making a room comfortable, by eliminating glare problems, and offer substantial benefits in increasing energy-efficiency, by reducing solar gain. Even when it is not possible to install power and control cables for shades in a retrofit plan, all spaces have the opportunity to deploy battery-powered and wirelessly-controlled systems. Battery life can be as long as four to six years, and maximum window sizes can be a huge 3.6m x 3.6m. So, don’t constrain your thinking.


The era of wall-mounted light switches in each room is certainly not over. Traditional on-off switches are now commonly complemented by wall-mounted controls and mobile devices. However, just because wall-controls are practical, this does not mean that they have to be ugly. Lighting control keypads exist in a wide variety of finishes, colours and styles to match room decor. Designers can choose from wired or wireless keypads, and should consider options including keypads that can be seen in the dark (because of illuminated backlighting of buttons), although there’s no need to worry about these being too bright as they can now dim automatically. Engraved buttons are key in all circumstances, indicating which ‘scenes’ will be controlled by each button, thereby making the controls intuitive for users to operate.

April 2017 Lighting Journal

Retrofit lighting control projects


The Glumac meeting area: daylight management was an important part of the retrofit project


PORTLAND SPACE Lutron’s retrofit project for engineering company Glumac’s office in Portland, Oregon, illustrates the importance on integrating lighting controls provisions into retrofit projects By David Ribbons


utron’s Quantum Total Light Management system was an integral element of the project to transform the openplan office on the 16th floor of the Standard Insurance Center in the city. Our brief was to manage both daylight and electric light to achieve three core goals: ¢ Create an aesthetically pleasing design space ¢ Deliver adequate and proper lighting for the employees ¢ Set the standard for energy efficiency in building renovations Solar-adaptive shades automatically adjust according to the position of the sun, so eliminating glare on work surfaces and reducing heat gain while preserving views. Wireless daylight sensors and digitally-addressable ballasts automatically adjust the electric lighting to ensure each area has the right amount of light for maximum comfort and productivity. Wireless vacancy sensors are also installed throughout the open and private

offices to ensure lights are off when a space is unoccupied but can be turned on when employees need more light. The system also controls all the lights, shades, daylight, and vacancy sensors throughout the space, and is tied into the building management system to deliver accurate, real-time lighting energy data. And the results? Glumac is expecting the new offices to achieve platinum LEED (or US energy efficiency) certification. The office initial achieved average lighting energy use of 0.32W per sq ft, well below the designed connected load of 0.68W per sq ft. During the first two months of occupancy, however, this reduced to 0.24W per sq ft, again attributable largely to the ease with which changes and modifications can be made to the control system. In fact, the system aims to reduce lighting power density by 47% compared to state of Oregon allowances.

David Ribbons is director of sales, Europe and Africa, at Lutron Electronics ¢

April 2017 Lighting Journal

Surge protection

Unlike conventional light sources, LEDs are operated at low voltages and are therefore potentially extremely sensitive to overvoltages, along with the electronic control gear By Piotr Dudek


I'm outta here!

April 2017 Lighting Journal


nergy-efficient LED light sources and the associated electronic control gear offer numerous benefits such as long life, reduced maintenance and adjustable light. But for street lighting, the problem of possible overvoltages has to be addressed. Unlike conventional light sources, LEDs are operated at low voltages and are therefore sensitive to overvoltages, along with the electronic control gear. In contrast to the situation with indoor lighting, the problem of overvoltages, also known as surge voltages, therefore has to be addressed when using LED light sources and the associated control gear for street lighting applications. A surge protection concept tailored to combat 10kV between L/N and earth and 6kV between L and N is, therefore, absolutely essential. Overvoltages can be caused by switching operations in the power supply system or in nearby industrial facilities, electrostatic discharges (during maintenance work for example). Another cause can be lightning strikes, either on the LED streetlight or the power supply cable or in the vicinity, leading to galvanic or inductive coupling. Small overvoltages have little effect even on unprotected LED modules, but frequent overvoltages may have an adverse effect on the life of the LED light sources. Large overvoltages, such as those produced by a lightning strike, may instantly destroy the LED modules or electronic con-

trol gear of several LED street lights. Overvoltages because of switching operations in power supply systems often occur between phase and neutral, in other words between L and N (differential-mode interference). They reach peak values of 6kV and affect only the control gear. Standard control gear therefore has built-in surge protection of 4kV to 6kV so these overvoltages are absorbed. Overvoltages because of lightning strikes are much more difficult to calculate. They primarily occur between the power lines (L/N) and earth (PE) – differential-mode interference – and can quickly reach several tens of kilovolts.


The result is an induced voltage that can destroy the lights in entire street runs. The risk of lightning strikes is not the same everywhere, however, as there are strong geographical differences. For example, the lightning ground flash density Ng, which defines the number of lightning strikes per square kilometre and year, is one in Belgium and 150 in South Africa. Such regional differences therefore have to be taken into consideration. An LED lighting system consists of the luminaire housing, the LED module with

an optical system for directing the light (lenses, reflectors) and the electronic control gear for supplying the LED module with appropriate power. Luminaires are designed so all the conductive parts have a defined connection to protective earth. As highlighted, a good surge protection concept combats 10kV between L/N and earth and 6kV between L and N. This level of protection is tested to IEC61000-4-5 and will withstand even multiple overvoltage events. It is therefore recommended that, wherever possible, luminaires in protection Class I should be used because, in accordance with relevant standards, high voltages should be compensated only with a protective earth. For historical reasons, however, most of the street lighting in Europe falls in protection Class II. For luminaires in protection Class II, all the live parts have protective insulation but there is no defined connection to the protective earth. Surge protection devices (surge arresters) must not compromise the protective insulation in accordance with IEC61643-11 even for the very short timespans of a lightning strike. Optimum surge protection in the form of a conductor connected to the metal housing or to earth is not possible in a protection Class


April 2017 Lighting Journal

Surge protection


II luminaire. In protection Class II, a distinction is made between designs featuring a luminaire head made of metal and ones in which the luminaire head is made from a non-conductive material. With a luminaire head made of metal, it is best to provide equipotential bonding between the control gear and LED module to prevent potential drag and increased overvoltages. Even if the luminaire head is connected to earth via the mast, this connection may have a high or undefined impedance and the system should have appropriate insulation in accordance with protection Class II. If the luminaire head is made of non-conductive material, all the exposed parts must also be made of non-conductive material or be insulated in accordance with protection Class II. Equipotential bonding is not necessary here. The weakest link here is the LED module and it depends on the insulation material and its thickness as to whether surge protection of 10kV can be achieved. Without reliable surge protection, the light sources may be subject to premature ageing and even complete failure.



According to the ZVEI, the Central Association for the German Electrical and Electronics Industry, the requirement for surge protection up to 10kV for luminaires in protection Class II is being included in more and more tenders for street lighting projects. If there is an option of converting the lighting to protection Class I, this would be the best solution. There are high-quality drivers for LED luminaires such as (to cite one of our own) the Premium Outdoor Drivers from Tridonic. These have built-in surge protection against fluctuations in voltage that result from switching operations in the power supply system and occur between L and N. The drivers also offer surge protection up to 10kV between the power lines (L and N) and earth. This level of protection is tested to IEC61000-4-5 and will withstand even multiple overvoltage events. A special voltage splitting arrangement in the driver based on different capacitors ensures that, even in the case of high input transients, a maximum of only 500V reaches the output side of the driver. Most of the voltage decreases from the power side to the output side. For regions with only low to average frequency of lightning strikes control gear with 10kV

offers high surge protection which previously could only be achieved with an additional surge module in the luminaire head. This is no longer permitted in protection Class II luminaires, however. Lightning strikes that occur within a radius of 150m from an LED streetlight can no longer affect the reliable operation of the LED module. If lightning strikes a lu-

DEFINITIONS Protective earth: Protective earth is defined as the earthing of one or more points in a system, installation or component for the purposes of electrical safety. This is generally understood to be the electrical connection of all the metal parts which are easily accessible to touch and which do not belong to the operating current circuit

(in other words inactive metal parts) to ground potential to prevent high contact voltages at the conductive components (for example the housing) in the event of a fault. Functional earth/ equipotential: In contrast to the protective earth, the functional earth or operational earth is provided not for the sake of safety or to protect people but to

minaire directly, and assuming a LED luminaire spacing of 30m, the first five would fail but not the luminaires in an entire street run. For regions with a high incidence of lightning strikes, a surge arrester in the main distributor for the lighting system is recommended in addition to the drivers or, if the distributor is too far away, in the cable junction box. These external overvoltage devices must be tested in accordance with EN 61643-11 and matched to the integrated surge protection in the luminaire, in other words in the control gear. As high-voltage tests on LED street lights in accordance with ÖVE/ÖNORM EN 61547 at the Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT) have shown, compliance with usual testing standards is not sufficient to guarantee operational reliability of outdoor lighting installations. Actual practice shows that lamp failures occur even if the requirements of the standard are met, in some cases at overvoltages of only 2kV to 4kV. In contrast to the standard tests, the tests carried out by the AIT involved increasing the voltage until the devices were destroyed. The results of the tests generally match the experiences from actual practice. Surge protection equipment only functions reliably if all the elements in the entire system are matched to one another. The higher the dielectric strength (surge and ESD) between L and N and also between L/N and earth (PE), the better the LED light sources will be able to withstand overvoltages during actual operation.

Piotr Dudek is segment manager outdoor and industry at Tridonic ¢

ensure trouble-free operation of electrical installations. The functional earth can reliably protect against interference currents. The functional earth also provides common reference potentials between electrical devices. Protection class I: Electrical devices in protection Class I have a protective earth. Connecting the protective earth to the device housing ensures in the event of a

fault, current is routed to ground potential via the protective earth conductor. Protection class II: Equipment in protection Class II has reinforced or double insulation between the mains circuit and the output voltage or metal casing. Even if the equipment has conductive surfaces they are protected by good insulation against contact with other live parts.

April 2017 Lighting Journal

Independent lighting design


The government’s new apprenticeship ‘levy’ starts this month. Given that big lighting design firms will be paying it, isn’t it high time there were more apprenticeship-based ways into our industry? By Emma Cogswell


s a parent of a child about to go to university this year, two things are currently playing on my mind. First, hurrah, this is finally my chance to turn her room into a craft room for me. Second, how much is this university education going to cost, both me and, more seriously now with student loans, her? Education, without doubt is the thing that empowers people; it gives us opportunity and ways to express and grow. In its very crudest form it gives people the chance to move out of poverty, to better themselves and the communities where they live. But there are serious questions that we, as a profession, need to be asking about the routes into our industry. Are the structures, the pathways, we offer young people fit for purpose? And, even if, technically, they are, are they enough? Are we giving young people all the access, all the opportunities, we can to allow them to get a foot in the door of the wonderful world of lighting? If you want to become an architect, the

shortest route is to gain your GCSEs, then do your A Levels, then knuckle down to a five-year degree in architecture recognised by the Architects Registration Board (ARB). After that, of course, you’ll need to do two years of professional experience. By that time, you’ll have built up whopping levels of student debt which you’ll be paying back. Forever.


Don’t get me wrong, we all want this profession to be based on good-quality education – in fact the complexity of much of the work we do demands it – and we all broadly agree the route I’ve outlined above can turn out great and talented architects. But, given that a degree isn’t the best route for everybody – especially those coming from lower-income backgrounds or who are perhaps, academically, later starters in life – why aren’t there more alternative options? Under the last Labour government, the aspiration was that 50% of school leavers

April 2017 Lighting Journal

should go on to university and gain a degree. But, surely, if everyone has a degree, doesn’t that devalue its worth as a ‘gold standard’? And doesn’t such a ‘degree or nothing’ attitude also risk meaning that education pathways become a) narrow and formulaic (turning out all the same type of ‘talent’) and b) potentially over-prescriptive and unattainable to those who, for whatever reason, are unable to follow such a long and expensive ‘apprenticeship’. And, in fact, that’s possibly the important word here: ‘apprenticeship’. Regular readers of Lighting Journal will be well aware that this month sees the introduction of the government’s new apprenticeship ‘levy’.


It is going to mean an employer with a pay bill of more than £3 million will be charged 0.5% of this – so a minimum of £15,000 – to pay into a central pot to fund apprenticeship-based education. You’ll in return get a £15,000 allowance to spend on appren-


ticeships from May onwards. Alongside this, new standards and assessment frameworks for apprenticeships in a range of industries have been developed. New online methods of paying for training have been set up. There will also be a new employer-led Institute for Apprenticeships that will regulate the quality of schemes. It’s all going to be quite a revolution. However, lighting and lighting design risks missing out completely. Why? Well, because lighting companies that will be required to pay the levy are not going to be able to take money to train apprentices because, quite simply, there are no apprenticeship schemes or frameworks for lighting design. Sure, you can do an apprenticeship to become a lighting technician. You can do a higher (or degree-level) apprenticeship to become a chartered surveyor. The Royal Town Planning Institute even has a technical apprenticeship. But lighting and lighting design? No. This is something that, I know, is now being discussed. Mike Simpson, global application lead at Philips, has, for one, championed the development of a lighting industry apprenticeship. This would potentially be for lighting designers, product designers, and exterior project managers. He has been active and vocal in contacting various stakeholders (distributors, manufacturers, consultants and designers, engineering and product design) to see if there is an appetite for such a scheme. The good news is the response has been positive, so far. The bad news is that, even if our industry gets its act together, we’re going to be well behind the curve, given that the vast majority of the new ‘trailblazer’ apprenticeships that start from May have been years in the making. But I’d argue it is the right thing for us, as an industry, to be doing. We need to be sitting down and defining what we want an apprenticeship in our industry to look like and cover and how we want it to be assessed. What level should it be available up to? What role and qualification should it lead to? More widely, how will it open up and benefit our industry in the future? We are at the very beginning of this process and I am sure there will be many difficulties along the way. But I have faith that, between us, we can craft a proposal that will, in the long term, benefit people entering into the industry and grow the industry as a whole.

Emma Cogswell is IALD UK projects manager ¢


April 2017 Lighting Journal

Light School at the Surface Design Show

SCHOOL TOOLS With more than 5,000 visitors, this year’s Light School proved to be an excellent showcase for the power of lighting design. Lighting Journal sat up straight, eyes front By Nic Paton


Light Talks: Light School was a chance for lighting designers to showcase what the industry can do, with hospitality lighting a key theme this year



erhaps without even fully realising it, Stanley Wilson, director of Factorylux, summed up why February’s Light School at the Surface Design Show remains an important destination for lighting professionals. ‘Nearly 100 designers spent over an hour each with us; with a few hundred more interacted with us on the walkway outside. Organisers got great comms, good grace and a relaxed style. A lot of fun and brilliant value for money,’ he said after the event. And that, of course, is the whole point. Unlike an industry-specific event like, say, LuxLive, Light School is about lighting professionals talking to and engaging with professionals from predominantly outside the industry, showcasing and illuminating (pardon the pun) just what it is the industry can do and offer. The 2017 event was the fourth year

Light School, which is supported by the Institution of Lighting Professionals and presented by Light Collective, has been at the Surface Design Show. As in previous years, the ‘school’ comprised three parts: Light Talks, Product School and the free School Newspaper, sponsored by Xicato.


More than 5,000 people (5,114 to be precise) attended this year, slightly down on last year, with 77% coming from the architectural and design sector. Overall, however, this year’s event was the biggest yet, with some 18 manufacturers exhibiting at the Product School. One highlight for this year was ‘#TheVan’, a purpose-built mobile workspace from Factorylux, which hosted a series of lighting workshops where attendees could

make, test and certify a complete luminaire to BS EN 60598. Another eye-catcher was a range of illuminated surfaces displayed by Lumiscopic featuring ‘dichoric’ materials, which appear to change colour depending on the viewing angle. And Regianni’s installation’s Night Shift also proved popular. This immersive installation, designed by Speirs + Major, used shafts of light filtered through a soft haze and reflected by mirrored walls to ‘deconstruct the lit character of the city’. What, then, of the CPD presentations, an integral part of the school?


Although varied and eclectic, one theme that did run through the Light Talks presentations, which were this year sponsored by Luctra, was hospitality lighting.

April 2017 Lighting Journal



Exhibitors Spectral and Appelec: some 18 manufacturers exhibited at the Product School

Factorylux’s ‘#TheVan’: this purpose-built mobile workspace allowed attendees to make, test and certify a complete luminaire to BS EN 60598

How to use lighting, and lighting control, to maximise the hotel guest or restaurant diner experience was at the heart was at the heart of presentations by John Lau, of Firefly Lighting Design, Rob Honeywill, of Maurice Brill Lighting Design, Gerardo Olvera, of Light IQ and Maida Hot, of GIA Equation. Charlotte Svenson, of Lighting Design International, drilled down into how lighting and lighting control can influence what guests experience.

‘Light School is a great way to expand the conversation about the importance of light in all of our lives,’ agreed Christopher Knowlton, formerly at Electrolight and now director of new lighting design company 18 Degrees, and a speaker this year as well as last. Other speakers included Kelli Zezulka, of the University of Leeds, who revisited her popular presentation from last year’s ILP Professional Lighting Summit, ‘Communicating the Intangible: how we talk

about light’ (Lighting Journal, November/ December 2016, vol 81, no 10). Mark Ridler of BDP looked at ‘the myths and the reality’ of human-centric design, and Sanjit Bahra, of designpluslight, posed the contentious question: ‘why use a lighting designer?’. Lighting Journal will publish articles based around a number of these, and other, presentations throughout the year. So, watch this space. ¢

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April 2017 Lighting Journal

Future concept

RETAIL FOOTPRINT A vinyl floor tile embedded with LED lighting that flashes up offers and promotions is being tested by Philips and flooring firm Tarkett with retailers in Europe and North America. Lighting Journal grabbed its shopping basket to take a look By Nic Paton


The Luminous vinyl flooring concept: animations and adverts can be projected on to the floor surface, with retail and hospitality likely to be key markets



isnomer alert – technically it’s a bit of a stretch to call the Luminous vinyl flooring being tested by Philips Lighting and flooring and surfaces firm Tarkett a ‘future concept’. This is because it has been in the offing ever since the two companies formed a collaboration back in 2013. Indeed, it has been under test at Desso, a European commercial carpets and sport fields company, and US carpet company Tandus (both owned by Tarkett) since agreement was sealed. Nevertheless, it is an interesting idea, and was being showcased at February’s Euroshop 2017 trade fair in Düsseldorf. So, what is it? The Luminous vinyl flooring is vinyl tile embedded with LED that enables retailers to advertise and interact with customers as they walk through the store or building. You can broadcast luminous messages and animations on and through the tile. It is primarily being aimed at the retail and

pitality markets, but could feasibly be something that might work in an office environment, too. The flooring is made using an ‘innovative’ (alas, unspecified) light-translucent formula that enables glowing effects to be transmitted through the tile, Philips explains.


Connected LED lights within the flooring allow for displays to be pre-programmed and/or personalised via a smartphone or computer. As well as promotional messages, real-time internet content is displayable via a Cloud-based content management system, which can be linked to an external social media channel, perhaps such as Twitter. As Anne-Christine Ayed, executive vice-president, research, innovation and environment at Tarkett, puts it: ‘We are passionate about helping our clients to create unique spaces with our flooring solu-

tions in all kind of sectors such as retail, hospitality and offices where differentiation and brand identity are key. With Luminous vinyl flooring we take our “unique spaces” innovation strategy to the next level allowing flooring to display dynamic messages or animations and to grab people’s attention in an unprecedented way.’ ‘Increasingly, light is being embedded into floors, walls and ceilings. This latest innovation with Tarkett extends this trend and offers new ways to engage shoppers, visitors and employees,’ agrees Dr Bernd Voelpel, general manager, Luminous, at Philips. ‘Light can be used to welcome and guide people, alert them to special offers and even advertise to them. When connected to the web, all kinds of dynamic real-time information can be displayed and remote access allows the retailer to program multiple branches,’ he adds. ¢


April 2017 Lighting Journal


This directory gives details of suitably qualified, individual members of the Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) who offer consultancy services.

Steven Biggs

Colin Fish

Alistair Scott

Skanska Infrastructure Services

WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

Designs for Lighting Ltd


Peterborough PE1 5XG


Hertford SG13 7NN

BSc (Hons) CEng FILP MIMechE Winchester SO23 7TA

T: +44 (0) 1733 453432 E:

T: 07825 843524 E:

T: 01962 855080 M: 07790 022414 E:

Award winning professional multi-disciplinary lighting design consultants. Extensive experience in technical design and delivery across all areas of construction, including highways, public realm and architectural projects. Providing energy efficient design and solutions.

Providing design and technical services for all applications of exterior and interior lighting from architectural to sports, rail, area, highways and associated infrastructure. Expert surveys and environmental impact assessments regarding the effect of lighting installations on wildlife and the community.

Professional lighting design consultancy offering technical advice, design and management services for exterior/interior applications for highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on lighting and energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

Stephen Halliday

Anthony Smith

WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

Stainton Lighting Design Services Ltd

Simon Bushell MBA DMS IEng MILP

SSE Enterprise Lighting

Portsmouth PO6 1UJ T: +44 (0)2392276403 M: 07584 313990 E: Professional consultancy from the largest external lighting contractor maintaining 1.5m lights in the UK and Ireland. Exterior lighting/electrical design for Motorways, Highways, Architectural, Car Parks, Public Spaces and Sports lighting. From advice on carbon reduction strategies to delivering the whole installation package.

Lorraine Calcott IEng MILP IALD MSLL

it does Lighting Ltd Milton Keynes, MK19 6DS


Manchester M50 3SP


Stockton on Tees TS23 1PX

T: 0161 886 2532 E:

T: 01642 565533 E:

Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways applications. PFI technical advisor and certifier support, HERS registered personnel.

Specialist in: Motorway, Highway Schemes, Illumination of Buildings, Major Structures, Public Artworks, Amenity Area Lighting, Public Spaces, Car Parks, Sports Lighting, Asset Management, Reports, Plans, Assistance, Maintenance Management, Electrical Design and Communication Network Design.

Philip Hawtrey

Nick Smith


Nick Smith Associates Limited


Sutton Coldfield B72 1PH


Chesterfield, S40 3JR

T: 01908 560110 E:

T: 07789 501091 E:

T: 01246 229444 F: 01246 270465 E:

Award winning lighting design practice specialising in interior, exterior, flood and architectural lighting with an emphasis on section 278/38, town centre regeneration and mitigation for ecology issues within SSSI’s/SCNI’s.Experts for the European Commission and specialists in circadian lighting

Widely experienced professional technical consultancy services in exterior lighting and electrical installations, providing sustainable and innovative solutions, environmental assessments, ‘Invest to Save’ strategies, lighting policies, energy procurement, inventory management and technical support. PFI Technical Advisor, Designer and Independent Certifier.

Specialist exterior lighting consultant. Private and adopted lighting and electrical design for highways, car parks, area and sports lighting. Lighting Impact assessments, expert witness and CPD accredited Lighting design AutoCAD and Lighting Reality training courses

Euan Clayton

Allan Howard

Alan Tulla

Clayton Fourie Consultancy Ltd

WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

Alan Tulla Lighting


Edinburgh, EH15 3RT

BEng(Hons) CEng FILP FSLL London WC2A 1AF

T: 07722 111424 E:

T: 07827 306483 E:

Internationally experienced multi-disciplinary consultants. We provide design and technical advice on all aspects of exterior lighting, hazardous area lighting, traffic signals and other highway electrical works.We also provide Planning Advice, Road Safety Audits and Expert Witness Services

Professional artificial and daylight lighting services covering design, technical support, contract and policy development including expert advice and analysis to develop and implement energy and carbon reduction strategies. Expert witness regarding obtrusive lighting, light nuisance and environmental impact investigations.


Winchester, SO22 4DS

T: 01962 855720 M:0771 364 8786 E: Site surveys of sports pitches, road lighting and offices. Architectural lighting for both interior and exterior. Visual Impact Assessments for planning applications. Specialises in problem solving and out-of-the-ordinary projects.

Mark Chandler

Alan Jaques

Michael Walker

MMA Lighting Consultancy Ltd


WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff



Reading RG10 9QN

Nottingham, NG9 2HF

T: 0118 3215636 E:

T: +44 (0)115 9574900 M: 07834 507070 E:

Exterior lighting consultant’s who specialise in all aspects of street lighting design, section 38’s, section 278’s, project management and maintenance assistance. We also undertake lighting appraisals and environmental lighting studies

Professional consultancy providing technical advice, design and management services for exterior and interior applications including highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

John Conquest

Tony Price

4way Consulting Ltd

Vanguardia Consulting

MA BEng(Hons) CEng MIET MILP Stockport, SK4 1AS

T: 0161 480 9847 M: 07526 419248 E:

Providing exterior lighting and ITS consultancy and design services and specialising in the urban and inter-urban environment. Our services span the complete Project Life Cycle for both the Public and Private Sector

BSc (Hons) CEng MILP MSLL Oxted RH8 9EE

T: +44(0) 1883 718690 Chartered engineer with wide experience in exterior and public realm lighting. All types and scales of project, including transport, tunnels, property development (both commercial and residential) and sports facilities. Particular expertise in planning advice, environmental impact assessment and expert witness.


Ferrybridge, WF11 8NA, UK T: 0197 7632 502


Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways applications. PFI technical advisor and certifier support, HERS registered personnel.

Go to: for more information and individual expertise

Neither Lighting Journal nor the ILP is responsible for any services supplied or agreements entered into as a result of this listing.


Directory CPD Accredited Training • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • Lighting Reality CPD Accredited Training CPD Accredited Training Standards CPD Accredited Training CPD Accredited Training • AutoluxLighting • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • Lighting Design Techniques • •AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) •• AutoCAD (basic or advanced) Lighting Reality Light Pollution • Lighting Reality • Lighting Reality • Lighting Reality • AutoluxLighting Standards CPD Accredited Training • Tailored Courses please ring CPD Accredited Training • •AutoluxLighting Standards • AutoluxLighting Standards • AutoluxLighting Lighting Design Techniques Standards Accredited Training • •Lighting Design Techniques •CPD Lighting Design •Venues Lighting Techniques by Design arrangement AutoCAD (basicTechniques or advanced) Light Pollution • •Light Pollution • Light Pollution • Light Pollution Lighting Reality • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) Tailored Courses please ring Contact Nick Smith • Tailored Courses please ring please ring • Tailored CoursesStandards please ring • Tailored Courses • Lighting Reality •AutoluxLighting AutoCAD (basic or advanced) Nick Smith Associates Ltd Venues by arrangement • Lighting Design Techniques 36 Foxbrook Drive, Venues by arrangement •Reality AutoluxLighting Standards Venues by arrangement Venues by arrangement Lighting ••Light Pollution Contact NickChesterfield, Smith • Lighting Design Techniques • Tailored Courses please ring Contact Nick Smith S40 3JRNick Smith Contact Nick Smith Contact

CPD Accredited Training • AutoluxLightingNick Standards Smith Associates Ltd

Nick Smith Associates Ltd t: 01246 229 444 Nick Smith Associates Ltd • Light Pollution Nick Smith Associates Ltd 36 Foxbrook Drive, • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) Venues by arrangement • Foxbrook Lighting Design Techniques 36Chesterfield, Foxbrook Drive, f: 01246 270 Drive, 465 36 Drive, 36 Foxbrook • Tailored Courses please ring Chesterfield, e : Chesterfield, Chesterfield, S40 3JR Contact NickPollution Smith • Light • Lighting Reality S40 3JR 229S40 w: S40 3JR 3JR t: 01246 444 Nick Smith Associates Ltd t:by 01246 229 444 t:•01246 229 444Venues t: 01246 229 444 arrangement Tailored Courses please ring f: 01246 270 465 36 Foxbrook Drive, f: e01246 270 465 f: 01246 270 465 f: 01246 270 465 • AutoluxLighting Standards : Chesterfield, HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC : e : Contacte w: Nick Smithe : S40 3JR w: Venues by arrangement w: w: t: 01246 229 444 • Lighting Design Techniques INSTRUMENTS LTD Nick Smith Associates Ltd f: 01246 270 465 36 Foxbrook Drive, eContact : Nick Smith • Light Pollution Suppliers of a wide range of quality Chesterfield, w: Nick measuring Smith Associates Ltd light S40 3JRand photometric • Tailored Courses please ring equipment. 36 Foxbrook Drive,229 444 t: 01246

Chesterfield, f: 01246 270 465

HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS LTD e : S40 PO Box3JR 210, Havant, PO9 9BT w: Tel: 07900 571022 t: 01246 229 444

Venues by arrangement


f: 01246 270 465

Contact Nick Smith e : w: Nick Smith Associates Ltd


36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR MACLEAN ELECTRICAL LIGHTING DIVISION t: 01246 229 444 Business info: Specialist Stockist and Distributors of Road Lighting, Hazardous Area, Industrial/ Commercial/ Decorative f: 01246 270 465 custom-built distribution panels, lighting. We also provide interior and exterior lighting design using CAD. e : 7 Drum Mains Park, Orchardton, Cumbernauld, G68 9LD w: Tel: 01236 458000 Fax: 01236 860555


From one of our three regional offices offices in the Scotland, Manchester and Sussex Power 1 can provide a full turnkey service for: Large scale LED retrofit schemes Maintenance DNO/ICP connections Design verification surveys Asset record construction Fault finding Testing and inspection Smart City integration

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April 2017 Lighting Journal

Meadowfield, Ponteland, Northumberland, NE20 9SD, England Tel: +44 (0)1661 860001 Fax: +44 (0)1661 860002 Email:

European distributors of StormSpill®, only system specified by: • London 2012 Olympic Games • Glasgow 2014 Commonwealths

Manufacturers and Suppliers of Street lighting and Traffic Equipment • Fuse Units • Switch Fuse Units • Feeder Pillars and Distribution Panels • The Load Conditioner Unit (Patent Pending) • Accessories

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01525 601201

0208 343 2525 Wrest Park, Silsoe, Beds MK45 5HR

STREET LIGHTING COMPLIANCE AND QUALITY MANAGER Based in Wakefield and travelling Nationally The Street Lighting Compliance Quality Manager is responsible to ensure compliance with the requirements of Amey’s Street Lighting Centre of Excellence, the HEA, NICEIC, and other related street lighting bodies. You will • Oversee HEA, NICEIC and other street lighting related audits. • Oversee the NVQ qualification process for street lighting operatives. • Report as required the performance of street lighting operations nationally. You will have as a minimum • HNC in Electrical Engineering. • Substantial Street Lighting Operational background. • A1 NVQ assessor qualification. • Good IT skills (Word, Excel, Email). About Amey Working for Amey you will receive a competitive salary, and be able to join our contributory pension scheme. In addition you will be entitled to Company sponsored life assurance and a generous holiday entitlement. You will also be invited to join Amey Choices which offers a range of flexible benefit options. How to apply Email your CV and Covering Letter to: Amey is an equal opportunities employer.

This space available Please call Andy on 01536 527297 or email andy@ for more details


April 2017 Lighting Journal


THE DIARY 27 April

How to be brilliant at lighting for sculpture, with Peter Pritchard of Pritchard Themis Venue: Marshalls Design Space, Clerkenwell, London


Visual DJ Afishal has been named as the opening act of the Lighting Design Awards on 04 May. Coventry-based Maxilux LED Lighting has designed the LED display that will be integrated into Afishal’s bespoke drum kit so that it ‘explodes into colour’ with every contact made between drumstick and skin

Electric know-how for architectural lighting designers Venue: BDP, Clerkenwell, London

25 May

Lighting Design Awards Venue: London Hilton, Park Lane

How to be brilliant at exterior lighting, with Tony Rimmer of Studio 29 Venue: Marshalls Design Space, Clerkenwell, London

04 May

09-12 June

04 May


23 May

Lighting Design Awards Venue: London Hilton, Park Lane

10 May

Fundamental Lighting Course Venue: ILP, Regent House, Rugby

15 May

Exterior Lighting Diploma – Module Three (Spring 2017) Venue: The Draycote Hotel, Thurlaston, Warwickshire

Guangzhou International Lighting Exhibition Venue: China Import and Export Fair Complex, Guangzhou, China

14-15 June

Professional Lighting Summit Venue: Crowne Plaza, Glasgow

28 June

Technical meeting – Western Region Venue: Newport Parc Golf Club, Wales

For full details of all events, go to: www.

IN THE MAY ISSUE LIFESTYLE, BUT NOT AS WE KNOW IT? ‘Intelligent’ lamps, security and lighting control systems are making our lifestyles ever-more connected. What’s next?


Daylight is not held in the esteem it once was, or that it warrants. But good daylight design needs to be at the heart of good lighting design


Why Cloud-based technology is becoming an increasingly big deal for lighting designers

Good lighting increases security!

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