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ENGLISH AREA

FIGURE 1 Retrieved from English Basic Standards, page 7

Eleventh Grade

COMPILATION DONE BY: ENGLISH AREA

SALESIANO MALDONADO SCHOOL TUNJA 2010


CONTENTS

PRESENTATION………………………………………………………………………… 3 SYLLABUS ………………………………………………………………………….....… 4 EVALUATION CRITERIA …………………………………………………………….… 7 PROBLEMATIC SITUATION ………………………………………...………………… 9 Topics Development and Activities…………………………………………………… 10 EVALUATION OF PROCESS………………………………………………………….11 CATHOLIC PRAYS…………………………………………………………………….. 12

TOPICS Icfes training……………………………………………………………………………...14 Polite expressions………………………………………………………………………22 Reading Comprehension with Dr. Jakyll and Mr. Hyde…………………………...27 Review Time…………………………………………………………………………….. 38 Book Report Tips……………………………………………………………………….43 Non-fiction Books report……………………………………………………………….46 Icfes training test………………………………………………………………………...55 Project about foreign countries……………………………………….……………….60 Essay…………………………………………………………………………...…………61 Review Time………………………………………………………………………...……68 Connectives…………………………………………………………………………..…..78 Essay Kinds………………………………………………………………………………86 Icfes Training Test………………………………………………………………………88 Listening Activity………………………………………………………………….……..96 Evaluation, co-evaluation Instructional Matrix……………………………………. 101 English Commands……………………………………………………………….……102 References………………………………………………………………………………104

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PRESENTATION

You are welcome to this New Year, through this first module you can explore, learn and practice English all the time as possible. This module has been designed thinking in each one of you, in order to strength your individual skills. It tries to supply different topics which are necessary to improve the reading, writing, speaking and listening skills; which are essential in the foreign language learning process. I attempt to promote your reading comprehension skill facing some small books or stories, this activity can be a risky for some one but a rich activity for everyone, it depends on your own proposals and abilities to do the exercise. Moreover, you will support your reading experience practicing your oral production, expressing your thoughts and experiences about the selected book. Also, you will face real facts where you will have the chance to write critically expressing your own comments and feelings that hurt our life using some essays as a way to improve and promote your writing and critical thinking ability. You will find some Icfes training test through the module, it is in order that you practice and clarify doubts about English use. These tests will be developed in class with teacher help and guidance. It is important to bear in mind that we make part of the SALESIAN COMMUNITY, so, we must behave and live as Salesians. For this reason,

this

area has the responsibility to cooperate in the evangelization process though our classes, using different means as dialogue, readings, prays and life samples. Also, taking in mind the values that you as Salesian student have to put in practice and increase them, every single day, showing that responsibility, respect, honesty, and others make part of your growing process as an integral person.

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SYLLABUS ACADEMIC PROCESS

1. ORGANIZATIVE SKILL 1.1.Grammatical Structure: is the body of rules describing the properties of the English language. A language is such that its elements must be combined according to certain patterns and these patterns can be broken down into phrases and clauses. 1.2. Written skill 1.2.1 Redaction: editing, putting something into acceptable form. 1.2.2 Orthography: The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. 1.2.3 Punctuation: are symbols that indicate the structure and organization of written language, as well as intonation and pauses to be observed when reading aloud. 1.2.4. Calligraphy: it is the art to use of fine handwriting.

2. PRAGMATIC SKILL Coherence and cohesion: is the capacity to communicate in oral and written form showing coherence of gender, number and space-time location. Non-Verbal Communications: It involves a set of non-verbal activities that we employ while communicating and which mostly complements verbal communication. This communication forms the 95% of our communication and

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is typically covert. For example rolling eyes denotes sarcasm, frowning may communicate disappointment, smiles depict happiness. 2.1.Oral Communication: is to relay information by the usage of words which a collective set of inert symbols and syllables. Words that are spoken constitute the most prominent and visible form of oral communication. That's how we communicate our ideas, thoughts and abstracts. 2.1.2. Vocalization: to articulate clearly what is said when you are speaking about something. 2.1.3. Intonation: is the use of pitch or tone in a sentence to convey meaning or emotion. 2.1.4. Pronunciation: a way of speaking a word, especially a way that is accepted or generally understood.

2.2.SOCIAL-LINGUISTIC SKILL: It makes reference about the social and cultural conditions knowledge which are implicit in the English language use. 3. VALUES 3.1. Respect: denotes both a positive feeling of esteem for a person or other entity and also specific actions and conduct representative of that esteem. Respect can be a specific feeling of regard for the actual qualities of the one respected. It can also be conduct in accord with a specific ethic of respect. Rude conduct is usually considered to indicate a lack of respect, whereas actions that honor somebody or something indicate respect. 3.2. Responsibility: is to accomplish with all duties at academic and convivencial level, recognizing the personal failures and accepting the consequences.

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3.3. Honesty: is the quality or state of being honest; probity; fairness and straightforwardness of conduct, speech, etc.; integrity; sincerity; truthfulness; freedom from fraud or guile. 3.4. Solidarity:

is

the

union

or

fellowship

arising

from

common

responsibilities and interests, as between members of a group or between classes, peoples,

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EVALUATION CRITERIA ACADEMIC PROCESS

1. ORGANIZATIVE SKILL

1.1.

Grammatical Structure: to use the language rules in the written and oral descriptions combining all language elements in proper way

1.2.

Written skill

1.2.1 Redaction: to edit and put all the written versions into acceptable form. 1.2.2 Orthography: To write with orthography using all language parameter. 1.2.3 Punctuation: to write using the symbols that indicates the structure and organization of written language, as well as intonation and pauses to be observed when reading aloud. 1.2.4. Calligraphy: to use a fine handwriting.

2. PRAGMATIC SKILL 2.1.Coherence and cohesion: to express in oral and written form showing coherence of gender, number and space-time location. 2.2. Non-Verbal Communications: to use a set of non-verbal activities to complement the verbal communication as rolling eyes denotes sarcasm, frowning may communicate disappointment, smiles depict happiness.

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2.3.

Oral Communication: to relay information by the usage of words that are spoken and constitute the most prominent and visible form of oral communication.

2.3.1. Vocalization: to articulate clearly what is said when you are speaking about something.

2.3.2. Intonation:

to use pitch or tone in a sentence to convey meaning or

emotion. 2.3.3. Pronunciation: to use a proper pattern of speaking, especially a way that is accepted or generally understood. 3. SOCIAL-LINGUISTIC SKILL: to explore and describe some social and cultural factors which are implicit in the English language use.

3. VALUES 3.1. Respect: to behave in accord with the specific ethic of respect , denoting both a positive feeling of esteem for a person or other entity and also specific actions and conduct representative of that esteem. 3.2. Responsibility: to accomplish with all duties at academic and convivencial level, recognizing the personal failures and accepting the consequences. 3.3. Honesty: to act with honesty, sincerity, integrity and truthfulness. 3.4. Solidarity: to share responsibilities as member of a group and individually, cooperating with a proper class environment.

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PROBLEMATIC SITUATION

Have you ever thought why English is a worldwide language?. As you know, it is the language of business, technology, economy, health and education. But have you thought why is so relevant to use this language?. I invite you to be open mind and to be totally in contact with this language because it will open you many doors in the university life and professional life too.

Questions What do you do to improve your English level? What should be the best way to use English as most as possible? Why English is so relevant around the world? Are you inside or outside the English language communication? Which are the best tips to write a book report? How can you connect your ideas in a proper way?

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TOPICS DEVELOPMENT AND ACTIVITIES

1. Develop the skill to answer Icfes test by means of some exercises 2. Learn some polite expressions to use it in the classroom in order to practice English as most as possible. 3. Improve the reading and interpretation skill by mean of fiction books. 4. Look for the setting, characters and plot in each story explored and present oral and written reports about that. 5. Develop the time review in order to check grammar and remember that. 6. Write books reports following the tips explored before and present an oral report about it. 7. Read a non-fiction book and present a written report following the guidelines to do that. 8. Icfes Training test to improve this skill 9. Design a project about a cultural exploration 10. Practice and review tenses and grammar through proposed activities 11. Write essays following its guidelines and trying to apply the different essay kinds 12. Explore and use the connectives and intensive in the written and oral productions. 13. Develop the listening skill through listening activities 14. Learn and practice the different English commands in every single class. 15. Fill the blacks to improve the listening skill in English.

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PROCESS EVALUATION

There are three essential aspects that will be the evaluation base, which is focused in a continuous process that is focused on skills and values development and accomplishment.

1. Class- work a. Assistance b. Materials: notebooks, dictionary and module c. Oral and written reports about all suggested reading activities in the module. d. Active Participation e. Well presentation of notebooks and works f. Good calligraphy, orthography and redaction.

2. Extra- class works a. Homework, works and others presentation b. Oral and written report of homework, works and others d. Reinforce activities

3. Values and attitudes a. Respect to teacher and classmates b. Neatness c. well presentation of works, notebooks, homework and modules d. Personal Presentation e. Punctuality and responsibility

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Common Catholic Prayers

Our Father Our Father, Who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name; Thy kingdom come; Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.

Hail Mary Hail Mary, full of grace. The Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou amongst women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

Glory Be Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit, as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

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The Apostle's Creed I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of Heaven and earth; and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, Our Lord, Who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried. He descended into Hell. The third day He arose again from the dead; He ascended into Heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God, the Father Almighty; from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.

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FIRST ICFES TRAINING TEST

Basic English Qizz I.

SELECT THE PROPER ANSWER:

1. This is the ... book I have ever read! a. good b. best c. goodest

2. You are driving too ... a. fast b. fastly c. quick

3. He is ... photographer. a. An b. A 4. If you ..., you will succeed. a. will try b. tried c. try 5. He said that he ... the city. a. visit b. visited c. visits

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6. She ... help you. a. Had not been able to b. Had not able to c. Had not could 7. The house … in 1983 a. was build b. was built c. builds 8. I…anything like this before. a. had never ate b. had never eat c. had never eaten 9. We... in your office last year a. Have worked b. Worked c. work 10. My…car is red a. friend b. friends c. friend’s

11. We saw her…Christmas, 2006 a. in

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b. on c. at 12. I … my sister for two years a. have not seen b. see c. saw 13. He …this test in this moment. a. Do b. Does c. Is doing 14. You … to the music while I was taking a shower. a. Listen b. Were lisening c. listened 15. This is Tom’s bike. It belongs to … a. His b. Him c. He 16. He … me for dinner a. Did not invite b. Invited me not c. Did not invited

17. The girl… I will meet tonight is my best friend.

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a. Which b. What c. who 18. I have never seen these ‌ a. Woman b. Women c. womans

II.

Complete the following sentences with the proper option:

19. Can you hear what he is .......? (a) saying (b) speaking (c) telling (d) talking 20. She hasn't come home ........ (a) still (b) already (c) yet (d) till 21. I ....... TV yesterday evening. (a) saw (b) looked (c) viewed (d) watched 22. We live ....... the city centre. (a) near (b) next (c) by (d) nearby 23. She looks ....... a famous film star. (a) as (b) like (c) similar (d) same 24. This television gives you the ....... news. (a) last (b) latest (c) least (d) later 25. I only ....... one mistake in last night's test.

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(a) made (b) done (c) did (d) make 26. I want you to tell me the ....... truth. (a) all (b) exact (c) real (d) whole 27. He is looking ....... a present to buy his girlfriend. (a) for (b) at (c) in (d) on 28. That's what I would like ....... Christmas. (a) for (b) at (c) in (d) on 29 .Don't talk to him about politics because it's like a ....... rag to a bull. (a) blue (b) white (c) red (d) black 30. He takes the optimistic view and talks about a ....... skies scenario. (a) red (b) blue (c) white (d) yellow.

III.

Read this text and answer these questions:

“Traveling has been one of my one of favorite hobbies. I have visited many places and I have learned cultural things from each country. Now, I understand that people are different, and we have to respect their customs and traditions”. 31. It can be inferred that… a. Traveling makes you more tolerant. b. The narrator has never traveled abroad. c. The narrator does not accept other people’s customs. d. The narrator is a disrespectful person.

32. The narrator’s favorite leisure time activity is…

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a. eating b. traveling c. reading d. jogging

33. In the sentence “we have to respect their customs…” the word “we” refers to… a. people in general b. the narrator c. foreign people d. children

III. Fill in the blank with the appropriate article, a, an, or the, or leave the space blank if no article is needed. 34 . I want ____ apple from that basket. 35. ____ church on the corner is progressive. 36. Miss Lin speaks ____ Chinese. 37. I borrowed ____ pencil from your pile of pencils and pens. 38.. One of the students said, "____ professor is late today." 39. Eli likes to play ____ volleyball. 40. I bought ____ umbrella to go out in the rain. 41. My daughter is learning to play ____ violin at her school. 42. Please give me ____ cake that is on the counter. 43. I lived on ____ Main Street when I first came to town.

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44. Albany is the capital of ____ New York State. 45. My husband's family speaks ____ Polish. 46. ____ apple a day keeps the doctor away. 47. ____ ink in my pen is red. 48. Our neighbors have ____ cat and ____ dog.

IV.

Read the following information and answer the questions about it:

Meteorologists are scientist who study the weather and make weather predictions. In order to make a successful reading, meteorologist must take a lot of things into consideration. In fact, the data required are collected several times a day from different sources all over the world. To gather this information, special types of instruments are used. These data are of course valuable to everybody since the reports and warnings that meteorologist are usually reliable. Failing to take their advice could, in some cases, be a matter of life or death. 49. The underlined word valuable can be replaced with: a. Expensive b. Useless c. Necessary d. Useful 50. The underlined expression usually reliable supports one of the following ideas: a. Weather information is generally accurate. b. Meteorologist read very successfully. c. Meteorologist work really hard.

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d. Weather information is rarely precise.1 51. The underlined sentence, failing to take their advice could, in some cases, be a matter of life or death. Communicate the idea that: a. Meteorologists’ observations are sometimes right. b. It is necessary to ignore scientists’ recommendations. c. It is prudent to pay attention to meteorologists’ suggestions. d. Scientists’ directions are usually inefficient.

52. Mathew had a meeting at his office with his boss and some clients at 9:30. At 9:30, his boss

asked his secretary to call him to find out why he was late.

After talking to Mathew, the secretary said: a. He say that there is a problem with his car. b. He say that a problem with his car there was. c. He said that there was a problem with his car. d. He said that a problem with his car there is.

1

Bonner, Margaret et al.2000. focus on Grammar

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Polite Expression In order to be polite when you are speaking English, you need to use these phrases correctly. 2

Excuse Me‌. You say Excuse me when you want to go past somebody. You also say excuse me to somebody you do not know when you want to attract their attention. e.g. Excuse me, could you tell me the way to the station? Excuse me, is anyone sitting here?

Sorry‌ You say sorry when you need to apologize for something small:

e.g. Sorry I'm late.

I beg your pardon it is a formal expression I beg your pardon! I must have picked up the wrong bag by mistake. Sorry or I'm sorry is used frequently in Britain English:

I'm sorry, but do you think you could move your car? (I apologize in advance for any inconvenience.)

2

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary 1977

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In American English Pardon me and Excuse me are used for apologies: Excuse me/ pardon me, I didn't see you there. In British English you say Pardon? Or Sorry? And in American English Pardon me? Or Excuse me? When you did not hear or understand what somebody said and want them to repeat it: Pardon, could you say that again? It is not polite to say What? If you have not heard or understood something.

I'm afraid… You use the phrase I'm afraid… when you want to apologize because you have to tell somebody something that they may not like:

I'm afraid there's been an accident. Nina's not here at the moment, I'm afraid. Can I take a message? 'Do you have any decaffeinated coffee?' 'I'm afraid not.' 'Has the last bus gone?' 'I'm afraid so.'

I wonder if… You use expressions which show hesitancy when you are asking somebody to do something or asking for a favor:

Could you just help me move this box, please? I wonder if I could have a copy of that letter. Would you mind if I felt a few minutes early today? Do you think I could borrow your car this evening?

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Please… You say Please when you ask for something. In British English it introduces or ends a request:

Please could I have the menu? Could I have the menu, please? You also use please when you ask somebody to do something: Could you post this letter for me, please? Please could you post this letter for me?

Thank You … When somebody gives you something, or when you buy something or receive information. You are expected to say Thank you or Thanks. Some people may be offended if you say nothing. It is not usual to say anything in response to Thank you in British English, Although some people may say That's all right, That's okay or Don't mention it. In American English you're welcome is common.

You say Thank you or Yes. Please when you want to accept something: 'How about another cup of coffee?' 'Thank you.' / 'Thanks.' / 'yes, please.' You say No, thank you or no, thanks when you want you want to refuse something: ' Would you like some more cake?' 'No, thank you.' / 'No, thanks,'

Cheers…

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Cheers is often used in informal British English to mean Thank you:

'Here's that $5 I owe you.' 'Oh, cheers.' You also say Cheers before you have a drink when you are with other people.

Titles There are different titles that you use to address different people, depending on their gender (male or female), age, and whether you know their names. When talking to a man, you will either use sir (if you don't know his name) or Mister plus his last name. When talking to a woman who is married or over 30 years old, use ma'am (if you don't know her name) or Mrs. plus her last name. When talking to a woman who is unmarried or under 30, use miss (if you don't know her name) or Miss plus her last name. In the United States, there is another title which is used by women who feel that their age and marital status does not need to be part of their title: Ms.

There are three different expressions that you can use to respond to thank you: you're welcome - basic my pleasure - expresses the idea that you were happy to do it don't mention it - informal

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Degrees of Politeness (from least polite to most polite) Answer the phone. Answer the phone, please. Please answer the phone. I want you to answer the phone. I want you to answer the phone, please. Will you answer the phone? Will you answer the phone, please? Can you answer the phone? Can you answer the phone, please? Would you answer the phone? Would you answer the phone, please? Could you answer the phone? Could you answer the phone, please?

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THE STRANGE CASE OF DR. JEKYLL AND MR. HYDE Written by: Robert Louis Stevenson high pressure of spirits involved in

Chapter 1

their misdeeds; and in any extremity Story of the Door

inclined to help rather than to reprove. "I incline to Cain's heresy," he used to

Mr. Utterson the lawyer was a man

say quaintly: "I let my brother go to

of a rugged countenance that was

the devil in his own way." In this

never lighted by a smile; cold, scanty and

embarrassed

in

character, it was frequently his fortune

discourse;

to be the last reputable acquaintance

backward in sentiment; lean, long, dusty,

dreary

and

yet

and the last good influence in the

somehow

lives of downgoing men. And to such

lovable. At friendly meetings, and

as these, so long as they came about

when the wine was to his taste, something

eminently

his chambers, he never marked a

human

shade of change in his demeanour.

beaconed from his eye; something indeed which never found its way into

No doubt the feat was easy to Mr.

his talk, but which spoke not only in

Utterson; for he was undemonstrative

these silent symbols of the after-

at the best, and even his friendship

dinner face, but more often and loudly

seemed to be founded in a similar

in the acts of his life. He was austere

catholicity of good-nature. It is the

with himself; drank gin when he was

mark of a modest man to accept his

alone, to mortify a taste for vintages;

friendly circle ready-made from the

and though he enjoyed the theater,

hands of opportunity; and that was

had not crossed the doors of one for

the lawyer's way. His friends were

twenty years. But he had an approved tolerance

for

others;

those of his own blood or those whom

sometimes

he

wondering, almost with envy, at the

had

known

the

longest;

his

affections, like ivy, were the growth of 27


time, they implied no aptness in the

like rows of smiling saleswomen.

object. Hence, no doubt the bond that

Even on Sunday, when it veiled its

united him to Mr. Richard Enfield, his

more

distant kinsman, the well-known man

comparatively empty of passage, the

about town. It was a nut to crack for

street shone out in contrast to its

many, what these two could see in

dingy neighbourhood, like a fire in a

each other, or what subject they could

forest; and with its freshly painted

find in common. It was reported by

shutters, well-polished brasses, and

those who encountered them in their

general cleanliness and gaiety of

Sunday walks, that they said nothing,

note, instantly caught and pleased the

looked singularly dull and would hail

eye of the passenger.

florid

charms

and

lay

with obvious relief the appearance of Two doors from one corner, on the

a friend. For all that, the two men put the

greatest

store

by

left hand going east the line was

these

broken by the entry of a court; and

excursions, counted them the chief

just at that point a certain sinister

jewel of each week, and not only set

block of building thrust forward its

aside occasions of pleasure, but even

gable on the street. It was two storeys

resisted the calls of business, that

high; showed no window, nothing but

they might enjoy them uninterrupted.

a door on the lower storey and a blind It chanced on one of these rambles

forehead of discoloured wall on the

that their way led them down a by-

upper; and bore in every feature, the

street in a busy quarter of London.

marks

The street was small and what is

negligence. The door, which was

called quiet, but it drove a thriving

equipped

trade

The

knocker, was blistered and distained.

inhabitants were all doing well, it

Tramps slouched into the recess and

seemed and all emulously hoping to

struck

do better still, and laying out the

children kept shop upon the steps; the

surplus of their grains in coquetry; so

schoolboy had tried his knife on the

that the shop fronts stood along that

mouldings;

thoroughfare with an air of invitation,

generation, no one had appeared to

on

the

weekdays.

28

of

prolonged with

matches

and

and

neither

on

for

sordid

bell

the

close

nor

panels;

on

a


drive away these random visitors or to

figures: one a little man who was

repair their ravages.

stumping along eastward at a good walk, and the other a girl of maybe

Mr. Enfield and the lawyer were on

eight or ten who was running as hard

the other side of the by-street; but

as she was able down a cross street.

when they came abreast of the entry,

Well, sir, the two ran into one another

the former lifted up his cane and

naturally enough at the corner; and

pointed.

then came the horrible part of the thing; for the man trampled calmly

"Did you ever remark that door?" he

over the child's body and left her

asked; and when his companion had replied

in

the

affirmative.

"It

screaming on the ground. It sounds

is

nothing to hear, but it was hellish to

connected in my mind," added he,

see. It wasn't like a man; it was like

"with a very odd story."

some damned Juggernaut. I gave a

"Indeed?" said Mr. Utterson, with a

few halloa, took to my heels, collared

slight change of voice, "and what was

my gentleman, and brought him back

that?"

to where there was already quite a group about the screaming child. He

"Well, it was this way," returned Mr.

was perfectly cool and made no

Enfield: "I was coming home from

resistance, but gave me one look, so

some place at the end of the world,

ugly that it brought out the sweat on

about three o'clock of a black winter

me like running. The people who had

morning, and my way lay through a

turned out were the girl's own family;

part of town where there was literally

and pretty soon, the doctor, for whom

nothing to be seen but lamps. Street

she

after street and all the folks asleep --

had

been

sent

put

in

his

appearance. Well, the child was not

street after street, all lighted up as if

much the worse, more frightened,

for a procession and all as empty as a

according to the Sawbones; and there

church -- till at last I got into that state

you might have supposed would be

of mind when a man listens and

an end to it. But there was one

listens and begins to long for the sight

curious circumstance. I had taken a

of a policeman. All at once, I saw two 29


loathing to my gentleman at first sight.

accident,' said he, `I am naturally

So had the child's family, which was

helpless. No gentleman but wishes to

only natural. But the doctor's case

avoid a scene,' says he. `Name your

was what struck me. He was the

figure.' Well, we screwed him up to a

usual cut and dry apothecary, of no

hundred pounds for the child's family;

particular age and colour, with a

he would have clearly liked to stick

strong Edinburgh accent and about as

out; but there was something about

emotional as a bagpipe. Well, sir, he

the lot of us that meant mischief, and

was like the rest of us; every time he

at last he struck. The next thing was

looked at my prisoner, I saw that

to get the money; and where do you

Sawbones turn sick and white with

think he carried us but to that place

desire to kill him. I knew what was in

with the door? -- whipped out a key,

his mind, just as he knew what was in

went in, and presently came back with

mine; and killing being out of the

the matter of ten pounds in gold and a

question, we did the next best. We

cheque for the balance on Coutts's,

told the man we could and would

drawn payable to bearer and signed

make such a scandal out of this as

with a name that I can't mention,

should make his name stink from one

though it's one of the points of my

end of London to the other. If he had

story, but it was a name at least very

any

we

well known and often printed. The

undertook that he should lose them.

figure was stiff; but the signature was

And all the time, as we were pitching

good for more than that if it was only

it in red hot, we were keeping the

genuine. I took the liberty of pointing

women off him as best we could for

out to my gentleman that the whole

they were as wild as harpies. I never

business looked apocryphal, and that

saw a circle of such hateful faces; and

a man does not, in real life, walk into

there was the man in the middle, with

a cellar door at four in the morning

a kind of black sneering coolness --

and come out with another man's

frightened to, I could see that -- but

cheque for close upon a hundred

carrying it off, sir, really like Satan. `If

pounds. But he was quite easy and

you choose to make capital out of this

sneering. `Set your mind at rest,' says

friends

or

any

credit,

30


he, `I will stay with you till the banks

From this he was recalled by Mr.

open and cash the cheque myself.' So

Utterson asking rather suddenly: "And

we all set of, the doctor, and the

you don't know if the drawer of the

child's father, and our friend and

cheque lives there?"

myself, and passed the rest of the "A likely place, isn't it?" returned Mr.

night in my chambers; and next day,

Enfield. "But I happen to have noticed

when we had breakfasted, went in a

his address; he lives in some square

body to the bank. I gave in the

or other."

cheque myself, and said I had every reason to believe it was a forgery. Not

"And you never asked about the --

a bit of it. The cheque was genuine."

place

you feel as I do," said Mr. Enfield. it's

a

bad

the

door?"

said

Mr.

Utterson.

"Tut-tut," said Mr. Utterson. "I see "Yes,

with

"No, sir: I had a delicacy," was the

story.

reply. "I feel very strongly about putting questions; it partakes too

For my man was a fellow that nobody

much of the style of the day of

could have to do with, a really

judgment. You start a question, and

damnable man; and the person that

it's like starting a stone. You sit quietly

drew the cheque is the very pink of

on the top of a hill; and away the

the proprieties, celebrated too, and

stone

(what makes it worse) one of your

goes,

starting

others;

and

presently some bland old bird (the last

fellows who do what they call good.

you

Black mail I suppose; an honest man

would

have

thought

of)

is

knocked on the head in his own back

paying through the nose for some of

garden and the family have to change

the capers of his youth. Black Mail

their name. No sir, I make it a rule of

House is what I call the place with the

mine: the more it looks like Queer

door, in consequence. Though even

Street, the less I ask."

that, you know, is far from explaining all," he added, and with the words fell

"A very good rule, too," said the

into a vein of musing.

lawyer.

31


"But I have studied the place for

"Hm," said Mr. Utterson. "What sort of

myself," continued Mr. Enfield. "It

a man is he to see?"

seems scarcely a house. There is no "He is not easy to describe. There is

other door, and nobody goes in or out

something

of that one but, once in a great while, the

wrong

with

his

appearance; something displeasing,

gentleman of my adventure.

something down-right detestable. I

There are three windows looking on

never saw a man I so disliked, and

the court on the first floor; none

yet I scarce know why. He must be

below; the windows are always shut

deformed somewhere; he gives a

but they're clean. And then there is a

strong feeling of deformity, although I

chimney which is generally smoking;

couldn't specify the point. He's an

so somebody must live there. And yet

extraordinary looking man, and yet I

it's not so sure; for the buildings are

really can name nothing out of the

so packed together about the court,

way. No, sir; I can make no hand of it;

that it's hard to say where one ends

I can't describe him. And it's not want

and another begins."

of memory; for I declare I can see him this moment."

The pair walked on again for a while in silence; and then "Enfield," said Mr.

Mr. Utterson again walked some way

Utterson, "that's a good rule of yours."

in silence and obviously under a weight of consideration. "You are sure

"Yes, I think it is," returned Enfield.

he used a key?" he inquired at last. "But for all that," continued the lawyer, "there's one point I want to ask: I want

"My dear sir ..." began Enfield,

to ask the name of that man who

surprised out of himself.

walked over the child." "Yes, I know," said Utterson; "I know "Well," said Mr. Enfield, "I can't see

it must seem strange. The fact is, if I

what harm it would do. It was a man

do not ask you the name of the other

of the name of Hyde."

party, it is because I know it already. You see, Richard, your tale has gone

32


home. If you have been inexact in any point you had better correct it." "I think you might have warned me," returned the other with a touch of sullenness.

"But

I

have

been

pedantically exact, as you call it. The fellow had a key; and what's more, he has it still. I saw him use it not a week ago." Mr. Utterson sighed deeply but said never a word; and the young man presently resumed. "Here is another lesson to say nothing," said he. "I am ashamed of my long tongue. Let us make a bargain never to refer to this again." "With all my heart," said the lawyer. I shake hands on that, Richard."3 Activity:

you have to download

from chapter two until page four. Look the suggested bibliography:

www.learnlibrary.com/jekyllhyde/

3

Stevenson, Robert Louis.1886

33


ACTIVITY: Answer the following questions in order to clarify your ideas about the reading? Setting: 

Where does the story take place?

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 

Is it a real place or an imaginary one?

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________ 

If the author does not tell you exactly where the story is set, what can you tell about it from the way it is described?

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________


__________________________________________________________________ _____________________ Time period 

Is the story set in the present day or in an earlier time period? Explain your answer

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Characters: 

Who is the story mostly about? Give a brief description.

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________ 

How many characters are there in the story? Describe them.

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

35


__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Plot: ďƒ˜

What happens to the main character in the first chapter?

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________

ďƒ˜

Write a brief description about each chapter:

Chapter 1_________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

Chapter 2_________________________________________________________________ 36


__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 

Explain how is the problem solved:

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________ 

Make a description of Mr. Utterson, Mr. Hyde and Dr. Jekyll.

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 

Write the book report taking into account the book report tips and submit it in print way:

37


Review time From: Click on 2006 1.Underline the correct tense. 1.He works/has been working really hard this week. 2.Murphy gets/ the ball and passes/ is passing it to Gerrard 3.She has Known/is knowing Steve for years. 4. I´m afraid I can´t come to the party because I go/ am going to a concert on Friday night. 5.Vicky has lived/is living in Bradford for the last two years. 6.james thinks/is thinking about redecorating his flat. 7. the meeting starts7has started at 9:30 8.He has been working/ works at the bakery for more than fifteen years. 9.I need /am needing to talk to Kelly. 10.The Clarkes have bought/ have been buying a new house in the country.

2.Cross out the incorrect word in each sentences. 1. The earth is orbits the sun. 2.hazel she is coming to stay with us next weekend. 3.How much does it be cost? 4.He is always being late. It´s very annoying. 5.We have been redecorating the kitchen for all morning. 6.Mr ferry has been to working in this bank for more than twenty year. 7.It´s OK. I am know where we have to go. 8.I have been written a letter to Dave giving him our new address. 9.harry is sitting in front of Ben, behind from Steve and next to Jerry. 10.The school is near to the library. 11.he is only now tried scuba diving once before. 12. I have been waiting since all week for you to call me.

38


13. Noise pollution is today getting worse and worse. 14.she goes swimming in every day.

3. Fill in the correct past tense of the verb in brackets. 1.A: Did you get the parcel? B: Yes, the postman __________(deliver) it about an hour ago. 2.A: the phone was engaged earlier. Were you on the internet? B:No, I ______________(speak) to Joe. 3.A: where did you go on holiday last summer? B: We ______(go) to Alaska 4.A: Were you still at the restaurant at ten o´clock? B:no, we _________________(already/leave) by then. 5.A: You look tired. B: Yes, I __________________(not sleep) very well last night. 6.A: Did you apply to that job in Nottingham? B: Yes, I______________(send off) the form yesterday. 7.A:What´s Tony up to these days? B: I don´t know. I last______(see) him two months ago. 8. A: Did you believe what she said? B: No, I´m sure she________________(lie)

4. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct future tense. 1.Look out! You are _____________________________(run over) that dog. 2.We ________________________(go) for a coffee after work.Would you like to join us? 3. When I get my Christmas bonus, I _________(buy) a car. 4. we can´t go out this Saturday night because my parents _______________(come) to stay for the weekend. 5. I am really nervous because my job interview ________(be) at 9:30 tomorrow morning.

39


6. They _________________________________(deliver) my new furniture tomorrow morning. 7. As soon as they install my satellite dish, i ______________________(be able) to get over 150 T.V channels. 8.It´s already 10:30. I don´t think he ____________________________(make) it for the appointment.

5. Underline the correct tense. 1.The plumber said he will come as soon as he has finished/ will finished the job he is working on at the moment. 2.Do you know if Carla is being/will be at the party tomorrow? 3.

I won´t be able to give you the deposit until I am paid/will be paid.

4. Once we arrive/will arrive in Paris, we will need to find somewhere to stay.

6.Match the items from the two columns, as in the example. Then say which type of conditional is used in each sentences. A

B

1.If it is sunny tomorrow

a.The motor starts

2.If you spend more money than you

b.you´ll get ftler.

earn,

c.you get into debt

3.If you press that switch,

d.unless you get an extra fifty points.

4.You will be cold later.

e.it turns into ice.

5.when you freeze water.

f.if you don´t take a coat.

6.You won´t win the competition

g.we´ll have a barbecue.

7.If you exercise regularly,

h.you will be really tired tomorrow.

8.If you don´t go to bed now,

7.Fill in the missing word. 1. Dave _______ been working really hard recently.

40


2. she always finds it difficult to get up ___the morning. 3.Fiona ___working in a café at the moment. 4.I can´t come with you on Sunday afternoon because I_____ be babysitting for my friend. 5. I can´t go out ____I finish writing this letter. 6.Will you _____seeing Ann Later? 7.I have ___ waiting for Helen __ages. 8.How ____is it since we decorated the flat? 9.____the time I get there, it will be too late. 10. she ___ been watering the garden and the grass is damp11. I see ___you mean, but I don´t agree with you. 12. How ___ does this bike cost? 13. _____first the price seemed reasonable. 14.It was the first _____that we had been to that restaurant. 15.We can´t go skiing _____it snows some more. 16. You should wait for hour _____you eat before you go swimming.

8. Underline the correct item. 1.The program that was on T.V before/earlier this one was very interesting. 2.My previous/before job was with a firm of accountants 3.I had never been to Paris until/yet last summer. 4. Zoe moved into a new flat recently/lately 5. It ´s hard to believe that this time last year we were still/always at the university. 6. By the time she arrived, the film had already/since started. 7. Tom ran into his cousin while/just he was walking to work. 9.Join the two parts of the sentences below using when, while, for, since, because/as, just, so or already as in the example.

41


1.I got to bus stop

a. beeb taken to hospital

2.mary was cooking dinner

b.they went straight to bed

3.We were driving home

c.the car broke down

4.they got home late

d.1992

5.I had been living in my flat

e.I had not get up early the next

6.By the time we heard about the

morning.

accident, he had…

f.Jim was helping the kids with their

7.we hadn´t seen each other

homeworks.

8. I did not go to the party

g.three months when I met my nextdoor neighbor. h.as the bus was leaving.

Example: I got to the bus stop just as the bus was leaving.

10.Complete the dialogues. 1.A: _____________________________________________like? B:she´s got long blonde hair and blue eyes. 2. A:_________________________work by car this morning? B:No, I didn´t. I caught the bus. 3.A:_________________________get married? B: in 1957 4.A: I´ve got _______bad_____, I am afraid. B: Oh dear! What happened? 4

4

Click on, 2006

42


Book Report Tips

The Standard Format for a Written Book Report: Fleming, G. claims that there are some essential components to write a good book report and these are:5 

Introductory Paragraph: this paragraph should include the title of the book and name of the author. It will also describe the setting and quickly summarize what the book is about. Don't get too detailed here. It's just the introduction.

Body Paragraphs: this is where the real content enters the picture. By reading this part of your book report (three to four paragraphs), your teacher will be able to determine whether you read the book and understood the story.

The Outline of Your Report: you have read your book. Your next step will be to organize what you are going to say about it in your report. Writing the basic elements down in an outline format will help you to organize your thoughts. What will you include in the outline? Follow whatever instructions your teacher has given you. If you are on your own, however, the following guidelines should help.

Let's assume for the moment that you've chosen a work of fiction. We'll start with a description of the book. The description should include such elements as: The setting—the purpose of setting is to set realism for the story. It can reveal character, organize the story, and set the atmosphere. Setting includes any number of the following environments:

5

Fleming, G. 1992.

43


Natural - includes the outdoors, geography, seasons, creature, time, and conditions Manufactured

-

includes

buildings,

possessions,

objects,

and

other

concrete man-made things. Political

-

includes

historical

and

political

beliefs

held

by

an

individual or group of individuals in a given place in time. Cultural/temporal - includes historical and cultural assumptions. In the setting description you must answer the following questions: where does the story take place? What kind of setting is this? Or how many kinds of settings do you find? Is it a real place or an imaginary one? If the author does not tell you exactly where the story is set, what can you tell about it from the way it is described? The time period—is the story set in the present day or in an earlier time period? Perhaps it is even set in the future! Let your reader know. The main character(s)— The types of characters included in a text might include some of the following: type - damsel in distress, lonely cowboy, action hero, etc.; foil - one- dimensional, used for highlighting primary characters; protagonist - main character; antagonist - opponent(s) of main character.

In order to find all about

the characters you must look for some special aspects like these described in the below chart: Favorite color

Religion

Something hated?

Name

Friends

Hobbies

Secrets?

Age

Favorite foods

Single

or Strong memories?

married? Job

Drinking patterns

Any illnesses? Children?

Ethnicity

Nervous gestures?

44


Appearance

Phobias

Temperament

Sleep patterns

For example, It is full description taking into account some aspects of the chart: Her name is Jen, short for Jennifer Mary Johnson. She is 21 years old. She is a fair-skinned Norwegian with blue eyes, long, curly red hair, and is 5 feet 6 inches tall. Contrary to typical redheads, she is actually easygoing and rather shy. She loves cats and has two of them named Bailey and Allie. She is a technical writing major with a minor in biology. Jen plays the piano and is an amateur photographer. She lives in the dorms at the University of WisconsinEau Claire. She eats pizza every day for lunch and loves Red Rose tea. She cracks her knuckles when she is nervous. Her mother just committed suicide. But also, you have to look for who is the story mostly about? Give a brief description. Often, one character can be singled out as the main character, but some books will have more than one, so you need to read it carefully. The plot— A plot is a series of events deliberately arranged so as to reveal their dramatic, thematic, and emotional significance. It is what happens to the main character? WARNING! Be careful here. Do not fall into the boring trap of reporting every single thing that happens in the story. Pick only the most important events. Here are some hints on how to do that. First, explain the situation of the main character as the story opens. Next, identify the basic plot element of the story--is the main character trying to achieve something or overcome a particular problem? Thirdly, describe a few of the more important things that happen to the main character as he/she works toward that goal or solution. Finally, you might hint at the story's conclusion without completely giving away the ending. The four points above deal with the report aspect of your work. For the final section of your outline, give your reader a sense of the impression the book made upon

45


you. Ask yourself what the author was trying to achieve and whether or not he achieved it with you. You must include these tips in order to complement your reading: What larger idea does the story illustrate? How does it do that? How did you feel about the author's style of writing, the setting, or the mood of the novel? Pick something which caught your attention, and let your reader know your personal response to whatever it was.

It is your turn, you are going to read a brief story about …… you will follow the steps to comprehend the story and submit your second book report. Good Luck!

NON-FICTION BOOKS 

What about non-fiction?

If given the option, you might have chosen a non-fiction biography, history, or a factual text on another subject of interest to you. In that case, the descriptive section of your report should include: 1. Subject—an initial statement on the general subject of the book. 2. Summary—your summary of what the author had to say about the subject. Again, pick only the most important points to discuss. For a biography, describe some of the key events in the person's life. For a history or other subject,

46


describe some of the main points made about the subject. If the book is divided into different chapters, you can often use those divisions as a guide to what the main points are. After you've described your book, express some of your thoughts about what you've read. What seemed to be the author's main reason for writing the book? What was the most interesting thing you learned about the book's subject? Why did you find it interesting? You might also give your opinion on how the subject was presented. Did the author hold your interest? Note: Remember! Whether you are writing about fiction or non-fiction you must be sure to recognize the main idea or ideas in the book. So be sure that you have a good understanding of it before you begin writing. Keep the book beside you while you are writing your report so that you can refer to it when necessary. The Draft and the Final Report 

The Draft The draft will be a fleshing out of the ideas from your outline. Don't worry

about being too neat as noone else will be reading this part of your work. You can write additional notes in the margins but try to make sure that, when you come back to write your final report, you can understand the exact order of your material.



The Final Report

If you have followed the advice on these pages you should be ready to write your final report. Thoroughly familiarize yourself with your draft before you put pen to paper or fingers to keyboard. All of your revisions should have been made on your draft so your job now is to make sure that your presentation is correct. Check your grammar and your spelling. Try to use a word processor if possible. Typed reports

47


look better than handwritten ones. They are easier for your teacher to read and they are easier for you to correct. ACTIVITY: read the whole book about Saint Dominic Savio and present your written and oral report about it.

This is a sample of a book report; read it carefully and check if it has the before components.

UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA Y TECNOLÓGICA DE COLOMBIA SCHOOL OF EDUCATION MASTER IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING M.A Liceth Malaver GENERAL COMMENTS ABOUT: THE FAITHS OF THE FOUNDING FATHERS

I select a book named “The faiths of the Founding Fathers”, which was written by David L Holmes. His real name is Walter G. Mason. He is a Professor of Religious Studies at the College of William and Mary, which was also the college attended by many of the founding fathers. Holmes knows well the history of his college, including its reputation for being a center of Deism at the formative period in the 18th century when the Revolution was brewing. This book was published by OXFORD University Press on 2006. Holmes approaches the topic of the religion of the founders by analyzing their public statements and correspondence, the comments left by their contemporaries, and the views, where available, of clergy who knew them. Through the reading of this book, the author narrates how a diversity of Religions comes from different places during the Colonial Period in United States.

48


In that time (1770) the Americans were Protestants or Unchurched. Following the revolution and the subsequent separation of the church and the state, the United States became a fermenting vat of many Christian sects, such as: the Sandemias: they were opposed to the accumulation of wealth. The Shakers: they were located in New York, the Universalist Church: they belief in the Universal salvation. The Quakers: they belief in the presence of Christ with each person asserting the equality of all women and men and others which generate a big influence in the founding generations and many other religions. Also, through the book I realize that there was a diversity of beliefs of the founding fathers of U.S although most of them were members of Christian Churches. Their religious beliefs were categorized in three groups: Non-ChristianDeism, who rejected all sacraments and rarely attended church. Also, they made reference to God with such terms as: “providence” “the creator” and “the nature of God” and they refused to use specific Christian terminology.

Deistic Christian

attended church or regularly but seldom participated in the Lord’s Supper and confirmation. They often used Deistic terms for God such as: “merciful Providence” or “Divine Goodness” and they employed terms such as: “the Supreme Ruler of the World or Supreme Being” to refer the name of Jesus. In this group are classified some founding fathers such as: George Washington, Abigail Smith Adams, John Adams, Dolley Madison, James Monroe, James Madison and others. And Orthodox Christianity attended church regularly and participated in the Lord’s Supper and the confirmation. They affirmed the Trinity and used terms for God such as: “Savior, Redeemer, or Resurrected Christ” In this category are classified: Samuel Adams, John Jay, Martha Wayles Jefferson, Eleanor Parke Cutis, Martha Cutis Washington and others. But despite this diversity, they share some common convictions because they believed in a governing and overriding providence that guided the affairs of a country and its inhabitants and the society. Also, most of them valued the spiritual freedom and they respected the ethical teaching of Jesus and the role of religion in

49


the society. Moreover, the most common though was that they valued freedom of conscience. The founding fathers of the United States had remarkable studies of the Bible and they appeared less devout that they were. They were sincere believers. All the first five presidents of United States were influenced to a great extent by Deism. It was spread in colonial American with Freemasonry in Philadelphia in 1731. By the times of revolution there were a network of churches where was taught a natural religion where the Grand Architect or the Architect of the Universe was a God identified with natural laws. They prohibited women from membership. For this reason, it was spread largely among men because women lacked the constant reinforcement of Deistic ideas. Also, women were barred from any institution or Collegue that propagated Deism. But some women received good private education and they often read widely. In relation with religion women had the responsibility of overseeing the secular and religious education of children. They taught manners, behaviors, morals and religion and they educated the children using the Bible. Church was a place where women could socialize with each other and with the larger world. Also, to appear in church had to do with social status and they used it because they wanted that their daughters and sons were socially accepted. For this reason, women had more orthodox tendencies because their lack of exposure to critical Deism in college and their exclusion from monastic groups where Deism had a strong role. I enjoy this reading because I learnt new and unknown things for me about a foreign culture, and about the main characters of the story on United States in the eighteen and nineteen century. Also, I learnt many things about religion. For example about Deism: is a religious philosophy and movement that became prominent in England, France, and the United States in the 17th and 18th centuries. Deists typically reject supernatural events (prophecy, miracles) and divine revelation prominent in organized religion, along with holy books and revealed religions that assert the existence of such things. Instead, deists hold that

50


correct religious beliefs must be founded on human reason and observed features of the natural world, and that these sources reveal the existence of one God or Supreme Being. Another interesting aspect that calls my attention was the female role in that century because they were excluded of some specific things which were considered only activities for male. But although this prohibition some women were able to study and to impose their ideas and though about religion, also to promote the woman rights. I like it because, this author shows a different perspective that we have heard about U.S presidents, practically it is an unknown face, which had have a big influence in the American Culture because since my point of view religion execute a big political and economical influence in any culture. I recommend this book for every body, especially for us as teachers because it helps us to construct a different idea about a Foreign Culture and its inhabitants. Moreover, this book is good to explore how different beliefs arrived to United Sates and how all of these had contributed to form this religious diversity which because there is a law which guarantees that no religion will have governmental endorsement and that all Americans are free to practice the religions of their choice.

In general it is a good book because it shows how different religious

organizations execute a big power over this country and its society. Also, it is good to reflect about the role of any religion and the power that it executes in politic aspects in any society. Writing Research or an Observation Papers Step-by-Step Procedure

ď ś The Preliminaries: when you begin any information gathering process, you usually have a general idea of the topic you want to research. For instance, obtaining background information on your subject can provide you with a

51


context for your research and help you narrow your focus. Books can provide you with background information on a topic in a better way than journal articles. A book that is current can also serve as a source for additional references. Then, you must follow with these steps: 1. Choose a topic 2. Begin preliminary reading 3. Restrict the subject or topic 4. Develop a preliminary thesis statement

 Gathering Data: Once you have collected information on your topic, you will need to evaluate the content, focus and source of the resources you have selected. You also need to look at the material you have collected and determine if you have enough resources - or too many. In order to do this step, you need to take into account these tips: 1. Compile the working bibliography 2. Design a database about (books and collections, literature in periodicals, newspaper indexes, pamphlet indexes) and include the electronic books or retrieved articles. 3. You need to ask some questions to organize and check the proper information related with the topic you are exploring: Do you need more resources? 

Reframe your question so that it is not as narrow in focus.

Re-examine the concepts you used in your search -- enter broader terms if necessary.

Follow up on the references used in articles and book chapters.

Do an author search to find more articles written by that person.

Expand your use of databases to cover related disciplines.

52


Do you have too much information? 

You may need to narrow the focus of your research.

Use the resources that best fit the criteria for good scholarship.

 Taking Notes: it is a very important step because you need to write and outline when you are developing an observational or research project, because you must write all related with the organization, content, form and ideas that come to your mind about the project you are working on. Then you must: 1. Develop a preliminary outline 2. Evaluate your source material; which is primary material and which is secondary material? 3. Begin note-taking on cards 4. Avoid plagiarism  Writing the Paper: The key to successfully writing your paper is organization (writing skills help, too!). Here are some tips that may be helpful: 

You should have a clear idea of your research hypothesis by now. Make sure that this is stated clearly at the beginning of your paper (or presentation).

Summarize the articles you have collected, identifying the main points. If you have made a photocopy of an article or book chapter, highlight the sentences or paragraphs that are most applicable to your topic.

53


Start writing the sections that are clearest to you (these don't always have to be written in order). Provide background information and then add your supporting ideas.

Once you start writing you will be able to identify areas where you still need more information. You can then develop a new targeted search strategy to retrieve more information. Your concepts may be much narrower than at the beginning stages of your research.

Make sure that you have the correct citations for all of your resources (don't wait until the last minute on this one).

Check the format of the text, citations, notes, and bibliography (most instructors recommend or APA format)

 

Proofread before print it in order to avoid mistakes. Finally, print and submit it.

Be Attentive with this information: These are the tips that you have to follow in order to submit your written work:  You must start with an initial question and some sub-question that will help you to solve your inquiries about the selected topic.  Write the introduction but bear in mind that you must follow some special tips in order to design a good introduction; you can follow the steps suggested by competent reader of eight grade.  Write the rational or justification about your topic, why do you decide to work on that.  Design the framework, it is the conceptual support on your topic, you must organize moving from the general or macro themes to the specific ones, but you must include in each theory your own voice and thought, you must include the quotations including the author’s name, page and date.

54


ďƒ˜ Write your findings and conclusions, here, you give answers to your main question and sub-questions. ďƒ˜ Include images, tables, statistics, interviews, and surveys in the annexes.

ICFES TRAINING TEST6 Answer the following questions from one to five according with the situation: 1. Andrew is late for work, his car has a flat tire so he asks his wife: a. could, please you take me to work? b. Please, to work could you take me? c. You could take me please to work? d. Could you take me to work, please?

2. Paul is at a restaurant and the waiter comes to help him and Paul says: a. A lemonade I will have and some French fries. b. I will have a lemonade and some French fries. c. Some French fries and a lemonade I will have. d. Will I have some French fries and some lemonade.

6

Compilated from differnt Icfes training test such as: Espectador newspaper and first ans second departmental enlish contest.

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3. Sara is in class at school and she finds something, so she says: a. Whose keys are this? b. Who´s keys are these? c. Whose keys are these? d. Who´s keys are this?

1. Mary usually reads newspaper and she is suggesting a friend a very good article: a. Should you always read articles interesting. b. You should read always this interesting articles. c. Should you always read interestings articles. d. You should always read this interesting article. e. 2. Helen is telling that her daughter Sara is a very good student, so she says: a. Sara does not do homework everyday. b. Sara do not do homework everyday. c. Sara does her homework everyday. d. Sara do homework everyday.

Complete the following text: you must look for the proper word according to the context and the exposed situation.

It is Friday and Sarah and Jane are planning their weekend, Sara: What are you ___6_____ tomorrow night?

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Jane: I _____7_____ planned anything yet. Sarah: What about_____8_______ to the movies? Jane: That sounds good. _____9______ you pick up me?. 6. a. do b. make c. doing d. making 7. a. don´t have b. have c. will have d. have not 8. a. going b. gone c. go d. goes 9. a. Should b. Could c. Did d. Must

Jhon and Audrey are at a book store because Jhon wants to buy a book. 57


Jhon: Look at this book¡ it seems to be interesting. It´s a best seller. Audrey: But you ____10_____ take that into account. Sometimes those books are ______11______. Who is the author? Jhon: it is someone who ______12______ many prizes. Audrey: Oh! see. And if you like it, I will give to you as your birthday present. 10. a. wouldn´t. b. mustn´t. c. shouldn´t d. couldn´t.

11. a. bored b. interesting c. boring d. interested 12. a. has won. b. hasn´t won. c. haven´t won d. have won.

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Paragraphs Organization 13. You and Mary are looking at some pictures and she tells you about a friend of hers. 1. He is studying Russian now. 2. that is from Australia but lives in Croatia. 3. because he is going to Moscu next summer. 4. Rick is an english teacher. a. 4, 2, 1, 3. b. 1, 3, 2, 4. c. 4, 3, 2, 1. d. 1, 2, 4, 3.

14. While watching T.V. news you listen that the newscaster says: 1. Colombia have been affected by the rain. 2. So there are many flooded areas and some villagers 3. have had to leave their towns because of the weather. 4. In South America some countries like a. 1, 4, 2, 3. b. 1, 2, 3, 4. c. 4, 1, 2, 3. d. 4, 3, 1, 2.

15. Judy is telling Hamilton about a book she read in her literature class at school 1. the book I read was amazing 2. who described with simple methapor

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3. what could happen in any country 4. it was an animal Farm by George Orwell. a. 1, 2, 3, 4. b. 1, 2, 4, 3. c. 1, 4, 2, 3. d. 1, 3, 2, 4.

PROJECT As you know there are many countries and each one have its own characteristics which are represented in its food, cloth and music, language and others. Now, we are going to explore a little bit about Australia.

AUSTRALIA: Although 80% of Australians live near cities, the cities are not as large as those in some other countries. Most people live in houses in suburbs- not in apartments. The suburbs usually have their own churches, schools and shopping centers. They also have recreational facilities. In large cities, like Sidney, the suburbs are often far from the town center of town. Because many people commute to work, traffic is slow and there are many traffic jams. 7

Now, it is your turn to search for more information about Sidney in order to design a city guide including the following aspects: Location, Population, Climate, Language, Sport and outdoors activities, Transport, Economy, Health system, music, culture, tourism aspects and food. You have to design the guide in Publisher using colorful images and information well organized.

7

Richard, Jack. 1997. Interchange workbook

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ESSAY An essay can have many purposes, but the basic structure is the same no matter what. You may be writing an essay to argue for a particular point of view or to explain the steps necessary to complete a task. Livingstone, K. (2009)

claims that in order to write a well structured and

coherent essay, it is necessary to take into account some parameters which are: Introduction, supporting and summary or conclusion paragraph. Like all good paragraphs, each supporting paragraph should have a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and a summary sentence. Then, explore each one of the essay components and kinds: 8

Introduction Paragraph: It is the first paragraph of your essay. It introduces the main idea of your essay. A good opening paragraph captures the interest of your reader and tells why your topic is important. How to write one? 1. Write the thesis statement. The main idea of the essay is stated in a single sentence called the thesis statement. You must limit your entire essay to the topic you have introduced in your thesis statement. 2. Provide some background information about your topic. You can use interesting facts, quotations, or definitions of important terms you will use later in the essay. Example:

8

Livingstone, K. (2009) . Essay definition..

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Hockey has been a part of life in Canada for over 120 years. It has evolved into an extremely popular sport watched and played by millions of Canadians. The game has gone through several changes since hockey was first played in Canada.

Supporting Paragraphs It makes up the main body of your essay and develop the main idea of your essay. How to write them? 1. List the points that develop the main idea of your essay. 2. Place each supporting point in its own paragraph. 3. Develop each supporting point with facts, details, and examples. To connect your supporting paragraphs, you should use special transition words. Transition words link your paragraphs together and make your essay easier to read. Use them at the beginning and end of your paragraphs. Like all good paragraphs, each supporting paragraph should have a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and a summary sentence. Summary Paragraph: It comes at the end of your essay after you have finished developing your ideas. The summary paragraph is often called a "conclusion." It summarizes or restates the main idea of the essay. You want to leave the reader with a sense that your essay is complete. How to write one? 1. Restate the strongest points of your essay that support your main idea. 2. Conclude your essay by restating the main idea in different words. 3. Give your personal opinion or suggest a plan for action.

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Example: Overall, the changes that occurred in hockey have helped to improve the game. Hockey is faster and more exciting as a result of changes in the past 120 years. For these reasons, modern hockey is a better game than hockey in the 1890s.

PREWRITING STEP: The prewriting stage is when you prepare your ideas for your essay before you begin writing. You will find it easier to write your essay if you build an outline first, especially when you are writing longer assignments. There are Six Prewriting Steps: 1. Think carefully about what you are going to write. Ask yourself: What question am I going to answer in this paragraph or essay? How can I best answer this question? What is the most important part of my answer? How can I make an introductory sentence (or thesis statement) from the most important part of my answer? What facts or ideas can I use to support my introductory sentence? How can I make this paragraph or essay interesting? Do I need more facts on this topic? Where can I find more facts on this topic? 2. Open your notebook. Write out your answers to the above questions. You do not need to spend a lot of time doing this; just write enough to help you remember why and how you are going to write your paragraph or essay. 3. Collect facts related to your paragraph or essay topic. Look for and write down facts that will help you to answer your question. Timesaving hint: make sure the facts you are writing are related to the exact question you are going to answer in your paragraph or essay.

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4. Write down your own ideas. Ask yourself: What else do I want to say about this topic? Why should people be interested in this topic? Why is this topic important? 5. Find the main idea of your paragraph or essay. Choose the most important point you are going to present. If you cannot decide which point is the most important, just choose one point and stick to it throughout your paragraph or essay. 6. Organize your facts and ideas in a way that develops your main idea. Once you have chosen the most important point of your paragraph or essay, you must find the best way to tell your reader about it. Look at the facts you have written. Look at your own ideas on the topic. Decide which facts and ideas will best support the main idea of your essay. Once you have chosen the facts and ideas you plan to use, ask yourself which order to put them in the essay. Write down your own note set that you can use to guide yourself as you write your essay. Writing Essays: it is when you turn your ideas into sentences and there are five steps that you can use: 1. For the introduction, write the thesis statement and give some background information. 2. Develop each supporting paragraph and make sure to follow the correct paragraph format. 3. Write clear and simple sentences to express your meaning. 4. Focus on the main idea of your essay. 5. Use a dictionary to help you find additional words to express your meaning. Editing Essays: It is when you check your essay for mistakes and correct them. Take into account these tips:

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ď ś Grammar and Spelling 1. Check your spelling. 2. Check your grammar. 3. Read your essay again. 4. Make sure each sentence has a subject. 5. Make sure your subjects and verbs agree with each other. 6. Check the verb tenses of each sentence. 7. Make sure that each sentence makes sense.

ď ś Style and Organization

1. Make sure your essay has an introduction, supporting paragraphs, and a summary paragraph. 2. Check that you have a thesis statement that identifies the main idea of the essay. 3. Check that all your paragraphs follow the proper paragraph format. 4. See if your essay is interesting.

TIPS TO WRITE ESSAY: The essay below demonstrates the principles of writing a basic essay. The different parts of the essay have been labeled. The thesis statement is in bold, the topic sentences are in italics, and each main point is underlined. When you write your own essay, of course, you will not need to mark these parts of the essay unless your teacher has asked you to do so. They are marked here just so that you can more easily identify them. "A dog is man's best friend." That common saying may contain some truth, but dogs are not the only animal friend whose companionship people enjoy. For 65


many people, a cat is their best friend. Despite what dog lovers may believe, cats make excellent housepets as they are good companions, they are civilized members of the household, and they are easy to care for. In the first place, people enjoy the companionship of cats. Many cats are affectionate. They will snuggle up and ask to be petted, or scratched under the chin. Who can resist a purring cat? If they're not feeling affectionate, cats are generally quite playful. They love to chase balls and feathers, or just about anything dangling from a string. They especially enjoy playing when their owners are participating in the game. Contrary to popular opinion, cats can be trained. Using rewards and punishments, just like with a dog, a cat can be trained to avoid unwanted behavior or perform tricks. Cats will even fetch! In the second place, cats are civilized members of the household. Unlike dogs, cats do not bark or make other loud noises. Most cats don't even meow very often. They generally lead a quiet existence. Cats also don't often have "accidents." Mother cats train their kittens to use the litter box, and most cats will use it without fail from that time on. Even stray cats usually understand the concept when shown the box and will use it regularly. Cats do have claws, and owners must make provision for this. A tall scratching post in a favorite cat area of the house will often keep the cat content to leave the furniture alone. As a last resort, of course, cats can be declawed. Lastly, one of the most attractive features of cats as housepets is their ease of care. Cats do not have to be walked. They get plenty of exercise in the house as they play, and they do their business in the litter box. Cleaning a litter box is a quick, painless procedure. Cats also take care of their own grooming. Bathing a cat is almost never necessary because under ordinary circumstances cats clean themselves. Cats are more particular about personal cleanliness than people are. In addition, cats can be left home alone for a few hours without fear. Unlike some pets, most cats will not destroy the furnishings when left alone. They are content to go about their usual activities until their owners return.

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Cats are low maintenance, civilized companions. People who have small living quarters or less time for pet care should appreciate these characteristics of cats. However, many people who have plenty of space and time still opt to have a cat because they love the cat personality. In many ways cats are the ideal

housepet.9

Establishing links with competent readers: 

Identify the semantic structure in order to identify the superstructure used in these readings:



Select any essay kind and underline or highlight the connectors used and also the arguments that the authors state in order to validate his/her ideas, also, you can underline the derivates or conclusions that the author make.



Write the arguments that are strongly valuables according to your point of view:

Make the list here and your arguments too: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 9

essayinfo.com/essays/definition_essay.php

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__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ___________ Well, it is your turn to practice what have you explored about essay and its kinds: Select a specific topic that call your attention and write an essay, please do not forget the tips and rules to submit it. Good luck.

REVIEW TIME By: Logman, A 1998

1.Answer each question in full putting the adverb a) in the middle and b) at the beginning. 1. Do you ever bring work home from the office? (often) I often bring work from the office. Often I bring work home. 2. Does John leave home before his wife does? (normally) __________________________________________________________________ _______ 3. Have you ever forgotten to lock the back door? (frequently) __________________________________________________________________ _______ 4. Do you know when to wake up? (usually) __________________________________________________________________ _______ 5. Are you the one who pays the bills? (generally) __________________________________________________________________ _______ 6.Is the traffic heavy in the mornings? (often) __________________________________________________________________ _______ 7. Do you ever have power cuts? (sometimes) __________________________________________________________________ _______

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8 Are there complaints about the service? (often) __________________________________________________________________ _______ 2.Put in singular or plural verb-forms. LIES, DAMN LIES? Statistics (be)__________ a branch of economics, but it is often said that there (be) __________

lies, damn lies and statistics. Recent statistics of British life

(show) __________ that the family (be) __________ happier than it used to be. The youth of today (be) )__________ likely to live longer than the previous generation. People (own) )__________ more things than they used to, but more police(be) )__________ employed to fight crime. Mathematics (be) __________ a subject which is studied more by boys than by girls, as (be) __________ physics. The earnings of working women (be) __________ getting higher all the time and many women earn more than their husbands. Good manners (be) __________ declining. The public (spend) __________ more on clothes, and clothes(be) __________ becoming more and more expensive. Glasses (be) __________ worn by more people, but only a minority (favour) __________ contact lenses. Statistics (make) __________ us want to grind our teeth and can probably tell us if we have any teeth left to grind!

3. Supply the correct pronouns in these sentences. 1. When I saw the doctor,________ told me to go back and see her again next week. 2 .Jennifer is a fine musician, ________ plays in the Philharmonic. 3 .My lawyer told me ________ would ring me when he had the information I wanted. 4 .Your visitor left ________ glasses behind when he came here yesterday. 5 .Professor Myers is a brilliant scientist________ should be given the Nobel Prize for her work. 69


6 .Mrs Carter, our English teacher, really knows ________ grammar! 7 .The artist, Rembrandt, painted several pictures of ________ wife. 8 .Anton Schmidt works as a cook at a large hotel_______ is famous for his cooking. 9 .How would you describe her? - Well, ________ is a student of about 18. 10. How do you know this passport belongs to a woman? - The owner has ________ photo in it. 1 1. My daughter works as a journalist and ________ has been very successful. 12 .You don't know ________ so you should begin your letter 'Dear Madam'. .

3.Supply an or the in the following text. During our journey we came to _______ bari dge. As we were crossing _______ bridge, we met_______ old man and spoke to him_______ man refused to answer us at first. He could tell at a glance that we had escaped from _______prisoner-ofwar camp and he was afraid of getting into trouble. We weren't _______ first prisoners of war to have escaped from _______ camp. As soon as Jim produced _______revolver, _______man proved very willing to answer our questions. He told us exactly where we were and directed us to _______ farm where we might find food.

4. Put in the missing pronouns (including who). TOO MUCH TO BEAR! If you're on holiday in the Western Islands of Scotland and I see a bear,_____avoid _______! It might turn out to be Hercules, the famous star, _______ has appeared in TV ads, films and cabaret. Hercules disappeared when his owner, Andy Robbins, took _______for a swim. Police and troops have joined in the search, but _______ haven't had any success. After all, Hercules is unlikely to appear suddenly, shouting, 'It's _______ ! Here _______ am!' The search party are carrying yoghurt and bananas to offer the bear

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because that's what _______ likes best. _______isn't dangerous, but _______is very hungry, a searcher said. So if you see a ten-foot bear in the Western Islands,make sure_______ are carrying some bananas. _______ may be just what a hungry bear is waiting for and if _______ on't find _______, you can always eat _______yourself!

5.Supply one or ones. 1. Which gloves would you like to see? - The ______________ in the window. 2 .Which shoes fit you best? - The large ______________ 3. Which pullover do you prefer? -The red ______________ 4. Which jeans are you going to buy? - The most expensive ______________ 5 .Please pass me that plate. - Which ______________ ? 6 .Two of those coats suit you very well. - Which ______________ ? 7 .I'd like to test-drive one of these two cars. -This ______________ or that ______________ . 8 .I'd like to see some rings, please. -These ______________ in silver or those ______________ in gold? 9 .I'd like to try one of these shirts. Please pass me that white ______________ 10. I think, on the whole, I prefer these yellow ______________

6.Write questions or statements followed by responses using believe, etc. 1. Someone asks you if the next train goes to London. You believe it does. Does the next train go to London. I believe so. 2 .Someone says the weather is going to improve. You hope it will. __________________________________________________________________ _______ 3 .Someone asks you if the letters have arrived yet. You don't think they have. __________________________________________________________________ _______

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4 .Someone says the rail strike hasn't ended. It doesn't seem to have ended. __________________________________________________________________ _______ 5 .Someone says it's a holiday tomorrow. You want to know who says this. __________________________________________________________________ _______ 6 .Someone says there's been a terrible air disaster. You fear this is the case. __________________________________________________________________ _______ 7 .Someone asks if the democrats will win the election. You don't expect they will. __________________________________________________________________ _______

7.Supply the missing possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns. 1 What a beautiful baby girl! What's ____________ name? 2 This is your towel: it's yellow. And that's your husband's. ____________ is blue. 3 This car isn't ____________ My car has a different registration number. 4 'Shall we have____________ supper on a tray and watch TV?' my wife asked. 5 That umbrella doesn't belong to you,____________ is the one with the leather handle. 6 Their flat and our flat may seem to be the same, but____________ is different from ours. 7 One should put____________ own interests last. 8 John's son wants to be an actor and . ____________ daughter wants to be an actress. 9 Patricia's eldest daughter has just left school and ____________ youngest has just begun. 10 Has the cat been given ____________ milk yet?

9.Supply at, on or in. I'll meet you ........ at ....... 10.30 ....... on....... Monday, June 14.

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We're taking our holiday ____________ July. I always finish work early ____________ Fridays. Who knows what the world will be like ____________ the year 2030? You don't want anything to go wrong ____________ your wedding day. ____________ the 19th century many children died before they were a year old.. We got up ____________ dawn and reached the summit ____________ noon. ____________ the age of 14 1 realized I would never become a brain surgeon. The birds don't find much to eat in our garden ____________ winter. What will you be doing ____________ the holidays? What will you be doing ____________ New Year's Day? The year was 1986____________ that time I was working as a waiter. We try to get away ____________ Christmas time. I'll see you ____________ ten days' time. They prepared a surprise for me at the office____________ my birthday..

10.Put in about, according to, across, after, at, away, because, before, behind, in front of, on. A GOOD EYE FOR My friend Jonathan, A LEFT EAR who lives across the road, develops and prints films. ____________ Jonathan most of us take awful pictures. usually, we fail to aim ____________ the subject so that the subject is not even in the picture. Sometimes the subject is too far ____________ sometimes too near. Some photos are spoilt because the sun is ____________ US, when of course, it should always be ____________us. Some of us take blank pictures ____________

we take the lens cover off .

____________ we have taken our shots. We take most of our pictures when we are on holiday and like to catch our friends when they are fooling ____________ It's a pity we don't practice using our cameras____________ we

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go on holiday. A good book ____________photography would make us better l2 ____________ taking pictures, but most of us are too lazy to bother. I asked Jonathan what was the worst film he had ever seen. He didn't have to think very hard______

the question. At once he answered, 'Twenty-four shots of the

photographer's left ear!'10

ACTIVITY: IT IS TIME TO EXPLORE YOUR ARGUMENTATIVE SKILL TO PRACTICE YOUR ENGLISH WRITING. School Name: _____________________________ Stdudent´s Name: _____________________________________ Teache´s Name: _______________________________________ Topic: _________________________________________________ Date: __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

10

By: Logman, A 1998

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__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

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__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

Text Connectives These are often called connectors, discourse markers or signal words. They provide the reader with signposts indicating how the text is developing. If the writer wants to show that a summary is coming up, for example, a phrase such as In short …or briefly … can be used. If the text is giving a sequence of points, these can be highlighted by the use of such words as to begin …, Secondly …, In conclusion… 11 As you build paragraphs, you’ll need some “glue” to bind your sentences together. Otherwise, your readers will have trouble making the logical jumps from one sentence to the next. Even though the connections between your sentences may be clear to you, you can’t count on your readers to supply those links. Remember that a paragraph should form a single logical unit. If it doesn’t create a single idea in your readers’ minds, it’s not doing its job.

11

from: http://mywebpages.comcast.net/tgeorges/write/les15.htm 0

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English supplies us with useful linking words called CONNECTIVES, which form the logical bridges between ideas. If you keep these verbal guideposts in mind and use them as you write, you will almost automatically provide the interrelations among ideas that every reader looks for. Here is a list of some connectives. Like the subordinating conjunctions, these are the good guys; use them liberally (but correctly and appropriately), and I guarantee that your writing will become more effective. They are hard to overuse.

Connective words that describe relationships: ALSO - HOWEVER - ALTHOUGH – INCIDENTALLY - THEREFORE – BESIDES – LIKEWISE – THUS – MEANWHILE – MOREOVER – USUALLY – FURTHERMORE – NEXT – WHATEVER – GENERALLY – YET – ACCORDINGLY – NEVERTHELESS – INSTEAD – IN CONTRAST – FOR EXAMPLE.

Connectives that give a sense of time: FIRST - SECONDLY – FINALLY - NOW – ONCE - WHEN – ULTIMATELY EVENTUALLY – LASTLY - LATER - MEANWHILE – PREVIOUSLY – THEN - SOON – FORMERLY – SOMETIMES.

Other Connective phrases: TO BEGIN WITH – ON THE OTHER HAND – IN BRIEF – IN GENERAL – IN SUMMARY - MORE SPECIFICALLY – INSTEAD OF - IN ADDITION TO – IN OTHER WORDS – ANOTHER WAY TO – FOR THE SAME REASON - NO MATTER WHAT – SUCH A – THAT’S WHAT/WHY – IN FACT – WHAT’S MORE – IN THE SAME WAY – ON THE CONTRARY – CONVERSELY – AS A RESULT – SUMMING UP – IF SO / NOT.

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All of these words and phrases link ideas and assure continuity in your writing. Another useful principle to assure continuity in your writing and tie your sentences together is: - TRY TO HAVE A WORD OR PHRASE SOMEWHERE IN EACH SENTENCE THAT REFERS TO SOMETHING IN A PREVIOUS SENTENCE.

One easy way to follow this principle is to use pronominal adjectives like these to refer to nouns in previous sentences: THIS – THAT – THESE – WHICH – THEIR – HIS – ITS – HER For example: Dr. Quark testified that the only scientific value of creationism lies in its position among primitive superstitions and mythologies. His testimony helped strike down laws requiring its teachings to be included in biology textbooks. Another way to assure continuity in your writing is simple repetition; that is, carry the same nouns from one sentence to the next. For example: Scientists map the winds and precipitation inside hurricanes by flying specially instrumented aircraft through them. These aircraft must withstand stresses of up to six times the force of gravity.

INTENSIVES Another way to tie ideas together is with intensives. Intensives help you emphasize what’s important and to set the important apart from the incidental – a

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major goal of all scientific and technical writing. Compare the following two sentences, the first without intensives and the second with intensives added: The whale is the largest living mammal. The largest whales weigh over 150 tons, are 100 feet long, and consume 5 tons of food each day. The whale is by far the largest living mammal. In fact, the largest whales weigh as much as 150 tons and grow as long as 100 feet. These enormous animals consume 5 tons of food each day. Notice how the bold words that have been added emphasize certain points the author deemed important.

Here is a list of some useful intensives: ESPECIALLY - AS MUCH AS - EVEN IF/THOUGH – INCREASINGLY - BY FAR – SO…THAT – MORE IMPORTANTLY – HIGHLY – ONLY – PARTICULARLY – IN FACT - VERY SIGNIFICANTLY – QUITE - SUCH – MOST - UNIQUE - AT ALL – ABOVE ALL – INDEED – IN ANY CASE.

The following is a list of commonly used text connectives: Showing

Indicating

Sequencing

Adding

Condition/

cause/result

time

ideas

information concession

So

Then

firstly, first

too

in that case

Therefore

next

in addition

otherwise

indeed

if not

Clarify in

other

words I mean

to put it Then

afterwards

in

the

place first of all

79

first


another way for

consequently

example for

in/as

instance

consequence

to

a

at

the

same time

to start with

apart

from

that

however

before that to begin

also

nevertheless

in the end

furthermore

despite this

be

more

as a result

for a start

precise for

or rather

that

reason

in

due

particular

owing to ‌

in fact

accordingly

as

a

matter of fact that is

namely to illustrate

to

‌,

because

second, third, On top of

finally

fourth ‌

that

soon

at this point

and besides

after

a to get back to

while of at

the point this

then

this

point

in that case

meanwhile in short at

this

moment later

above all

along with

What more

all in all

again

briefly

let alone

besides

yet on the other hand

however

is on contrary anyhow, anyway Instead

to previously

summarise/to as well sum up

80

Still

the


finally

likewise

even so

a final point

moreover

all the same

to conclude

similarly

in any case

in conclusion

equally

at least

given

the in the same

above points

way

in light of the

Though

despite this

above

Useful connectives

ADDING

SEQUENCING

EMPHASIZING

COMPARING

And

Next

above all

Equally

Also

Then

in particular

in the same way

Especially

Similarly

first,

as well as

second,

third,?

Moreover

Finally

Indeed

Likewise

Too

meanwhile

Notably

as with

After

Significantly

Like

QUALIFYING

ILLUSTRATING

CONTRASTING

Because

However

for example

Whereas

So

Although

such as

instead of

Therefore

Unless

for instance

Alternatively

CAUSE

AND

EFFECT

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Thus

Except

as revealed by

Otherwise

consequently

If

in the case of

Unlike

as long as

on the other hand

apart from Yet

Connective Broad Meaning

Adverbs Conjunctions

and Phrases also, too, similarly, in

Addition

addition, even, indeed, and, as, like let alone however,

nevertheless,

on the other hand, in Opposition

contrast,

though,

alternatively,

anyway,

but,

or,

(al)though,

whereas, while

yet, in fact, even so besides, anyway, after Reinforcing

all for

Explaining

example,

in that

for

instance, in other words, And that is to say, i.e., e.g. first(ly)

Listing

‌

second(ly), because, since, as, for,

first of all, finally, lastly, if, unless, now (that), so for one thing ‌ for (that), in case, provided

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another,

in

place,

to

next,

in

the

begin

first (that), whether … or … with,

sum,

to

conclude, in a nutshell therefore, consequently, Indicating result

as a result, so, then

when,

before,

after,

since, until, till, while, as, once, whenever

then, meanwhile, later, afterwards, before (that),

Indicating time

since (then), meanwhile

SECONDLY,

IN

FURTHERMORE, FIRSTLY

MOREOVER, IN

CONCLUSION,

FINALLY

IN

ADDITION

SUMMARY,

THUS This can be used These

These used This can be used for

the

supporting argument.

first

can for

be for

the

arguments

this

is

(except,

of concluding

course,

for connective

meaning.

They

Note: should be used to not

a indicate that you are making final and statements

“Secondly” which also you can use cover can only be used “Furthermore”, for the second).

carry

last roughly the same

any supporting

further supporting argument.

all

that

all

the

supporting

“Moreover” or “In arguments

in

a

addition” for the very general way.

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last argument if you wish Also: También As long as: Con tal de que, a condición de que Because of (this): Por (esto), a causa de (esto) By the way: A propósito, por cierto Even so: Así y todo, aún así Even though: A pesar de que, aunque Even if: Incluso si Firstly: En primer lugar From now on: De ahora en adelante However: Sin embargo In any case: De todos modos In conclusión: En conclusión, para terminar In my opinión: En mi opinión In this way: De este modo In this respect: A este respecto In short: En resumen, en resumidas cuentas

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In some way: En cierto modo It seems to me that: (A mí) me parece que I think: Yo creo que, pienso que Likewise: Asimismo Moreover: Además, es más On the other hand: Por otro lado, por otra parte One way or another: de un modo u otro Regarding: Con respecto a So: Así es que, de modo que, así pues Something like that: Algo así, algo parecido/ similar Therefore: Así pues, por lo tanto, por eso .

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ESSAY KINDS There are different kinds of essays which are related with the writer purpose and the reading focus too, then, you are going to explore each one of these essay kinds and its specific characteristics in order to wide your vision and knowledge about this topic, also you will acquire the skill to classify or write an essay according the suggested goal:

1.

Expositive Essay:

it expose ideas about a specific topic,

presenting information around the theme selected and giving relevance to this information with author interpretation and personal and interesting opinions of the topic., you take a term or an idea and write about what a term means. Some terms have definite, concrete meanings, such as glass, book, or tree but some terms are abstract and depend more on a person’s point of view, for example: Honesty, honor, or love. Sometimes, definitions are combined with classification or other forms of organization in the essay. You need to give a careful definition of the key term before going on to discuss different types or examples. Take into account these three Steps to Effective Definition 1. Tell readers what them is being defined. 2. Present clear and basic information. 3. you must write clearly and fully enough for your readers to know how you have arrived at your analyses and conclusions. They should never have to guess what you mean; give your readers everything they need to know to follow your reasoning The revisions will consist of the following: 1. finding the precise words to express your thoughts 2. correcting typographical, spelling, and grammatical errors 3. making sure that your paragraphs are "tight" and sequenced properly

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4. making sure that the transition ("segue") from one major topic to another makes sense

2. Argumentative Essay It has as purpose to defend a thesis with arguments which can be based in cites, references, concrete data and research experiences.

The function of an

argumentative essay is to show that your assertion (opinion, theory, hypothesis) about some phenomenon or phenomena is correct or more truthful than others'. The art of argumentation is not an easy skill to acquire. Many people might think that if one simply has an opinion, one can argue it successfully, and these folks are always surprised when others don't agree with them because their logic seems so correct. Argumentative writing is the act of forming reasons, making inductions, drawing conclusions, and applying them to the case in discussion; the operation of inferring propositions, not known or admitted as true, from facts or principles known, admitted, or proved to be true. It clearly explains the process of your reasoning from the known or assumed to the unknown. Without doing this you do not have an argument, you have only an assertion, an essay that is just your unsubstantiated opinion.

Argumentative essays are often organized in the following manner: 1. They begin with a statement of your assertion, its timeliness, significance, and relevance in relation to some phenomenon. 2. They review critically the literature about that phenomenon. 3. They illustrate how your assertion is "better" (simpler or more explanatory) than others, including improved (i.e., more reliable or

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valid) methods that you used to accumulate the data (case) to be explained. Finally revise and edit, and be sure to apply the critical process to your argument to be certain you have not committed any errors in reasoning or integrated any fallacies for which you would criticize some other writer. Additionally, you will want to find out how your readers will object to your argument. Will they say that you have used imprecise concepts? Have you erred in collecting data? Your argument is only as strong as the objections to it. If you cannot refute or discount an objection, then you need to rethink and revise your position.12

Training Test

Reading Comprehension Activities Meteorologists are scientist who study the weather and make weather predictions. In order to make a successful reading, meteorologist must take a lot of things into consideration. In fact, the data required are collected several times a day from different sources all over the world. To gather this information, special types of instruments are used. These data are of course valuable to everybody since the reports and warnings that meteorologist are usually reliable. Failing to take their advice could, in some cases, be a matter of life or death.

12

www.Politecnicovirtual.edu.co

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The underlined word valuable can be replaced with: e. Expensive f. Useless g. Necessary h. Useful The underlined expression usually reliable supports one of the following ideas: e. Weather information is generally accurate. f. Meteorologist read very successfully. g. Meteorologist work really hard. h. Weather information is rarely precise. The underlined sentence, failing to take their advice could, in some cases, be a matter of life or death. Communicate the idea that: e. Meteorologists’ observations are sometimes right. f. It is necessary to ignore scientists’ recommendations. g. It is prudent to pay attention to meteorologists’ suggestions. h. Scientists’ directions are usually inefficient.

Mathew had a meeting at his office with his boss and some clients at 9:30. At 9:30, his boss

asked his secretary to call him to find out why he was late. After talking

to Mathew, the secretary said: e. He say that there is a problem with his car. f. He say that a problem with his car there was. g. He said that there was a problem with his car. h. He said that a problem with his car there is.

Match to complete the sentences:

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a. _____ To eat a balanced diet.

1. you must be disciplined, but you do not have to run away when you are in front of it.

b._____ To start exercising.

2. you must eat the right food, but you do not have to be rich.

c. _____ To avoid eating too much 3. you must do different activities but candy.

you do not have to work or exercise very much.

d. _____To avoid a sedentary life.

4. you must do little by little, but you do not necessarily have to join a gym.

ď ś Write the meaning of the following words: Worship:___________ Stretch:____________ Turn: _____________ Slot: __________ Tongue: ________ Bitter: _______ Salty: ________ Fed: ________ Smooth: _______ Sharp: ________ Mend: ________ Farm: ________ Perform: ______ Load: _________ Clothe: _______ Headache ________ Wallet ___________

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 Connect these sentences according with the words function: a. you use scissors

1. to carry food

b. you turn tuners

2. to take pictures

c. you take an aspirin

3. to cut paper

d. you use the camera

4. to get fit

c. you get exercise

5. to tune a guitar

d. you use a tray

6. to save electricity

e. you use low-energy bulbs

7. to stop a headache.

COMPREHENSION OF READINGS AND SITUATIONS 

Made these reading and select the correct answer according to each reading. Good luck.

In the religion of the ancient Greek, a hero was a mythical being to whom regular worship was offered. A hero was distinct from a god in that, unlike the latter, he was regarded as mortal: it was indeed his death alone, and an exceptional death at that, which made him capable of fulfilling the requests of those who worshipped him. The hero could ensure general good fortune, such as victory in war, prosperity in peace and success in all enterprises. The stage in the development of the heroic myth began with the birth of the hero, due often to the intervention of one of the gods. Some scholars have wished to find in all stages of hero’s development elements corresponding symbolically to the stages through which youths about to undergo initiation had to pass, but it is a chiefly in the educational phase of their development that this analogy would seem to have some truth. However, the main subject of mythical narrations consisted of a heroic exploits of the central character: of wars and duels, of the slaying of giants 91


and monsters, and of the liberation of regions from such scourges. During his lengthy wanderings, before achieving his final conquest, the hero founded cities, gave laws to the people and established cults. The hero’s death, always under unusual circumstances, determined his status forever. 

Write the meaning of these words

Worship: Indeed: Fulfill: Peace: Worshipped: Wished: War: Lengthy: Death: Wandering: Achieving: Hero:

1. Before his final confrontation the hero…. a. Performed a variety of good deeds. b. Spent his time increasing his knowledge. c. Practiced his skills in preparation. d. Explored unusual parts of the world.

2. The benefit of the worshipping heroes was…… a. Immortality. b. Protection from evil spirits. c. Avoidance of war. d. Guaranteed luck.

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3. According to the passage, what was it that established somebody as a hero worthy of worship? a. The status of his parents b. The nature of his death. c. His victory in the battle d. His lifetime achievements.

4. According to the passage, how were the heroes different from gods? a. They had fewer powers b. Their sphere of influence was not as wide. c. They did not live forever. d. They lived on earth.

5. What is the connection between heroes grew up and the way boys generally grow up? a. All the stages are the same. b. There is a similarity in their educational development. c. There seems to be no similarities d. There are similarities until education begins. A few years ago, scientist videotaped mother’s reactions to young babies. They need a baby for their research. Although it was a boy, they

dressed it in

pink. They then gave it to several mothers to hold. Because the baby was dressed in pink, everybody praised its appearance and said things like, “there is a pretty girl”. When the baby made a noise, or moved, they tried to calm it down by saying “stop crying, darling”. The scientists then dressed the same baby in blue. In spite of the fact that it was the same baby, the mother’s reactions were completely different. This time they said things like, “what a big strong boy!” when the baby moved or made a loud noise, they laughed and encouraged it, saying, “listen to that shout!” what strong

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lungs!. Although the baby’s size hadn’t changed and the cries were identical, mothers reacted differently to baby in blue. 

Write the meaning of these words in Spanish:

Young: Although: Research: Dresses: Hold: Videotaped: Praised: In spite of: Loud: Laughed: Encouraged: Cries: 6. The underlined sentence, everyone praised its appearance, means the same as: a. People criticized the boy’s looks. b. People expressed positive feelings about the baby’s physical aspect. c. People censured the boy’s clothes. d. People demonstrated negative attitudes towards baby’s actions 7. According to the types of reactions that the mothers showed, we can state that: a. If the mothers though the baby was a boy, they talked to him softly. b. If the boy cried, the mothers were very rude. c. If the mothers thought the baby was a girl, they talked to her energetically. d. If the baby cried, the mothers were very gentle. 8. Based on the context, we can say that: a. People’s behavior towards babies is influenced by colors.

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b. There is a strong natural relationship between color and child’s sex. c. Babies’ behavior depends on the color they’re wearing. d. There’s a poor association between a baby’s actions and mothers reactions. Zoos are basically designed for human entertainment. People can learn little or nothing from seeing poor undignified animals forced to go round in cages. Tests have shown that penned-up animals suffer high levels of stress and boredom not to mention physical harm. Those who claim that zoos prevent the extinction of endangered species should ask themselves whether it is really preferable for them to live in such a demeaning and artificial environment than not to live at all. 9. From the underlined sentence people can learn little or nothing from seeing poor undignified animals forced to go round in cages, we can conclude that: a. Animals can not teach us anything about themselves. b. People are wasting their time, if they visit zoos in order to learn about animals. c. Visiting zoos can be a really enriching experience. d. People who do not know anything about animals can visit zoos to learn about them. 10. Based on the text, the author uses the underlined word demeaning to communicate that animals a. Live in comfortable conditions b. Deserve respect. c. Have a life of pleasure. d. Prefer to live in zoos. 11. The intention of the author in this article is to a. Describe the life of animals in zoos. b. Advise animals about their poor conditions c. Invite people to visit as many zoos as possible.

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d. Make people reflect on the life of animals in a zoo.13

LISTEN UP 1. Complete the blanks with the correct word or words. (2)

-

Grand dad, ______ is this man?

-

What man!

-

Here, in this photo. ___ you ____ him?

-

That´s my ____ Jack, I met ____ during the war, see! He is wearing his uniform.

-

____ he in the army with you?

-

Yes, in fact, he saved my ___. They gave him a medal for ____.

-

What happen to ____?

-

After the war, he _____ to work in London, We both got married and _______________, and I didn´t ____ him very much. we keep talking.

-

Where is ____ now?

-

Here, his wife died ______, he moved back here to be near his daughter. her husband´s family _______ near here.

-

_______ you see Jack often?

-

I ______ him every ______.

Now, listen the questions and write the answers done. 1. Who is the photo? __________________________________________________ 2. Where did they meet? _________________________________________________ 13

Icfes compilation from:

96


3. Why was Jack given a medal? _________________________________________________ 4. Why did Jack move back? _________________________________________________ 5. How often did Jack and grand-dad see each other? ________________________________________________

2. Listen and complete the blanks. Write the correct date in parenthesis.(6) a. Gandhi _____________in 1961 and died in 1948. He was the leader of the _____ for revolution for __________ in Indian. b. Karl Marx ___________ in 1990(

) and _________ in 1993 (

),

he _______ the DAS Kapital, who was the ______ of communism. c. Victoria _____________ in 1819 (

) and died in 1901, she was the

_______ of a great island. d. Picasso was born in 1991(

) and _______ in 1973, his most f_______

work was “ e. Galileo Galilei was born in 1564 and died in 1642, he _______ the telescope. f. Simon Bolivar was born in 1793 (

) and died in 1930

(

).

He was the _____ of South America independence. g. Albert Einstein was born in 1979 (

) and died in 1955. He invented

the _________ of relativity.

Now, complete the questions with the information missing, and give the appropriate answer : (8) 1. ______invented the ______of relativity?_________________ 2. _______was the ____ of the ______ who wanted the independence?_________________________

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_________


3. ____________________ radio?_______________________ 4. What____ Galileo Galilei ______?____________________ 5. Who_____ Das Kapital?____________________ 6. What _____the ________ of the Italian ____, architect and engineer ____ was born in the _________ century ?____________ 7. ________________ of the following politicians

____ still____, Abraham

Lincon, Simon Bolivar or Nelson Mandela? _____________. 8. Who _____the ________of

_____ British island in the ____________

century?__________________________ 9. Who _______ ____________________?_____________________ 10. ________________________________________?______________ 11. What ______ the _____of the ________ naturalist who_______ the theory of the _________ of species? _____________________ 3. Listen Up! Complete the blanks with the information done. -Hello! Mr. Slim, I see! you _____ worried. -

I´m ____ nervous.

-

I´m _______ to a weeding Tomorrow.

-

Really, You´re ____ getting married, _____ you?

-

No, It´s my ______ who is getting married.

-

So, Why _____ you nervous.

-

You see, I´m going to ___ the ____man and I´m going to ____ a speech, I´ve never _____ a speech in public ______.

-

Oh, don´t worried about _____, It´s quite ____ to make a speech.

-

Really!

-

Yes, you just say “good ______ Ladies and gentlemen”, ____ you ___ something funny about the bride and groom, and thanks ________ for coming. That ´s it!

-

Really!

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-

You know, as long as it is the beginning, the middle and the end. It´s going to be fine!

-

Oh, I ________.

-

Let´s sit down ________, I´m going to _____ a speech for____.

4. Listen Up! Complete the dialogues.

-

Herbeina, Can I interview you!

-

Interview me, ____ for?

-

I´s

for __________, we have to _____ some bodies which unpleasant

_____________has _______influence their lives. -

Obell, that´s ____ for me to ____ but promise me you trick what I´ll tell you it´s strictly confidence, you must _____ the secret , OK!

-

Ok, I promise, I will ____ a different ______ in my ______.

-

Thank you , Obell. Since dreams back bad memories for me but

here it

goes… Obell, when I ____ your age, my parents got divorced. -

Oh, I´m _____.

-

It was horrible, my father left us to _______ in another town. I only ______ him for weekend and in the ______holidays, I missed him terribly, specially when I was a teenager, I had no one to turn to. I ______ it difficult to talk to my _______about boy things, you know. My _____ always felt guilty about no _____ me enough, he bough_____ expensive ______ whatever I saw him. He _______ trying to make

99


comments but we all ______ that presents can´t compensate for a person upsent. -

Oh, that _____________. Did you still see him?

-

Yes, I ______ him a lot know and we _____ getting very well, so it turns out ok.

-

14

I´m glad. Thank for ________ to me. Herbeina.14

English Global language CD audio.

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Colegio Salesiano Maldonado Tunja Cr.9 No. 25-26 PBX. 7423692 Reg. Dane 315001001010 MATRIZ INSTRUCCIONAL AUTOEVALUACIÓN Y COEVALUACIÓN DE ESTUDIANTES

Código: PA-F035 Versión: 0 Fecha de versión: 2009-12-01 Página:1 de 1

AUTOEVALUACIÓN – COEVALUACIÓN MATRIZ INSTRUCCIONAL – CURSO:______ TRIMESTRE: ______ AÑO: _________ Marca X en la columna de la derecha y recuadro que corresponda, según sea tu valoración.

CRITERIO

NIVE DEL DESEMPEÑO

4: Nivel Superior

4

3: Nivel Alto

3

2: Nivel Básico

2

1

1: Nivel Bajo

Profesor (a): ____________________________________ Asignatura: ____________________

PA-F035/Versión 0/2009-12-01

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The Most Common English Commands ENGLISH COMMANDS

Órdenes en inglés

Hello! Hi!

 Hola

Good morning!

 Buenos días

Good afternoon!

 Buenas tardes (desde 12.00 )

Good evening!

 Buenas tardes (desde 17.00)

Good night!

 Buenas noches (despedida tarde/para ir a la cama)

Bye-bye

 Adiós

See you later

 Hasta luego

See you tomorrow

 Hasta mañana

Thank you! Thanks

 Gracias

Thank you very much

 Muchas gracias

You’re welcome

 De nada

Please!

 Por favor

Can I go to the toilet?

 ¿Puedo ir al baño?

Can I open the window?

 ¿Puedo abrir la ventana?

Can I open the door?

 ¿Puedo abrir la puerta?

Can I close the window?

 ¿Puedo cerrar la ventana?

Can I close the door?

 ¿Puedo cerrar la puerta?

Yes, you can

 Sí, puedes

No, you can’t

 No, no puedes

Can you repeat, please?

 ¿Puedes repetir, por favor?

Excuse me

 Disculpa

Sorry

 Lo siento

I don’t understand

 No entiendo

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How are you?

 ¿Cómo estás?

I’m fine thank you

 Estoy bien, gracias.

Stand up!

 ¡Ponte/Poneos en pie!

Sit down!

 ¡Siéntate!

Have a sit!

 ¡Sentaos!

Be quiet!

 ¡Callaos/Cállate!

Silence, please!

 ¡Silencio, por favor!

Stand in line!

 ¡En fila!

Go out!

 ¡Salid/Sal fuera!

Get in the classroom!

 ¡Entra/entrad en la clase!

Come in!

 ¡Entra/Entrad!

Come on!

 Venga!15

15

http://www.colegiodejesus.org/english_commands.htm

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REFERENCES

Australian Bureau of Statistics (1996). Divorces, Australia. Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. Bonner, M and Fuchs,M.2000. Focus on Grammar. An integrated skill approach. Third edition. Pearson Logman. Colligan. L. Scholastic A+ Junior Guide to Book Reports. New York, N.Y. Scholastic,1999.MADISON. Connectives

and

Intensives:

Retrieved

from:

http://mywebpages.comcast.net/tgeorges/write/les15.htm february 3-2010. Click on. (2006). Work Book and Grammar. VIRGININAN Express Publishing, 2006. New York. Pages: 28, 35, 44, 52., Evans. Ella Berven. Essay definition and categories. 1997

English commands:http://www.colegiodejesus.org/english_commands.htm

Essay:Retrievedfrom:essayinfo.com/essays/definition_essay.php. February 15. Fleming, G. 1992.The Standard Format for a Written Book Report. About.com Guide Fundacion Alberto Merani. Pedagogia Conceptual. Libro del estudiante 10 y 11. Global

English

Academy

CD

Barvelona(Espa単a): Editorial Oceano..

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Audio.

OCEANO

MULTIMEDIA.


Livingston,

K.

2009.

Guide

To

Write

A

Basic

Essay.

Lklivingstone.tripod.com/essay/. May 14.

Logman , A.(1998) English Grammar for intermediate Students. England : Logman group, 1998. Pages: 37, 56, 152. Malaver, L. 2007. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers non fiction-book report. Pedagogic and technologic University of Colombia.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary 1977, Oxford Publishings.

Pascucci. Philip.J.S.D.B. 1998. A brief Life of Saint Dominic Savio. Cum Permissu Superiorum. New Rochelle, NY. Polite-expressions: www.123teachme.com/.../polite_impolite_expressions. Retrieved on february 20 of 2010.

Stevenson. R. L. 1886. The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Penguin Edition. www.learnlibrary.com/jekyll-hyde/ Sutherland, Z. The Best in Children's Books. The University of Chicago.1985-1990. University of Chicago Press. Sutherland. www.ego4u.de – the fun way to learn English Richard, J. 1997. New Interchange Work Book. Cambridge University Press.

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www.politecnicovirtual.edu.co

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Ingles grado 11

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