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Santiago Calatrava is an international name because of his architecture. His sculptures, however, have their own and singular dimension. Calatrava’s architectural and sculptural works are but two different activities, embodying two different approaches towards a creative reality. In Calatrava’s sculptures there is a subtle freedom that cannot be found in his architectural structures: the object at hand, to which he must give shape, conform and construct, is different. It is a singular facet in the linear history of formal thought, the search for the essence of form. His work has been related to those of the constructivists, some have seen it from the perspective of minimalism, while others have related it to Max Bill’s philosophy of “concrete art.” However, Calatrava is more interested in the unraveling of forms in space, in the tension that defines time in sculpture; this has much more to do with concept of the torso in the work of Auguste Rodin, or the tension given to materials in the work of Constantin Brancusi, or the equilibrium of the first work-objects of Alberto Giacometti. I presented Calatrava’s sculptures for the first time in an exhibition that took place at the Instituto Valenciano de Arte Moderno in Valencia, Spain, in May of 2001, which highlighted the uniqueness of his sculpture in relation to his own drawings. Calatrava had only exhibited his sculptural work a few times, in Zurich in 1985 and in Tokyo in 1994. In 2005, The Metropolitan Museum opened its doors to Calatrava, exhibiting 24 marble and bronze sculptures, drawings and 12 architectural models in The Wallace Wing. That same year, Calatrava received the Gold Medal from The American Institute of Architects. In 2012, the majestic Nikoláyevski Hall of the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg held an exhibition entitled, The Quest for Movement, and in 2013 the exhibition The Metamorphosis of Space took place in the Vatican Museum in Rome. In his native Valencia, the young Calatrava began with painting, as Arnolfo di Cambio began with the sculpture of Charles of Anjou (before 1277) his first statue, and later dedicated himself to public spaces. In the intimacy of his studio in Zurich, or during the summers in Manises, a Mediterranean town with a ceramicist tradition, Calatrava has harmoniously applied himself to the three plastic arts: architecture, ceramics and sculpture. He has submitted to that same constructive cocktail a 54-story building with a height of 190 meters (623 feet, a 147 apartment complex) for the city of Malmö, a landmark, and at the same time a sculptural piece, his Turning Torso, 1991, of marble and steel. Calatrava has considered the building as he considers the meaning of sculpture, which has simultaneous places of tension and equilibrium; formations that cover and protect us as they stare back at us.

Calatrava’s sculpture rests on the equilibrium of forces, in the tension of surfaces, the handling of volume, the flow, closures, the dynamic of open spaces, the possibilities of aperture and movement. Only from the context of the Renaissance can one, not only understand his sculpture but also his thoughts about the tension of buildings or bridges. The Renaissance artist escapes the formula of masonry, the efforts towards the stability of medieval architecture, and quests for the dynamic of open space in the plaza, the bridge, the sculpture on its pedestal—beyond the wall and the servitude to architecture. In Donatello’s Gattamelata (1453) or in Verrochio’s Colleoni (1488) the figure is not only of a man on a horse, but also its pedestal (that modulation of cantilevers, interspaces, harmony and equilibrium), and its placement, which is freed within the urban space of the plaza (and not bound to be part of the architecture). In the Carrara marble works from 1999, Calatrava searches for an abstract vocabulary—between anatomy or animal cuirass and musical scales—where form appears to be organized between rhythms and connections. These are perfectly polished marble discs in strange shapes, as if liquid, with bulges and attenuations, energies that move within the piece and change their direction and expression in accordance to the viewer. These sculptures are modulations of energies. Their poetic is that of analytic purism; the suspension, the balance of the Boule suspendue from 1930 (Kunthaus Zurich) or the wooden piece entitled, Objet désagréable à jeter from 1931 (National Galleries Scotland) of the still-Surrealist Giacometti that creates the first “objet à fonctionnement symbolique” (object of symbolic function). In the first work cited, the suspended ball, which oscillates like a pendulum on top of a half-moon, everything lies inside a metal cage: a work that attempts to create the scenery of real movement as a plastic work, as the object that condenses or inscribes the real time of experience. According to artist himself, “In spite of my efforts, in those times I could not really tolerate a sculpture that limited itself to the illusion of motion (a moving leg, a raised arm, a turning head). I could only conceive motion if it were real and effective, in fact, I wanted to give the sensation of being able to provoke it.” Within this rationale, Calatrava, with these marbles discs, searches for a fluidity of material and a formal tension that translates to the surface, both in texture and geometry. It is the result of the thought of articulating space as an organism where complexity and transformation, rhythm and form, hybridize in sculpture. There is, however, a profound melancholy in Calatrava’s sculptural constructions. In these, we simultaneously find the hardness of materials (marble, granite, heavy wood) and the exactitude of difficult geometry. Between material and form, Calatrava balances the vital tension with a singular sculptural image: as if it were a weave sustained in air, an ideal “model,” like Plato use to speak of that world (of perfect forms) before our existence. Let us now think of those works entitled, Musical Star, be it in white marble or black granite, from 1999. These are geometric bodies of a braced inclination. Parting from a shape on the ground and the ascendance of an inclined line, Calatrava constructs a rhythm of elements that constitute themselves as a sculpture. The juxtaposition of solid bodies destabilizes linear perception. An intersection of meanings is produced that breaks the unilateral focus in order to achieve the multiperspectival quality of the work, a key requisite of all sculpture. This juxtaposition of solids creates the simultaneity of an image in motion in order to establish the unusual, the unexpected, that tension of concentration in the suspended materials, the held volumes, and the weightlessness, in a line of steel. Calatrava looks for the destabilization of logical relations within the sculptural discourse: here, the line is what sustains volume in


the weightless space. The vertebration of play of mass and line, of support and overall stability; the torsion and compensation of masses that Calatrava looks for here is no longer that of Donatello or Verrochio emplacing sculpture, but the crystallization of motion. In this sense we have to consider Calatrava’s sculpture within that path that begins with Rodin and continues with Brancusi, where the crystallization of mass in tension, of equilibrium between pedestal and sculpture, is formulated. In these experiences, more so than the constructivists, Calatrava finds the ability to capture in sculpture that image of tension of materials and the equilibrium of opposite forces. For Calatrava, the hands and their movement, the wings of birds and their folding, the leaves of trees constitute both formal and dynamic references due to their closing movements, their capacity to open and close themselves. Calatrava’s weightless sculpture arises in the blue sky of mornings, arises like the pace of birds, storks, like the wind that blows on the shores of Lake Zurich: first flights, the coldness of air and matter. His sculpture is cold, metallic; the glow of marble evokes the calmness of winter light. The thorough polish of his compositions accentuates the sensuality of the object and the implicit sense of touch that lies in the contemplation of a three-dimensional work; these works closely resemble Antonio Canova’s treatment of marble, who said that it was not necessary to, “Fool the observer, we know that [they are made] of marble—mute and immobile—and if they were taken to be real, they would no longer be admired as works of art. I only wish to stimulate imagination, not fool sight.” Calatrava softens the natural matte surface of marble, endowing it with that aspect of a flexible material. On the other hand we have the dynamism of the wooden cubes that we see in Ebony from 1993 and 1994. Calatrava embarks upon a work of redefinition of his meaning, of his gravity. If the Coup de dés (Throwing of the Dice) of Mallarmé demonstrates how written language, which is susceptible to being heard, has not only semantic and musical, but also visual and spatial abilities, then Calatrava questions the cube itself, the dice. Mallarmé transgresses the limits of meaning in order to place letters and text on the page itself. If the stanzas of the poems of Mallarmé contain a situation that is special, and not by chance, they are the product of the poet’s effort to achieve a meaning that is neither given to grammar nor to the function of words and their syntax, but rather to the placement in space (and time, in reading); space and time which enable the defiant white paper. The placement of the pedestal in Calatrava’s work now occupies and takes on a renewed importance, an importance that is not only functional but also semantic, denotative; like the poems of Mallarmé, the movement and placement of the stanzas upon the white paper. The works from 2005 entitled Cyclades resemble the mathematical models of strange topologies—as those formed in the German universities of XIX Century that so interested Max Bill— they demonstrate Calatrava’s dominion of material and form, his spatial vision and also his understanding of surface as undulation, as flux. The white granite arrow, from 2012, originates from Noguchi and the lesson learned from Rodin and Brancusi. These artists opened new possibilities of meaning to marble and wood, which were otherwise bound to the structure of poetic tradition. Their sculptural endeavors unveiled a process that was previously effaced or submerged, for example, the use of the pedestal and the meaning of scale and the torso. Calatrava himself has pointed to this sculptural manner of composition: “My role as a sculptor asks me to look inside shapes, to be aware of the sizes with which I constantly work. It obsesses me to have something personal, minimally coherent, surge in this search. I am preoccupied in a special way by the changes of form, language, transformation… the materials are always very customary, like steel or concrete. But beyond this study, it is necessary to do a great amount of work in the studio every day, through drawings, sketches and other studies.”


Calatrava is not only an observer of traditional sculpture, or the archaic Greek sculpture to which these titles refer. He is also studious in the consideration of animal skeletons, the efficacy of vertebrae, which are so present in all his constructions. Calatrava knows that structures dilate and contract. His interest in the rhythmic and compositional model of the osseous forms of animals, in the biomorphic, not as a representation but as an image of tension, of flexibility and movement, of essential form, of the structural seen in its simplicity. Calatrava’s sculptures obfuscate that internal acceleration of things, the structural tension as a transparent expression of the image. Like the Jacques Lipchitz’s Transparents or how, later, the hollow skulls of Henry Moore replaced volume for void, constituted by a relationship of internal forces. But also the constructions of the first Giacometti that I have previously cited, as the Boule spuspendue from 1930 or the Le Palais à 4 heures du matin from 1932. In a letter to Pierre Matisse the Swiss sculptor says: “Figures were never a compact mass but like a transparent construction.” Calatrava does not look for—in pieces like Turning Torso from 1981 or A83 from 2000—compact mass, but for that transparent construction of its internal energy, its interior rhythm, the secret to its flexibility and form. We finally encounter, in this exhibition, the works on oak wood from 2013 that develop in space like the evolution of a feather where rhythm and the spatial sequence of a structure predominate. All of this culminates in Infinite Spirit, 2013, like a circle that closes within itself. Calatrava manages to endow the sculpture with a kinetic quality, transmitting movement and respiration, integration of beauty and technique, static and mechanic. Like aluminum reliefs Morphing Green and Morphing White from 2009, all of these works are objects of the sculptor with solutions of the engineer and the vision of the architect. Perhaps the most relevant manifestations of this integration of constructive beauty and a sense of motion are the two large works that Calatrava made in the public space. The obelisk of Madrid, which is 305.1 ft and weighs 572 metric tons, is a mast composed of 12 terraces, each with 42 moving panels (504 bronze panels in total, each measuring 25.2 ft). This composition of modules and panels, which sway and bend, recreate a pillar with a helical ascending effect. The project is from 2004 and was inaugurated by the King Juan Carlos I of Spain on the 23 of December of 2009. Another similar obelisk, measuring 28 meters in height with 28 steel panels (8 bodies, or stories, of 28 panels each) has a movement at its axis with an elliptical orbit, like a sine wave. It is a landmark on the Technion campus (Israel Institute of Technology) in the city of Haifa, donated by Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute. These columns allude to, (and energize), the Egyptian obelisks or Brancusi’s Endless Column. Finally, we have his drawings or, better said, at first, before all sculptural or architectural construction, there are the drawings of Calatrava. These are drawings of a quick and fertile hand; drawings of a neat and clear calligraphy that have the precision of a virtuous draftsman and that, from another angle, patent a composite effort, an effort that aspires to create fantastical worlds, of rhythm and speed, that not only come from empirical observation, but from a mind bent towards metaphor and symbolism. Calatrava’s drawing is not only a technical ability, but it is also the expression of emotions. It is the concept of ideas that are yet to be developed, it is rhythm and equilibrium. The sketches are a spontaneous part of the visual thinking of the artist. Within the line’s task, which Calatrava highlights with the lyrical stain of watercolor, we find the sculptural and architectural visions, the visual thought, of the Valencian artist. These drawings are his most immediate thoughts; the watercolor work entitled, Bulls and specially those images of vertical rhythms, Trees, The Deep Forest, all from 2010. These are the rhythm


of color and stroke within an infinite background that is like an endless Gothic architectural structure. Calatrava draws things that are very concrete, the bull and its horns, the leaves and trees of the forest; it all appears in the first glimpse, as that which surrounds us, but Calatrava places these within an infinite plane where these images acquire the value of an enchanted composition: the simple and natural becomes an image that mutes itself within a spiritual immensity, where that beauty of rhythm and intersecting forms appear. The horns, the antlers, the leaves, the branches, as the skeletons of animals before, situated on the first plane, conform into a rhythm of tensions and create a spiritual space. The Deep Forest resembles the “végétal irrégulier” of Baudelaire’s poem, Rêve parisen, which was dedicated to the painter Constantin Guys in the Fleurs du mal (1857). In this poem, Baudelaire also speaks of: L’enivrante monotonie Du metal, du marbre et de l’eau. (The intoxicating monotony / of metal, marble and water), which reminds us of that tactile quality of Calatrava’s marbles and bronzes that have that subtle and refined polish, allowing the works a lustrous, vitreous and velvety sheen. These drawings extend, in the summer tranquility of his native land, upon a different medium: earth given to fire. Calatrava’s ceramics are drawings that are embodied in the unity, use, and curvature of the plates, trays or vases. Caltrava reencounters himself in these like the old Greek potters leaving his nulla die sine linea in the texture and the color that fire gives to pigments. Parting from the drawing motivated by the simplest—the running of the bulls or the structure of growth in the trees of the forest, the human muscles and their movement—Calatrava has been conducting a visual investigation on forms and tensions, a personal sculpture based on a strange and dynamic geometry. If the Renaissance were understood as a circle, a sphere of knowledge and geometric perfection, its shadow and projection gives us the Baroque. Calatrava knows that the transversal cut, i.e. the sharp transgression of a cylinder, the forced progression of a circle, as one may stretch a piece of gum, gives us the baroque ellipse, which modern mechanical engineering makes vibrate and move in scales as a type of visual music. The Renaissance morphs, matures and macerates in the bed of the Baroque. Parting from the mathematical cleanliness of the Renaissance, and that of geometrical staging of the Baroque, with the cold tactility of Canova and with the torsion of Rodin and Brancusi, Calatrava presents us with a sculpture made of rhythms and equilibria latent in the tension of material. --P RO F E S S O R D R . KO S M E D E B A R A Ñ A N O is a Full Tenured Professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Altea, Spain.

He was a Professor at the University of Basque Country (Bilbao) and in Heidelberg, Germany. He was Deputy Director of the Museo Nacional Reina Sofía, Madrid, Spain and Executive Director of the Museum IVAM (Instituto Valdenciano de Arte Moderno), in Valencia, Spain. Translated from the Spanish by Sebastián Sarmiento.



Untitled (no. 74), 1999 3/3 carrara white marble Untitled (no. 74), 1999 38 1/2 x 22 7/8 x 22 7/8 inches white carrara marble, edition of 3 97.79 58.10 x 58.10 38 1/2 x 22 7/8 x 22 7/8 in., x 97.8 x 58.1 x 58.1 cm cm

Untitled (no. 118),2005 20051/3 Untitled (no.118), white statuario marble and wood, edition of 3 carrara marble and wood 70 1/2 x 22 x 10 in., 179.1 x 55.9 x 25.4 cm 22 x 59 x 22 inches 55.88 x 149.86 x 55.88 cm

Cyclades (no. 122), 2005 2005 1/3 Cyclades (no. 115),2005 20051/3 Cyclades ( no.122), Cyclades (no.115), white statuario marble and wood, edition of 3 white statuario marble and wood, edition of 3 carrara marble and wood carrara marble and wood 71 x 15 1/2 x 15 1/2 in., 180.3 x 39.4 x 39.4 cm 74 1/2 x 21 x 21 in., 189.2 x 53.3 x 53.3 cm

22 x 108 5/8 x 22 inches 55.88 x 275.91 x 55.88 cm

22 x 108 5/8 x 22 inches 55.88 x 275.91 x 55.88 cm

Untitled (no. 31), 1993 ebony and polished stainless steel, edition of 3 18 1/4 x 12 1/4 x 7 in., 46.4 x 31.1 x 17.8 cm

Untitled (no. 35), 1994 ebony and polished stainless steel, edition of 3 22 1/2 x 12 1/4 x 12 1/4 in., 57.2 x 31.1 x 31.1 cm

Untitled (no. 36), 1994 ebony and polished stainless steel, edition of 3 25 x 14 1/2 x 14 1/2 in., 63.5 x 36.8 x 36.8 cm

Untitled (no. 121), 2005 white statuario marble and wood, edition of 3 70 1/2 x 22 x 10 1/2 in., 179.1 x 55.9 x 26.7 cm

Untitled (no.121), 2005 1/3 carrara marble and wood 22 x 59 x 22 inches 56 x 150 x 56 cm

Untitled (no. 124), 2005 white statuario marble and wood, edition of 3 64 1/2 x 31 x 22 in., 163.8 x 78.7 x 55.9 cm

Untitled (no.124), 2005 1/3 carrara marble and wood 64 x 31 x 21 1/2 inches 162.56 x 78.74 x 54.61 cm

Untitled (no. 149C), 2006 brass, motor, unique 55 1/8 x 12 1/4 x 14 1/8 in., 140 x 31 x 36 cm

Untitled (no. 149A), 2006 brass, motor, unique 65 3/8 x 31 1/2 x 5 1/2 in., 166 x 80 x 14 cm

Untitled (no. 149B), 2006 brass, motor, unique 64 5/8 x 30 3/4 x 30 3/4 in., 164 x 78 x 78 cm

Morhping Green, 2009 aluminum, motor, unique 72 x 72 x 5 1/8 in., 183 x 183 x 13 cm

Morhping White, 2009 aluminum, motor, unique 72 x 72 x 5 1/8 in., 183 x 183 x 13 cm

Endless Light (no. 154), 2014 alabaster, edition of 3 17 1/2 x 7 3/4 x 7 3/4 in., 44.5 x 19.7 x 19.7 cm

Untitled (no. 201A), 2012 white marble 112 x 19 1/2 x 19 1/2 in., 284.5 x 49.5 x 49.5 cm

Untitled (no. 201A), 2012 white marble Untitled (no. 161), 2008 70 7/8 xalabaster, 18 1/2 x edition 5 1/2 in of 3 16 3/4 x 9 1/2 x 9 1/2 in., 180 42.6xx 47 24.1x x14 24.1 cmcm

Untitled (no. 251A), 2013 smoked oak, unique 54 1/2 x 47 1/2 x 18 in., 138.4 x 120.7 x 45.7 cm

Untitled (no. 252A), 2013 smoked oak, unique 54 1/2 x 52 x 50 in., 138.4 x 132.1 x 127 cm

Untitled (no. 201), 2012 Bianco P marble, edition of 3 112 x 19 1/2 x 19 1/2 in., 284.5 x 49.5 x 49.5 cm

Monumental sculpture prototypes. From left: S3, S18, S8, S2, S1. S1, S2 and S3 will be exhibited fabricated at monumental scale in aluminum on Park Avenue the summer and fall of 2015


Untitled (no. 16786), 2006 terracotta 31 1/2 x 12 5/8 x 12 5/8 in., 80 x 32 x 32 cm

Untitled (no. 00023), 2005 terracotta 14 x 20 x 20 in., 35.6 x 50.8 x 50.8 cm Untitled (no. 16994), 2007 terracotta 19 1/4 x 16 1/8 x 16 1/8 in., 49 x 41 x 41 cm

Untitled (no. 16735), 2007 terracotta 23 x 11 x 11 in., 58.4 x 27.9 x 27.9 cm

Untitled (no. 16721), 2007 terracotta 28 x 16 x 16 in., 71.1 x 40.6 x 40.6 cm

Untitled (no. 16986), 2007 terracotta 22 1/2 x 11 x 11 in., 57 x 28 x 28 cm

Untitled (no. 16756), 2006 terracotta 24 x 9 1/2 x 9 1/2 in., 61 x 24.1 x 24.1 cm

Untitled (no. 00015), 2005 terracotta 8 x 19 x 19 in., 20.3 x 48.3 x 48.3 cm

Untitled (no. 17632), 2007 terracotta 45 x 23 5/8 x 23 5/8 in., 114.3 x 60 x 60 cm

Untitled (no. 16867), 2006 terracotta 4 x 29 3/4 x 29 3/4 in., 10.1 x 75.6 x 75.6 cm Untitled (no. 16839), 2006 terracotta 6 1/4 x 21 3/4 x 21 3/4 in., 15.9 x 55.3 x 32.4 cm

Untitled (no. 16769), 2006 terracotta 22 1/2 x 13 1/2 x 13 1/2 in., 57.2 x 34.3 x 34.3 cm

Untitled (no. 16845), 2006 terracotta 12 1/2 x 24 1/2 x 24 1/2 in., 31.8 x 62.2 x 62.2 cm


The Deep Forest, 2010 watercolor 59 3/4 x 40 1/4 in., 151.8 x 102.2 cm

Untitled (DSP 971), 2014 watercolor 22 1/2 x 30 in., 57.2 x 76.2 cm

Untitled (DSP 970), 2014 watercolor 22 1/2 x 30 in., 57.2 x 76.2 cm

Untitled (DSP 625), 2011 watercolor 22 x 29 3/4 in., 55.9 x 75.6 cm

Untitled (DSP 962), 2014 watercolor 30 x 22 1/2 in., 76.2 x 57.2 cm

Untitled (DSP 964), 2014 watercolor 30 x 22 1/2 in., 76.2 x 57.2 cm

Climbing Tree, 2010 watercolor 60 x 40 in., 152.4 x 101.6



Born in Valencia, Spain

1969-74 Studied architecture at the Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura de Valencia, qualifies as an architect, postgraduate course in Urbanism 1975-79 Studied civil engineering 1979


Doctorate in Technical Science from the Department of Architecture, ETH Zurich Architectural and engineering practice established in Zurich

The artist lives and works in Zurich, Switzerland. S E L E C T E D AWA R D S


ECCS European Steel Design Award, European Convention for Constructional Steel, Brussels, Belgium

Award for Excellence in Design, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York


Leonardo da Vinci Medal, SEFI, Brussels, Belgium

The Sir Misha Black Medal, The Royal College of Art, London, UK


Gold Medal, Queen Sofía Spanish Institute, New York, New York


AIA Gold Medal, American Institute of Architects, Washington, D.C.


Sidney L. Strauss Award, New York Society of Architects, New York, New York



The Metamorphosis of Space, The Charlemagne Wing in the Colonnade of St. Peter’s Square, organized by The Vatican Museums and The Pontifical Council for Culture, Vatican City, Rome, Italy


Santiago Calatrava: The Quest for Movement, The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia

Calatrava and SMU: A Decade in Motion, Meadows Museum at Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas


Building a Masterpiece: Santiago Calatrava at the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (through 2012)


IABSE, International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering, Zurich, Switzerland


Fritz Schumacher Prize for Urbanism, Architecture and Engineering, Hamburg, Germany

Leadership Award, New York Building Congress, New York, New York



City of Barcelona Art Prize (for the Bac de Roda - Felipe II Bridge), Barcelona, Spain

Urban Visionaries Award, The Cooper Union Award for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York, New York

Santiago Calatrava: Sculptectures, Museum Le Grand Curtius, Liège, Belgium


Médaille d’Argent de La Recherche et de la Technique, Fondation Académie d’Architecture, Paris, France

Woodrow Wilson Award for Public Service, Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, D.C.

Santiago Calatrava: World Trade Center Transportation Hub, Queen Sofía Spanish Institute, New York, New York




Gold Medal, Institute of Structural Engineers (IstructE), London, UK

Certificate of Brevet Wallonie, Government of the Walloon Region, Belgium

Santiago Calatrava: Escultures, dibuixos i ceràmiques, Es Baluard Museo d’Art Modern iContemporani de Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain


Santiago Calatrava: Dalle forme all’architettura, Scuderie del Quirinale, Rome, Italy


Medalla de Honor al Fomento de la Invención, Fundación Garcia Cabrerizo, Madrid, Spain

AIA National Medal, Honor of Architects involved Post-9/11 Design and Rebuilding Efforts, Washington, D.C.

Santiago Calatrava Architecture et Olympisme, Musée Olympique Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Medalla de Oro al Merito de las Bellas Artes, Ministry of Culture, Granada, Spain



Santiago Calatrava: Recent Works and Creative Process, University of Oviedo, Asturias, Spain


Santiago Calatrava: Sculpture into Architecture, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York




LVMH Art Prize, Paris, France


Officier de l’Ordre des Arts et Lettres, Republic of France, Paris, France

ECCS European Award for Steel Bridges, Award for the Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge, Dallas, Texas Steel Design Awards of Excellence, Winner of Engineering and Steel Edge Categories, Canadian Institute of Steel Construction, Ontario, Canada


Clay and Paint: Ceramics and Watercolors by Santiago Calatrava, Queen Sofia Spanish Institute, New York, New York


World Trade Center Transportation Hub, Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York

The Architect’s Studio, Henry Art Gallery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington


Santiago Calatrava: Wie ein Vogel/ Like a Bird, Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, Austria


Santiago Calatrava, Palacio de Mineria, Mexico City, Mexico; travelled to Museo de Arte Moderno, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

Santiago Calatrava: Opere e progetti 1980-1996, Palazzo della Ragione, Padova, Italy

Santiago Calatrava: Bridges, Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany

Santiago Calatrava: Kunst ist BauBau ist Kunst, Baudepartement des Kantons Basel-Stadt, Basel, Switzerland


Santiago Calatrava, Archivo Foral, Bilbao, Spain

Santiago Calatrava bewegliche Architekturen-bündel fächer, welle, Museum für Gestaltung Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Santiago Calatrava: Retrospective, Nederlands Architectuurinstituut, Rotterdam, Netherlands; travelled to Royal Institute of British Architects, London, UK; and Arkitekturmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden


Dynamic Equilibrium: Retrospective, Museum für Gestaltung Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland


Santiago Calatrava, Centro Cultural de Belem, Lisbon, Portugal; travelled to Navarra Museum, Pamplona, Spain

Santiago Calatrava, Suomen Rakennustaiteen Museo, Helsinki, Finland


Santiago Calatrava, Royal Canadian Academy, Toronto, Canada and Canadian Center of Architecture, Montreal, Canada; travelled to Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France; Cahill Building Centre Trust, London, UK; IMPU Belen Feduchi, Barcelona, Spain; Architekturforum, Zurich, Switzerland


Santiago Calatrava, Columbia University, New York, New York; travelled to Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts; Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri; SOM Foundation, Chicago, Illinois; University of California, Berkeley, California; Cornell University, Ithaca, New York


Santiago Calatrava, Schweizerisches Architekturmuseum, Basel, Switzerland


Nine Sculptures by Santiago Calatrava, Jamileh Weber Gallery, Zurich, Switzerland

Santiago Calatrava: Construire el Movimiento, Fondazione Angelo Masieri, Venice, Italy

Santiago Calatrava: Starke Falten, Museum Bellerive, Zurich, Switzerland


Calatrava: Architect, Sculptor, Engineer, National Gallery Alexandros Soutzos Museum, Athens, Greece

Santiago Calatrava: The Dynamics of Equilibrium, Ma Gallery, Tokyo, Japan

Calatrava, Teloglion Foundation of Art, Thessaloniki, Greece

Santiago Calatrava: Buildings and Bridges, Museum of Applied and Folk Arts, Moscow, Russia

Calatrava XX, XXI, Form/Design Center, Malmö, Sweden


Santiago Calatrava: Scultore, Ingegnere, Architetto, Palazzo Strozzi, Florence, Italy

Santiago Calatrava, Arqueria de los Nuevos Ministerios, Madrid, Spain; travelled to Sala de Arte la Recova, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain

Santiago Calatrava: Recent Projects, Bruton Street Gallery, London, UK


Santiago Calatrava, La Lonja, Valencia, Spain; travelled to Pavillon der OverbeckGesellschaft, Lübeck, Germany and Dansk Arkitektur CenterGammel Dok, Copenhagen, Denmark


Santiago Calatrava: Esculturas y Dibujos, IVAM Centro Julio González, Valencia, Spain

Poetics of Movement: The Architecture of Santiago Calatrava, Meadows Museum, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas



Santiago Calatrava, El Museo Nacional de Artes Visuales, Montevideo, Uruguay; travelled to Buenos Aires, Argentina


Santiago Calatrava: Work in Progress, Triennalle di Milano, Milan, Italy


Santiago Calatrava: Structures and Movement, National Museum of Science, Technology and Space, Haifa, Israel

Thresholds: Santiago Calatrava: Structure and Expression, Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York



Alamillo Bridge and Cartuja Viaduct, Seville, Spain

Southern Methodist University, Meadows Museum, Dallas, Texas

Auditorio de Tenerife, Tenerife, Spain

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York

Britannic Tower, London, UK Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias, Valencia, Spain Denver International Airport, Denver, Colorado

The Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York The American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York

Doha Bay Crossing, Doha, Qatar

Levin, Michael. Santiago Calatrava: The Artworks: A Laboratory of Ideas, Forms and Structures. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag, 2003 Sharp, Dennis, ed. Santiago Calatrava. London: Art/E&FN Spon, 1992 Sharp, Dennis, ed. Santiago Calatrava. (Architectural Monographs no. 46) London: Academy Editions; New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1996 Tischhauser, Anthony, and Stanislaus von Moos. Calatrava: Public Buildings. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag, 1998

Florida Polytechnic University, Lakeland, Florida


Tzonis, Alexander. Santiago Calatrava: The Complete Works. New York: Rizzoli, 2004

Gare de Saint-Exupéry TGV, Lyon, France

Blanco, M. Santiago Calatrava. Valencia: Generalitat Valenciana, 1999

Tzonis, Alexander. Santiago Calatrava: The Complete Works, Expanded Edition. New York: Rizzoli, 2007

Liège Guillemins TGV Railway Station, Liège, Belgium Light Rail Train (LRT) Bridge, Jerusalem, Israel Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge, Dallas, Texas Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin Museum of Tomorrow, Rio, Brazil New York City Ballet Theatre, New York, New York Olympic Sports Complex, Athens, Greece Oriente Station, Lisbon, Portugal Palau de les Artes, Valencia, Spain Path WTC, New York, New York Peace Bridge, Calgary, Canada

Blaser, Werner, ed. Santiago Calatrava: Ingenier Architektur/Engineering Architecture. 2nd ed. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag, 1996 Carrillo de Albornoz Fisac, C. Santiago Calatrava. New York: Assouline, 2013 Chariot, C. Santiago Calatrava: Sculpectures. Brussels: Fonds Mercator, 2010 Colombo, M. Santiago Calatrava. Milano: Hachette, 2011 Frampton, Kenneth, Anthony C. Webster, and Anthony Tischhauser. Santiago Calatrava: Bridges. 2nd expanded ed. Zurich: Birkhauser Verlag, 1996 Galiano, L.F. Santiago Calatrava 1983-1996. Madrid: Arquitectura Viva, 1996

Petah-Tikva Footbridge, Tel-Aviv, Israel

Jodidio, Philip. Calatrava: Arquitecto, Ingeniero, Artist. Koln: Taschen, 2006

Puente de la Mujer, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Jodidio, Philip. Santiago Calatrava. Koln: Taschen, 1998

Puente de L’Assut d’Or, Valencia, Spain

Kent, Cheryl. Santiago Calatrava: Milwaukee Art Museum Quadracci Pavilion. New York: Rizzoli, 2005

Quarto Ponte Sul Canal Grande, Venice, Italy Reggio Emilia Ponti, Reggio Emilia, Italy Samuel Beckett Bridge, Dublin, Ireland Turning Torso, Malmö, Sweden Zurich Law Library, Zurich, Switzerland

Tzonis, Alexander. Santiago Calatrava: The Athens Olympics. New York: Rizzoli, 2005 Tzonis, Alexander. Santiago Calatrava: The Poetics of Movement. New York: Universe Publishing, 1999 Tzonis, Alexander. Santiago Calatrava’s Creative Process I: Fundamentals. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag, 2001 Tzonis, Alexander, and Liane Lefaivre. Movement, Structure, and the Work of Sanitago Calatrava. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag, 1995 Tzonis, Alexander, and Rebeca Caso Donadei. Santiago Calatrava: The Bridges. New York: Rizzoli, 2005

Lefaivre, Liane, and Alexander Tzonis. Santiago Calatrava’s Creative Process II: Sketchbooks. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag, 2001 Levin, Michael. Calatrava: Drawings and Sculptures. Weinfelden, Switzerland: Wolfau-Druck AG, 2000


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© 2014 Marlborough Gallery, Inc. ISBN 978-0-89797-469-1


Untitled (no. 201), 2012 Bianco P marble, edition of 3 112 x 19 1/2 x 19 1/2 in., 284.5 x 49.5 x 49.5 cm B AC K COV E R :

Untitled (no. 16994), 2007 terracotta 19 1/4 x 16 1/8 x 16 1/8 in., 49 x 41 x 41 cm


40 W EST 57TH STR EET N E W YO R K , N E W YO R K 1 0 0 1 9 | 2 1 2 - 5 4 1 - 4 9 0 0 M A R L B O R O U G H G A L L E R Y.C O M

Santiago Calatrava  

Marlborough Gallery, New York: An exhibition catalogue accompanying the exhibition of the Spanish-born, world-renowned artist architect, San...

Santiago Calatrava  

Marlborough Gallery, New York: An exhibition catalogue accompanying the exhibition of the Spanish-born, world-renowned artist architect, San...