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Sound in wat er

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- fift y year s at t he forefront ‌

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Fift y year s at t he for efr ont …

The first echosounder from Simrad was launched in 1951. The ”Skipper Sounder” from 1957, was small enough to be mounted in the wheelhouse.

Skipper Sounder

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M M ak ak ing ing Waves Waves

SONARS

I n 1 9 5 3 Sim r ad int r oduced t he fir st Sonar t o t he fishing w or ld. Since t hen, t he w ays and m eans of fishing have evolved t o becom e t echnology based. A nd at t he for efr ont of t his evolut ion, you’ll find Sim r ad. To lead in t his t echnological change is t o shape t he w or ld of fishing and t hr ough ideas and innovat ions Sim r ad has done just t hat . You could say t hat fift y year s ago, fish w er e r elat ively safe. N ow t hough, w it h Sim r ad’s help, fish can be caught in a far m or e efficient m anner, w hich in t ur n incr eases pr ofit abilit y and m ak es life at sea less st r essful for t he fisher m an. T he t echnology of sound in w at er has t r ansfor m ed t he w or ld of fishing. A nd w it h t he const ant developm ent of Sonar, Echosounder s and N et I nst r um ent at ion Sim r ad cont inues t o for ge an unpr ecedent ed pat h.

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Fr om t he N avy t o com m er cial fishing

Simrad developed the first ever fishing Echosounder and like Sonar, it was based on a military design, this time from the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment. The system needed a complete redesign to make it suitable for fishing and was first launched two years before Sonar in 1951.

Sonar, or Sound Navigation and Ranging, started out as a military application during the 1st World War. In fact, it was originally referred to as ASDICS, or Anti-Submarine Detection Investigation Committee. It was devised to detect enemy submarines and ultimately destroy them. It wasn’t until 1953, following a deal with the Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway, that Sonar was used for anything other than military applications. Simrad’s technicians had been tasked with commercialising Sonar and were preparing to revolutionise the world of fishing. It’s a question as to whether Sonar would be part of the fishing world at all, if Simrad had failed in this task. The concept of Sonar in fishing was the first great leap but there were many more to come…

Submarine attack on a British convoy to Russia.

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Pr oving Gr ounds

The ”Ramoen” was the first commercial vessel to be fitted with Sonar. The technicians at Simrad needed a testing ground, and the Norwegian trawler would provide the perfect solution. Active Sonar – which sends as well as receives – was a young technology at the time of the ”Ramoen”, so compared to today’s standards, the first Sonar was bulky, expensive and not exactly user friendly.

The ”Ramoen” - the first commercial vessel with sonar.

The ”Ramoen” however, was an amazing success, because without it, the Simrad technicians would never have come up with the Basdic Hand Operated Sonar. In 1955 it became the first widely used Sonar mounted in the skiff. The ”Basdic” Sonar sold over 5000 units and is still in use by some of the original ”early adopters” today - testament to the build quality still apparent in all Simrad products.

SONARS

T he ” Basdic” Wher e as t he ” Ram oen” feat ur ed fixed Sonar, t he Basdic had a handle, allow ing t he t r ansducer t o be dir ect ed at all angles. T his opened up a w hole new er a for Sonar, and w as t he fir st of m any innovat ions t hat Sim r ad has given t he fishing indust r y.

The ”Basdic”, here shown in a water proof cabinet juring an exhibition in 1954.

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T The he cost cost of of tt he he cat cat ch ch

The aver age Sonar is not cheap. It ’s m oney w ell spent of cour se, and m oney r ecouped in a shor t space of t im e t hank s t o t he cat ch im pr oving qualit ies of such high- t ech inst r um ent s. In t he ear ly days of Sonar t hough, it was sim ply im possible for t he ever yday fisher m an t o be able t o affor d t his new t echnology. Sim r ad r ecognised t his problem , and dur ing t he fift ies, wor k ed har d at low er ing t he cost . Com e t he end of t he decade, Sim r ad had succeeded. T he need for a fully funct ioning, affor dable Sonar was fulfilled and a new er a for com m ercial fishing t he w or ld over was usher ed in.

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SONARS

The earliest fishing Sonar displayed the signal using wet paper. This system lacked defi-nition and flexibility. Simrad was the first to move from early paper based displays to full electronic screens. In 1975 the CD Sonar Situation Display introduced a true motion image that waved goodbye to paper in Sonar for good.

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Sonar for all

It wasn’t unt il 1 9 5 9 t hat Sim r ad m ade Sonar a t r ue com m er cial viabilit y. The ” Silde A SDIC” ( Sild m eans H er r ing in N or w egian) was so popular in fact , t hat it was blam ed for deplet ing H er r ing st ock s in t he N or t h Sea at t he t im e! Wit h t he success of t he Sild A SDIC, t he cost of Sonar becam e a ver y im por t ant aspect for Sim r ad w hen developing fut ur e Sonar syst em s. The em phasis on cost has been shar ed w it h a focus on innovat ion ever since, w hich is w hy Sim r ad Sonar is st ill t he pr efer r ed choice for com m er cial fisher m en fift y year s on.

SB Sonar For hullmore unit details - 1964 visit www.marinemegastore.com SK Sonar - 1964 or call 0871 8732404 SB Sonar8- 1964


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SONARS In 1968 Simrad introduced the SU Sonar series, which featured a transducer deployed by hydraulics. The success of the SU didn t deter Simrad in working to develop a more cost-effective solution and in 1975 the ST Sonar was released. It used an inflatable dome system (as an alternative to hydraulics), which created aerodynamic protection for the transducer. Another simple idea that demonstrates Simrad s forward thinking attitude and customer commitment.

The ST Sonar was mounted in a special rubber dome that was inflated during use.

For more details visit www.marinemegastore.com 9 - 1978 SL Sonar - 1972 SQ/ST Sonar - 1975 or call 0871 8732404 SY Sonar

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Evolut Evolution ion tthr hrough ough innovat ion innovat ion

Mechanically steered nickel transducer from the late fifties.

H aving cr eat ed new t hink ing in Sonar syst em s Sim r ad would st r ive t o develop affor dabilit y t o m ak e t he t echnology available t o a w ider m ar k et . M any of t he developm ent s in fishing Sonar w e t ak e for gr ant ed have com e fr om t he int r insic link bet w een cost and innovat ion, w hich has dr iven Sim r ad since day one. A ft er com m er cialising Sonar dur ing t he fift ies, Sim r ad st r ived t o m ake use of em erging t echnologies t o m ak e it s Sonar syst em s m or e efficient , easier t o use, and of cour se m or e cost effect ive.

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SONARS 11 At the beginning of the eighties Simrad introduced digital signal processing a system which is still unique to Simrad today. It offers faster and more accurate processing in addition to simplifying the electronics and also makes it possible to upgrade without extra hardware.

In the early eighties Simrad introduced the SX202, which was the first 90 o vertical tilt sonar on the market.

The development of advanced transducer technology demands considerable patience, accuracy and hours of testing.

The true motion display showed ships track, the fish target and motion in colors.

The first Multibeam sonar, the SM600, gave better range, greater target definition and was easier to understand. All at a much lower cost.

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For more details visit www.marinemegastore.com or call 0871 8732404 The first long range omni directional sonar, the SR240, was introduced in 1989. This new technology gave better verticle views and much improved target defininition.

Com ing of age...

Sonar screen without, and with interference from other sonars in the area.

D ual beam The combination of horizontal and vertical beams, displays the school of fish from above and from the side at the same time. It is not necessary to go over the target to see the vertical distribution on the echosounder.

Om ni st abiliz ing The constant pitch and roll of the sea surface makes it extremely difficult to track a target perfectly. Simrad’s answer to this problem is The Simrad sonars are tailor Omni Stabilising: a system made for various types of fishery. that allows the beam to stay The SP90 low frequency long on the target, independent range sonar is optimized for For more details visit www.marinemegastore.com or call 0871 8732404 12 movement. of a vessel's searching for tuna.


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Sim r ad pr ides it self on being close t o it s cust om er s and w henever a need of t he fishing indust r y is ident ified, Sim r ad is fir st w it h a solut ion. In fact , m any of Sim r ad’s solut ions r em ain unique t o t his day, such as t he 9 0 ° ver t ical t ilt Sonar, w hich was fir st seen in t he ear ly eight ies. The 9 0 °ver t ical t ilt Sonar allow s for war d fish det e ct ion helping fisher m en t o find and t r ack lar ge schoals of fish. The fir st Sonar capable of t his was t he SX 2 0 2 , w hich pr oved one of Sim r ad’s biggest challenges t o dat e. Com m it m ent and har d wor k paid off t hough, and Sim r ad is st ill t he only com pany t o offer 9 0 °ver t ical t ilt Sonar t oday. Sim r ad has concent r at ed it s effor t s over t he last few year s on building a Sonar syst em t hat oper at es using PC based t echnology. The goal of w hich is t o m ak e Sonar syst em s upgr adeable t hr ough soft war e, and not via t he usual har dwar e r out e. This is anot her fir st in Sonar t echnology fr om Sim r ad t o add t o t he ver y long list .

SONARS 13

Dedicated transducer profiles and frequencies, used for different fishing applications.

The new Simrad sonars tracks targets others For more details visit www.marinemegastore.com or call 0871 8732404 13 can´t see!


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T The he fir fir st st st st eps... eps...

In 1962 transistors replaced radio valves reducing size and power consumption dramatically. This enabled echosounders to be used on much smaller fishing boats.

The first ever fishing echosounders came from Simrad in 1957. This gave the fisherman a real advantage in being able to see the depth, bottom contours and even fish!

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CK Scientific echosounder - 1962

Partnersounder - 1967

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S160 Echosounder - 1970


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ECHOSOUNDERS 15

A typical trawlers bridge from 1972.

Sim r ad has been t he leading m anufact ur er of Echosounder s since day one. Fisher m en t r ust Sim r ad t o pr ovide t he ver y best in build qualit y and t o com e up w it h bet t er, m or e advanced designs. It ’s a w ellplaced t r ust as Sim r ad has shaped t he pat h of t he Echosounder in t he sam e w ay as it has Sonar. Ear ly Echosounder s w er e dist inct ly lack ing in per for m ance. Range was shor t and r esult s w er en’t always r eliable. Sim r ad r ecognised t his and concent r at ed it s effor t s on boost ing pow er and efficiency. In par allel t o t his, Sim r ad wor k ed on im pr oving r eadout s, w hich w er e or iginally black and w hit e, on w et paper. Bot h set s of pr oblem s have now been solved, and Sim r ad Echosounder s ar e ex t r em ely high- t ech t ools, but w e didn’t get t o t his st andar d in one giant leap…

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EK Scientific echosounder - 1968

EX Echosounder - 1972

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EQ Echosounder - 1973


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M at er ial A dvances

Nickel transducer - 1959 T he fir st Tr ansist or based Echosounder Simrad has always strived to provide the very best electronic tools for all types and size of vessel. In 1962, Simrad introduced the first ever transistor based Echosounder. The EC series had a powerful 20W transmitter and ran on a 24v DC supply, making it ideal for use by smaller vessels. It proved popular and was mimicked by companies from all over the world.

Nickel transducer - 1962

New developments in design have made Simrad transducers more effective and needing less power output per channel. These instruments are highly sensitive at any depth and capable of detecting single fish below 1000 meters. Multi element transducer 1970

Split beam transducer 1984

Split beam transducer 2001

Split beam transducer, Composite Technology - 2002

Recor dings The first Echosounders used wet paper to depict the results of an echo and gave only a 2 step black and white picture. The advance to dry paper gave bettert definition with 12 step grey scale recording. The natural progression of this was the Skippersounder, which had dry paper with full colour readouts and 32 step recording. But it wasn t until 1978 and the microprocessor driven EK400 that Echo information could be viewed on a screen (CTR). For more details visit www.marinemegastore.com or call 0871 8732404 16


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ECHOSOUNDERS 17

In t he ear ly days, t he only m at er ial available t o m ak e t r ansducer s – w hich for m t he essent ial com ponent of an Echosounder – w as nick el. This was ex pensive, heavy, and as Sim r ad would soon find out , not ver y efficient . For m uch of t he 7 0 ’s, Sim r ad t echnicians w or k ed on finding a bet t er m at er ial for t he t r ansducer s, and by 1 9 7 6 , w er e r eady t o r elease t he gr eat est innovat ion since Echo Int egr at ion – t he m oulded m ult i- elem ent cer am ic t r ansducer. Wher eas nick el was about 2 5 % efficient , cer am ics offer ed appr ox im at ely 5 0 - 7 5 % effeciency. Wit h t his one invent ion, Sim r ad could offer a m or e capable, m or e sensit ive and less pow er hungr y Echosounder t han befor e. It had also m ade Echosounder s a m or e affor dable pr ospect t o fisher m en. The innovat ions didn’t st op her e t hough…

A big scientific tranducer from the early sixties with 24 nickel elements. The small, commercial transducers had only one each. New txt?

For more details visit www.marinemegastore.com or call 0871 8732404 17 Color recording. CTR recording. Wet paper recording. Dry paper recording. (12 step) (32 step) (2 step)


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Size m at t er s

Tak es fishfinding t o a new level 1989 saw Split-beam technology taken one step further with the introduction of Dynamic Ranging, which covers all signals from the smallest to the largest from plankton to whales. The first Echosounders from Simrad using this method set standards, which still exist today.

1 2 3

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Sim r ad has always shaped t he echosounder landscape but in 1 9 8 4 , it changed for ever. Resear ch int o split - beam t echnology was about t o pay off w it h t he r elease of t he Sim r ad ES ser ies. Ear ly echosounder s gave differ ent r esult s for sam e sized fish, depending on w her e in t he beam t hey w er e locat ed. T his is because t he beam st r engt h get s w eak er away fr om it s cent r e. Split - beam t echnology m easur es t he ex act posit ion of t he fish in t he beam , and com pensat es t o give an ex act pict ur e of t he fish m ak ing it possible t o m easur e size dist r ibut ion in advance. A s a t ool for t he fisher m an, split - beam t echnology is one of t he m ost invaluable t hat has ever been cr eat ed. Sim r ad’s dedicat ed appr oach t o r esear ch, and it s long st anding com m it m ent t o t he needs of t he fisher m an m ade t his possible.

Fish Size histogram

2 Fish Plot 3 Echogram 4 Bottom Expansion

For more or call 0871 Multi-frequency 8732404 18 presentation. White line, bottom lock and details A-scopevisit www.marinemegastore.com Split beam display. presentation.


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ECHOSOUNDERS 19

Simrad ES60 Echosounder – w it h Single, Dual or Split Beam By choosing various modules, with different transceiver frequencies, transmitting powers and transducers you can build a fish finding system to suit your needs. Dual vertical and horizontal presentation and Dual frequency feature, improves the ability to separate and identify various species.

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Fir Fir st st Sight Sight ... ...

Befor e t he advent of net inst r um ent s, t he fisher m an was pr act ically fishing blind. Ther e was no way of t elling t he posit ion of t he t r aw l and net s w ould be dest r oyed on uneven gr ound, schoals would be m issed and t im e w ould be wast ed – all adding ex t r a st r ess t o an alr eady st r essful job! It was obvious t o Sim r ad t hat t he fisher m an needed t o see’ under t he wat er. H e needed t o k now t he net ’s posit ion in r elat ion t o t he bot t om , t he sur face, t he fish and t he vessel. H e needed t o k now how m uch fish is in t he net , at w hat r at e it ’s filling up. Though dedicat ed cat ch sensor s w er e t o com e lat er, Sim r ad st ar t ed t o t ack le t hese pr oblem s and in 1 9 6 5 , r eleased t he cable based FH Tr aw l Eye. Sim r ad, using Up/Dow n Echosounder t echnology was able t o offer a wealt h of infor m at ion about t he net , t hough t he real r evolut ion was yet t o com e…

T he need for net inst r um ent s Net Instrumentation arrived later than Sonar and Echosounder. The technology existed, but it wasn’t until the sixties, when pelagic trawls started to grow in size that it was really needed. Once the need had been identified though, Simrad went straight to work and was the first company to offer net instrumentation. For more details visit www.marinemegastore.com or call 0871 8732404

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Cable Ties

CATCH MONITORING 21

The t r aw l is oft en t ow ed at gr eat dist ances fr om t he vessel, m ak ing cable based net inst r um ent at ion t oo ex pensive for bot t om t r aw ler s. So, in 1 9 6 9 , Sim r ad int r oduced a br and new acoust ic syst em called t he FL Tr aw l Link . It was t he fir st w ir eless based N et Inst r um ent at ion syst em and it s lack of cable m ade it a viable opt ion for t he sm aller oper at or. It offer ed all t he funct ionalit y of t he ear lier Tr aw l Eye syst em w it hout t he ex pense of a cable. The Tr aw l Link didn’t k ill off cable based syst em s – t hey ar e st ill ar ound t oday – but cable fr ee set - ups ar e less pr one t o dam age, m ak ing t hem t he obvious choice for bot t om t r aw ler s. Though Sim r ad had successfully im plem ent ed acoust ic net inst r um ent t echnology, t her e was st ill a long way t o go, and m any pr oblem s t o over com e if t he full t r aw l pict ur e was ever going t o be pr esent ed t o t he fisher m an w it hout t he use of cable.

Simrad FL Trawl Link monitor - 1969

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N et inst r um ent s

Simrad ITI is a complet e w ireless t raw l posit ioning and monit or ing syst em designed t o improve cont rol and efficiency in pelagic and bot t om t raw ling. The syst em allow s t he sk ipper t o monit or t he ex act posit ion of t he gear and w hat is happening in and around t he t raw l, providing cr ucial infor mat ion for effect ive, profit able and responsible fishing. Seaw at er Sw it ch The FL Trawl Link had an On/Off switch that was activated by pressure when submerged making it a very energy efficient unit. This mechanical device sparked the idea for the switch devices, which form part of Simrad s net sensors today. ( The first electronic seawater switch - 1979.)

T he Cat ch I ndicat or A catch indicator was required to measure how full the net was. Simrad established a research team who realised that the mesh opening in the cod end would change depending on how full it was. With this knowledge, the team created a small device that utilised rubber connected to a sensor, which measured the holes and became the first ever catch indicator. For more details visit www.marinemegastore.com or call 0871 8732404 22


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Ex ploding t r aw l

CATCH MONITORING 23

T hr oughout t he sevent ies, Sim r ad cam e up w it h a m ult it ude of ideas and innovat ions t hat for m t he basis of t he high- t ech net inst r um ent at ion w e have t oday. A par t icular pr oblem t hat ar ose in t he Blue Whit ing fishing gr ounds t o t he West of I r eland w ould be t he cat alyst for one of Sim r ad’s m ost not able achievem ent s. Fisher m en w er e com plaining of dam age t o ex pensive net s as fish ex panded on com ing t o t he sur face, in t ur n causing a full net t o pr act ically ex plode, show er ing fish ever yw her e!

Effective and responsible fishing with Simrad ITI monitoring system.

FA100 Catch sensor FA701 Catch sensor ITI Catch sensor PS30 Catch sensor 1979 For more details visit www.marinemegastore.com 1989 1991 or call 0871 8732404 23 2000


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T he Com plet e Pict ur e

Simrad FA100 catch indicator, commonly known as ”Eggs”.

Net instrumentation is subject to extreme stress, especially on the power block or net drum. Simrad s modern sensors are sealed entirely in polyurethane for protection, making them virtually unbreakable. They look great too with the PI range recently winning a top Norwegian design award!

Catch indicator, and indeed net instrumentation technology reached a high in 1980, with the release of the FR500. This cable system featured an up/down transducer, temperature/depth sensor, a true motion display and a cable free FA100 catch sensor. It was the birth of the modular ”pick & play” systems used today. Commonly known as ”Eggs”, the FA100 sensors were completely sealed, making them highly durable. This raised the problem of how to power them, so Simrad introduced a rechargeable battery and charging cabinet to solve this particular problem. Simrad’s PI system launched in 2000, is the natural progression of the FA100. The general idea of a fully sealed unit remains the key but many new features such as a seawater switch and even easier recharging reinforce the fact that Simrad is still the leading innovator in net instrumentation.

Depth sensor

Bottom contact sensor

Temperature sensor

Catch sensor

Rip sensor

Spread/Remote sensors

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D esigned t o sur vive...

CATCH MONITORING 25

The PI sensors are the natural progression of the FA100 catch indicator.

A typical mounting of a bottom contact sensor on a trawl.

A m ajor pr oblem fisher m an have faced for year s is net dam age caused by hit t ing obst acles on t he seabed. Sim r ad r ecognised t he pr oblem and Lik e all t he best ideas, t he solut ion is sim ple: hang a w eight , connect ed t o a PI sensor, fr om t he bot t om of t he net . When t he w eight hit ’s t he ocean floor t he line slack ens, t elling t he sensor t hat t he net is t oo close t o t he bot t om . Sim ple!

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A hist or y in Fisher y Resear ch

1959 Tr it on

The research vessel ”Johan Hjorth”. Collaboration is an aspect of Simrad s past that has given rise to many of the breakthroughs made. As well as the Bergen Institute in Norway, Simrad has worked with the Norwegian Research Institute and the Naval Institute.

I T I Cat ch M onit or ing

EK 6 0 Echosounder

1970

SP7 0 Sonar

The research vessel ”G.O. Sars II”.

One of the great milestones was the introduction of the Echo Integrator. The acoustic knowledge and technology aquired through the development of scientific echosounders and sonars is transferred into all Simrad fish finding equipment.

FS2 0 Cat ch M onit or ing

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2003

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FISHERY RESEARCH 27

The new N or wegian research vessel � G.O. Sar s III� is equipped w it h t wo independent drop keels, one w it h echosounder t ransducer s t he ot her w it h mult i beam echosounder t ransducer s for hydrographic use. The drop keel reduces int er ference from air bubbles, increasing t he per for mance and accuracy of t he sur vey. The split beam mult ifrequency echosounder s enable accurat e measurement and improved pot ent ial for fish species ident ificat ion.

EM 1 0 0 2 Echosounder

EM 3 0 0 Echosounder

N ept un

SM 2 0 0 0 FR Sonar

Topas PS0 4 0

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H H ighlight ighlight ss of of Sim Simrrad’s ad’s sound sound in in w wat at er er innovat innovat ions… ions… 1 9 5 3 – Fir st Sonar / Echosounder 1 9 5 5 – Basdic hand oper at ed Sonar 1 9 5 7 – Fir st com m er cial fishing Sonar 1 9 5 9 – Sild A SD I C r eleased

1 9 6 1 – Fir st Echosounder for fisher y r esear ch 1 9 6 2 – Fir st Echosounder using t r ansist or s 1 9 6 5 – FH Tr aw l Eye cable based t r aw l inst r um ent s 1 9 6 9 – FL Tr aw l Link r adio based t r aw l inst r um ent s 1 9 7 0 – Echo I nt egr at ion 1 9 7 4 – H ydr aulic deployed SU Sonar 1 9 7 6 – M oulded m ult i elem ent cer am ic t r ansducer s / Cat ch sensor s 1 9 7 7 – Fir st Sonar scr een display 1 9 7 8 – Fir st m icr opr ocessor m enu- dr iven Echosounder 1 9 7 9 – FA 1 0 0 A coust ic cat ch sensor / ST Sonar w it h inflat able dom e deploym ent . 1 9 8 1 – M ult i- beam Sonar / D igit al signal pr ocessing 1 9 8 4 – Fir st 9 0 ° ver t ical t ilt Sonar / Split - beam Ec hosounder s 1 9 8 9 – D ynam ic Range Echosounder / Spher ical t r ansducer Sonar 1 9 9 1 – I T I int r oduced 1 9 9 2 – Fir st Tr aw l Sonar 1 9 9 6 – Fir st m ult i- fr equency Sonar 1 9 9 8 – Com put er st yle oper at ion of Echosounder s 2 0 0 0 – PI Sensor s int r oduced / Com put er st yle oper at ion of Sonar

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Simrad - Sound in water (history of Simrad products)  

- fift y year s at t he for efr ont … For more details visit www.marinemegastore.com or call 0871 8732404 1 For more details visit www.marin...

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