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RESEARCH ON WUXI’S INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE: WHICH FUTURE FOR MAOXIN SITE?

MASTER THESIS by Marco Bencivenga

Supervisor: Prof. Massimiliano Campi University of Naples Federico II, Architecture

Co-advisor: Prof. Roberta Amirante University of Naples Federico II, Architecture

Co-advisor: Prof. Shi Ming

Jiangnan University, Wuxi, School of design


cover image: pipelines Author: Marco Bencivenga


A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture at the Department of Architecture, University of Naples Federico II March 2014 Š Marco Bencivenga


To my parents and to all the ones who live curiously.

I would like to thank the members of my thesis committee, Professor Shi Ming, Architect Maria Luna Nobile and Lv Jie. Special thanks go to Wu Xiangjia.


TABLE OF CONTENTS introduction

8

01 Industrial heritage in china 02 Wuxi: birthland of chinese industry 03 Wuxi’s ring 04 Taibaodun area 05 Maoxin site: which future?

13

conclusion bibliography

118

19 33 47 79

120


INTRODUCTION 1. Wuxi is the name of the city in Pinyin, the official phonetic system for transcribing the Mandarin pronunciations of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet. All chinese words in the thesis were transcribed in Pinyin.

Once my proposal about a research, focused on Chinese industrial heritage, was accepted, I moved to the campus of Jiangnan University in 无锡 Wuxi1 (China) receiving a scolarship among international mobility plan between the University Federico II and the Jiangnan University. I have been there for 3 months, living and studying in the campus, in a full chinese immersion. I studied in the landscape design studio, the department directed by Professor Shi Ming. She decided the main topic of my research in collaboration with Xiangjia, a graduating student in landscape design, also involved in a research about chinese industrial heritage. With its fast development in recent years, Wuxi is now one of China’s top 50 cities, it is thus called the ‘Little Shanghai’ for its prosperous economy. The citycentre is a rich cultural repository, and its development is strictly connected with the industrial one. After a general overview about the main features of the citycentre, it was clear very soon that industrial heritage plays an important role among them. Its protection has been given unprecedented attention in the process of urban renewal and development of Wuxi city centre, since it has began to realize how industrial heritage could be used to attract people. Towards the end of the 20 th century, a large number of industrial sites have been closed down and relocated somewhere else. Policy makers are pushing to obtain Wuxi urban renewal through competitions and assignments, focusing on the sites alongside the Grand Canal (externally concentric to the current ring road that marks the ancient walls track), More than 34 abandoned factories lie alongside the canal zone , that has the potential to be a prominent infrastructural ring backbone. Some of the abandoned factories were converted into buildings for leisure and event, but there is still a lack of a clear strategies to strenghten relationships between industrial heritage and Wuxi historical centre resources. The thesis argues about the evolution of the historical city centre hand in hand with the industrial development, to understand the conversion process and necessary strategies required to install new architectural programme within the existing industrial sites, recognizing their unique conditions. Embracing multi-scaled approach, the thesis proposes new landscape chances of uses by putting the remains of industrial cores in a network that constitutes a clustering of art, history, leisure and entertainment. Among them, more attention is given to Taibaodun area, main industrial core of Wuxi. After the proposal of a new masterplan of Taibaodun area, the final output of the research is constituted by the definition of strategic guidelines to achieve a renewal project referring to the whole Maoxin site, the former industrial site of Taibaodun area.

8


view of the Jiangnan campus, Wuxi 10/2013

9


Wuxi’s ancient walls track Taibaodun area Maoxin site

10


11


01

INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE IN CHINA “On the way for protecting industrial heritage, comparing the developed countries such as UK, France, USA, Germany, Australia etc., the starting step in China delayed about 40 years, but the pace will be faster and faster.� Que Weimin

13


M50, Shanghai, 10/2013

1. TICCIH, 2003

Industrial heritage is just a type of heritage.

These

In 1973, the International Committee for the

the value of industrial civilization, industrial

Conservation of the Industrial Heritage (TICCIH)

technology, organization, culture.

memorials

help

people

understand

was founded. It is an international society that 2. “Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage”, adopted on the 16th November 1972 by UNESCO World Heritage Committee.”

studies industrial heritage and it defines the

Over the past five decades, urban industrial

concept of industrial heritage as: “remains

heritage has become marginalized as the

of industrial culture which are of historical,

expanding

technological, social, architectural or scientific

international markets for manufacturing.

value. These remains consist of buildings and

New technologies emerged and many factories

machinery, workshops, mills and factories, mines

made redundant and forced to close.

global

economy

has

sought

and sites for processing and refining, warehouses and stores, places where energy is generated,

The first country that faced this situation and the

transmitted and used, transport and all its

questions it produced (what to do with these

infrastructure, as well as places used for social

empty buildings? what to do with the out-dated

activities related to industry such as housing,

machines? how to deal with the professional skills

religious worship or education” .1

of architects?) is the United Kingdom, which is also the origin nation of the industrial revolution.

Strictly speaking, industrial heritage is classified under cultural heritage.2

In the 20th century the protection of industrial heritage has become more common in Western

14

Industrial heritage is the evidence of industrial

countries than all over the world.

activities and is a record of certain historical

Since 1940s, when Carlo Scarpa had attracted

activities.

attention with a number of museum buildings, such


Red Town, Shanghai, 10/2013

as the renovation and conversion of Castelvecchio

With the surprisingly fast development of cities in

in Verona, lots of European architects understood

China, more and more people are flooding into the

what a true dialogue between old and new could

cities and there is a shortage of land resources.

look like. In recent years, working with existing buildings has

However, “the issue of industrial heritage is

become an “independent architectural genre” 3 ; it

drawing unprecedented attention in China.” 4

means that the old is no longer understood merely

With continuous improvement of public awareness,

as architectural material.

people have realized the significance of industrial heritage, that has been given unprecedented

Internationally, the responsible treatment of

attention in the process of urban renewal and

building stock is far from being a well-established

development in Chinese cities.

3. “Whereas, in the twentieth century, architects preferred the task of designing new buildings and only a handful of trailblazers had discovered the allure of interweaving historical and modern architecture, today the work of these pioneers has borne fruit; working with existing buildings has long since developed into an independent architectural genre.” Frank Peter Jager 4. from “Bullettin TICCIH number 59, 2013.”

shared concept. On April 18th 2006, the first session on China’s In China, for example, which was economically

Conservation of the Industrial Heritage was held

ended up at the beginning of the 1990s, historical

in Wuxi (Wuxi Forum).

buildings have since been razed to the ground to

That conference founded to the theme of

an extent that takes away the breath of Western

International Heritage Day which is devoted

observers.

to

The

unexpected

large-scale

acknowledging

and

protecting

industrial

modernization

heritage; they produced the document ‘Wuxi

movement in some cities has led to a large

Recommendations’, the first chartered document

number of industrial buildings’ demolition, which

for protecting industrial heritage in China.

meant that many precious memories were erased from the cities.

“Plentiful cultural heritages emerged in Chinese 15


industrial site hosting “Biennal of architecture and contemprary art” Shanghai, West Bund, 11/2013

5. from “Bullettin TICCIH number 32, 2006.” Que Weimin, Peking University

16

history during the last thousands years, which

Preservation and reuse of industrial heritage

include

concerns multiple interested parties. Such work

industrial

heritage

reflecting

four

specialties:

was pioneered by the private sector and after

• many industrial heritages (exactly, technological

its positive social impact and economic benefits

heritages)

became evident, attracted the attention of city

arose in the agricultural civilization;

administrators and investment from real estate

• industrial heritages in 1850s-1949 were branded

development companies.

by semi-feudal & semi-colony;

It became clear how industrial heritage could be

• national industrial heritages in 1850s-1949 are

used to attract people.

the essence of Chinese Industrial Heritage;

In some big cities like Beijing and Shanghai, the

• industrial heritages in 1949-1970s are facing

reconversion and adaptive renewal of abandoned

technological renewal or replacement now.” 5

industrial areas has attracted a lot of people over


old factory going to be renovated in Zhongtan district, Shanghai, 11/2013

the recent years.

heritage was a new, urgent task for the protection

For example, the 798 Art District in Beijing,

of Chinese cultural heritage.

Shanghai Red Town and M50 (visited by the

It also listed the main problems for industrial

author as case studies) are places full of creative

heritage protection that China is facing, such

products like design, publishing, exhibition,

as inadequate attention and absence of official

performance, artists’ studios and other cultural

information about the number, distribution and

experiences.

situation of industrial areas being conserved.

6. State Administration of Cultural Heritage

Chinese cities are still in the initial stages of In May 2006, SACH published a ‘Notice on

preservation and reuse of industrial heritage.

Strengthening the Protection of Industrial Heritage’

Reuse strategies and models best suited for the

to lower-level departments.

unique conditions of industrial heritage in China

It pointed out that conservation of industrial

need be further developed.

6

17


02

WUXI: BIRTHLAND OF CHINESE INDUSTRY “...like gothic ruins in the 19th century, artifacts of the Industrial Age now inspire nostalgia for the past.” Robert Harbinson

19


Jiangsu province in China, waterways

Wuxi is a city with a history of 3,000 years.

vast Taihu Lake with its fascinating water scenes,

The legend tells that two fugitive princes found this

the ‘Sea of Bamboo’ in Yixing, the Turtle islands,

area, and since the tin deposits were abundant,

Huishan Mountain, and so on.

they called it Youxi, meaning “has lots of tin” in

The citycentre is a rich cultural repository, whose

Mandarin Chinese. After the tin mine ran out in

features (landscape, heritage, industry, high

25 A.D., it got the present name Wuxi, meaning in

technology) are expressed in an area of about

Chinese “no more tin”.

314 square kilometers. There are has many private gardens and parks

Nestled on the northern shore of Taihu Lake,

built by learned scholars and rich people in the

China’s third-largest body of fresh water, Wuxi lies

past.

on the southern border of Jiangsu Province, about

Among these, Li Yuan, Mei Yuan and Jichang

128 kilometers northwest of Shanghai.

gardens are good examples that have been well

The “Pearl of Taihu Lake” covers an area of 4,785 square

preserved.

kilometers, it borders Suzhou to the east, Zhejiang Province to the south and Changzhou to the west.

In modern times, with its rapidly developing industry, Wuxi became one of China’s top 50 cities

20

The prefecture-level city administers 9 county-

with broad strength and is thus called the ‘Little

level divisions, including 7 districts and 2 county-

Shanghai’ for its prosperous economy.

level cities (Jiangyin and Yixing).

Now (2013) the city’ gross domestic product indax

The total population growth from the 1,426

is ranked at the 9th among 659 Chinese major

million (2000) to 6,372 millions (2010) and it’s still

cities and at the second in Jiangsu Province,

increasing.

even exceeding the GDP of the provincial capital,

Wuxi is blessed with charming natural beauty: the

Nanjing.


Jiangsu province, main waterways

LIANYUNGANG

XUZHOU

SUQIAN HUAIAN

YANCHENG

YANGZHOU

Jiangsu province 32°54’N 119°48’E Capital Nanjing Population (2010) 79,200,000 Density 770/km2 Division 13 prefectures, 106 counties, 1488 townships

TAIZHOU

ZHENJIANG NANTONG

NANJING CHANGZHOU

WUXI SUZHOU

XUZHOU

GRAND CANAL

SUQIAN

Built 2000 years ago, the Grand Canal is 1764 km in length and is the longest man-made waterway in the world. Touring along the canal, you experience its past thriving from dotted cities along with its waterlines.

HUAIAN

HONGZE LAKE The fourth largest freshwater lake in China. The lake is surrounded by two cities of Jiangsu, Suqian and Huai’an, and its northwest part borders Anhui Province.

YANGZHOU

YANGTZE

TAIZHOU

ZHENJIANG

TAIHU LAKE Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China. The lake is linked by the Grand Canal in the northwest and separates Wuxi City into two halves flanking its north and most of western and eastern part.

NANJING CHANGZHOU

WUXI SUZHOU

The Yangtze River, the longest in China and the third longest in the world, cuts through the heart of the country marking the division of China into north and south both geographically and culturally. This cut also divides Jiangsu into two parts, the north and the south of the province.

21


JIANGYING (city)

HUISHAN 1

2 3

XISHAN 4

BINHU

Taihu lake

Wuxi 31°34’N 120°18’E Population (2010) 6,372,624 Density 1,300/km2 Prefecture-level 9 county-level divisions 7 districts, 2 county-level cities.

YIXING (city) 1 BEITANG 2 CHONG’AN 3 NANCHANG 4 NEW DISTRICT CITY CENTRE

HUISHAN FOREST PARK JICHANG GARDEN FORMER RESIDENCE XUE

CHONG’AN TEMPLE DONGLIN SQUARE NANCHAN TEMPLE

MEY BLOSSOM GARDEN

NANCHANG STREET HUISHAN TOWN

TURTLE HEAD PENINSULA SPOT LIYUAN GARDEN

HISTORICAL CENTRE

0

22

1

10km


Wuxi, landscape

23


Wuxi, tradition

24


Wuxi, growing

25


physical model of Wuxi in Qing dynasty

1. in “Cross-Cultural Trade in World History” (Cambridge University Press, 2008) Philip D. Curtin

Wuxi is one of the birthplaces of China’s modern

During

industry and commerce, as well as the hometown

known as “agricultural period”, “China passed

of many important businessmen, who played

through a phase of economic growth that was

essential roles in building modern Shanghai

unprecedented in earlier Chinese history, perhaps

commerce since the early 20th century.

in world history up to this time...” 1

the

Song

dynasty,

(960-1279)

well

The Grand Canal passed through the city of Wuxi The capital city of Wu Kingdom at the end of

from the north to the south.

the11th century was the birthplace of Wu Culture

They built the “ring” walls and four gates.

in China. Relying on the near-by Yangtze River and ancient Grand Canal, it had been a port city

Only at the late Ming dynasty (1368-1644) the

with the busiest rice and cloth market in China

development of handicraft industry flourished.

before 19th century.

New houses were built into the historical centre and a new west gate was opened.

In the following text I will describe the main steps that characterised the changes of urban

With the Qing dynasty (1636-1912) feudal system

morphology of the historical centre of Wuxi hand

in China’s history had an end.

in hand with the development of industry during

During Qing dynasty, they built more canals and

last 1000 years.

bridges inside the walls and there was a spread of houses in the centre.

Historical informations were collected through old

An artificial island near the west gate (Taibaodun)

books, recorded conference, archive materials,

was created.

mainly thanks to the help of professor Shi Ming, co-advisor of this thesis. 26

In Ming and Qing dynasties, Wuxi was already an


Wuxi historical centre Map of 1268, Song dynasty

Wuxi historical centre Map of 1494, Ming dynasty

Wuxi historical centre Map of 1681, Qing dynasty

27


The Northern Cang Gate silk warehouse (former site in 1938) Now (10/2013) BCM Art life center, Wuxi

Yeqin Cotton mill, 1915 Wuxi

Maoxin flour factory (former site 1901) rebuilt in 1945 Wuxi

2. 1 million of yuan = 116181,00 € (March 2014)

agricultural center and a significant national rice

In 1916 Taibaodun was connected to another

market.

district, lacking a piece of land: Xishuidun island.

After 1842 the industrial development rose.

The early Modernism style buildings appeared at about 1930 carrying new trends in architecture

Western architectural culture spread into China so

style, such as reinforced concrete structures, the

the Sino-west combined style buildings appeared.

refusal of the ornamentation in favor of a aesthetic

Industrial

merit intrinsic to the materials.

buildings

were

characterised

by

wooden structures, brick facades, balconies.

Prevalence to interior spaces was given instead of the outside apperance.

Since the end of the 19 century, the early th

dependence on river transportation and access

Before Japan’s occupation of Wuxi in 1937, Wuxi

to water for production created an extensive

was one of the six major industrial cities in China:

concentration of waterfront industrial buildings,

• 20 industrial sectors

warehouses and wharf structures alongside the

• 315 factories

Grand Canal in Wuxi.

• 630.000 industrial workers (2nd after Shanghai) • 77,26 millions of yuan2 as annual output value

With the continuous development, Wuxi became

• 14 millions of yuan as capitalization

a hub of the textile industry, both light and heavy

28

industry in early 20th century until after the

In 1956 they continued in building factories beside

establishment of the People’s Republic of China.

the ancient canal and destroyed the ancient walls.

During the Republic of China the shape of the

Nowadays, a ring road marked the ancient walls

historical centre of Wuxi has basically stabilized.

track.


Wuxi historical centre Map of 1916

Wuxi historical centre Map of 1956

Wuxi historical centre Map of 1974

29


NANCHANG 1 GROUP KILN 2 DINGCHANG 3 WANG YUA 4 WUXI COMP 5 YONGTAI SIL 6 MAOXIN FLO 7 TIANYUAN J 8 XU JI GRIND

BEITANG D 9 HUISHAN C 10 MONEY & 11 BANK OF C 12 HUIYUAN F 13 WUXI SEC 14 PAPER UN

CHONGAN 15 BEI CANG 16 WUXI COU 17 QINGFENG

BINHU DIST 18 JIANGNAN 19 KAIYUAN M 20 BEIQIAO W

China carried out reform and open policy in 1978.

for protecting industrial heritage in China.

The period of Deng Xiaoping started. The city of Wuxi began to spread outward the

Toward the end of the 20th century, a large

“ring” of the canal.

number of industrial enterprises in the inner city

In the early time of Deng’s period the urban

were closed down and relocated outside of the

landscape was stable.

city.

It abrupt changed with the rapidly city expanding since 2005.

In 2007, a major investigation of industrial heritage within the city boundaries was conducted by Wuxi

To underline the importance of industry in Wuxi, on

Government as part of the nationwide survey of

April 18 of 2006 the city was chosen to held the

cultural relics.

“Industrial Heritage Day”, organized by National Cultural Heritage Bureau of China and ICOMOS

They made the first and second batch of industrial

China.

heritage protection list in Wuxi city.

As

30

already

mentioned,

over

60

scholars,

heritage site managers and officers attended the

The list shows that most of the 34 factories are

conference, discussed and proposed the “Wuxi

still standing round the historical city centre, thus

Recommendation” - the first chartered document

around the ancient canal.


序号 SERIAL

工业遗产名录 INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE LIST

地址 ADDRESS

1

大窑路窑群遗址及窑业公所旧址 Group kiln sites and ceramics ccba site 纸业工会旧址 Paper union site 王元吉锅厂旧址 Wang Yuanji pot plant site 许记磨面作坊旧址 Xu Ji grinding mill site 锡金钱丝两业公所旧址 Money & Wire ccba site 茂新面粉厂旧址 Maoxin flour factory site 无锡县商会旧址 Wuxi county chamber of commerce site 中国银行无锡分行旧址 Bank of China Wuxi branch 庆丰纱厂旧址 Qingfeng textile factory site 永泰丝厂旧址 Yongtai silk factory site 鼎昌丝厂旧址 Dingchang silk factory site 北仓门蚕丝仓库旧址 Bei Cangmen silk warehouse site 北桥仓库旧址 Beiqiao warehouse site 惠元面粉厂旧址 Huiyuan flour factory site 天元麻纺厂旧址 Tianyuan jute factory site 无锡市第二粮食仓库旧址 Wuxi Second grain storage site 江南无线电器材厂旧址 Jiangnan radio equipment factory site 开源机器厂旧址 Kaiyuan machinery plant site 惠山泥人厂旧址 Huishan clay figurines factory site 无锡压缩机厂旧址 Wuxi compression factory site 丽新纺织印染厂旧址 Lixin textile factory site 协新毛纺织染厂 Xiexin wool weaving & dyeingfactory 储业公所 ChuYe ccba 振新纱厂旧址 Zhenxin textile factory site 申新三厂旧址 Shenxin third textile factory site 无锡粮食机械厂 Wuxi food machinery factory 天元麻纺厂旧址(增补) Tianyuan jute factory site (supplement) 福来和号糟坊 Fu Lai distillery site 金昌字号酱油糟坊 Jinchang brand soy sauce distillery 春雷造船厂 Chunlei shipyard site 西漳蚕种场 Xizhang silkworm field 礼舍蚕茧所 Lishe cocoon factory 玉祁制丝所 Yuqi silk factory 无锡梅园水厂 Wuxi meiyuan waterworks

南长区大窑路地区

2 3 4 5 6

THE FIRST BATCH

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

THE SECOND BATCH

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

北塘区江尖公园 南长区伯渎巷 120-122 号

The first and the second batch of industrial heritage protection list in Wuxi citycentre, 2007 previous page map showing the location of factories near Wuxi historical centre

南长区新民路 13 号 北塘区前竹场巷 30 号 南长区振兴路 415 号 崇安区站前商贸区 北塘区前竹场巷 31 号 崇安区锡沪西路 203 号 南长区南长街 364 号 南长区金钩桥 23 号 崇安区北仓门 37 号 滨湖区湖滨路 67 号 北塘区通惠西路 11 号 南长区天元路 1 号 北塘区南尖蓉湖公园 滨湖区梁溪路 14 号 南长区湖滨路 11 号 北塘区锡惠路 26 号 南长区南下塘 213 号 北塘区丽新路 54 号 北塘区丽新路 60 号 北塘区南尖 南长区健康路 116 号 南长区健康路 124 号 南长区南长街 701 号 南长区天元路 1 号 崇安区东大街 68 号 崇安区西大街 50 号 锡山区东亭镇 惠山区锡澄北路 91 号 惠山区礼舍村 惠山区玉祁镇降脚下 143 号 滨湖区管社山梅园水厂

31


03 WUXI’S RING

The location of warehouses was selected based upon their close proximity and convenient access to rivers and oceans, being ideal for trading purposes. They were ideally situated for the unloading and storage of merchandise and goods which were discharged directly off ships. John Hubert Pragnell

33


WUXI RING 34


HISTORICAL CENTRE INDUSTRIAL SITE RIVERS

4km

2

Following the location of industrial sites alongside

and Shishuidong cultural street.

the canal (externally concentric to the current ring

Proper utilization of disused industrial sites

road that marks the ancient walls track), it was

became a new challenge in Wuxi’s urban renewal

understood that the canal zone has the potential

and development process.

to be a prominent infrastructural ring backbone,

However, they seem one-off projects that lack

thanks to the convenient transport facilities,

a systematic point of view and strategies to

limited perimeter (especially if compared to

strenghten

the expansion of the city), and the rich cultural

heritage and Wuxi historical centre resources.

repository in the historical centre.

Therefore, as the research progressed, it

relationships

between

industrial

became evident that more data about the In recent years some of the abandoned factories

current situation of the historical centre of Wuxi

alongside the canal were converted into buildings

were required in order to understand the whole

for leisure and event, such as BCM art life center

main elements of the historical centre. 35


Wuxi “ring” border of the historical centre

0 100

36

500

1000M


mobility

BE

IJI

NG

AI

GH

AN

SH

SUBWAY STATION RAILWAY STATION HUB CRUISE TERMINAL WHARF SUBWAY LINE RAILWAY LINE TOURISTIC ROUTES

37


government guidelines

RENEWABLE AREA REMOVABLE AREA PROTECTED BUILDING

38


landscape

ANCIENT GATE MAIN CORE LANDSCAPE CORE LANDSCAPE HISTORICAL SITE PUBLIC GREEN SPACE LANDSCAPE PROMENADE RIVER WALKSIDE

39


functions

DWELLING CULTURAL ENTERTAINMENT PUBLIC GREEN PUBLIC UTILITIES SCHOOL/EDUCATION COMMERCIAL ADMINISTRATIVE MIXED USE CULTURAL HERITAGE INDUSTRIAL

40


bridges

MODERN BRIDGE TRADITIONAL BRIDGE

41


summary diagram

INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE

HISTORICAL ATTRACTIONS

CORE LANDSCAPE

WHARFS

1. Clustering is here intended as the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). Cluster analysis was originated in anthropology by Driver and Kroeber in 1932 and introduced to psychology by Zubin in 1938 and Robert Tryon in 1939

Considering the urban survey results, it was clear

“ring” programme.

that industrial heritage sites, landscape corners

With the aim of strengthening the relationship

and cores, historical attractions, constitute a

between the canal and the main “materials” of

whole narrow and continuous belt around the

the historical centre, strategic and social-cultural-

canal.

landscape interest areas are identified to become steps of new routes.

The “ring” shape and the convenient transport facilities (the ring road, Wuxi railway station

The proposal seeks to internalize this cycle (ring)

close to the ring, underground stations, bridges,

of “materials” that has the potential to become

waterways and wharfs) plus riverside walk and

the setting and source for its own regeneration by

“ring” limited perimeter (about 10 kilometers)

proposing new routes, gain new chances of uses.

suggest a “clustering”.1 Clustering activities will lead to:

42

Unlike the common placement of industrial

• strenghten the relationship between river and

facilities on the periphery of urban centers, the

historical centre

strategic location of the factories along the edge

• new sightseeing routes

of the existing riverside has the opportunity to be

• let people empathize with industrial heritage

reclaimed as public amenity.

• enjoy the landscape cores

In my opinion greater consideration is required

In that way the industrial sites can be understood

to gain holistic regeneration of the overall

not only beyond the autonomous factories but also

environment and landscape alongside the canal,

as a part of a network through history, nature,art,

also to insert industrial sites as steps of a choral

industry and future.


activities diagram selected areas

THE CANAL PARK

JIANGJIAN PARK RAILWAY STATION MAOXIN CENTRE

CLUB STREET

BCM ART CENTER

DEONGLIN SQUARE SPORTS PARK INDUSTRIAL PARK

NANCHAN TEMPLE

NANCHANG STREET

43


44

UNDERGROUND

BOAT

BIKE

PEDESTRIAN


wuxi railway station parks industrial heritage art leisure fun 1 DAY

WUXI RING

1 DAY

WUXI RING

2 DAYS

K

WEE ING XI R RING WU WUXI WUXI RING

45

2 DAYS 1 DAY


04

TAIBAODUN AREA When buildings talk, it is never with a single voice. Buildings are choirs rather than soloists. Alain de Botton

47


MAIN

industrial

CORE in WUXI 48


physical model of historical centre of Wuxi and lands nearby during Qing period, Wuxi Library, 2013

In the proposed routes for “Wuxi ring network”,

it seemed convenient. It was located opposite to

Taibaodun area plays an important role.

Xishuidun island, overlooking the stretch of water

1. Rong Desheng and Rond Zongjing

connecting Liang Xi river and the grand canal. Taibaodun is an area next to the ancient west gate

The access to the waterways guaranteed the

of Wuxi historical centre; it has always been Wuxi

transportation of goods and industrial machines.

historical centre’s “liver”, expression of marginality and transition.

In 1907 Rong brothers built Zhenxin textile

It has to be considered the main industrial core

factories, alongside the Grand canal, opposite to

of the city.

the west border of ancient walls.

There are lots of traces of the history and identity

In 1919 they left Zhenxin site and built the third

of Wuxi’s industry, since the area was the turning

Shenxin textile factory, alongside Liang Xi river.

place of two chinese industrial

entrepreneurs

who played an important role in the development

In 1937, Japanese destroyed the Maoxin flour

of chinese industry and commerce: the Rong

factory (rebuilt in 1946).

brothers1. Taibaodun was once on the outskirts, but as the Actually, in 1901, thanks to its favourite and

cities spread, it became more central and thus

strategic position (next to the outer western border

more important, usually supplied with major

of the historical centre, surrounded by two canals)

urban infrastructures and connected by roads,

Taibaodun was chosen by Rong brothers to build

waterways and bridges.

their first factory: Maoxin flour factory.

It seems like enclosed protected enclave and it

They thought about “flour” because at that time

is seen as autonomous, specialized area distinct 49


1681

it was an island near the west gate

1916

connected to another district

1956

factories witness the glorious past

50


1901

rong brothers chose taibaodun area

1901

they built the first factory: maoxin flour factory

1907

they built the first tectile factory: zhenxin factory

51


1919

they built the 3rd shenxin factory

2000

the bridge connected taibaodun to the border of historical centre

2007

they destroyed the bridge and built a huge road from east to west 52


PENG XIA STREET

XIAN YI BRIDGE

JIE FANG NAN LU ROAD GRAND CANAL

XUE FORMER RESIDENCE XIAN YING BRIDGE XI SHUIDUN XI SHUI BRIDGE XI XIN BRIDGE YING LONG BRIDGE

LIANG XI RIVER

MOSQUE XUE QIAN XI LU ROAD MAO XIN BRIDGE

ZHENXIN ROAD YING LONG ROAD JIANKANG ROAD SHEN XIN BRIDGE

0 20

100

200M

53


MAOXIN FLOUR FACTORY XI SHUI DUN

54

XUE QIAN XI LU ROAD LIBRARY

MOSQUE


ZHENXIN FACTORY

OLD TEXTILE FACTORIES

XI SHUI DONG DISTRICT

55


XI XIN BRIDGE

XIAN YING BRIDGE

56

WU AI

XI SHUI BRIDGE

OFFICE

XI SHUI DUN

GOVERNMENT OFFICE


from the rest of the historical centre.

reactivate and to create new processes defining urban strategies, supported by architectural and

In recent years the former area has been

landscape solutions considering the potentials

transformed.

and criticals expressed by the area, replanned in

Government of Wuxi built new roads (e.g., Xue

recent years.

Qian Xi Lu road that actually splitted the Taibaodun area in two parts) decided for an adaptive

The results of urban surveys made me understand

renewal of Shenxin site (the current Xishuidong

more on the significance of the site to the whole

business street) and promoted the Shishuidong

city; it has the potential to activate historical

urban project already in the execution phase

and realistic sense of the former industrial site,

(new district, which include the construction of

stimulating the sense of communal involvement.

skyscrapers for commercial and residential uses, artificial small canals, able to keep together old

The proposal follows 3 main goals: rationalizing,

buildings and new urban needs).

mending, catalyzing.

The edge of the selected area intertwins the

The final output is a new masterplan, that is not only an

western boundary of historical centre of Wuxi, the

environmental and an infrastructural requalification,

Grand canal walkside, Liang Xi river, industrial

but also a preservation of industrial memories and

buildings mentioned before, residential buildings,

integration of a variety of activities; it guarantees

mixed use buildings, landscape corners, the new

continuity between the different spaces, different

Shishuidong district.

needs, old and new setting of Taibaodun area, gathering education, industrial memories, tourism,

After urban surveys, it appeared necessary to

shopping, entertainment and leisure together. 57


DWELLING INDUSTRIAL COMMERCIAL MIXED USE MOSQUE SCHOOL/EDUCATION LANDSCAPE HERITAGE HOSPITAL

0 20

940.000 M2 DWELLING INDUSTRIAL COMMERCIAL MIXED USE SCHOOL/EDUCATION LANDSCAPE HERITAGE

58

100

200M


POTENTIALS CRITICALS

59


BRIDGES

INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE

LANDMARKS

60


GREEN CORES

SHISHUIDONG PROJECT

WATERWAYS

61


INTERRUPTED MEMORY

the huge road split the original Taibaodun industrial site in 2 parts

INSULATION

lack of connections between Maoxin factory and the surrounding areas

62


NATURAL SPLIT-UP

the canal planned in Shishuidong project splits zhenxin textile area

PULLED BORDER

lack of connections between the border of Wuxi ring and Taibaodun

NOT ENOUGH PUBLIC SPACE community people needs more rest spaces instead of car parking areas

63


INTERRUPTED MEMORY

INSULATION

NATURAL SPLIT-UP

PULLED BORDER

NOT ENOUGH PUBLIC SPACE

64


GOALS

RATIONALIZING

MENDING

CATALYZING


SETTLED ROUTES

different layers for different users. Let users feel safe in their own route

RIVER

SEAT

WALK

BIKE

CAR

UNDERGROUND PARKING

let pedestrian join courtyard and move cars underground

WIND RAIN BRIDGE

let pedestrian reach Maoxin site by the replaced bridge.

66


NEW PATHS

mending zhenxhin textile area by pedestrian bridges/paths

EXPLOIT MAOXIN ROOFTOP make pipelines attractive in order to catch attention from the surrounding

SHOW-UP FACADE

catch people eyes by adding show-up boxes on Maoxin factory

67


rationalizing

mending

Festina Lente bridge, Sarajevo

Gubei Pedestrian Promenade, Shanghai

Waterhouse hotel, Shanghai

Bishan Public Library, Singapore

catalyzing

68


NEW GATES

CIRCULATION

urban strategies

public road private road logistic road

GREEN BELT

LANDSCAPE CORES

LIVENESS

ECONETWORK

69


VISIONS


74


75


CHINESE GARDEN SMALL SHOPPING AREA INDUSTRIAL THEME PARK SMALL SHOPPING MALL ART CENTER XI SHUI LIVE CENTER 76


NEW BRIDGE CHINESE PAVILION MAOXIN CULTURAL CENTRE "WAREHOUSE" GALLERY BRICK FACTORIES PARK

77


05

MAOXIN SITE: WHICH FUTURE? “...they constitute an essential identity structure, which can still be used as a contemporary resource, worth re-interpreting through integrated and sustainable transformation projects.� Margherita Vanore

79


Maoxin flour factory, Wuxi, 11/2014

As already mentioned, in 1901 Rong brothers built

At that time, the factory was divested; in 2005

a factory that would have brought fortune to their

the Government of Wuxi planned the renovation,

carrer as chinese industrial entrepreneurs: Baoxin

realized in 2007.

flour factory (then renamed Maoxin). It was the first factory built by Rong brother, the

The restyling concerned the reinforcing of

first flour factory in Wuxi, the former industrial site

concrete structure by profiled steel, the connection

in Taibaodun area, a prime example of China’s

between the two former buildings of the factory,

national industrial commerce.

the redistribution of the indoor spaces to be used for Museum.

Because of its strategic position, its proximity to

The warehouse facing Xue Qian Xi Lu road was

citycente and waterways, the industrial production

converted in the current Library.

of the flour rised in the following years. Nowadays, the Maoxin flour factory is China In 1937 the factory was destroyed by Japanese,

National Industry and Commerce Museum of

and it was re-built in 1946 in concrete structure

Wuxi, covers more than 12,123 square meters.

and red bricks facades.

In spite of this, Maoxin site (once connected with

In order to respond to the increasing demand,

Zhenxin factories site, forming Taibaodun area) is

lots of British-american industrial machines were

nowadays perceived as a sort of island, insulated

imported (all of them are preserved in the factory).

by the huge road Xue Qian Xi Lu built in 2007, hidden from the Library; it was not included in

80

In the 1990s the Government of Wuxi built other

Shishuidong masterplan project and the bridge

buildings around the factory (i.e., Government

that guaranteed the connection between the

office, warehouses).

factory and the western border of historical centre


1901

rong brothers built maoxin flour factory

1946

after the destruction of 1937 it was rebuilt

1990S

they built buildings and a warehouse

2000

still the bridge connected maoxin area and western border of citycentre

2007

warehouse became current library 81


Maoxin flour factory, view from chinese pavilion Wuxi, 11/2014

(once the western gate of the ancient walls) was

catalyzing centre, dealing with the urban recent

destroyed in recent years (cf. previous chapter).

transformations of the site.

The situation appearing now unjustly relegates the

82

factory (the Museum) and the outdoor spaces to a

Maoxin site is in the middle of such a mixed-

marginal position, more relating to the northern part of

used area, stretched across a small surface: in

the whole area than to the southern part (ex Taibaodun).

less than 250.000 m2, the factory interfaces with

Nevertheless,

should

waterways (Liang Xi river, grand canal), chinese

be able to constitute a new urban fulcrum, a

garden (Xi shui dun), a large residential area

its

strategic

position


Maoxin flour factory, view from the roof of government office Wuxi, 11/2014

(social housing), business district (Shishuidong in

through personal interviews with Wuxi city

progress), Zhenxin factory (waiting for a renewal),

planners, current and former residents of the

the main road Xue Qian Xi Lu, bridges (old and

site; books, archive materials, site visit (surveys),

new), the adjacent Library, the Government office,

photographs, digital models.

last but not the least the western border of the

Embracing such a multi-scaled approach, and

Wuxi historical centre.

following the results of the research on large

1. Dal cucchiaio alla città (“From the spoon to the town”) is the slogan created by Ernesto Rogers in 1952 in the Charta of Athens

scale within the strategies proposed, from the Studying in such a full of significances area,

historical centre (Wuxi’s ring) to the industrial main

with lots of inputs about industrial identity, urban

core (Taibaodun), it was decided not to propose

development, history, is a great challenge.

one renewal proposal about Maoxin site (with all its implications about landscape, urban and

The site played and should continue in playing an

architectural matters), but rather to estabilish the

important role in Taibaodun area , and then in the

main objectives that a renewal project referring

Wuxi “ring” network proposed before.

to the whole Maoxin site should provide, then to delimit the project site boundary, thus in the

The legibility of the implications that Maoxin

end to determin macro-themes leading to draft

site brings with it, led to a proposal that closes

alternative methods of project execution.

the “ring”, from the Wuxi ring (downtown) to the Maoxin cultural centre (spoon).1

As a supporting document for a future call of

Informations regarding the conversion process,

proposals, the materials will remain as a resource

since the Maoxin was built in 1901, the current

base to be built upon and to remain beyond a

situation of the site, protection regulations, the

hypothetic competition for the benefit of policy

necessary strategies required, were collected

makers, practitioners and researchers. 83


0

ZHENXIN FACTORY

84

450M

100

MAOXIN FACTORY

LIBRARY

GOVERNMENT OFFICE

ZHENXIN FACTORY

MUSEUM OFFICE

PEDESTRIAN

MUSEUM OF INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE (Maoxin factory)

MAIN ROAD

XI SHUI DUN

CHINESE PAVILION


1

6 5

3

1 2

4

7

Maoxin flour factory (museum of industry) 2

Library 4

Government office 6

Zhenxin textile factory

3

Office (regarding the museum) 5

Xi shui dun (chinese garden) 7

Social housing district (wu hai) 85


WU AI

XI SHUI BRIDGE XI SHUI DUN OFFICE

86

MUSEUM OF INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE (Maoxin factory)


LIBRARY

ZHENXIN TEXTILE FACTORY

87


FIRST FLOOR

SECTIONAL ELEVATION 88


SECOND FLOOR

01

10m

THIRD FLOOR 89


FOURTH FLOOR

FIFTH FLOOR

ROOFTOP 90


1

3

2

EAST ELEVATION 1

WEST ELEVATION 2

SOUTH ELEVATION 3 91


ELEVATION FROM THE RIVER


archive pictures of Maoxin Flour factory

Surveys concerned Maoxin factory buildings (in

were renovated (a new access gate in spider

recent years they were renovated) and the Library

glass structure, a new glass box that provides

(the reconverted warehouse in 2007).

physical connection between the factory buildings creating a continuum).

The Maoxin flour factory (from now on Maoxin museum) is composed of 4 main buildings.

The pipelines are still on the roof, constituting landmarks within the yellow waterbox.

They were built in reinforced concrete columns (consituting a regular pattern grid 9,8x2,4 meters)

Right now, the Museum is divided in four main

and steel-beam-floors.

zones where the development of China’s national commerce and industry is shown via a large

Lying in the outer edge of the plans, the columns

number of real objects.

pattern let them free in order to gain the space required to install and run the machines for the

The original machines of the Maoxin factory

flour production.

the storehouse of Maoxin Flour Mill, the original producing equipment (mostly anglo-american

94

Made in bricks, the facades are characterised by

imported) and the working procedure of flour

a regular pattern of windows, that provide interior

production are both preserved and restored to

lighting and ventilation.

recover the historical appearance of the factory.

As already mentioned, in 2003 the government

Reappearing former appearance of Maoxin

of Wuxi converted the factory in the Museum of

Flour Mill is the main aim of the Museum since its

industry and commerce and in 2007 the buildings

conception.


3d diagrams: the Museum and the Library next pages machines in the Museum

95


96


97


MAOXIN SITE/landscape

TO

SOC

IAL

HO

TO CH INESE XI SHU GARDEN I DONG

MUSEUM (PROTECTED) 1800M2 LIBRARY 1100 M2 GOVERNMENT OFFICE 1400 M2 MUSEUM OFFICE (PROTECTED) 400 M2 ZHENXIN FACTORY 470 M2

USI

T

R

EST

PED

OM E FR

GAT

XUE

RO

ERG

UND

S PAS UND

D

ROA

OAD

UR

IL NX

QIA

AGE

S

TAIR

S IAN

ING

XI R

U OW

NG

L RIA ST DE DU A IN EN TO ROM P

TOTAL FLOOR AREA 24.700 M2 NET FLOOR AREA 23.500 M2 USABLE AREA (LANDSCAPE) 19.300 M2 (the surface of the new bridge is not included)

98

INUDSTRIAL PARK 1900M2 FOOT WIND RAIN BRIDGE 180 M2 UNDERGROUND PASSAGE 1700 M2 PARK FACILITIES 400M2


RESEARCH OF WUXI’S INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE TAIBAODUN MASTERPLAN

WUXI RING

MAOXIN SITE

CALL FOR PROPOSALS LANDSCAPE

MAOXIN CULTURAL CENTRE

CONNECTIONS

DEMOLITION AND RE-ADDING ALT 1.1 ALT 1.2 ALT 1.3 ALT 1.4

INDUSTRIAL PARK

RE-CONFIGURATION ALT 2

Since its renewal, the Library is intended as

MAOXIN SITE KEY TASKS

separated from the Museum, physically and

• enhance the attractiveness of the site, renewing

functionally, though they share the same inner

it as an incubator for the city’s growth which would

courtyard and they share the same industrial

catalyze further development;

identity.

• definition of public urban spaces open to everyone

The area does not project much sense of the

(residents, tourists, researchers, students, children)

excitement inherent in its historical identity.

that let visitors feel in a creative environment, a

Its fragmented nature means the image of the

catalyzing one where the industrial identity of the site,

area lacks focus and definition.

outdoor spaces, the new Library and the Museum

Overall, the potential latent in Maoxin site

of industry blend together in workshops, hobby

prominent strategic position is unrealised.

activities, educational events, leisure; • regeneration of the landscape confirming the

WHICH FUTURE?

identity of the site as an industrial place, implementing

Maoxin site should become an essential addition

urban operations coming from the new Taibaodun

to the continuum of the engaging cultural spaces

masterplan proposal (e.g., chapter 4), in particular

already proposed by Shishuiodng project (that is

mending the split with Taibaodun area and re-

only limited to the area boarding with the southern

estabilishing the connection with the border of Wuxi

limit of Xue Qiang Xi Lu road, e.g., chapter 4).

“ring”;

Hence the idea of the proposal of strategic

• blend the Library and the Museum of industry and

guidelines to achieve a renewal project referring

commerce into a new urban centre: Maoxin cultural

to the whole Maoxin site, split into two main

centre; adaptive renewal of the Library building and

sectors: landscape and Maoxin cultural centre.

reprogramme of indoor spaces of the Museum and its Office building, both protected by urban regulations. 99


SECTION SCHEME


102


103


LANDSCAPE/connection

WALKING TOUR ART SOUTERRAIN UNDERGROUND PEDESTRIAN NETWORK | MONTREAL

FESTINA LENTE BRIDGE | SARAJEVO

LANDSCAPE

LANDSCAPE/connections

The main aim of the landscape part is to develop

The closeness of Zhenxin factory (whose renewal

creative spaces to enable the searching for and

is included in Shishuidong project strategies),

creation of a new identity and new stories for the

current

site.

waterways,

and

proposed bicycle)

routes

(pedestrian,

constitute

strategic

potentials for the definition of the proposal. Proposals should: • prevent radical changes of the spatial perception

It should be able to confirm the identity of the site

of the site within its original urban configuration;

as a place of transition, identifying a new urban

• emphasize the value of landscape cores around

hub-space with all its articulated complexity.

Maoxin site, that provide an exceptional favorable environment for the new kind of landscape

The main goal is to re-estabilish connections

operations, stressing on the main potentials of the

between the site and the surrounding area.

site (the canal, Xi Shui Dun island, riverside) •

implement

the

Taibaodun

masterplan

It will be achieved by two operations:

prescriptions into new landcsape configuration. • to design a wind-rain-bridge (the old bridge was removed in recent years), retaining its promenade character, to connect the site with

104

Two main subjects of the call of proposals

the western border of Wuxi’s ring.

(LANDSCAPE sector) : connections and industrial

park.

the site and the leisure promenade through the

to configure a ground level path between


LANDSCAPE/industrial park

RED TOWN SHANGHAI, CHINA

QIAN’AN SANLIHE GREENWAY QIAN’AN CITY, HEBEI PROVINCE, CHINA

factories (proposed by Shishuidong project)

RED TOWN SHANGHAI, CHINA

potential value of the industrial heritage.

alongside the grand canal, clearing from the car parking the underground passage to

In Maoxin site there are already industrial

Zhenxin factory, making it pedestrian in order to

machines displayed on the ground, but they are

overcome the physical limit of the Xue Qian Xi

not included in a wide-scale park.

Lu road.

2. “objets à réaction poètique” as he called them, or “objects of poetic reaction,” were part of Le Corbusier’s eclectic collection of objects from nature that he used to examine ideas of structure.

The aim is to re-organize the outdoor spaces LANDSCAPE/industrial park

for artistic external activities for everyone, and to create relations between the available spaces

The thematic industrial park model is a popular

(thanks to the underground car parking solution

form to redevelop industrial heritage sites today.

proposed in Shishuidong project).

The model changes the original site to a

Some of the industrial machines will be displayed

landscape park in order to provide the unique

like scupltural elements on a large esplanade

industrial landscape as an outdoor activity

alternating with trees and urban furniture.

space. “Les objets à réaction poetique”2 that, as in an The main concepts at the root of the design

archaeological site, will capture the curiosity of

process are the definition of external areas, a

the general public.

public space acting as a social bond among functions and also supplying unprogrammed

People will be able to enjoy the nature during

spaces that are usually lacking, or very small,

leisure and recreation and to feel in a creative

in most museums, making people realize the

site, where the industrial identity is evidenced. 105


MAOXIN CULTURAL CENTRE

MAIN GOALS

As you have seen, Museum and Library are

strictly connected (because of the site’s

conglomeration of culture, industry, arts,

evolution, because of the location, because

museum, library; a catalyzing one where the

of their architectural configuration).

industrial identity of the site (evidenced by

configuration of a new cultural centre,

the museum of industry and commerce), The short distances to the different routes

outdoor spaces (whose re-design is the

(current and to be planned, e.g. LANDSCAPE

subject of LANDSCAPE assignment), the

tasks) and to intercity traffic terminals make

renewed Library blend together in workshops,

the two buildings the fulcrum of Maoxin site.

hobby activities, educational events, leisure. Cultural centre users will be not only mere

After listing the main goals that a renewal

consumers of culture but active creators of it.

proposal has to follow, 5 alternatives (and

When stepping inside the Maoxin cultural

sub-alternatives)

centre, visitors can join a space filled with

were

about

different macro themes (more focusing on the

creative experiences.

Library), in order to configure a new cultural

There will be always something going on in

centre, Maoxin cultural centre:

the centre; in collaboration with partners,

ALT. 1 demolition and re-adding

the centre organizes all kind of events, such

1.1 show up facade

as museum visits, exhibition, book reading,

1.2 basement removal

introduction to events as well as for youths

1.3 media facade

and children.

1.4 new hub

ALT. 2 reconfiguration 106

determined,

strenghtening

the

“double

dimension”


between the facade on the street toward the

is the reason why they are showed in simple

new Shishuidong district (Xue Qian Xu Li

diagrams, without any details.

road) and the other (belonging to the Maoxin factory) facing the canal and Xi Shui Dun

The guide lines deal with the legibility of

island with its chinese garden;

the Maoxin site and all the implications and prompts included in the new Taibaodun

• adaptive renewal of the Library building,

masterplan.

by installing a new architectural programme within the Maoxin buildings;

On the following pages, every alternative, coming out of the mentioned guidelines, will

• funcionally reprogramm of the indoor spaces

be showed by a simple 3d model with images

of the Museum

of realized projects as inspiration, whose main features resemble those of the selected

• introduce economic activities, by including

themes.

mixed uses, to generate new jobs and income generating

opportunities,

enhancing

the

potential of the buildings as an attractive creative

destination

for

investors

and

providers of job opportunities. The

alternatives

should

be

understood

as merely guide lines for the hypothetical participants for the call for proposals; this 107


ALT 1.1 /show up facade It was thought to demolish some of the parts added along the years, in order to reconstruct the accesses on two main axes (as in origin), and to use the volume in a new one, added on the facade toward Xue Qian Xi Lu road as a huge show up box, jutting out in search of new forms of hybridisation between architecture and the urban setting. The machines of the Maoxin museum are displayed like scupltural elements and then make permeable the entire sector. Iconic industrial machines create memory of the industrial site, attract people and create a night effect.

108


FRANCO ALBINI, PROPOSAL PAVILION SAI OXAL,1929 | MILANO

MUSIL | BRESCIA 109


ALT 1.2 /basement removal The main goal is to create a new gate, a relation between the small courtyard and the outdoor spaces, by making permeable the entire ground floor of the Library. For this reason, the proposal should provide a solution (that is adaptive to the structural scheme of the Library) achieving a new basement that becomes the support for paths and is itself a path. A heavy mass is detached from the ground in apparent defiance of the laws of gravity and, in a real sense, draw the visitors inside.

SMALL COURTYARD

OUTDOOR

110


HERZOG&DE MEURON, CAIXA FORUM | MADRID

THE CROWN SKY GARDEN, CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL | CHICAGO 111


ALT 1.3 /media facade The Library will take on different appearance in different times of day in order to catalyze needs, lifestyle of different users, curiosity of the passers. To achieve it, a new skin will be overlapped in order to make the volume two dimensional and to create a night effect, changing the southern facade into a urban landmark. The aesthetic treatment of the new facade is able to generate new energies, becoming a new center of attraction, an architectural emblem of vitality; the new image of the center on the road.

XUE QIAN

112

D

XI LU ROA


STARDOM ENTERTAINMENT OFFICE | SEOUL

YUNG HO CHANG + ESI DESIGN SHANGHAI WORLD EXPO | SHANGHAI 113


ALT 1.4 /new hub Create a new hub, adding a volume that interconnects the Library and the Museum, physically separated. New urban gate that creates a new relation between the old and new, underlining the vocation of the site to open its main access towards the city rather than the chinese garden, merging the new connections from Taibaodun area and from Wuxi’s ring. The visitor has directly feel the grandness of entrance when passing the new entrance.

G

E RIN

TO TH

S

IE CTOR TO FA

114


ODILE DECQ, MACRO MUSEUM | ROME

AHN JUNG-GEUN MEMORIAL HALL | SEOUL 115


ALT 2 /reconfiguration The reconfiguration alternative goes beyond the previous alternatives. The project embraces new concept: reach the top roof characterised by the pipelines of the maoxin factory (landmarks) step by step, through generous spaces as balconies, floor areas, terraces. Each level and each box has a different floor lending itself to different practices and uses. Rather than being like a balcony, a loggia (or a terrace), which can be seen and used on a daily basis, winds its way around the outside of the flats and gives visitors outstanding views. This “poured terraces� allow amazing sightseeing view from the top.

116


NERI & HU DESIGN AND RESEARCH OFFICE, THE WATERHOUSE, | SHANGHAI

H.+ M. , V.-RAPテ右 APARTMENTS | PARIS

200 5TH AVENUE | NEW YORK CITY 117


CONCLUSION Research on Wuxi’s industrial heritage: which future for Maoxin site? As you can see, the question mark was chosen in order to underline that the aim is not to reach a conclusion. Actually, the final chapter ends with the alternatives for the renewal of Maoxin site. At the beginning, my first intention was to achieve just one design proposal following the steps that any architectural project deals with. Because my thesis is a part of an on-going academic research promoted by the cooperation between Interdepartmental Research Center Urban/Eco (Department of Architecture, University Federico II of Naples, Italy) and the School of design of Jiangnan University (Wuxi, China) about the survey and protection of industrial heritage, I decided to use it as a supporting document that will be a resource base to remain beyond further development for the benefit of policy makers, practitioners and researchers. I don’t know the future development of my research and that one promoted by both departments mentioned above; anyway my studying experience in China (even in a short time) gave me the chance to face with different planning approaches, especially thanks to the coaching of Professor Shi Ming (coadvisor of this thesis) and the collaboration with Wu Xiangjia who helped me in understanding recent trends about the stuff dealing with industrial heritage in China. With continuous improvement of public awareness, people have realized the significance of industrial heritage, that has been given unprecedented attention in the process of urban renewal and development in Chinese cities. Nevertheless, it is not always easy proposing conservative approaches in a context where the surprisingly fast development of the cities leads to a shortage of land resources. “Chinese speed” is really different from my culture, and sometimes it seems that there is no time for holistic methodology in the approach towards planning. The thesis argues about the need of analyzing the industrial heritage within all its facets, embracing such a multi-scaled approach. The challenge is to find a systematic approach (if possible) for the preservation and reuse of chinese industrial heritage, reactivating or creating new processes through measures defined by clear strategies, to produce architectural and landscape solutions interfacing with that “chinese speed”, community needs, in order to educate the general public, policy makers, to understand which way to go and how to deal with one of their motherland historical identity conscious way: chinese industry.

118


my bicycle in Jiangnan campus

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Berens Carol, Redeveloping Industrial Sites: A Guide for Architects, Planners and Developers, John Wiley &Sons, Hoboken, 2011. Adrià Broid Rojkind, “Videoteca nazionale educativa, Città del Messico 2000”, Casabella number 703 Cai Jianming, Treasure glows: Wuxi contemporary industry and commerce culture relic. Chen Shane, “Industrial Site Park”, Chinese Landscape Architecture, Issue 2, 2008. Chi-Hsien Tuan, Wuxi City and Wuxi County: an Analysis of a Pilot Census, Publisher New World Press, 1987. “China tales”, Casabella numer 802. Cochran Sherman, Encountering Chinese Networks: Western, Japanese, and Chinese Corporations in China, 1880-1937, University of California Press, 2000. Crinson Mark , Urban Memory: History and Amnesia in the Modern City, Taylor & Francis, 2005. Curtin Philip D, Cross-Cultural Trade in World History, Cambridge University Press, 2008. Dal Co Francesco, “Eduardo Souto de Moura, Graça Correia, riconversione di un’ara industriale a Portalegre”, Casabella number 798. de Botton Alain, The Architecture of Happiness, Penguin, UK, 2007 Harbison Robert , Eccentric spaces, MIT Press, 2000. Hubert John Pragnell, Industrial Britain: an architectural history, Ellipsis London PressLtd, 2000. Lorenzi Angelo, “Ignazio Gardella: il mondo delle architetture e edegli oggetti”, Casabella number 812. Parks M. Coble, Chinese Capitalists in Japan’s New Order: The Occupied Lower Yangzi, 1937-1945 Pentagram/Biber, “Harley-davidson museum”, Casabella 805. Peter Jager Frank, old and new: design manual for revitalizing existing buildings, Birkhauser Architecture, 2010. “Post-industrial landscape”, Landscape design number 55. Schmitz Rudlf, “Extension to the art museum”, Winterthur, Domus 781.

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TICCIH bullettin number 32, 2006. TICCIH bullettin number 59, 2013. Tonon Carlotta, “Un civile confronto”, Casabella number 781. Vercelloni Marcello, “Il colosso industriale”, Casabella number 806. Winter John, Industrial Architecture: A Survey of Factory Building, London, 1970. YU Kongjian, The Art of Survival: Recovering Landscape Architecture, Chinese Building Industry Press, Beijing, 2006. Zukin Sharon, Naked City: the Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places, Oxford University Press, 2009.

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All images unless referenced below were taken by the author. Figures of each page are referenced from left to right; the scheme is as follows: 1

2

3

4

5

6

Page 26, figures 2,3: source “Treasure glows: Wuxi contemporary industry and commerce culture relic”, by Cai Jianming. Page 50, figure 1: http://www.kokaistudios.com/

figure 2: source archives of Government of Wuxi

Page 66, figure 2: http://www.jamesaallen.com/wordpress/category/art/page/7/

figure 3: source in http://www.dezeen.com/

figure 4: http://scenariojournal.com/strategy/gubei-gold-street-2/

figure 5: source in http://www.archdaily.com

figure 6: source in http://www.archdaily.com

Page 77, figures 1,2: source “Treasure glows: Wuxi contemporary industry and commerce culture relic”, by Cai Jianming.

figures 3,4: source archives of Government of Wuxi

Page 90, figures 1,2,3: source “Treasure glows: Wuxi contemporary industry and commerce culture relic”, by Cai Jianming. Page 100, figure 2: source in http://alltrails.com/

figure 4: source in http://www.archdaily.com

Page 101, figure 3: source in http://www.asla.org/ Page 105, figure 1: http://convergencias.esart.ipcb.pt/artigo/34

figure 2: http://itineraribrescia.it/cultura/musil-museo-dellindustria-e-del-lavoro/

Page 107, figure 1: source in http://www.dezeen.com/

figure 2: http://usbgarden.com/FlowerGardenDesign/garden-design-chicago.html

Page 109, figure 1: source in http://www.designboom.com/

figure 2: source in http://legacy.interiordesign.net/

Page 111, figure 1: http://www.news-art.it/news/il-macro-di-odile-decq--ragionando-di-musei.htm

figure 2: http://www.archdaily.com/335043/ahn-jung-geun-memorial-hall-d%C2%B7lim-architects/

Page 113, figure 1: http://superfuture.com/supernews/shanghai-the-rooftop-at-waterhouse-reopening

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figure 2: source in http://swstark.tumblr.com/

figure 3: http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_673c8b9e0101j4fh.html


http://www.marcobencivenga.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/105027244@N04/ http://www.marcovaincina.blogspot.com


Master thesis Architecture, research on Wuxi's industrial heritage, China