RESEARCH ON WUXIâ€™S INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE: WHICH FUTURE FOR MAOXIN SITE?
MASTER THESIS by Marco Bencivenga
Supervisor: Prof. Massimiliano Campi University of Naples Federico II, Architecture
Co-advisor: Prof. Roberta Amirante University of Naples Federico II, Architecture
Co-advisor: Prof. Shi Ming
Jiangnan University, Wuxi, School of design
cover image: pipelines Author: Marco Bencivenga
A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture at the Department of Architecture, University of Naples Federico II March 2014 ÂŠ Marco Bencivenga
To my parents and to all the ones who live curiously.
I would like to thank the members of my thesis committee, Professor Shi Ming, Architect Maria Luna Nobile and Lv Jie. Special thanks go to Wu Xiangjia.
TABLE OF CONTENTS introduction
01 Industrial heritage in china 02 Wuxi: birthland of chinese industry 03 Wuxiâ€™s ring 04 Taibaodun area 05 Maoxin site: which future?
19 33 47 79
INTRODUCTION 1. Wuxi is the name of the city in Pinyin, the official phonetic system for transcribing the Mandarin pronunciations of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet. All chinese words in the thesis were transcribed in Pinyin.
Once my proposal about a research, focused on Chinese industrial heritage, was accepted, I moved to the campus of Jiangnan University in 无锡 Wuxi1 (China) receiving a scolarship among international mobility plan between the University Federico II and the Jiangnan University. I have been there for 3 months, living and studying in the campus, in a full chinese immersion. I studied in the landscape design studio, the department directed by Professor Shi Ming. She decided the main topic of my research in collaboration with Xiangjia, a graduating student in landscape design, also involved in a research about chinese industrial heritage. With its fast development in recent years, Wuxi is now one of China’s top 50 cities, it is thus called the ‘Little Shanghai’ for its prosperous economy. The citycentre is a rich cultural repository, and its development is strictly connected with the industrial one. After a general overview about the main features of the citycentre, it was clear very soon that industrial heritage plays an important role among them. Its protection has been given unprecedented attention in the process of urban renewal and development of Wuxi city centre, since it has began to realize how industrial heritage could be used to attract people. Towards the end of the 20 th century, a large number of industrial sites have been closed down and relocated somewhere else. Policy makers are pushing to obtain Wuxi urban renewal through competitions and assignments, focusing on the sites alongside the Grand Canal (externally concentric to the current ring road that marks the ancient walls track), More than 34 abandoned factories lie alongside the canal zone , that has the potential to be a prominent infrastructural ring backbone. Some of the abandoned factories were converted into buildings for leisure and event, but there is still a lack of a clear strategies to strenghten relationships between industrial heritage and Wuxi historical centre resources. The thesis argues about the evolution of the historical city centre hand in hand with the industrial development, to understand the conversion process and necessary strategies required to install new architectural programme within the existing industrial sites, recognizing their unique conditions. Embracing multi-scaled approach, the thesis proposes new landscape chances of uses by putting the remains of industrial cores in a network that constitutes a clustering of art, history, leisure and entertainment. Among them, more attention is given to Taibaodun area, main industrial core of Wuxi. After the proposal of a new masterplan of Taibaodun area, the final output of the research is constituted by the definition of strategic guidelines to achieve a renewal project referring to the whole Maoxin site, the former industrial site of Taibaodun area.
view of the Jiangnan campus, Wuxi 10/2013
Wuxiâ€™s ancient walls track Taibaodun area Maoxin site
INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE IN CHINA â€œOn the way for protecting industrial heritage, comparing the developed countries such as UK, France, USA, Germany, Australia etc., the starting step in China delayed about 40 years, but the pace will be faster and faster.â€? Que Weimin
M50, Shanghai, 10/2013
1. TICCIH, 2003
Industrial heritage is just a type of heritage.
In 1973, the International Committee for the
the value of industrial civilization, industrial
Conservation of the Industrial Heritage (TICCIH)
technology, organization, culture.
was founded. It is an international society that 2. “Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage”, adopted on the 16th November 1972 by UNESCO World Heritage Committee.”
studies industrial heritage and it defines the
Over the past five decades, urban industrial
concept of industrial heritage as: “remains
heritage has become marginalized as the
of industrial culture which are of historical,
technological, social, architectural or scientific
international markets for manufacturing.
value. These remains consist of buildings and
New technologies emerged and many factories
machinery, workshops, mills and factories, mines
made redundant and forced to close.
and sites for processing and refining, warehouses and stores, places where energy is generated,
The first country that faced this situation and the
transmitted and used, transport and all its
questions it produced (what to do with these
infrastructure, as well as places used for social
empty buildings? what to do with the out-dated
activities related to industry such as housing,
machines? how to deal with the professional skills
religious worship or education” .1
of architects?) is the United Kingdom, which is also the origin nation of the industrial revolution.
Strictly speaking, industrial heritage is classified under cultural heritage.2
In the 20th century the protection of industrial heritage has become more common in Western
Industrial heritage is the evidence of industrial
countries than all over the world.
activities and is a record of certain historical
Since 1940s, when Carlo Scarpa had attracted
attention with a number of museum buildings, such
Red Town, Shanghai, 10/2013
as the renovation and conversion of Castelvecchio
With the surprisingly fast development of cities in
in Verona, lots of European architects understood
China, more and more people are flooding into the
what a true dialogue between old and new could
cities and there is a shortage of land resources.
look like. In recent years, working with existing buildings has
However, “the issue of industrial heritage is
become an “independent architectural genre” 3 ; it
drawing unprecedented attention in China.” 4
means that the old is no longer understood merely
With continuous improvement of public awareness,
as architectural material.
people have realized the significance of industrial heritage, that has been given unprecedented
Internationally, the responsible treatment of
attention in the process of urban renewal and
building stock is far from being a well-established
development in Chinese cities.
3. “Whereas, in the twentieth century, architects preferred the task of designing new buildings and only a handful of trailblazers had discovered the allure of interweaving historical and modern architecture, today the work of these pioneers has borne fruit; working with existing buildings has long since developed into an independent architectural genre.” Frank Peter Jager 4. from “Bullettin TICCIH number 59, 2013.”
shared concept. On April 18th 2006, the first session on China’s In China, for example, which was economically
Conservation of the Industrial Heritage was held
ended up at the beginning of the 1990s, historical
in Wuxi (Wuxi Forum).
buildings have since been razed to the ground to
That conference founded to the theme of
an extent that takes away the breath of Western
International Heritage Day which is devoted
heritage; they produced the document ‘Wuxi
movement in some cities has led to a large
Recommendations’, the first chartered document
number of industrial buildings’ demolition, which
for protecting industrial heritage in China.
meant that many precious memories were erased from the cities.
“Plentiful cultural heritages emerged in Chinese 15
industrial site hosting “Biennal of architecture and contemprary art” Shanghai, West Bund, 11/2013
5. from “Bullettin TICCIH number 32, 2006.” Que Weimin, Peking University
history during the last thousands years, which
Preservation and reuse of industrial heritage
concerns multiple interested parties. Such work
was pioneered by the private sector and after
• many industrial heritages (exactly, technological
its positive social impact and economic benefits
became evident, attracted the attention of city
arose in the agricultural civilization;
administrators and investment from real estate
• industrial heritages in 1850s-1949 were branded
by semi-feudal & semi-colony;
It became clear how industrial heritage could be
• national industrial heritages in 1850s-1949 are
used to attract people.
the essence of Chinese Industrial Heritage;
In some big cities like Beijing and Shanghai, the
• industrial heritages in 1949-1970s are facing
reconversion and adaptive renewal of abandoned
technological renewal or replacement now.” 5
industrial areas has attracted a lot of people over
old factory going to be renovated in Zhongtan district, Shanghai, 11/2013
the recent years.
heritage was a new, urgent task for the protection
For example, the 798 Art District in Beijing,
of Chinese cultural heritage.
Shanghai Red Town and M50 (visited by the
It also listed the main problems for industrial
author as case studies) are places full of creative
heritage protection that China is facing, such
products like design, publishing, exhibition,
as inadequate attention and absence of official
performance, artistsâ€™ studios and other cultural
information about the number, distribution and
situation of industrial areas being conserved.
6. State Administration of Cultural Heritage
Chinese cities are still in the initial stages of In May 2006, SACH published a â€˜Notice on
preservation and reuse of industrial heritage.
Strengthening the Protection of Industrial Heritageâ€™
Reuse strategies and models best suited for the
to lower-level departments.
unique conditions of industrial heritage in China
It pointed out that conservation of industrial
need be further developed.
WUXI: BIRTHLAND OF CHINESE INDUSTRY “...like gothic ruins in the 19th century, artifacts of the Industrial Age now inspire nostalgia for the past.” Robert Harbinson
Jiangsu province in China, waterways
Wuxi is a city with a history of 3,000 years.
vast Taihu Lake with its fascinating water scenes,
The legend tells that two fugitive princes found this
the ‘Sea of Bamboo’ in Yixing, the Turtle islands,
area, and since the tin deposits were abundant,
Huishan Mountain, and so on.
they called it Youxi, meaning “has lots of tin” in
The citycentre is a rich cultural repository, whose
Mandarin Chinese. After the tin mine ran out in
features (landscape, heritage, industry, high
25 A.D., it got the present name Wuxi, meaning in
technology) are expressed in an area of about
Chinese “no more tin”.
314 square kilometers. There are has many private gardens and parks
Nestled on the northern shore of Taihu Lake,
built by learned scholars and rich people in the
China’s third-largest body of fresh water, Wuxi lies
on the southern border of Jiangsu Province, about
Among these, Li Yuan, Mei Yuan and Jichang
128 kilometers northwest of Shanghai.
gardens are good examples that have been well
The “Pearl of Taihu Lake” covers an area of 4,785 square
kilometers, it borders Suzhou to the east, Zhejiang Province to the south and Changzhou to the west.
In modern times, with its rapidly developing industry, Wuxi became one of China’s top 50 cities
The prefecture-level city administers 9 county-
with broad strength and is thus called the ‘Little
level divisions, including 7 districts and 2 county-
Shanghai’ for its prosperous economy.
level cities (Jiangyin and Yixing).
Now (2013) the city’ gross domestic product indax
The total population growth from the 1,426
is ranked at the 9th among 659 Chinese major
million (2000) to 6,372 millions (2010) and it’s still
cities and at the second in Jiangsu Province,
even exceeding the GDP of the provincial capital,
Wuxi is blessed with charming natural beauty: the
Jiangsu province, main waterways
Jiangsu province 32°54’N 119°48’E Capital Nanjing Population (2010) 79,200,000 Density 770/km2 Division 13 prefectures, 106 counties, 1488 townships
Built 2000 years ago, the Grand Canal is 1764 km in length and is the longest man-made waterway in the world. Touring along the canal, you experience its past thriving from dotted cities along with its waterlines.
HONGZE LAKE The fourth largest freshwater lake in China. The lake is surrounded by two cities of Jiangsu, Suqian and Huai’an, and its northwest part borders Anhui Province.
TAIHU LAKE Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China. The lake is linked by the Grand Canal in the northwest and separates Wuxi City into two halves flanking its north and most of western and eastern part.
The Yangtze River, the longest in China and the third longest in the world, cuts through the heart of the country marking the division of China into north and south both geographically and culturally. This cut also divides Jiangsu into two parts, the north and the south of the province.
Wuxi 31°34’N 120°18’E Population (2010) 6,372,624 Density 1,300/km2 Prefecture-level 9 county-level divisions 7 districts, 2 county-level cities.
YIXING (city) 1 BEITANG 2 CHONG’AN 3 NANCHANG 4 NEW DISTRICT CITY CENTRE
HUISHAN FOREST PARK JICHANG GARDEN FORMER RESIDENCE XUE
CHONG’AN TEMPLE DONGLIN SQUARE NANCHAN TEMPLE
MEY BLOSSOM GARDEN
NANCHANG STREET HUISHAN TOWN
TURTLE HEAD PENINSULA SPOT LIYUAN GARDEN
physical model of Wuxi in Qing dynasty
1. in “Cross-Cultural Trade in World History” (Cambridge University Press, 2008) Philip D. Curtin
Wuxi is one of the birthplaces of China’s modern
industry and commerce, as well as the hometown
known as “agricultural period”, “China passed
of many important businessmen, who played
through a phase of economic growth that was
essential roles in building modern Shanghai
unprecedented in earlier Chinese history, perhaps
commerce since the early 20th century.
in world history up to this time...” 1
The Grand Canal passed through the city of Wuxi The capital city of Wu Kingdom at the end of
from the north to the south.
the11th century was the birthplace of Wu Culture
They built the “ring” walls and four gates.
in China. Relying on the near-by Yangtze River and ancient Grand Canal, it had been a port city
Only at the late Ming dynasty (1368-1644) the
with the busiest rice and cloth market in China
development of handicraft industry flourished.
before 19th century.
New houses were built into the historical centre and a new west gate was opened.
In the following text I will describe the main steps that characterised the changes of urban
With the Qing dynasty (1636-1912) feudal system
morphology of the historical centre of Wuxi hand
in China’s history had an end.
in hand with the development of industry during
During Qing dynasty, they built more canals and
last 1000 years.
bridges inside the walls and there was a spread of houses in the centre.
Historical informations were collected through old
An artificial island near the west gate (Taibaodun)
books, recorded conference, archive materials,
mainly thanks to the help of professor Shi Ming, co-advisor of this thesis. 26
In Ming and Qing dynasties, Wuxi was already an
Wuxi historical centre Map of 1268, Song dynasty
Wuxi historical centre Map of 1494, Ming dynasty
Wuxi historical centre Map of 1681, Qing dynasty
The Northern Cang Gate silk warehouse (former site in 1938) Now (10/2013) BCM Art life center, Wuxi
Yeqin Cotton mill, 1915 Wuxi
Maoxin flour factory (former site 1901) rebuilt in 1945 Wuxi
2. 1 million of yuan = 116181,00 € (March 2014)
agricultural center and a significant national rice
In 1916 Taibaodun was connected to another
district, lacking a piece of land: Xishuidun island.
After 1842 the industrial development rose.
The early Modernism style buildings appeared at about 1930 carrying new trends in architecture
Western architectural culture spread into China so
style, such as reinforced concrete structures, the
the Sino-west combined style buildings appeared.
refusal of the ornamentation in favor of a aesthetic
merit intrinsic to the materials.
wooden structures, brick facades, balconies.
Prevalence to interior spaces was given instead of the outside apperance.
Since the end of the 19 century, the early th
dependence on river transportation and access
Before Japan’s occupation of Wuxi in 1937, Wuxi
to water for production created an extensive
was one of the six major industrial cities in China:
concentration of waterfront industrial buildings,
• 20 industrial sectors
warehouses and wharf structures alongside the
• 315 factories
Grand Canal in Wuxi.
• 630.000 industrial workers (2nd after Shanghai) • 77,26 millions of yuan2 as annual output value
With the continuous development, Wuxi became
• 14 millions of yuan as capitalization
a hub of the textile industry, both light and heavy
industry in early 20th century until after the
In 1956 they continued in building factories beside
establishment of the People’s Republic of China.
the ancient canal and destroyed the ancient walls.
During the Republic of China the shape of the
Nowadays, a ring road marked the ancient walls
historical centre of Wuxi has basically stabilized.
Wuxi historical centre Map of 1916
Wuxi historical centre Map of 1956
Wuxi historical centre Map of 1974
NANCHANG 1 GROUP KILN 2 DINGCHANG 3 WANG YUA 4 WUXI COMP 5 YONGTAI SIL 6 MAOXIN FLO 7 TIANYUAN J 8 XU JI GRIND
BEITANG D 9 HUISHAN C 10 MONEY & 11 BANK OF C 12 HUIYUAN F 13 WUXI SEC 14 PAPER UN
CHONGAN 15 BEI CANG 16 WUXI COU 17 QINGFENG
BINHU DIST 18 JIANGNAN 19 KAIYUAN M 20 BEIQIAO W
China carried out reform and open policy in 1978.
for protecting industrial heritage in China.
The period of Deng Xiaoping started. The city of Wuxi began to spread outward the
Toward the end of the 20th century, a large
“ring” of the canal.
number of industrial enterprises in the inner city
In the early time of Deng’s period the urban
were closed down and relocated outside of the
landscape was stable.
It abrupt changed with the rapidly city expanding since 2005.
In 2007, a major investigation of industrial heritage within the city boundaries was conducted by Wuxi
To underline the importance of industry in Wuxi, on
Government as part of the nationwide survey of
April 18 of 2006 the city was chosen to held the
“Industrial Heritage Day”, organized by National Cultural Heritage Bureau of China and ICOMOS
They made the first and second batch of industrial
heritage protection list in Wuxi city.
heritage site managers and officers attended the
The list shows that most of the 34 factories are
conference, discussed and proposed the “Wuxi
still standing round the historical city centre, thus
Recommendation” - the first chartered document
around the ancient canal.
工业遗产名录 INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE LIST
大窑路窑群遗址及窑业公所旧址 Group kiln sites and ceramics ccba site 纸业工会旧址 Paper union site 王元吉锅厂旧址 Wang Yuanji pot plant site 许记磨面作坊旧址 Xu Ji grinding mill site 锡金钱丝两业公所旧址 Money & Wire ccba site 茂新面粉厂旧址 Maoxin ﬂour factory site 无锡县商会旧址 Wuxi county chamber of commerce site 中国银行无锡分行旧址 Bank of China Wuxi branch 庆丰纱厂旧址 Qingfeng textile factory site 永泰丝厂旧址 Yongtai silk factory site 鼎昌丝厂旧址 Dingchang silk factory site 北仓门蚕丝仓库旧址 Bei Cangmen silk warehouse site 北桥仓库旧址 Beiqiao warehouse site 惠元面粉厂旧址 Huiyuan ﬂour factory site 天元麻纺厂旧址 Tianyuan jute factory site 无锡市第二粮食仓库旧址 Wuxi Second grain storage site 江南无线电器材厂旧址 Jiangnan radio equipment factory site 开源机器厂旧址 Kaiyuan machinery plant site 惠山泥人厂旧址 Huishan clay ﬁgurines factory site 无锡压缩机厂旧址 Wuxi compression factory site 丽新纺织印染厂旧址 Lixin textile factory site 协新毛纺织染厂 Xiexin wool weaving & dyeingfactory 储业公所 ChuYe ccba 振新纱厂旧址 Zhenxin textile factory site 申新三厂旧址 Shenxin third textile factory site 无锡粮食机械厂 Wuxi food machinery factory 天元麻纺厂旧址(增补) Tianyuan jute factory site (supplement) 福来和号糟坊 Fu Lai distillery site 金昌字号酱油糟坊 Jinchang brand soy sauce distillery 春雷造船厂 Chunlei shipyard site 西漳蚕种场 Xizhang silkworm ﬁeld 礼舍蚕茧所 Lishe cocoon factory 玉祁制丝所 Yuqi silk factory 无锡梅园水厂 Wuxi meiyuan waterworks
2 3 4 5 6
THE FIRST BATCH
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
THE SECOND BATCH
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
北塘区江尖公园 南长区伯渎巷 120－122 号
The first and the second batch of industrial heritage protection list in Wuxi citycentre, 2007 previous page map showing the location of factories near Wuxi historical centre
南长区新民路 13 号 北塘区前竹场巷 30 号 南长区振兴路 415 号 崇安区站前商贸区 北塘区前竹场巷 31 号 崇安区锡沪西路 203 号 南长区南长街 364 号 南长区金钩桥 23 号 崇安区北仓门 37 号 滨湖区湖滨路 67 号 北塘区通惠西路 11 号 南长区天元路 1 号 北塘区南尖蓉湖公园 滨湖区梁溪路 14 号 南长区湖滨路 11 号 北塘区锡惠路 26 号 南长区南下塘 213 号 北塘区丽新路 54 号 北塘区丽新路 60 号 北塘区南尖 南长区健康路 116 号 南长区健康路 124 号 南长区南长街 701 号 南长区天元路 1 号 崇安区东大街 68 号 崇安区西大街 50 号 锡山区东亭镇 惠山区锡澄北路 91 号 惠山区礼舍村 惠山区玉祁镇降脚下 143 号 滨湖区管社山梅园水厂
03 WUXIâ€™S RING
The location of warehouses was selected based upon their close proximity and convenient access to rivers and oceans, being ideal for trading purposes. They were ideally situated for the unloading and storage of merchandise and goods which were discharged directly off ships. John Hubert Pragnell
WUXI RING 34
HISTORICAL CENTRE INDUSTRIAL SITE RIVERS
Following the location of industrial sites alongside
and Shishuidong cultural street.
the canal (externally concentric to the current ring
Proper utilization of disused industrial sites
road that marks the ancient walls track), it was
became a new challenge in Wuxiâ€™s urban renewal
understood that the canal zone has the potential
and development process.
to be a prominent infrastructural ring backbone,
However, they seem one-off projects that lack
thanks to the convenient transport facilities,
a systematic point of view and strategies to
limited perimeter (especially if compared to
the expansion of the city), and the rich cultural
heritage and Wuxi historical centre resources.
repository in the historical centre.
Therefore, as the research progressed, it
became evident that more data about the In recent years some of the abandoned factories
current situation of the historical centre of Wuxi
alongside the canal were converted into buildings
were required in order to understand the whole
for leisure and event, such as BCM art life center
main elements of the historical centre. 35
Wuxi “ring” border of the historical centre
SUBWAY STATION RAILWAY STATION HUB CRUISE TERMINAL WHARF SUBWAY LINE RAILWAY LINE TOURISTIC ROUTES
RENEWABLE AREA REMOVABLE AREA PROTECTED BUILDING
ANCIENT GATE MAIN CORE LANDSCAPE CORE LANDSCAPE HISTORICAL SITE PUBLIC GREEN SPACE LANDSCAPE PROMENADE RIVER WALKSIDE
DWELLING CULTURAL ENTERTAINMENT PUBLIC GREEN PUBLIC UTILITIES SCHOOL/EDUCATION COMMERCIAL ADMINISTRATIVE MIXED USE CULTURAL HERITAGE INDUSTRIAL
MODERN BRIDGE TRADITIONAL BRIDGE
1. Clustering is here intended as the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). Cluster analysis was originated in anthropology by Driver and Kroeber in 1932 and introduced to psychology by Zubin in 1938 and Robert Tryon in 1939
Considering the urban survey results, it was clear
that industrial heritage sites, landscape corners
With the aim of strengthening the relationship
and cores, historical attractions, constitute a
between the canal and the main “materials” of
whole narrow and continuous belt around the
the historical centre, strategic and social-cultural-
landscape interest areas are identified to become steps of new routes.
The “ring” shape and the convenient transport facilities (the ring road, Wuxi railway station
The proposal seeks to internalize this cycle (ring)
close to the ring, underground stations, bridges,
of “materials” that has the potential to become
waterways and wharfs) plus riverside walk and
the setting and source for its own regeneration by
“ring” limited perimeter (about 10 kilometers)
proposing new routes, gain new chances of uses.
suggest a “clustering”.1 Clustering activities will lead to:
Unlike the common placement of industrial
• strenghten the relationship between river and
facilities on the periphery of urban centers, the
strategic location of the factories along the edge
• new sightseeing routes
of the existing riverside has the opportunity to be
• let people empathize with industrial heritage
reclaimed as public amenity.
• enjoy the landscape cores
In my opinion greater consideration is required
In that way the industrial sites can be understood
to gain holistic regeneration of the overall
not only beyond the autonomous factories but also
environment and landscape alongside the canal,
as a part of a network through history, nature,art,
also to insert industrial sites as steps of a choral
industry and future.
activities diagram selected areas
THE CANAL PARK
JIANGJIAN PARK RAILWAY STATION MAOXIN CENTRE
BCM ART CENTER
DEONGLIN SQUARE SPORTS PARK INDUSTRIAL PARK
wuxi railway station parks industrial heritage art leisure fun 1 DAY
WEE ING XI R RING WU WUXI WUXI RING
2 DAYS 1 DAY
TAIBAODUN AREA When buildings talk, it is never with a single voice. Buildings are choirs rather than soloists. Alain de Botton
CORE in WUXI 48
physical model of historical centre of Wuxi and lands nearby during Qing period, Wuxi Library, 2013
In the proposed routes for “Wuxi ring network”,
it seemed convenient. It was located opposite to
Taibaodun area plays an important role.
Xishuidun island, overlooking the stretch of water
1. Rong Desheng and Rond Zongjing
connecting Liang Xi river and the grand canal. Taibaodun is an area next to the ancient west gate
The access to the waterways guaranteed the
of Wuxi historical centre; it has always been Wuxi
transportation of goods and industrial machines.
historical centre’s “liver”, expression of marginality and transition.
In 1907 Rong brothers built Zhenxin textile
It has to be considered the main industrial core
factories, alongside the Grand canal, opposite to
of the city.
the west border of ancient walls.
There are lots of traces of the history and identity
In 1919 they left Zhenxin site and built the third
of Wuxi’s industry, since the area was the turning
Shenxin textile factory, alongside Liang Xi river.
place of two chinese industrial
who played an important role in the development
In 1937, Japanese destroyed the Maoxin flour
of chinese industry and commerce: the Rong
factory (rebuilt in 1946).
brothers1. Taibaodun was once on the outskirts, but as the Actually, in 1901, thanks to its favourite and
cities spread, it became more central and thus
strategic position (next to the outer western border
more important, usually supplied with major
of the historical centre, surrounded by two canals)
urban infrastructures and connected by roads,
Taibaodun was chosen by Rong brothers to build
waterways and bridges.
their first factory: Maoxin flour factory.
It seems like enclosed protected enclave and it
They thought about “flour” because at that time
is seen as autonomous, specialized area distinct 49
it was an island near the west gate
connected to another district
factories witness the glorious past
rong brothers chose taibaodun area
they built the first factory: maoxin flour factory
they built the first tectile factory: zhenxin factory
they built the 3rd shenxin factory
the bridge connected taibaodun to the border of historical centre
they destroyed the bridge and built a huge road from east to west 52
PENG XIA STREET
XIAN YI BRIDGE
JIE FANG NAN LU ROAD GRAND CANAL
XUE FORMER RESIDENCE XIAN YING BRIDGE XI SHUIDUN XI SHUI BRIDGE XI XIN BRIDGE YING LONG BRIDGE
LIANG XI RIVER
MOSQUE XUE QIAN XI LU ROAD MAO XIN BRIDGE
ZHENXIN ROAD YING LONG ROAD JIANKANG ROAD SHEN XIN BRIDGE
MAOXIN FLOUR FACTORY XI SHUI DUN
XUE QIAN XI LU ROAD LIBRARY
OLD TEXTILE FACTORIES
XI SHUI DONG DISTRICT
XI XIN BRIDGE
XIAN YING BRIDGE
XI SHUI BRIDGE
XI SHUI DUN
from the rest of the historical centre.
reactivate and to create new processes defining urban strategies, supported by architectural and
In recent years the former area has been
landscape solutions considering the potentials
and criticals expressed by the area, replanned in
Government of Wuxi built new roads (e.g., Xue
Qian Xi Lu road that actually splitted the Taibaodun area in two parts) decided for an adaptive
The results of urban surveys made me understand
renewal of Shenxin site (the current Xishuidong
more on the significance of the site to the whole
business street) and promoted the Shishuidong
city; it has the potential to activate historical
urban project already in the execution phase
and realistic sense of the former industrial site,
(new district, which include the construction of
stimulating the sense of communal involvement.
skyscrapers for commercial and residential uses, artificial small canals, able to keep together old
The proposal follows 3 main goals: rationalizing,
buildings and new urban needs).
The edge of the selected area intertwins the
The final output is a new masterplan, that is not only an
western boundary of historical centre of Wuxi, the
environmental and an infrastructural requalification,
Grand canal walkside, Liang Xi river, industrial
but also a preservation of industrial memories and
buildings mentioned before, residential buildings,
integration of a variety of activities; it guarantees
mixed use buildings, landscape corners, the new
continuity between the different spaces, different
needs, old and new setting of Taibaodun area, gathering education, industrial memories, tourism,
After urban surveys, it appeared necessary to
shopping, entertainment and leisure together. 57
DWELLING INDUSTRIAL COMMERCIAL MIXED USE MOSQUE SCHOOL/EDUCATION LANDSCAPE HERITAGE HOSPITAL
940.000 M2 DWELLING INDUSTRIAL COMMERCIAL MIXED USE SCHOOL/EDUCATION LANDSCAPE HERITAGE
the huge road split the original Taibaodun industrial site in 2 parts
lack of connections between Maoxin factory and the surrounding areas
the canal planned in Shishuidong project splits zhenxin textile area
lack of connections between the border of Wuxi ring and Taibaodun
NOT ENOUGH PUBLIC SPACE community people needs more rest spaces instead of car parking areas
NOT ENOUGH PUBLIC SPACE
different layers for different users. Let users feel safe in their own route
let pedestrian join courtyard and move cars underground
WIND RAIN BRIDGE
let pedestrian reach Maoxin site by the replaced bridge.
mending zhenxhin textile area by pedestrian bridges/paths
EXPLOIT MAOXIN ROOFTOP make pipelines attractive in order to catch attention from the surrounding
catch people eyes by adding show-up boxes on Maoxin factory
Festina Lente bridge, Sarajevo
Gubei Pedestrian Promenade, Shanghai
Waterhouse hotel, Shanghai
Bishan Public Library, Singapore
public road private road logistic road
CHINESE GARDEN SMALL SHOPPING AREA INDUSTRIAL THEME PARK SMALL SHOPPING MALL ART CENTER XI SHUI LIVE CENTER 76
NEW BRIDGE CHINESE PAVILION MAOXIN CULTURAL CENTRE "WAREHOUSE" GALLERY BRICK FACTORIES PARK
MAOXIN SITE: WHICH FUTURE? â€œ...they constitute an essential identity structure, which can still be used as a contemporary resource, worth re-interpreting through integrated and sustainable transformation projects.â€? Margherita Vanore
Maoxin flour factory, Wuxi, 11/2014
As already mentioned, in 1901 Rong brothers built
At that time, the factory was divested; in 2005
a factory that would have brought fortune to their
the Government of Wuxi planned the renovation,
carrer as chinese industrial entrepreneurs: Baoxin
realized in 2007.
flour factory (then renamed Maoxin). It was the first factory built by Rong brother, the
The restyling concerned the reinforcing of
first flour factory in Wuxi, the former industrial site
concrete structure by profiled steel, the connection
in Taibaodun area, a prime example of Chinaâ€™s
between the two former buildings of the factory,
national industrial commerce.
the redistribution of the indoor spaces to be used for Museum.
Because of its strategic position, its proximity to
The warehouse facing Xue Qian Xi Lu road was
citycente and waterways, the industrial production
converted in the current Library.
of the flour rised in the following years. Nowadays, the Maoxin flour factory is China In 1937 the factory was destroyed by Japanese,
National Industry and Commerce Museum of
and it was re-built in 1946 in concrete structure
Wuxi, covers more than 12,123 square meters.
and red bricks facades.
In spite of this, Maoxin site (once connected with
In order to respond to the increasing demand,
Zhenxin factories site, forming Taibaodun area) is
lots of British-american industrial machines were
nowadays perceived as a sort of island, insulated
imported (all of them are preserved in the factory).
by the huge road Xue Qian Xi Lu built in 2007, hidden from the Library; it was not included in
In the 1990s the Government of Wuxi built other
Shishuidong masterplan project and the bridge
buildings around the factory (i.e., Government
that guaranteed the connection between the
factory and the western border of historical centre
rong brothers built maoxin flour factory
after the destruction of 1937 it was rebuilt
they built buildings and a warehouse
still the bridge connected maoxin area and western border of citycentre
warehouse became current library 81
Maoxin flour factory, view from chinese pavilion Wuxi, 11/2014
(once the western gate of the ancient walls) was
catalyzing centre, dealing with the urban recent
destroyed in recent years (cf. previous chapter).
transformations of the site.
The situation appearing now unjustly relegates the
factory (the Museum) and the outdoor spaces to a
Maoxin site is in the middle of such a mixed-
marginal position, more relating to the northern part of
used area, stretched across a small surface: in
the whole area than to the southern part (ex Taibaodun).
less than 250.000 m2, the factory interfaces with
waterways (Liang Xi river, grand canal), chinese
be able to constitute a new urban fulcrum, a
garden (Xi shui dun), a large residential area
Maoxin flour factory, view from the roof of government office Wuxi, 11/2014
(social housing), business district (Shishuidong in
through personal interviews with Wuxi city
progress), Zhenxin factory (waiting for a renewal),
planners, current and former residents of the
the main road Xue Qian Xi Lu, bridges (old and
site; books, archive materials, site visit (surveys),
new), the adjacent Library, the Government office,
photographs, digital models.
last but not the least the western border of the
Embracing such a multi-scaled approach, and
Wuxi historical centre.
following the results of the research on large
1. Dal cucchiaio alla città (“From the spoon to the town”) is the slogan created by Ernesto Rogers in 1952 in the Charta of Athens
scale within the strategies proposed, from the Studying in such a full of significances area,
historical centre (Wuxi’s ring) to the industrial main
with lots of inputs about industrial identity, urban
core (Taibaodun), it was decided not to propose
development, history, is a great challenge.
one renewal proposal about Maoxin site (with all its implications about landscape, urban and
The site played and should continue in playing an
architectural matters), but rather to estabilish the
important role in Taibaodun area , and then in the
main objectives that a renewal project referring
Wuxi “ring” network proposed before.
to the whole Maoxin site should provide, then to delimit the project site boundary, thus in the
The legibility of the implications that Maoxin
end to determin macro-themes leading to draft
site brings with it, led to a proposal that closes
alternative methods of project execution.
the “ring”, from the Wuxi ring (downtown) to the Maoxin cultural centre (spoon).1
As a supporting document for a future call of
Informations regarding the conversion process,
proposals, the materials will remain as a resource
since the Maoxin was built in 1901, the current
base to be built upon and to remain beyond a
situation of the site, protection regulations, the
hypothetic competition for the benefit of policy
necessary strategies required, were collected
makers, practitioners and researchers. 83
MUSEUM OF INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE (Maoxin factory)
XI SHUI DUN
Maoxin flour factory (museum of industry) 2
Government office 6
Zhenxin textile factory
Office (regarding the museum) 5
Xi shui dun (chinese garden) 7
Social housing district (wu hai) 85
XI SHUI BRIDGE XI SHUI DUN OFFICE
MUSEUM OF INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE (Maoxin factory)
ZHENXIN TEXTILE FACTORY
SECTIONAL ELEVATION 88
THIRD FLOOR 89
EAST ELEVATION 1
WEST ELEVATION 2
SOUTH ELEVATION 3 91
ELEVATION FROM THE RIVER
archive pictures of Maoxin Flour factory
Surveys concerned Maoxin factory buildings (in
were renovated (a new access gate in spider
recent years they were renovated) and the Library
glass structure, a new glass box that provides
(the reconverted warehouse in 2007).
physical connection between the factory buildings creating a continuum).
The Maoxin flour factory (from now on Maoxin museum) is composed of 4 main buildings.
The pipelines are still on the roof, constituting landmarks within the yellow waterbox.
They were built in reinforced concrete columns (consituting a regular pattern grid 9,8x2,4 meters)
Right now, the Museum is divided in four main
zones where the development of Chinaâ€™s national commerce and industry is shown via a large
Lying in the outer edge of the plans, the columns
number of real objects.
pattern let them free in order to gain the space required to install and run the machines for the
The original machines of the Maoxin factory
the storehouse of Maoxin Flour Mill, the original producing equipment (mostly anglo-american
Made in bricks, the facades are characterised by
imported) and the working procedure of flour
a regular pattern of windows, that provide interior
production are both preserved and restored to
lighting and ventilation.
recover the historical appearance of the factory.
As already mentioned, in 2003 the government
Reappearing former appearance of Maoxin
of Wuxi converted the factory in the Museum of
Flour Mill is the main aim of the Museum since its
industry and commerce and in 2007 the buildings
3d diagrams: the Museum and the Library next pages machines in the Museum
TO CH INESE XI SHU GARDEN I DONG
MUSEUM (PROTECTED) 1800M2 LIBRARY 1100 M2 GOVERNMENT OFFICE 1400 M2 MUSEUM OFFICE (PROTECTED) 400 M2 ZHENXIN FACTORY 470 M2
OM E FR
S PAS UND
L RIA ST DE DU A IN EN TO ROM P
TOTAL FLOOR AREA 24.700 M2 NET FLOOR AREA 23.500 M2 USABLE AREA (LANDSCAPE) 19.300 M2 (the surface of the new bridge is not included)
INUDSTRIAL PARK 1900M2 FOOT WIND RAIN BRIDGE 180 M2 UNDERGROUND PASSAGE 1700 M2 PARK FACILITIES 400M2
RESEARCH OF WUXI’S INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE TAIBAODUN MASTERPLAN
CALL FOR PROPOSALS LANDSCAPE
MAOXIN CULTURAL CENTRE
DEMOLITION AND RE-ADDING ALT 1.1 ALT 1.2 ALT 1.3 ALT 1.4
RE-CONFIGURATION ALT 2
Since its renewal, the Library is intended as
MAOXIN SITE KEY TASKS
separated from the Museum, physically and
• enhance the attractiveness of the site, renewing
functionally, though they share the same inner
it as an incubator for the city’s growth which would
courtyard and they share the same industrial
catalyze further development;
• definition of public urban spaces open to everyone
The area does not project much sense of the
(residents, tourists, researchers, students, children)
excitement inherent in its historical identity.
that let visitors feel in a creative environment, a
Its fragmented nature means the image of the
catalyzing one where the industrial identity of the site,
area lacks focus and definition.
outdoor spaces, the new Library and the Museum
Overall, the potential latent in Maoxin site
of industry blend together in workshops, hobby
prominent strategic position is unrealised.
activities, educational events, leisure; • regeneration of the landscape confirming the
identity of the site as an industrial place, implementing
Maoxin site should become an essential addition
urban operations coming from the new Taibaodun
to the continuum of the engaging cultural spaces
masterplan proposal (e.g., chapter 4), in particular
already proposed by Shishuiodng project (that is
mending the split with Taibaodun area and re-
only limited to the area boarding with the southern
estabilishing the connection with the border of Wuxi
limit of Xue Qiang Xi Lu road, e.g., chapter 4).
Hence the idea of the proposal of strategic
• blend the Library and the Museum of industry and
guidelines to achieve a renewal project referring
commerce into a new urban centre: Maoxin cultural
to the whole Maoxin site, split into two main
centre; adaptive renewal of the Library building and
sectors: landscape and Maoxin cultural centre.
reprogramme of indoor spaces of the Museum and its Office building, both protected by urban regulations. 99
WALKING TOUR ART SOUTERRAIN UNDERGROUND PEDESTRIAN NETWORK | MONTREAL
FESTINA LENTE BRIDGE | SARAJEVO
The main aim of the landscape part is to develop
The closeness of Zhenxin factory (whose renewal
creative spaces to enable the searching for and
is included in Shishuidong project strategies),
creation of a new identity and new stories for the
potentials for the definition of the proposal. Proposals should: • prevent radical changes of the spatial perception
It should be able to confirm the identity of the site
of the site within its original urban configuration;
as a place of transition, identifying a new urban
• emphasize the value of landscape cores around
hub-space with all its articulated complexity.
Maoxin site, that provide an exceptional favorable environment for the new kind of landscape
The main goal is to re-estabilish connections
operations, stressing on the main potentials of the
between the site and the surrounding area.
site (the canal, Xi Shui Dun island, riverside) •
It will be achieved by two operations:
prescriptions into new landcsape configuration. • to design a wind-rain-bridge (the old bridge was removed in recent years), retaining its promenade character, to connect the site with
Two main subjects of the call of proposals
the western border of Wuxi’s ring.
(LANDSCAPE sector) : connections and industrial
the site and the leisure promenade through the
to configure a ground level path between
RED TOWN SHANGHAI, CHINA
QIAN’AN SANLIHE GREENWAY QIAN’AN CITY, HEBEI PROVINCE, CHINA
factories (proposed by Shishuidong project)
RED TOWN SHANGHAI, CHINA
potential value of the industrial heritage.
alongside the grand canal, clearing from the car parking the underground passage to
In Maoxin site there are already industrial
Zhenxin factory, making it pedestrian in order to
machines displayed on the ground, but they are
overcome the physical limit of the Xue Qian Xi
not included in a wide-scale park.
2. “objets à réaction poètique” as he called them, or “objects of poetic reaction,” were part of Le Corbusier’s eclectic collection of objects from nature that he used to examine ideas of structure.
The aim is to re-organize the outdoor spaces LANDSCAPE/industrial park
for artistic external activities for everyone, and to create relations between the available spaces
The thematic industrial park model is a popular
(thanks to the underground car parking solution
form to redevelop industrial heritage sites today.
proposed in Shishuidong project).
The model changes the original site to a
Some of the industrial machines will be displayed
landscape park in order to provide the unique
like scupltural elements on a large esplanade
industrial landscape as an outdoor activity
alternating with trees and urban furniture.
space. “Les objets à réaction poetique”2 that, as in an The main concepts at the root of the design
archaeological site, will capture the curiosity of
process are the definition of external areas, a
the general public.
public space acting as a social bond among functions and also supplying unprogrammed
People will be able to enjoy the nature during
spaces that are usually lacking, or very small,
leisure and recreation and to feel in a creative
in most museums, making people realize the
site, where the industrial identity is evidenced. 105
MAOXIN CULTURAL CENTRE
As you have seen, Museum and Library are
strictly connected (because of the site’s
conglomeration of culture, industry, arts,
evolution, because of the location, because
museum, library; a catalyzing one where the
of their architectural configuration).
industrial identity of the site (evidenced by
configuration of a new cultural centre,
the museum of industry and commerce), The short distances to the different routes
outdoor spaces (whose re-design is the
(current and to be planned, e.g. LANDSCAPE
subject of LANDSCAPE assignment), the
tasks) and to intercity traffic terminals make
renewed Library blend together in workshops,
the two buildings the fulcrum of Maoxin site.
hobby activities, educational events, leisure. Cultural centre users will be not only mere
After listing the main goals that a renewal
consumers of culture but active creators of it.
proposal has to follow, 5 alternatives (and
When stepping inside the Maoxin cultural
centre, visitors can join a space filled with
different macro themes (more focusing on the
Library), in order to configure a new cultural
There will be always something going on in
centre, Maoxin cultural centre:
the centre; in collaboration with partners,
ALT. 1 demolition and re-adding
the centre organizes all kind of events, such
1.1 show up facade
as museum visits, exhibition, book reading,
1.2 basement removal
introduction to events as well as for youths
1.3 media facade
1.4 new hub
ALT. 2 reconfiguration 106
between the facade on the street toward the
is the reason why they are showed in simple
new Shishuidong district (Xue Qian Xu Li
diagrams, without any details.
road) and the other (belonging to the Maoxin factory) facing the canal and Xi Shui Dun
The guide lines deal with the legibility of
island with its chinese garden;
the Maoxin site and all the implications and prompts included in the new Taibaodun
â€˘ adaptive renewal of the Library building,
by installing a new architectural programme within the Maoxin buildings;
On the following pages, every alternative, coming out of the mentioned guidelines, will
â€˘ funcionally reprogramm of the indoor spaces
be showed by a simple 3d model with images
of the Museum
of realized projects as inspiration, whose main features resemble those of the selected
â€˘ introduce economic activities, by including
mixed uses, to generate new jobs and income generating
potential of the buildings as an attractive creative
providers of job opportunities. The
as merely guide lines for the hypothetical participants for the call for proposals; this 107
ALT 1.1 /show up facade It was thought to demolish some of the parts added along the years, in order to reconstruct the accesses on two main axes (as in origin), and to use the volume in a new one, added on the facade toward Xue Qian Xi Lu road as a huge show up box, jutting out in search of new forms of hybridisation between architecture and the urban setting. The machines of the Maoxin museum are displayed like scupltural elements and then make permeable the entire sector. Iconic industrial machines create memory of the industrial site, attract people and create a night effect.
FRANCO ALBINI, PROPOSAL PAVILION SAI OXAL,1929 | MILANO
MUSIL | BRESCIA 109
ALT 1.2 /basement removal The main goal is to create a new gate, a relation between the small courtyard and the outdoor spaces, by making permeable the entire ground floor of the Library. For this reason, the proposal should provide a solution (that is adaptive to the structural scheme of the Library) achieving a new basement that becomes the support for paths and is itself a path. A heavy mass is detached from the ground in apparent defiance of the laws of gravity and, in a real sense, draw the visitors inside.
HERZOG&DE MEURON, CAIXA FORUM | MADRID
THE CROWN SKY GARDEN, CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL | CHICAGO 111
ALT 1.3 /media facade The Library will take on different appearance in different times of day in order to catalyze needs, lifestyle of different users, curiosity of the passers. To achieve it, a new skin will be overlapped in order to make the volume two dimensional and to create a night effect, changing the southern facade into a urban landmark. The aesthetic treatment of the new facade is able to generate new energies, becoming a new center of attraction, an architectural emblem of vitality; the new image of the center on the road.
XI LU ROA
STARDOM ENTERTAINMENT OFFICE | SEOUL
YUNG HO CHANG + ESI DESIGN SHANGHAI WORLD EXPO | SHANGHAI 113
ALT 1.4 /new hub Create a new hub, adding a volume that interconnects the Library and the Museum, physically separated. New urban gate that creates a new relation between the old and new, underlining the vocation of the site to open its main access towards the city rather than the chinese garden, merging the new connections from Taibaodun area and from Wuxiâ€™s ring. The visitor has directly feel the grandness of entrance when passing the new entrance.
IE CTOR TO FA
ODILE DECQ, MACRO MUSEUM | ROME
AHN JUNG-GEUN MEMORIAL HALL | SEOUL 115
ALT 2 /reconfiguration The reconfiguration alternative goes beyond the previous alternatives. The project embraces new concept: reach the top roof characterised by the pipelines of the maoxin factory (landmarks) step by step, through generous spaces as balconies, floor areas, terraces. Each level and each box has a different floor lending itself to different practices and uses. Rather than being like a balcony, a loggia (or a terrace), which can be seen and used on a daily basis, winds its way around the outside of the flats and gives visitors outstanding views. This â€œpoured terracesâ€? allow amazing sightseeing view from the top.
NERI & HU DESIGN AND RESEARCH OFFICE, THE WATERHOUSE, | SHANGHAI
H.+ M. , V.-RAPﾃ右 APARTMENTS | PARIS
200 5TH AVENUE | NEW YORK CITY 117
CONCLUSION Research on Wuxi’s industrial heritage: which future for Maoxin site? As you can see, the question mark was chosen in order to underline that the aim is not to reach a conclusion. Actually, the final chapter ends with the alternatives for the renewal of Maoxin site. At the beginning, my first intention was to achieve just one design proposal following the steps that any architectural project deals with. Because my thesis is a part of an on-going academic research promoted by the cooperation between Interdepartmental Research Center Urban/Eco (Department of Architecture, University Federico II of Naples, Italy) and the School of design of Jiangnan University (Wuxi, China) about the survey and protection of industrial heritage, I decided to use it as a supporting document that will be a resource base to remain beyond further development for the benefit of policy makers, practitioners and researchers. I don’t know the future development of my research and that one promoted by both departments mentioned above; anyway my studying experience in China (even in a short time) gave me the chance to face with different planning approaches, especially thanks to the coaching of Professor Shi Ming (coadvisor of this thesis) and the collaboration with Wu Xiangjia who helped me in understanding recent trends about the stuff dealing with industrial heritage in China. With continuous improvement of public awareness, people have realized the significance of industrial heritage, that has been given unprecedented attention in the process of urban renewal and development in Chinese cities. Nevertheless, it is not always easy proposing conservative approaches in a context where the surprisingly fast development of the cities leads to a shortage of land resources. “Chinese speed” is really different from my culture, and sometimes it seems that there is no time for holistic methodology in the approach towards planning. The thesis argues about the need of analyzing the industrial heritage within all its facets, embracing such a multi-scaled approach. The challenge is to find a systematic approach (if possible) for the preservation and reuse of chinese industrial heritage, reactivating or creating new processes through measures defined by clear strategies, to produce architectural and landscape solutions interfacing with that “chinese speed”, community needs, in order to educate the general public, policy makers, to understand which way to go and how to deal with one of their motherland historical identity conscious way: chinese industry.
my bicycle in Jiangnan campus
BIBLIOGRAPHY Berens Carol, Redeveloping Industrial Sites: A Guide for Architects, Planners and Developers, John Wiley &Sons, Hoboken, 2011. Adrià Broid Rojkind, “Videoteca nazionale educativa, Città del Messico 2000”, Casabella number 703 Cai Jianming, Treasure glows: Wuxi contemporary industry and commerce culture relic. Chen Shane, “Industrial Site Park”, Chinese Landscape Architecture, Issue 2, 2008. Chi-Hsien Tuan, Wuxi City and Wuxi County: an Analysis of a Pilot Census, Publisher New World Press, 1987. “China tales”, Casabella numer 802. Cochran Sherman, Encountering Chinese Networks: Western, Japanese, and Chinese Corporations in China, 1880-1937, University of California Press, 2000. Crinson Mark , Urban Memory: History and Amnesia in the Modern City, Taylor & Francis, 2005. Curtin Philip D, Cross-Cultural Trade in World History, Cambridge University Press, 2008. Dal Co Francesco, “Eduardo Souto de Moura, Graça Correia, riconversione di un’ara industriale a Portalegre”, Casabella number 798. de Botton Alain, The Architecture of Happiness, Penguin, UK, 2007 Harbison Robert , Eccentric spaces, MIT Press, 2000. Hubert John Pragnell, Industrial Britain: an architectural history, Ellipsis London PressLtd, 2000. Lorenzi Angelo, “Ignazio Gardella: il mondo delle architetture e edegli oggetti”, Casabella number 812. Parks M. Coble, Chinese Capitalists in Japan’s New Order: The Occupied Lower Yangzi, 1937-1945 Pentagram/Biber, “Harley-davidson museum”, Casabella 805. Peter Jager Frank, old and new: design manual for revitalizing existing buildings, Birkhauser Architecture, 2010. “Post-industrial landscape”, Landscape design number 55. Schmitz Rudlf, “Extension to the art museum”, Winterthur, Domus 781.
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All images unless referenced below were taken by the author. Figures of each page are referenced from left to right; the scheme is as follows: 1
Page 26, figures 2,3: source “Treasure glows: Wuxi contemporary industry and commerce culture relic”, by Cai Jianming. Page 50, figure 1: http://www.kokaistudios.com/
figure 2: source archives of Government of Wuxi
Page 66, figure 2: http://www.jamesaallen.com/wordpress/category/art/page/7/
figure 3: source in http://www.dezeen.com/
figure 4: http://scenariojournal.com/strategy/gubei-gold-street-2/
figure 5: source in http://www.archdaily.com
figure 6: source in http://www.archdaily.com
Page 77, figures 1,2: source “Treasure glows: Wuxi contemporary industry and commerce culture relic”, by Cai Jianming.
figures 3,4: source archives of Government of Wuxi
Page 90, figures 1,2,3: source “Treasure glows: Wuxi contemporary industry and commerce culture relic”, by Cai Jianming. Page 100, figure 2: source in http://alltrails.com/
figure 4: source in http://www.archdaily.com
Page 101, figure 3: source in http://www.asla.org/ Page 105, figure 1: http://convergencias.esart.ipcb.pt/artigo/34
figure 2: http://itineraribrescia.it/cultura/musil-museo-dellindustria-e-del-lavoro/
Page 107, figure 1: source in http://www.dezeen.com/
figure 2: http://usbgarden.com/FlowerGardenDesign/garden-design-chicago.html
Page 109, figure 1: source in http://www.designboom.com/
figure 2: source in http://legacy.interiordesign.net/
Page 111, figure 1: http://www.news-art.it/news/il-macro-di-odile-decq--ragionando-di-musei.htm
figure 2: http://www.archdaily.com/335043/ahn-jung-geun-memorial-hall-d%C2%B7lim-architects/
Page 113, figure 1: http://superfuture.com/supernews/shanghai-the-rooftop-at-waterhouse-reopening
figure 2: source in http://swstark.tumblr.com/
figure 3: http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_673c8b9e0101j4fh.html
http://www.marcobencivenga.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/105027244@N04/ http://www.marcovaincina.blogspot.com