Many Peaces Magazine #3

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MAGAZINE HOSPITALITY AND ASYLUM Page 6 THE BODY AS A DOOR: A DANCE OF HONESTY Page 15 DIALOGUE IN TUNISIA: INTERVIEW WITH NOBEL PEACE LAUREATE Page 18

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MANY PEACES VOLUME 3 2016 - 01

JOKING FOR PEACES: THEATER IN CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION



EDITORIAL Distinguished readers, The writing of the third volume of the Many Peaces Magazine was underway when a series of terrorist attacks occurred in Ankara, Beirut, Paris, the Sinai region of Egypt and Tunis. As an editorial team we have struggled in finding words in the light of loss and despair as results of the violent attacks. Our discipline of Peace and Conflict Studies is certainly called upon when suicide bombers target civilian areas and when heads of states declare war against enemies that are difficult to identify. As scholars and peace facilitators, we are asked to analyze and often to provide expertise. So how do we respond? How do we position ourselves and which courses of action do we recommend? From the perspective of elicitive conflict transformation, there is no easy answer to such questions. Our approach to conflict is systemic and relational. The experts of conflicts are always the conflicting actors and it seems key to not speak about them in a removed and potentially patronizing manner. Possible next steps rather have to be identified from within the conflicting systems themselves. It, therefore, seems necessary to not fall into simplistic moral judgments and categorizations of right and wrong, good and bad. The call of the moment should rather be to “suspend judgment” as American peace research John-Paul Lederach recommends to elicitive peace workers. Yet, suspending judgment does not imply an imperative for silence! Peace work sometimes means raising difficult questions, even when they go against the mainstream. Elicitive peace workers are facilitators but sometimes they have to be ‘difficultators.’ To this end, they acquire their own elicitive tool boxes filled with methods that they apply in conflict analysis and conflict transformation work. One such method is Theatre for Living, which was founded by Canadian theatre artist David Diamond, whom you can see on the cover of this magazine. As a former student of the Brazilian revolutionary theatre director Augusto Boal, Diamond has developed Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed further and integrated a systemic understanding of conflict into his work. Both his method and peace facilitation attitude make him an archetypical (and certainly there are many possible archetypes) elicitive peace worker. In this volume, we therefore feel honored to present not only his work but also projects that have been developed seeding from his contribution to Peace and Conflict Studies. In Volume 2, we featured dance in conflict transformation. We are happy to continue this path, which has been fertilized through our cooperation with Tanzraum Innsbruck, by now featuring the work of Margrete Slettebø a Norwegian peace researcher and dancer. Dance and theatre create community. That matters, particularly in times of political polarization. Nonetheless, it seems equally important to not lose sight of other developments in international politics. Accordingly, we are pleased to present an exclusive interview with the 2015 Nobel Peace Laureate Abdessatar Ben Moussa. Focusing on local communities and international politics alike might help us understand the dynamics of the complex and violent conflicts of our time. Sometimes, there are no easy answers to give, but rather difficult questions to raise. The Editorial Team Stefan Freytag Isabelle Guibert Adham Hamed Paul Lauer Mayme Lefurgey

Editorial - 3


TABLE OF CONTENTS J

GREETING NOTE

5

CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION AROUND THE WORLD

HOSPITALITY AND ASYLUM

6

FROZEN MOMENTS

9

J Theatre for Living and the Asylum System of Tyrol, by Stefan Freytag und Armin Staffler

9

J Multi-Ethnic Theatre in Sri Lanka, by Anna Dütsch

ELICITIVE PEACE WORKERS J Exploring the Power of Social Roles Through Theatre, by Lena-Maria Drummer

SELF-UNFOLDING IN ISLAM

12

THE BODY AS A DOOR

15

A Dance of Honesty, by Margrete Slettebø

15 MANY PEACES INTERVIEWS

DIALOGUE IN TUNISIA

A Conversation with Nobel Peace Laureate Abdessatar Ben Moussa, by Adham Hamed

18

THE INNSBRUCK SCHOOL OF PEACE STUDIES

REPRESENTING THE INVISIBLE

18

J by Carlos Gauna and María Requena López

20

MANY PEACES FESTIVAL

23

NEW MASTERS OF PEACE J PUBLICATIONS

26 32

An Inspiring Journey, by Paula Ditzel Facci

APPENDIX

23

THE EDITORIAL TEAM IMPRESSUM J Joking for Peaces

4 - Many Peaces Magazine

34 35


GREETING NOTE Dear peace colleagues and friends, It is a great honour for me to be asked to write the “greeting note” for Volume 3 of the Many Peaces magazine and also to know that Theatre for Living “lives” at the UNESCO Peace Studies Program, University of Innsbruck. Stefan Freytag and Adham Hamed, who made the invitation, wanted to know what theatre is to me. Theatre is a primal language, as my dear mentor, friend and colleague Augusto Boal used to say, that “belongs to all of humanity.” What insight lies underneath this statement? Art (and theatre is one art form) is the psyche of the community. In the same way as our bodies are made up of cells that comprise the living organism of the body, communities are made up of people that comprise the living organism of the community. Individuals need to express themselves in order to be healthy. So do communities. The way communities used to express themselves was through song, dance, drama – a language through which the psyche of the living community could find expression. Today we buy music, books, theatre, dance, visual art; as consumers we pay strangers to tell us stories about strangers. When do we get together as living communities to use this primal language to tell our own collective stories? To express our collective hopes, dreams and also our nightmares? The answer is we don’t and if we do, it is extremely rare. In the same way as individuals get sick if they keep things bottled up, communities get sick. The proof of that, I believe, is unfortunately, everywhere we look. Theatre for Living (TfL) has grown from Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed (TO), my own life long interest in physics and how I have understood physics through the generosity of numerous Indigenous communities, primarily in British Columbia, Canada, and in particular the Gitxsan Nation in North Western BC. What? Understanding physics via Indigenous communities? Yes – because physics is not new knowledge, it is ancient knowledge expressed through new, technical language. Physics teaches us that everything in the universe is interconnected. This understanding is what challenged and inspired me to transform the TO work I was doing into a new form; one that embraced the validity of all sides of a story, even when we disagree profoundly with one or more of the perspectives. This is a theatrical way out of cyclical violence (in all its forms) and into “many peaces.” TfL is an attempt to create aesthetic space where true transformational dialogue can take place – not one side trying to convince, conquer or defeat the other. I’ve been so deeply impressed and inspired by the people (students and staff) that I have met and worked with at the University of Innsbruck Peace Studies program. People seeking a new way, a new path, a paradigm shift. The urgency for this new way is building across the planet as we confront the realities of climate change and how the addiction to economic growth over and above human and environmental rights has led to a terrible imbalance in the ecology of both the earth and also humanity. This imbalance has led and continues to lead to layer after layer of destructive conflict. Somehow, we must find ways to transform this destructive conflict into a creativity through which we find balance once again; balance for the earth and balance for humanity. Truly equal human rights, education, health, and opportunity. A healthy ecology has room for diversity. The Peace Studies Program and more importantly the people who inhabit the program are one way (there will and must be many) to rise to this challenge. The authors and articles in this Volume 3 give insight into various projects that share this transformative desire. Thank you all for your diligent work – and I wish you inspired reading, dear reader. David Diamond DAVID DIAMOND is the Artistic and Managing Director of the Vancouver based company Theatre for Living. He is the author of Theatre for Living: the art and science of community-based dialogue, which has a foreword by renowned systems theorist Fritjof Capra. The book was translated to German by Armin Staffler. Diamond teaches regularly at the University of Innsbruck’s MA Program in Peace Studies. Contact: david@theatreforliving.com

Greeting Note - 5


Joking for Peaces

HOSPITALITY AND ASYLUM THEATRE FOR LIVING AND THE ASYLUM SYSTEM OF TYROL BY STEFAN FREYTAG AND ARMIN STAFFLER

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verything started about one year ago when we asked ourselves how we could use our professional experience to assist with the current refugee situation in Tyrol, Austria. We began to consider the community practice “Theatre for Living” and its founder David Diamond from Canada and how they could help us to achieve this goal. Thanks to our own perspective and our expertise in theatre, as well as our experience in organizing and hosting events, we decided to bring together Innsbruck Haus der Begegnung and spectACT (association for socio-political theatre), both being our geographical, institutional as well as symbolical home. In order to start the project we invited a team of representatives from more than 10 organizations and institutions engaged in refugee issues to host the event with us. All of us went on a one-year-long journey to explore the relationship between hospitality and peace in Tyrol. 6 - Many Peaces Magazine

Hospitality: One of Many Peaces When do we feel alive? Here, we reference “we” as the authors of this text, but we welcome everyone to join us. Very often we feel alive in moments of shared joy, shared sorrows and shared life. When we feel accepted and recognized, when we feel heard and seen, when something or someone touches us deeply. Such are the moments when we are connected – with ourselves, with others, with a community and with the entire universe. In this conceptualization then, we are part of something that is much bigger than ourselves as individual beings It looks completely different, though, when we are separated or disconnected from each other. Separations happen, they hurt, but they are sometimes bound to happen. Separations challenge us, as they accompany us like a fracture through our biography – no matter if they are consequences of our own choice or not. With this in mind, we ask how do we deal with ourselves and with those who have been separated – from their homes, their families and their previous lives? Ivan Illich explains in his 2006 text, In den Flüssen nördlich der Zukunft. Letzte Gespräche über Religion und Gesellschaft mit David Caley, that in early Christianity, it was common in every household to have a spare mattress, a candle and some dry bread ready, in case Jesus Christ, in form of a stranger without shelter, would knock on the door. Jesus is described as a stranger asking


for hospitality. Which significance do we give to hospitality? In our families, in our circle of friends, in our work and last but not least in our society? Which value do we give to hospitality here in Tyrol and here in Europe? And do not we miss something beyond words if we are not able to have a space in our life ready for the moment when Jesus Christ, in form of a stranger, knocks on our own door asking to be let in? The Asylum System in Tyrol Worldwide displacement is at an all-time high, reaching nearly 60 million refugees according to the United Nations Human Rights Commission in June 2015. In Europe, many questions regarding global refugee policies remain unsolved. Questions about boundaries, the outsourcing of responsibilities and the distribution of refugees have not been answered yet. The asylum system of Tyrol faces the same issues. We wanted to address these open questions and look for feasible approaches in a combined effort.

Hospitality is one form of the many peaces which exist and which we are able to pass on. WOLFGANG DIETRICH

By the summer of 2015, 3027 asylum seekers were living in 75 refugee homes spread all around Tyrol, according to the local government of the Tyrol region. As of September 2015, there were 56,256 new asylum applications in Austria which is a 231% rise since 2014, as reported by the Bundesministerium für Inneres, Asylwesen. Asylum has always been a big issue and it becomes more and more important. It gets discussed in different contexts and is also exploited by various groups. From our experiences working in this context, neither the refugees themselves nor the people working in the ‘helpers’ system have a platform to express the emotional layers of their experiences. In some cases, they become the objects of articles, discussions and decisions without getting involved. We found that there were missing spaces beyond judgments and diagnosis, where common stories could not evolve. Inviting and Hosting Because of all those reasons, we decided to be hosts at our working places and extend a twofold invitation: an invitation to the theatre and to the Haus der Begegnung. The theatre is a fantastic place to encounter each other, work together on a common topic, and thereby transform. Participants discovered common stories, which deal with reality and life as they wish it to be. The Haus der Begegnung provided the space needed for that. We decided to invite the “Theatre for Living”. This form of theatre was founded by David Diamond from Canada and is based on the “Theatre of the Oppressed” by Augusto Boal. The assumption of this method is that community life can be shaped and transformed in the theatre. So we invited David Diamond as well as asylum seekers who often live in separation from their homes, from possible futures (since they are not allowed to work) and from the local population. And we invited people working in the asylum system who try to bridge these separations in the sense of Conflict Transformation Around the World - 7


the Christian term “agape” which means a love towards oneself, the others and the divine. Many governmental and non-governmental institutions as well as individuals contributed and helped us to create a successful cooperation. During the preparation for this transformational process, we wanted to find out - among many other things - where there is a lack of hospitality and how we can shape hospitality as one form of a common peace for hosts and those who are hosted. There is one more thing which we could experience in the theatre: it is the relation between our own lives and the lives of the others. And if we realize that all of our lives are part of a greater union, we are able to decide if we want to add more separations to life or if we want to unite what has been separated. This, by the way, is what integration means: reconnect what has originally been together. Forum Theatre: Asylum in Tirol Last September, after a whole week of workshops and preparation, 19 people from 10 different countries such as Syria, Congo, Somalia, Afghanistan and Austria, among others, created a forum theatre event that raised the question of how can we humanize asylum in Tyrol? We organized two performances and more than 400 spectators attended them, looking for answers to this question. About 20 persons form the audience in the plays, trying to personally engage in the struggles about asylum on stage. It’s dark. The audience is alert and warned that it might get loud. Voices are yelling in seven different languages: I’m thirsty! Je suis fatiguée! (I am tired!), I can’t go on anymore! One voice is shouting: faster! Go faster! Go, go, go! The voices are moving from backwards towards the stage. The spotlight comes on. People are standing in an imaginary crowded place, leaning against each other, staggering. Then there is silence. Gazing down, gazing into the distance. Until then only one spoken question is left: What shall we do now?

Tyrol) and David Diamond, who gave us the opportunity to tell our collective stories without telling anyone’s personal story. The audience who is part of just the same community was confronted with real and serious questions. On and off stage a dialogue was created that left the binary view of the world with its simple answers aside, trying to embrace the complexity of the current situation of asylum in Tyrol. We were at equal eye level and really saw and heard each other. We did not only see and hear the point of view of the Syrian, the social worker, the politician, the refugee, the Somali, or the unemployed - all of them being roles that were acted out on stage .e were at the same time able to recognize the human being behind these roles. Hopefully, we can continue this dialogue and further explore the ever changing relationship between hospitality and peace through theatre. Thanks to „Haus der Begegnung“ for supporting this Volume. The Forum Theatre „Asylum in Tirol“ also took place there. Art of Hosting-Training in Innsbruck: „Participative Leadership“ 6th-8th of June 2016. The training will be in german. web: www.hausderbegegnung.com contact: hdb.kurse@dibk.at

Forum theatre deals with the world as it is, not as we wish it to be. Now that the refugees are here, begs the question: what now? Forum theatre deals with the world as it is, not as we wish it to be. Now that the refugees are here, begs the question: what now? The workshop participants created two scenes about their struggles. “Waiting” is one nerve-wracking problem. But they also struggle with very unhealthy competitive dynamics created by our society. Who is the most “urgent case”? Who’s country is more cruel, more at war than the others? Additionally, the people who try to help are struggling with an overload of work and a lack of resources.. Therefore, they are sometimes torn between wanting to help and not being able to fulfill the rising expectations. Then, there is another dangerous field of conflict where the frustration and fears of the refugees meet the fears and frustration of the local people which is that there are hardly any chances to really meet and get to know each other. Even a residence permit can often not make the refugees feel at home. Our group of people consisted of asylum seekers, volunteers and professionals within the asylum system (a living organism that lives within the bigger living organism – the geographical community of 8 - Many Peaces Magazine

STEFAN FREYTAG (ST’11, WT’12, ST’12) works at the Haus der Begegnung in Innsbruck organizing and hosting events in adult education. He is as well facilitating workshops about conflict engagement, political education and diversity in schools. He studied political science in Innsbruck and is currently writing his master thesis in Peace Studies about essential space in facilitation. He was born in Tirol in 1982. Contact: Bergele@gmx.at ARMIN STAFFLER is a trainer and facilitator for Applied Theatre specialized in Theatre for Living. Armin was raised in Innsbruck (Austria), he is married and has two daughters. He has been a faculty member of the MA Program in Peace, Development, Security and international Conflict Transformation since 2002. He has 15 years of experience in facilitating community based theatre projects about issues of living together. Contact: armin.staffler@uibk.ac.at


Joking for Peaces

FROZEN MOMENTS MULTI-ETHNIC THEATER IN SRI LANKA TEXT BY ANNA DÜTSCH

I

sit in a huge theatre tent and stare at the screen of my video camera. I can feel the arm of a Sri Lankan co-audience neighbour pressed against my shoulder – the tent is so packed that I am struggling to move my camera. I capture a close-up of an actor’s face who is dressed up as a bull and dancing energetically on stage – his movements carried by the fast beat of local drums. Suddenly he stops. The drums echo for a few more seconds before they quieten out and another melody takes over: the call of prayer from the mosque next to the theatre tent. I zoom out from my previous image. And there they are standing: three actors frozen on stage.

The bull rests quietly, his arms dangling at the side of his body. Everyone listens to the call of the prayers: The Muslim, Buddhist and Christian viewers as well as the Tamil and Sinhalese actors. Everyone seems united in paying respect to a minority religion of the island. Impressively, this happens in a country which was until recently tormented by an ethno-religious conflict. The prayers soon come to an end. The actors and musicians exchange a short look. Then the drums send their rhythms through the tent again and the bull picks up his impassioned dance. It is the continuation of the same scene, but the feeling inside the tent has changed… I witnessed this minutes when I produced a documentary film about the theatre group Janakaraliya which uses their art to foster social harmony in Sri Lanka. The above situation is only one example of how the theatre team allows the viewers to experience inter-ethnic respect viscerally. As an active observer, I have learned the power of creating images and involving emotions; powerful resources, which Janakaraliya highly draws on in their work – a beautiful way to help transform attitudes in a society… Janakaraliya – Theatre of the people I visited the multi-ethnic theatre group Janakaraliya in July 2015, six years after the end of the protracted ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. Almost three decades of violence has left the Sri Lankan society highly polarized along ethnic lines with additional language Conflict Transformation Around the World - 9


barriers separating the communities. The employment of identity politics by both conflict parties have deeply alienated the ethnic groups and created a climate of distrust between the ethno-religious entities. The members of Janakaraliya regard the rebuilding of these relationships and the promotion of dialogue between the antagonist communities as a major necessity to rebuild a stable, pluralistic society. To contribute to this, they assembled Tamil, Sinhalese and Muslims youth to form the first multi-ethnic theatre group of the island. Through theatre training and the translation of Sinhala plays into Tamil and vice versa, all actors gained the ability to speak and perform in both languages, therefore being able to cater to all communities of the island. Both in times of war and peace, the group has toured the island with a mobile tent and performed their much awarded plays in rural areas.

Janakaraliya sees peacebuilding and the arts not as a product but as a social process. It is not so much about the content of the plays, but about the emotions and experiences the arts can create.

I would like to share some personal insights from the performances I attended and highlight some of their strategies to promote peaceful coexistence through performance which allow the audience to experience “frozen moments”. Overcoming physical separation I remember that during the first performance, I was struck of the socio-economic diversity I experienced inside the tent. I noticed for instance, women with head scarfs sitting in the same row as a group of priests; women dressed officially in elegant saris seated right next to villagers. In the public discussion after the show, most viewers declared that theatre is restricted to urban areas and unaffordable for a large part of society. It is their interest in the arts, the high quality of Janakaraliya’s productions and the specialness of the event - offered at low cost - that helped to unite all social groups in one location. With this, Janakaraliya was able to create a moment of peaceful coexistence under one roof – allowing the audience to be in a multi-ethnic environment. Performing together in harmony After assembling a diversified crowd, the multi-ethnic constitution of the team proved to play a major role in transmitting their message of inter-communal harmony. However, the group’s ethnic diversity is not advertised overtly, but comes across through subtle elements observed during the performance: In the plays I saw, both Tamil and Sinhalese actors performed in the Sinhalese language. The Tamil accent in some of the actors’ pronunciation was a first hint for the audience regarding their mixed ethnic constitution. In 10 - Many Peaces Magazine


my conversations with Sinhalese viewers, they confirm the high impact of realizing the actors’ Tamil background during the play: An interviewee described how his negative feelings towards the Tamils, which he had harboured till then, were overcome when watching the Tamils perform. “We only had eyes for the actor, not their ethnicity.” He shared having felt a real human connection towards a community that was historically viewed with animosity. Creating dialogue & build bridges After the play, Janakaraliya performs a final ritual: One actor after another greets the audience in their own native language followed by his name and place of origin. A loud applause follows each announcement. Most audience members described this as the most emotional moment of the performance. It creates a powerful visual image of the harmonious multi-ethnic collaboration, which is then visibly appreciated by the gesture of the audience. It creates an embracing atmosphere and allows the audience to experience a sense of brotherhood. After this ritual, the microphone was given to audience members to discuss and exchange ideas. This dialogue continued informally after the show. I left my camera running unnoticed post the play. What I found in my recordings was a huge crowd surrounding the Tamil main character of the play, some audience members hugging him and engaging in conversations with him. In an interview I learned that in Sinhalese areas it is the Tamil actors who usually hog most of the limelight while the converse is true for Tamil districts. In this case, intercultural arts have acted as a powerful pedestal to bridge ties between members of different ethnicities – a step in the direction of intercommunal understanding. Frozen moments for change Unlike life, theatre has the power to freeze time for a moment: whether freezing a dancing bull as an act of respect, allowing vicious applause for inter-ethnicity or motivating a hug with an actor of the other community. Janakaraliya’s work sets an example, transforms emotions and builds bridges. It offers the experiences in the tent as a vision for the whole of Sri Lanka - a vision that starts in those frozen moments.

ANNA DÜTSCH has recently completed the MA Media Practice for Development and Social Change at the University of Sussex. Holding a BA in International Development, she worked for Gesellschaft für International Zusammenarbeit in the field of cultural conflict transformation in Sri Lanka. Since then, she produced a series of short films on the relation of theater and social change. Contact: anna.duetsch@gmx.de

web: https://vimeo.com/annaduetsch

Conflict Transformation Around the World - 11


LENA-MARIA

DRUMMER

SELF-UNFOLDING IN ISLAM EXPLORING THE POWER OF SOCIAL ROLES THROUGH THEATER BY LENA-MARIA DRUMMER

Joking for Peaces

This paper explores my early impressions and reflections of a theater workshop with Muslims in Stuttgart, Germany, which is grounded in my research interest in the concept of self-unfolding in Islam and my knowledge of the Theatre for Living - an altered form of the Theatre of the Oppressed. From my experience, theater can serve as a powerful tool to look deeper into different personal and societal dynamics that lead to conflict. In classic theater, tension and the characters’ struggles captivate the audience and carry them into different emotional spheres, such as fear, anger, sadness, or hope. It is here where drama takes place and where spectators could become more than passive viewers of actions, if they can identify with the actors and their struggles based on experiences from their own lives. 12 - Many Peaces Magazine

Augusto Boal (1931-2009), Brazilian theater director, writer, and so much more, understands this critical moment of sympathy as an opportunity to mobilize people. He reveals a truth that we often oversee in our daily life routine. The truth that we are all actors and that our actions have immediate consequences on the lived experiences of others around us, but also on ourselves. In the International Message of the World Theatre Day in 2009, Boal points out that “being a citizen is not living in society, it is changing it.” During times of brutal oppression by the Brazilian regime in the 1960s, he revolutionized the theater, hoping to spark a revolution. Inspired by Berthold Brecht’s epic theater form and Paulo Freire’s concept of the pedagogy of the oppressed, Boal’s aim was to empower those who have been deprived of their human rights. By inviting people from the audience to come on stage and to jump into the role of one of the oppressed characters, Boal created a theater technique that allows audience members to explore the liberation from oppression and to apply the insights gained from that experience in their daily life struggles. Thus, he transformed the stage from a platform of performance and entertainment to an experimental space for understanding and responding to the struggles of the oppressed. Unlike Boal, who was influenced by Marxist theory, Canadian theater director David Diamond developed a new approach to this technique, in order to create a dialogue in communities and transform conflicts. Moving away from the binary language


of oppressor versus oppressed, he draws what he calls Theatre for Living from a systemic approach and feels particularly inspired by Fritjof Capra’s systems theory. The systems-based perspective understands that a community is a living organism. People who oppress others are not only perpetrators, but are also victims of the society. We shape the world around us and are simultaneously shaped by it. We are constantly influenced by the feedback of our fellow human beings, which contain expectations and judgments, and finally form ideals in our minds. As a consequence, we tend to hold up certain images of “how things must or should be” and live up to patterns of “how things must or should be done.” However, what happens if the way we want to live, or choose to live (if we have such privilege), is not equivalent to the way we should live? This question answered itself for me when I started struggling with my Muslim identity - just as being Muslim took the shape of an ideal, which I was unable to live up to. I quickly realized that I had to change my inner attitude in order to transform my internal battleground into an ocean of transformative potential. Certain that I was not the only one with such identity dilemmas, I sent an open invitation to Muslims living in Germany to participate in a theater workshop led by Austrian theater pedagogue, Armin Staffler. The purpose of the workshop was to explore the inner struggles of individuals who face difficulties while pursuing an authentic and self-directed life. The five-hour workshop took place within the framework of my research on self-unfolding in Islam, whereby my aim was to identify boundaries set through social roles. Hence, I did not focus on the transformation of personal conflicts, but on gaining knowledge about the context that leads to dichotomy and inner struggles. In this case, I applied the theater technique as a methodological tool to acquire knowledge and to then further engage with it academically. On a summer Sunday afternoon of July 2015, eight Muslim men and women, myself included, came to Stuttgart and provided insights into their own disputes that are linked to their religious identity. All participants were familiar with moving between cultures. They were either of German origin, had embraced Islam and adopted a sense for religious and spiritual practice, or they were of non or half German origin and had been raised with a Muslim identity as children. In all cases, they jump between their family culture and the culture of their respective community and broader society, while trying to define their own standards as well as avoiding to attract attention by being different, simply because they want to fit in and be considered “normal.” However, recognition and acceptance seem hard to be maintained when expectations and social scripts vary from the different social clusters we move in. Often, the different images received do not resonate with our own positions and standards and sometimes, they even compete with each other. Despite the various cultural backgrounds and Islamic orientations represented by the group (the invitation was purposely directed to several Shia and Sunni Muslim organizations in the hope of having different traditional, liberal, mystical and conservative interpretations of Islam present), the participants shared their struggles with fulfilling social roles and remaining true to themselves. This is not solely a challenge for Muslims, but I was curious about which concepts particularly stand in their way and prevent them from unfolding their true self. Picking up on the general notion about Muslims, I expected to allocate mainly religious concepts that seem hindering; yet, although I considered the possibility, I was surprised about the

I quickly realized that I had to change my inner attitude in order to transform my internal battleground into an ocean of transformative potential.

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strong tendency towards defining stigmas presented by non-Muslims as boundaries. Just like social roles, they have a restrictive impact on the person. Thus, the examples offered by the group were fairly divided into social roles and stigmas received from the Muslim and non-Muslim community. Before elaborating upon them, I want to introduce briefly an exercise called “Cops in the Head.” It was developed in the 1980s by Boal and his wife, a psychotherapist, during their exile in France. The exercise brings to life authoritarian figures in one’s mind, which either tell you what to do, even though you do not want it, or what not to do, even though you do want it. Such voices, or “Cops,” are internalized through social influence and control. The methods used in the workshop were aligned with “Cops in the Head” in order to foster a dialogue about the individual cases of the participants. During the workshop, two female participants expressed their former experiences with a constricting gender role. They were both confronted, one by her husband and the other by her hopeful mother-in-law, with religious justifications, which they identified as cultural and societal misconceptions based on a patriarchal worldview. Seeking knowledge, they explored that such gender norms can be expanded within the framework of Islam, thus providing them confidence with their Muslim identity. Although this does not transform the conflict with the respective person, it eases the tension within themselves. It is more complicated when facing stigmas, which I define as mainly negative images drawn by someone else, and which lead to the fact that the unknowing artist does not see the actual person, but rather his preconceived image about the person. Then, the challenge lays in liberating oneself from the needs to receive respect, acceptance and the like by others and not in transforming internal “Cops.” Nearly all participants shared a story about being annoyed or frustrated about the repeatedly occurring situation of justifying why they are religious, i.e. fast during Ramadan, pray, or refuse the consumption of alcohol or a loan from the bank after a critical assessment of the interest system. Thanks to the non-profit association „spectACT - Verein für politisches und soziales Theater“ for supporting this Volume.

14 - Many Peaces Magazine

Moreover, it is of great concern when stigmas take discriminating measures. One female participant explained that she was offered a job at the marketing department of a bank after successfully accomplishing an internship and proving her qualifications, provided that she abandoned her headscarf. Another male participant shared his dismay about being repeatedly declined by tenants, because his wife is covering her body contours with a long and loose-fit garment that reveals her face and hands only. Despite his wife’s intellectual qualifications and skills, her clothing also prevents her from attaining a job, which puts more pressure on him to carry the financial responsibility for the family and leaves her on the margins of society. As for the framework provided in Stuttgart, we did not explore such dilemmas in detail and could only go in resonance with the individual characters mentioned in the stories. That means we did not try out possible ways of responding to internal and external conflicts that result from misconceptions, even though the theater as a conflict transformation tool suggests to do so. Nonetheless, the Theatre for Living has many techniques in its repertoire to further engage with such topics in the future and open up the closed Muslim group to a religiously and culturally diverse circle. Experiencing the role of others on stage and realizing that we have much more in common than we think can be very powerful and break down walls. That is, at least, what I deeply wish to achieve in our society. LENA-MARIA DRUMMER (ST’13, WT’14, ST’14) conducts her research on self-unfolding in Islam as part of her master thesis. She is currently pursuing her M.A. Degree in Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Innsbruck. Lena-Maria lived and worked in the NGO sector in Egypt, where she became a cross-cultural facilitator. Her aim is to bridge differences and overcome misunderstandings using elicitive conflict transformation tools, such as theater. She focuses specifically on the relationship between Europe and the MENA region, as well as between Muslims and non-Muslims in her home country Germany. Contact: lena.m.drummer@gmail.com

web: www.spectACT.at contact: info@spectACT.at


MARGRETE SLETTEBØ

THE BODY AS A DOOR A DANCE OF HONESTY BY MARGRETE SLETTEBØ

Imagine that you are in flames, burning from the soles of your feet

and upwards. Gradually your body turns into ash. You are now, with your ash body, walking on razor blades. You must tread ever so carefully. A breath of wind may carry a part of you away. A dance instructor keeps giving new directions for me to move. I try to follow, not knowing what it is supposed to look- or feel like. Walk with small steps, as your body is now becoming an empty vessel, lingering between life and death. You do not think anymore, you just feel. You no longer exist as you once did. How do you relate to others in this state? You can no longer see things with your human eyes. Now, how do you see? What do you see?

This is a glimpse of my strange- and somewhat grotesque first meeting with the art of butoh, in a hall in the mountain village in Dharamsala, India in 2011. By accident, I had found Butoh in India, but originally it stems from Japan-- more specifically from Japanese dance theatre. However, butoh as an avant-garde performance art also has its connection to Europe, especially the traditions of German expressionism, surrealism and existentialist theatre of the Absurd. It encompasses a range of techniques, activities and motivations, and common features often include the use of imagery with unimaginable combinations of words and concepts to inspire body movements. This serves to experience a non-objectification of the body. It is often performed with hypercontrolled movements that, to an audience, may seem almost meditative. In 2011, I did not yet did understand the point of each butoh exercise that we did during the workshops, but I could sense that the movements we created with our bodies came from a deep place of honest surprise and intensity. Never before had I experienced such deep self-exploration in a dance class. One reason for this may be the focus on what is understood as the butoh-body, meaning a physical and mental attitude so as to integrate the dichotomized elements such as subject and object, consciousness and unconsciousness. This notion is what particularly inspired me to connect butoh to my work within the academic discipline of Peace Studies. Elicitive Peace Workers - 15


It has not been my intention to instrumentalise butoh as a tool century following Shannon Moore’s book from 2003 “Ghosts of for conflict transformation, peace work or therapy as such. How- Pre-Modernity: Butoh and the Avant-Garde”. Butoh and similar ever, my practice in butoh dance and similar expressive perfor- avant-garde arts and performances helped to revive Japanese submance arts, which evolved at the time when I was working on my jectivity and identity. MA-thesis for Innsbruck, made me realise the many similarities 2. Capturing the unconscious world between this philosophy and the philosophies and methods of the Innsbruck School of Peace Studies. Using art as a tool of research into human questions for academic purposes and a tool for con- There are two dancers that are considered to be the founders of flict transformation triggered a curiosity in me of the potentials butoh, Tatsumi Hijikata and Kazuo Ohno. Hijikata’s inspiration both on an individual level as a dancer as well as in the audience came from the retrieving of pre-modern elements of old myths viewing the performance. In the MA programme in Innsbruck and animist religion as well as an interest in the marginal classes the theory of the many peaces and particularly the transrational that had been systematically suppressed during the 19th century period of modernisation and peaces is a theoretical foundation rationalisation in Japan. Hijikata for the programme. Transratioand his contemporaries re-exanality, as described by Wolfgang mined Japanese authenticity, and Dietrich in the article “Beyond became critical voices in the face the gates of Eden: Transrational of modernity under the Ameripeaces” (2011), is a transgression canisation. Influenced as he was of the limits of modernity and raButoh means to meander, by the French dramatist, Antonin tionality, through a recombination or to move as it were, Artaud, he wanted to create an of modern and so-called energetic in twists and turns between the expression where the inner eye elements. We could also describe would be operative, capturing an this as a recombination of mind realms of the living and the dead, internal reality that resembled the and spirit. Similar to the notion of the light and the dark unconscious world. Hijikata did transrationality, butoh is a concept KAZUO OHNO not want a theatre that could be that seeks to include the human easily analysed psychologically, experiences of having a physical that relentlessly attempted to rebody, spirit, emotions and intelduce the unknown to the known. lect. It is impossible to grasp the Instead Hijikata, inspired by Artconcept of butoh with the mind aud and also Freud, aimed to realone because it goes beyond inveal in his work the things that tellectual concepts. However, it is society kept buried. By attempting to dig up repressed memories, not merely building on pre-rational notions of being a body, it traumas and images of insanity, the goal was to liberate the ”darker transcends it by allowing experiences from the collective and perside” as a move towards the integration of both ’high’ and ’low’, sonal unconscious to come to the forefront and by also bringing a bringing society back into balance with nature. Butoh was thereconscious awareness of spirit. fore not developed as a technique, but rather as an exploration of The focus on the unconscious and also the spirit is perhaps due body; of being. It also represented the body in a state of crisis, of to the origin of butoh as a Japanese dance style. It grew out of the ’becoming’ , as referenced by Moore (2003). death and devastation of WW II, particularly the atomic bombs An older dance colleague of Hijikata, Kazuo Ohno represents in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the need for a re-identification a different approach in butoh. Where Hijikata was inspired by with a pre-war Japan. The repression of Japanese pre-modernity, the dark corners of our unconscious, the political taboos and the stemming from the US occupation in combination with the war voices of the repressed, Ohno took the existence of spiritual pretrauma resulted in a resurfacing of cultural elements that was ofsence as a starting point: “Form comes of itself, only insofar as ten uncanny and grotesque. What attracted the first butoh dancers there is a spiritual content to begin with” writes, Ohno, in the book were the ways in which these modes of expression were margi“Kazuo Ohno’s world”, written by him and his son, published in nalized and suppressed by modernising practices of the late 19th

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2004. Movement to Ohno was utterly dependant on one’s spiritual presence. In many ways these two dancers have come to represent what in butoh are darker and a lighter versions of butoh that coexist even today. One common element with butoh is the insistence of showing spirit in the work. In today’s art world one is often suspicious when dancers introduce aspects such as soul and spirit on stage. It must at least be justified with a touch of apologetic cynicism and distance. Both Ohno and Hijikata, on the other hand, were dedicated to an arts practice in service of something other than the ego. Butoh dance is unrelated to fixed choreographic movements and gives performers opportunities to become aware of what is going on inside them mentally and physically. Novel or strange movements are not rejected and so it appears that butoh contains full freedom. However, what is fascinating is that while the dancer may experience a full freedom of movement at first, she will soon find that it is the dancer herself that is the primary limitation in the dance. Every dancer has his or her physical limitations as well as vulnerable minds that have undergone their unique personal and cultural histories. Every butoh performer is therefore naturally different and when they perform they inevitably expose their inner selves, their lives, their bodies and minds. For this reason, at least from my experience, the dance form has proven to be a very challenging life-long learning tool and a way of exploring our own uncharted interior territory. What we find though, is not specific just to our own stories, but are rather universal in their theme. This is, for me, the beauty in taking this dance to a stage, connecting the dance to the universal stories that an audience also can recognise within themselves. 3. Dance as research For some time I have been interested in the relation between Peace Studies and the notion of consciousness and spirit. In almost all methods of reclaiming a sense of presence and beingness in the moment, there is a focus on the feeling of the body as a direct experience of the current moment or the ‘now’. We may think in terms of future and past, but when I experience the breath going into my lungs and the sensation of my feet touching the floor, I know that I AM in this moment. In 2013, when I took a two and a half month butoh course as fieldwork for my MA-thesis, I wanted to explore the technique and philosophy of butoh as an entry Thanks to the non-profit association „Tanzraum-Innsbruck“ for supporting this Volume.

point into the vast territory of consciousness and the unconscious. The topic of my master thesis research became more and more centred on the connection between splits in our psyche or consciousness and the notion of transrationality. Butoh represented an incredibly deep philosophy and artistic expression for exploring inner dualities and the integration or transcendence of them. When I, together with five professional and semi-professional dancers started Butoh Laboratory, Oslo located in Norway, the idea was to build an arena for artistic research, inspired by methods of butoh- and performance work, relevant in a Norwegian context. For me the purpose has been twofold. I have wanted an arena for self-expression that went beyond the rational, academic frame. Furthermore, I have had the ambition of using findings in my academic writing, as a way of including non-rational ways of knowing. In and of itself, the idea of using butoh dance as a method of research in Peace studies and Depth psychology is a rather demanding and many would say an impossible task. One reason is that butoh dance to many is a dance style that can only be mastered by dancers growing up in the Japanese culture. Secondly, given the nature of butoh as a dance of transcendence and spirit, it seems contradictory to try to use this for once again to inform intellectual, academic work. However, if we take seriously this notion of transrational research, it is exactly the ambition to include both rational, transcendent/spiritual and physical experiences that could open new doors to knowledge creation in our field. This connection between butoh and transrational- elicitive approaches to peace work was also emphasised by Wolfgang Dietrich in his book “Elicitive conflict transformation and the transrational shift in peace politics” (2013) claiming that butoh and similar expressive dances can be an interesting path to transformation. Building on these thoughts, I am curious as to how artistic expressions such as butoh performances can highlight hidden aspects of the unconscious and transform them. “Butoh means to meander, or to move as it were, in twists and turns between the realms of the living and the dead, the light and the dark”, according to Ohno (2004: 205). This may sound like a morbid statement but this close affinity that you find with death in butoh has inspired a new way of approaching the elicitive approach to conflict transformation as well. To me the different layers in the elicitive approach also has this span between life and death. In fact, this notion of dark and light, death and life is nothing but mirroring us, human beings in our most honest form. web: www.yoga-innsbruck.com/5-rhythms-innsbruck.html contact: tanzraumibk.fraugraiff@gmail.com

MARGRETE SLETTEBØ (ST’12, WT’13) completed her Masters degree at the University of Innsbruck in June 2015. The title of her master thesis is “On being able to write. An exploration of dualisms in individuation and transrationality”. She also holds a Master of Arts in Advanced studies in Peace and Conflict Transformation from the University of Basel in Switzerland, for which she wrote a thesis on unitive consciousness and conflict transformation. For the last two years she has practiced Butoh dance and started a dance initiative: Butoh-laboratory, Oslo in Oslo, Norway where she currently lives. Contact: Margrete.sletteboe@gmail.com

Elicitive Peace Workers - 17


DIALOGUE IN TUNISIA A CONVERSATION WITH NOBEL PEACE LAUREATE ABDESSATAR BEN MOUSSA ABOUT THE UNIQUE TUNISIAN PATH OF POLITICAL TRANSITION INTERVIEW BY ADHAM HAMED // PHOTOGRAPHS BY PAUL LAUER

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n the midst of turmoil, Tunisia seems to have gone a different path after the 2011 revolution. Often the country is referred to as an example for how democratic transition can be fostered from within an Arab society, rather than enforced from the outside as in both Iraq and Libya. On December 10th the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet, which can be seen as an act of recognition and encouragement of this unique path. Many Peaces Magazine Editors Adham Hamed and Paul Lauer traveled to Tunis two weeks before the ceremony to meet the new Nobel Peace Laureate Abdessatar Ben Moussa, President of the Tunisian Human Rights League, to learn more. 18 - Many Peaces Magazine

The National Dialogue Quartet will receive the Nobel Peace Prize on December 10th. What does that mean to you? BEN MOUSSA: The Nobel Peace Prize is a great honor not just for the Dialogue Quartet but the whole of civil society. It acknowledges the merits of the revolution and also the women’s movement, which has taken a central role in the revolution. Furthermore, the revolution carries the message that dialogue is the only way of solving conflicts. This is also a message to our friends in Libya and Syria who are fighting and destroying themselves on a daily basis. The revolution has shown us that dialogue is the only constructive path in all phases of conflicts, while weapons cause destruction. What is the difference between the Syrian, Egyptian, Libyan and the Tunisian path? The difference in Tunisia is the dialogue but


we also have different societal circumstances here. We do not have ethno-political conflict lines, such as Sunni-Shia divides. Also, the civil society sector is powerful in Tunisia as we have independent labor unions. It is rare to find such an independency for syndicates elsewhere in the Arab world. Another aspect that makes Tunisia unique is a culture of dialogue between workers and employees,

Peace is beautiful but it is difficult as humans rush to war faster than to peace. Peace is a dream. particularly in times of crisis. The negative impression of the violent developments in Cairo had a positive impact on the outcome of the Tunisian dialogue process. This is why we were able to avoid a civil war scenario, like in Libya and Syria, while also avoiding the repressive path of authoritarian rule, like in Egypt. How do you explain the relatively high number of Tunisian Jihadists in the lines of the so-called Islamic State? This is a big catastrophe. Yet, terrorism is not a specifically Tunisian phenomenon but, for example, also American and French. Terrorism lives in poverty and social need produces terrorists. Therefore, we as civil society actors are now focusing on economic and social rights as they build the foundation on which the revolution started. For employment, which has not been solved thus far: dignity and work. So the revolution, or the democratic transition, remains threatened unless it is accompanied by economic

transition. Unfortunately, we have not seen that thus far. In 2011, the purchasing power was much stronger than today. The government has to find solutions for that but it also cannot do that alone. The Tunisian economy should be revitalized through European and Arab investments. Without investments, the Tunisian democracy will remain fragile. Which shall be the future role of the National Dialogue Quartet? We were asked to institutionalize the Quartet but we refused. The Dialogue Quartet could help in developing the health and education sectors but it can never replace the state institutions. At the Innsbruck School of Peace Studies we understand peace as a term that has to be conceptualized in the plural, meaning that there are at least as many peaces as there are people in the world. You will necessarily have a different un-

derstanding of peace than me, due to our different socializations. What is peace for you? Peace is where there is no discrimination, no racism, no dictatorship. Let us not talk about peoples. We are all one people. Peace and weapons are a contradiction, yet we see weapons everywhere. In my opinion, there are places in the world that deserve our special attention. For example, Palestine. I think we must come to a solution in this conflict, because if it is solved many extremist organizations would lose some of their key arguments. Humans everywhere should be seen as humans. And all world constitutions should describe a person as a human being, as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes that peoples are born free. Equality should not be among citizens but among humans for the sake of their humanity. Peace is beautiful but it is difficult as humans rush to war faster than to peace. Peace is a dream.

Parts of this article were first published in German in the Austrian newspaper Tiroler Tageszeitung, on November 9th 2015. ADHAM HAMED (WT‘12, ST‘12, UPEACE‘12, WT‘13) is a Peace and Conflict Researcher and a PhD student of Political Science at the University of Innsbruck. In his dissertation research he focuses on societal conflicts in relation to forced migration. He is also the Coordinator of the Innsbruck Academic Festival of Many Peaces. Contact: adham.hamed@manypeacesfestival.org

PAUL LAUER (WT‘12, ST‘12, WT‘13, UPEACE‘13) is based in Vienna and works as a junior researcher at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig. He is a lecturer at the Institute of Environmental System Science in Graz and facilitates seminars on team building and conflict transformation. His research interests are focused on intrapersonal conflicts linked to social ecology. Contact: paul.lauer@livinglines.at

Many Peaces Interviews - 19


Joking for Peaces

THEATRE FOR LIVING

THE ART OF REPRESENTING THE INVISIBLE BY CARLOS GAUNA AND MARÍA REQUENA LÓPEZ

Many enthusiastic students chose it with the hope of discovering new ways to bring the different layers of conflict to the surface. After one intense week of improvisation, exploratory exercises and shared emotions, workshop students invited their peers to a Forum Theatre event. This is an open participatory theatre that provides the audience with the opportunity to step into the scene and transform the performed conflicts by replacing one of the actors. The following article seeks to convey some of the feelings and emotions lived during that night from two different perspectives. Making visible the invisible

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uring the last week of the Summer Semester 2015 in the University of Innsbruck’s Master Program in Peace Studies, students were given the choice to engage in one of two workshops dedicated to the energetic aspects of peace. One, named Individuation of the Peace Worker, was dedicated to understanding the patterns of behavior in the peace worker’s personality in order to enable him/her to be fully functional in the working environment. The other, entitled Theatre for Living and the object of this article, introduces a unique methodology built on the use of theatre for conflict transformation. 20 - Many Peaces Magazine

I am part of a group of students eager to share what we have learned during the week-long workshop. We hope to be able to make visible the conflicts we want to represent through a play and although it is not an easy task, we have been working really hard. We know by now that the theater is a safe place where we can express ourselves with openness and transparency. Our faces reflect confidence, but at the same time fear of jumping into the unknown. The two first plays go by. The first illustrates a family conflict and the second reveals a crisis situation in a working environment. Both of them generate wonderful responses from audience members who stare, laugh, suffer and intervene with proposed solutions and insights that come from their outside perspectives.


The play starts. A man walks onto the stage. He talks with a terrific sense of humor that makes everybody laugh, but with a seriousness required to express what is hidden inside his character. His words and marvelous expressions of his soul and heart are floating through the air as he shares a special moment with all of us. It is his wedding anniversary, a moment to commemorate the bond of love that united him and his wife. It is the first time he is making dinner for her, the first time he is setting the table.

Her face reflects anguish while she is walking into the room, but she knows she cannot change what she did. She needed it.

He even bought flowers. He is thrilled to share a magical moment with his wife, but she is not at home. He calls her and she says she is at the hairdresser. He waits, frozen in the moment until she is back. The following scene revels to the audience, what the wife does not dare tell her husband: she is not at the hairdresser, but loving another man. After receiving the call from her husband, she decides to rush home to meet him. Her face reflects anguish while she is walking into the room, but she knows she cannot change what she did. She needed it. They meet in the dining room. The tension is growing in the scene. You can feel it, see it and even smell it. He knows she is not coming from the hairdresser. Her hair is a mess. She is trying to change the topic, bringing the conversation back to their anniversary because she knows she cannot lie for much longer. He asks again and the tension explodes: “I was with another man!� she yells, as if that helps her get rid of that terrible burden. He breaks down as he sees all his world collapse around him. The room is quiet, waiting for the next movement of the actors,

We used our experiences and the space to share an honest moment; a moment that now belongs to everyone in the room.

maybe waiting for a happy ending. It will never arrive. The scene continues and the couple starts accusing each other of everything; everything that is happening in the moment that has happened in the past and that will happen in the future. She always wanted to become a mother, but he can never provide her with that pleasure. He fears she will leave him now that he knows there is another man. They are now revealing all that is inside them, all the small details that were destroying their marriage, all the ideas never expressed. They are revealing all the fears, the complaints, The Innsbruck School of Peace Studies - 21


the solitude, the moments of desperation, all of the conflicts. The shouting continues until the scene comes to an unresolved stop. Both characters are frozen in the moment. She seems to want to flee and he is on his knees trying to hold her. Both are in search for something different. The scene is over. We used our experiences and the space to share an honest moment; a moment that now belongs to everyone in the room. Now it is the audience’s turn. They have the unique opportunity to not only analyze the conflict from the outside but to jump into it, to actively seek transformation. They just need to say “stop” and replace a character. It is now their time for action. The courage to yell “Stop!” It is time for the third play of the evening. Eyes wide open in the audience, silence in the room. The play starts with a couple, infidelity, love, guilt and uncomfortable questions that culminate in a fight and a violent break-up. An overwhelming applause breaks the silence only to return to stillness before the scene is played for the second time. Again the scene unfolds: a couple, infidelity, love, guilt, tears, fighting, a break-up. Nobody in the room dares to shout, “Stop!” and intervene in the play. Giving ourselves another chance, the scene is played for the third time around. A couple no “Stop!”. Infidelity - no “Stop!”. A break-up.

That was the moment that the forum theatre became a life lesson for me. It was not a lesson on what was right or wrong, nor about what should or should not have been done. The room is immersed in an intolerable silence, as if the most minuscule noise has the power to turn the conflict into a real catastrophe. The growing tension is reflected in the eyes of the peace students contemplating the scene, themselves caught between the internal unrest caused by the fighting couple and the invisible energy paralyzing them on the outside. For some, that energy might be the fear of being judged. Some might be ashamed of halting the play, worried about not being able to provide an alternative to the struggle. Some may not even be sure of how to transform the situation. Others could be waiting for someone else to take the first step. No matter what ran through our heads, the situation remained Thanks to the non-profit association „Krah – Forumtheater Südtirol“ for supporting this Volume.

MARÍA REQUENA LÓPEZ (ST’15, WT’16) is a current second-term student at the University of Innsbruck’s MA Program in Peace Studies. Originally from the south of Spain, she moved to Brussels at the age of 10. After completing her bachelor in European Studies in Maastricht, the Netherlands, she decided to take the jump to Peace Studies, where she is constantly and positively surprised. Contact: m93requena@gmail.com

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sealed: a fight and a break-up for the third time. It was a situation that could have been changed; an outcome that could have been avoided; a fight that could have been turned into a conversation; shouts that could have been lowered to hear real voices; possibilities that could have been turned into realities. A lot that could have been, but nothing was, because nobody made it be. The scene became the mirror of the world, of our world, of my world. A mirror of all of those situations in which tension rises until words become screams and screams become weapons – and weapons hurt. Situations that are observed, talked about, analyzed

A lot that could have been, but nothing was, because nobody made it be.

and discussed by a frozen audience that does not dare to shout, “Stop!” and step into the play to turn all of those possibilities into realities. That was the moment that the forum theatre became a life lesson for me. It was not a lesson on what was right or wrong, nor about what should or should not have been done. It was not a teaching on the different ways to intervene in a conflict. It became a lesson about all of those times in my life that I did not shout, “Stop!”; all of those scenes into which I did not dare walk. It is a lesson to remember next time I sit in the audience of the world that surrounds me. It is a teaching to give me the courage to stand up, to take that first step and to become an active part of the scene. Finally, someone dared to cut the overbearing silence, stepped into the play and created a new reality out of the same starting situation. This was when I realized that the world could see many of its possibilities turned into realities if more of us learned how to be that ‘someone’. A magical night The result of the forum theatre was a magical night in which the deeper layers of conflicts were made visible and students were empowered with the courage to intervene and transform the situations. We laughed, cried, struggled and lived the moment. The plays reached their end, but life still continues. Now, the power to use what we learned is in our hands - the power to decide when we will shout, “Stop”! facebook: Krah – forumtheater südtirol

CARLOS GAUNA VARGAS (WT’15, ST’15, WT’16), from Guadalajara, Mexico, currently resides in Graz, finishing his last term for the MA thesis in Peace Studies. His research interests are based in urban conflicts and the processes of making conflicts visible through artistic manifestations. Contact: cgaunav@gmail.com


MANY PEACES FESTIVAL AN INSPIRING JOURNEY BY PAULA DITZEL FACCI

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t was mid December 2014, I was at home in Sao Paulo, Brazil, reading and struggling to write my dissertation when I received the Alumni Network newsletter from the University of Innsbruck’s MA Program for Peace Studies. These emails always make me happy because, although far away and not able to participate in most of the activities, they recall memories of special experiences and great friends from the time I studied there. In this particular email, there was a call for the Innsbruck Academic Festival of Many Peaces, to occur in Innsbruck in August 2015. The call resonated with me immediately as I read it.

Having graduated more than five years ago and now being involved in different activities in the field, I have always been grateful for what I have learned and lived in the program. My experience studying in the peace program made me a more present person. It made me more aware of my weaknesses and strengths and provided me with the tools to work on them. I also had the opportunity to practice and assess the importance and potential of the Innsbruck School of Peace Studies’ elicitive approach to conflict transformation in the field. Nevertheless, after some years I felt a longing for deepening these experiences and strengthening my connections with the network. For this reason, I kept going back whenever possible to alumni meetings, opening ceremonies and gatherings in Brazil. These activities nurtured my motivation and widened my perceptions. That is why the proposal of the Festival resonated so deeply with me. Some people ask what makes the Innsbruck Program so special. There are many aspects, but I would like to emphasize its combination of high academic skills, a human approach to theory and intense practical activities. What distinguishes the program the most is perhaps the dedication to living what is said and proposed, on the part of both faculty and students. Needless to say that a festival based on such a scope is very attractive and unique. From my experience, I can say the festival not only met my expectations but The Innsbruck School of Peace Studies - 23


exceeded them. Developed by alumni, the aim of the festival was to combine theory, practice, exchange and inspiration from the field, while strengthening the alumni network. Acknowledging the many forms of knowing, the festival offered three possibilities of participation: the theorist track, the practitioner track and a space for peace talks. I joined the theorist track and the peace talks. Writing and preparing for the festival was a journey in itself, through which I could gladly count on the caring encouragement of the organizing committee. Nevertheless, this journey was just a step compared to the actual event.

Developed by alumni, the aim of the festival was to combine theory, practice, exchange and inspiration from the field, while strengthening the alumni network.

Supported by the always-receptive team of the Grillhof Seminar Center, the beautiful landscape of the Tyrolean mountains and the thoughtful organizing committee members, the participants arrived in Innsbruck to a sunny week in August. Meeting and working with old and new friends was a very special aspect of the festival. It offered a space of exchange for scholars of Peace Studies and different generations of alumni from the MA Program, who are inspired by the philosophies of transrational peaces and elicitive conflict transformation. It was interesting to learn how each participant has been interpreting, applying and practicing these approaches to peace in many different and rich ways. We learned a lot from and gave feedback to our colleagues’ theses, dissertation proposals and academic articles, whose varied topics included: dealing with love, race, forced migration, individuation,

dance, transnational movements, the electoral crisis in Côte d’Ivoire, TaKeTiNa, unfolding human potential, consciousness of the self and the engagement of the peace worker. We delved into fieldwork experiences in Cambodia, reflected on the power of penetrating prejudice while volunteering in Morocco; we discussed action sports and aikido as elicitive conflict transformation methods and explored dialogues about transrational peaces in schools in Brazil. Sharing articles, experiences and methodologies developed by these inventive alumni working in a varied range of fields was a beautiful experience. 24 - Many Peaces Magazine


We also attended lectures by members of the University of Innsbruck Peace Studies’ core faculty team; the innovative and inspiring professors: Wolfgang Dietrich, Josefina Echavarría, Norbert Koppensteiner and Bernd Rott. Beyond reaffirming my previous admiration, they enchanted the participants by sharing the latest updates of the Innsbruck School of Peace Studies. It was encouraging to see how the approaches of the Innsbruck School have been deepening and expanding to different areas. Finally, participants also had the opportunity to facilitate methods, such as mandala painting, body work, Butoh Dance,

The festival was a nurturing environment to reconnect with old friends, make new ones and acknowledge theories on transrational peaces and elicitive conflict transformation.

Theatre for Living, and the dancing meditations of E-motions and Elicitive Motion. We were then brought to the end of this week of very intensive work. Participating in these workshops allowed us to reflect on the methods, give and receive feedback and suggestions. Furthermore, it was a deep journey into our selves led by our dauntless peers. The festival was a nurturing environment to reconnect with old friends, make new ones and acknowledge theories on transrational peaces and elicitive conflict transformation. It was an opportunity to share developments of our work, pollinate ideas and be inspired by the intensity and aliveness of the Innsbruck School and of the people who are part of it. On a personal level, the Innsbruck Academic Festival of Many Peaces also renewed my commitment and inspiration to be a peace worker, to keep studying and developing my dissertation. It was also a motivation for living the presence and openness required to be an elicitive conflict worker. This kind of meeting is essential to keep this flame alive and to deeply connect with a global network of scholars of Peace Studies and peace workers. It is essential for strengthening and broadening the potential of transformation inherent in such encounters. It was certainly a tough festival and definitely an inspiring one. I am enthusiastically looking forward to the next developments of this network! web: http://manypeacesfestival.org facebook: Innsbruck Academic Festival of Many Peaces email: contact@manypeacesfestival.org PAULA DITZEL FACCI (ST‘07, WT‘08, ST‘08) is a PhD student of Peace, Conflict and Development Studies at the Universitat Jaume I, in Spain. She is living in Brazil where she teaches languages and works as a dancing peace and conflict worker. She also holds workshops about peace and conflicts using elicitive methods such as dance, theatre, non-violent communication and meditation. Contact: pauladfacci@yahoo.com.br

The Innsbruck School of Peace Studies - 25


The Innsbruck School of Peace Studies Established in 2001 the MA Program in Peace Studies at the University of Innsbruck was strongly inspired by the UNESCO’s famous Manifesto 2000, which proposed to turn the new millennium into a new beginning, an opportunity to change, all together, the culture of war and violence into a culture of peace and non-violence. The six corner stones of the Manifesto 2000 are: - Respect the life and dignity of each human being - Practise active non-violence - Share time and material resources - Defend freedom of expression and cultural diversity - Responsible consumer behaviour - New forms of solidarity.

MANSOOR ALI (ST’13, WT’14, ST’14) is a humanitarian worker and researcher in the field of Peace and Conflict Studies. He has been on humanitarian missions to Iraq, Jordan, Burkina Faso, Togo, Somalia, Kenya, Yemen, Libya, South Sudan, Syria, Ukraine and Nigeria. Contact: mansoorali11@gmail.com

INTUITION

A Holistic Touch From the Fingers of a Conflict Worker

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n this research I asked myself two basic questions: How does intuition help one to be aware of the self and to connect to the inner self? How does this awareness and connectedness lead to elucidating the role of the conflict worker in the context of conflicts, warzones and most critical situations? To answer these questions, I argue that intuition is not a magical button to click; it is a holistic ritual to start. It is getting naked in front of the mirror. Intuition is acceptance; it is being connected with life and the flow from moment to moment. As conflict workers, we encounter critical situations, flames and the smoke of warzones. Naturally we react from very deep levels within ourselves. Self-awareness can help us understand the context that surrounds us. This is intuition. It is a way of living. ***

In my research I discuss etymological roots, definitions and different perspectives on intuition. Furthermore, I analyze how the brain works in relation to creativity and how meditation can enhance creativity and sensitivity towards intuitive listening. I also include a detailed explanation of inspiration in the context of creativity. Similarly, I consider creativity as self-reflection in relation to spiritual and psychological understanding. To understand how intuition works in the humanitarian field and in contexts of conflict, I have interviewed eight conflict workers, each of whom brings a unique perspective towards intuition. Most of these interviewees hold more than 10 years of experience working in highly fragile and destabilized contexts of conflicts, wars, civil wars and natural disasters.

26 - Many Peaces Magazine


NEW MASTERS OF PEACE MANUELA MITTERHOFER (WT’13, ST’13, WT’14) is Austrian and currently lives in Vienna. She is working for the Austrian Red Cross as a social worker in a counselling centre for homeless people. Her thesis adviser was Norbert Koppensteiner. Contact: manuela.mitterhofer@gmail.com

MORTEN FREDERIKSEN (ST’12, WT’13, ST’13) is a Copenhagen-based anthropologist and recent graduate of the MA Program for Peace Studies at the University of Innsbruck. He works as assistant and consultant to local humanitarian organizations. His thesis was guided by the encouraging supervision of Wolfgang Dietrich. Contact: mfrederiksen@web.de

SYNCHRONICITY AS TRANSPERSONAL MODALITY

WORKING FOR PEACE MEANS BEING PEACE Die Bedeutung der Intuition in der Friedensarbeit1

An Exploration of Jung and Spirituality in the Frame of Transrational Philosophy

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he aim of my thesis is to understand Carl Gustav Jung´s elusive notion of synchronicity from a transrational perspective and relate synchronicity to the transpersonality of the ‘All-One’. In order to do this, I expand the content and meaning of Wolfgang Dietrich´s layers of Elicitive Conflict Mapping (ECM) through re-relating them to Ken Wilber´s model of the structures of consciousness; with synchronicity as the literal connecting principle. I also re-relate Wilber to the foundational work of Jean Gebser, in order to still diffuse Wilber´s vectoral evolutionary narrative. The result, then, is an expanded notion of the transrational peace philosophy which includes Wilber´s model of stages and tendentiously comprehends synchronicity. Thus, transforming the hierarchical pyramid of Dietrich´s model into a spinning globe in Gebser´s sense, the riddle of the paradoxical two epicenter described in Dietrich´s third volume is solved, since they simply are two aspects of the same epicenter. The experience of synchronicity in the Jungian sense, then, is a characteristic experience of the All-One seen from the logic of the second and third chakra structure. ***

Writing this thesis means for me treating and at least partly closing a topic, which has intrigued me for a decade. The writing-process itself was a rather long and arduous journey, not least owing to the complexity of the topic of synchronicity and has certainly showed me the limits of my personal capacity of comprehending and communicating.

M

y thesis explores the links between the non-logical - to which intuition belongs - and inner and outer peace. People have different channels to perceive their inner wisdom, therefore my thesis aims to investigate various forms of expression of the intuition on the physical, emotional, mental and spiritual levels. Since intuition is a phenomenon which is connected with many others, its close links to resonance, synchronicity and truth are an important part of my work. Moreover, throughout the writing process, I have asked myself what is required from oneself in order to promote intuition and how to make the inner wisdom accessible. In the context of outer peace, this research explores intuition and its links to communication, conflict transformation and decision making processes. ***

Writing my thesis was a journey through the five rhythms (flowing, staccato, chaos, lyrical and stillness). By appreciating the non-rational inner wisdom as much as the rational mind and by trusting it, intuition unfolds itself more and more. During the writing process I realized that not knowing is a very friendly and creative space. Especially, my experiences in the Native Spirit Camp during my Peace Studies influenced me a lot and triggered something inside me. Therefore, I feel deeply grateful for these experiences. Each path to unfolding the inner wisdom is individual and no one knows the way to get there better than the heart. At the moment I am in the phase of stillness. I have the time to let my research manifest itself in me.

1 The meaning of intuition in peace work

The Innsbruck School of Peace Studies - 27


The Innsbruck School of Peace Studies The program took the Manifesto 2000 as an argument to gather faculty and students from all around the world to fill these points permanently with new life, to explore our planetary understanding of peace and conflict transformation. From there we concluded that there are as many peaces in the world as there are human perceptions and that the challenge for an academic program is to analyse the relation between these myriads of interpretations, evaluate their predominantly harmonious flow and find ways of transforming the sometimes competing interests. Thereof resulted a Call for Many Peaces, formulating the specific character of this program. Gradually we developed a systematic understanding of different forms of peace. According to our findings the main “families” of peace interpretations are - energetic peaces - moral peaces - modern peaces - postmodern peaces - transrational peaces

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HEELA NAJIBULLAH was born in Kabul, lived in several countries and is currently based in Switzerland. She has graduated with a BA degree in International Relations and Communications and worked with the International Federation of Red Cross and Crescent Societies for ten years in Asia on issues of forced migration and disaster management. Her thesis supervisor was Josefina Echavarría, who she met in 2013 at the World Peace Academy in Basel as a lecturer. Contact: heelaayn@gmail.com

RECONCILIATION AND SOCIAL HEALING IN AFGHANISTAN

I

n my MA thesis, I analyze the Afghan reconciliation processes through the lenses of John Paul Lederach’s elicitive conflict transformation. I highlight two Afghan governments reconciliation processes in 1986 and 2010. I underline the political events that shaped the 1986 National Reconciliation Policy and draw lessons for future processes. I point out the historical and geopolitical patterns indicating regional and global stakeholders involvement in Afghan politics. I conclude that social healing through a middle-out approach is the missing and yet a crucial component to achieve sustainable reconciliation in Afghanistan. ***

I was born in Afghanistan and was uprooted at the age 14 due to the war. My research topic is a personal attempt to heal the wounds I endured in the Afghan conflict and to remember my father who, as a leader and President of the country, embarked on a journey of peace. His vision inspired me to seek a better understanding of reconciliation. In the process of completing this thesis, I allowed myself to face my fears and be visible to the reader and those I interviewed. Writing the thesis has been an exercise of trust building for myself. The journey of the past 12 months has been a rebirth in so many ways, including my transition towards motherhood, which has helped me face my fears, let go of the past and embrace my child without the burden of mistrust.


NEW MASTERS OF PEACE MANON ROELEVELD (WT’13, ST’13, WT’14) was born in the Netherlands and lives in Vienna, Austria, where she is currently doing an internship with the International Peace Institute (IPI). Her thesis was supervised by Norbert Koppensteiner. Contact: manonroeleveld@gmail.com

ERIKA ROJAS (ST’13, Castellón’14, ST’14), from Cali Colombia, studied Cultural Studies and Political Science, and worked in conflict affected areas in Colombia before joining the MA program. Currently living in Norway, and interested in continuing her research in the topics of responsibility and reconciliation in conflict tore societies. Dr. Josefina Echavarría guided and supervised her thesis. Contact: kaa739@gmail.com

THE TRAVELER

MEMORY FOR HEALING:

The question of home and belonging in transitioning dynamics

Y

ou go away for a long time and return a different person – you never come all the way back” (Theroux, 2004). In this thesis, I explore and gain deeper insights into how traveling changes feelings of belonging, home, as well as possible ways of negotiating and ways of dealing with such transitions. In my thesis, I present the following research question: How can the traveler within transitioning dynamics deal with redefining home and belonging of the self? As the movement of the traveler involves bodywork, I go into dialogue with the different authors through the writings in the journal I kept while I traveled through Europe in different social settings. The idea of having one ideal, permanent and stable place called home in which one needs to function at all time, can cause phenomenons in movement such as transitioning and reentry to become something problematic and more challenging. ***

Ironically, my ultimate challenge throughout this thesis process was to go through many phases of transitioning while writing a structured master thesis. It is exactly this process and struggle which made my thesis such a formative experience. Looking back now, it is noticeable how I was living my chapters and how each text grew out of the other, like a slow process of accretion. The embodiment of my writing and living process have allowed me to express and discuss the issues I was living in at that very moment, which I have found to be a true gift. I discovered that re-entry, coming home and settlement offer deeper and life-changing insights as well as opportunities for transformation, adventure and exploration. It is part of the journey and it entails the confusing moment of realizing that, I as a traveler, am no longer the same, while facing the opportunity to create and give form to the lifestyle that fits and is in line with the way the traveler has altered.

A Journey of Transformation and Inner Peace

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ow can remembering and narrating the violent past become a possibility for transformation, healing, and finding inner peace? Having asked this to myself several times I developed this inquiry in my thesis research, where I intertwined the memories of violent conflicts in Colombia with my own experiences of loss and transformation. With my thesis, I build a more personal approach to memory and transformation (which can be individual as well as collective) and share a critique on political processes of remembering. Therefore, this thesis is a reflection of a personal journey -which has been enriched with the journeys from survivors of violent conflicts in the jungles of Chocó in Colombia- to find a way to weave the past and the present together; weaving through wounds, sorrows, memories, narratives, and responsibilities. Allowing oneself the possibility of transforming and forgiving or reconciling with one’s reality and with others, healing and connecting with a sense of inner peace. ***

This thesis is the reflection of a personal journey that originated with a crisis in 2010 with the death of my father and began to unfold into a more conscious transformative process during my first semester in Innsbruck. Working on my thesis for one complete year I encountered my deepest sorrows, and met with the sorrows of others; but I also found a great source of love, in others and in myself. Writing this thesis has been a challenging and beautiful endeavor where I have put my soul into, and found out that the process has cleansed many of my wounds and make me aware of them. Thus, through this writing process I have learned that I carry wounds and that they are transforming, and transforming me all the time. I began my research and writing in Colombia, and finished it in Norway; this change of location has been also part of the process. A process that cannot be concluded, but that it has necessarily transformed.

The Innsbruck School of Peace Studies - 29


The Innsbruck School of Peace Studies

EMO RUGENE (WT’13, ST’13, WT’14) was born in Uasin Gishu, Kenya and currently lives with his family between Nairobi and Berlin. He is at the moment sourcing for funding to initiate his Julisha Jamii Initiative that he intends to set up in Kenya in order to advocate for marginalized communities in the country. His thesis supervisor was Prof. Wolfgang Dietrich. Contact: erugene@gmail.com

According to the four leading principles of the program, scientificity, inter-culturality, inter-disciplinarity and orientation on practical experience we try to transgress the limits of conventional modern and postmodern schools of peace studies, which are abundant all around the world. In addition to a first class academic education of the network in Peace Studies the Innsbruck program offers a special field training component designed to integrate academic excellence with the skills required in real conflict situations. Students have to be prepared for the adventure of a very holistic – physical, emotional and intellectual exploration of themselves, their society and in more general terms of the whole world. Transrational peaces, as defined in this program, twist the division between subject and object; they go beyond the conventional limits of reason; they are not only rational but also relational; they start the search for peace with the deconstruction of the observer’s identity; they apply all the methods of conventional peace studies and go much further. Thereof derives a unique curriculum and the world’s most challenging academic training program for peace workers. Applicants shall know that we do not only say that, we mean it and we do it!

SPORTING FOR CHANGE:

Stating the Nubian state of statelessness in Kenya

T

he Nubians of Kenya came from the area surrounding the Nuba Mountains (Sudan) in the early 1900’s and subsequently have been part of the Kenyan community. Nonetheless, they have not been readily accepted by the different regimes that have been ruling Kenya since independence. As part of the Kings Armed Rifles they were guaranteed British protection in their status as detribalized natives. Upon independence they lost their standing as soldiers and could neither return to the Nuba Mountains nor claim native status in Kenya. My thesis addresses this struggle within the community and suggests a Sports intervention to act as an avenue for change. Olympism and SFD are relatively new concepts in academia and this is why they are related to more familiar areas of study such as Citizenship and Marginalization studies, where Sport serves as a bridge to communities that are underserved. Engaging a theory-based approach, various issues came up in the course of my research and this is what led to the proposition of The Julisha Jamii1 Initiative. This needs to be tried, tested and implemented to find out whether it can work as an intervention. It is nevertheless my intention to follow this through with a PhD so as to give it the solid ground and proper research such a project requires in order to be viable. ***

The bulk of my initial research was done while I was in Europe in late 2014, then proceeded with groundwork in Kenya. My thesis writing coincided with the birth of my daughter. This was quite challenging because I knew I had to finish my paper and still had to be there for my family. I was however able to overcome this situation and I am thankful to the peace family and my partner who enabled me to complete my thesis. When writing a thesis, discipline is key in attaining end results. Only by setting aims and seeing them through can one be able to complete a thesis. I had to work long nights at times until 4 am to then wake up at 7 am in order to take care of my baby. And in the end it was worth it! I am now a Master of Peace. 1 Kiswahili for “inform the community”

30 - Many Peaces Magazine


NEW MASTERS OF PEACE MATTHIAS SCHARPENBERG (WT’13, ST’13, WT’14) was born in 1987 in Germany, near Dortmund. While studying theology, sociology, Theme-Centered Interaction, Gestalt therapy and geography, he lived and worked in Nicaragua. Today, he works in a free school near Berlin and dedicates his energy to bringing mindfulness and humanistic psychology into grassroots decision-making-processes. Contact: m.scharpenberg@consciente.de

MARIE-JOSÉE RYAN (WT‘13, ST‘13, WT‘14) is working in the rehabilitation profession in Vancouver (Canada), where she specializes as a physiotherapist. Insights derived from her thesis research have strengthened her skills and her experience in helping chronic pain sufferers transcend the barriers related to pain-focused behaviours and to enable healing. Her thesis supervisor was Norbert Koppensteiner. Contact: mjryan10@hotmail.com

HEALING INSIDE THE CRISIS OF CHRONIC PAIN

THE EMPATHIC MINDFULNESS

My personal role as a health care provider

T

he suffering and socio-economic burden of injuries that spiral into chronic pain suggests that responding to this significant multi-layered conflict is a complex task urging us to think outside the box. Exploring the roots of the current challenges modern western biomedicine faces with chronic pain opens up the possibility to transform them in favour of dynamics that are personally more rewarding and societally less costly. The conflict transformation approach and the transrational understanding of peace can support the current shift in pain conceptualization as well as honour the healing potential that lies in our ability to connect our human bodies and minds and furthermore connect to society and nature. An examination of humanistic psychologists’ views helps to provide care that nurtures health, and I explore how I may communicate with persons suffering from chronic pain in ways that foster healing. ***

I pursued this present work at the University of Innsbruck because I am interested in healing, and in my experience healing requires an approach that goes beyond rationality-only and reductionism-only. It has been a privilege to study and write about ‘healing inside the chronic pain crisis’ within the framework of Innsbruck’s conflict and peace studies as it contributed to expand my conception of our inherent potential as human beings to nurture and express kindness, care, and compassion. Moreover, throughout the writing process, I have researched how to foster a deeper sense of connection, intuitiveness and enjoyment both in myself and in my interactions. Last but not least, the Innsbruck approach encouraged me to nourish and express my vitality. In turn, this allowed me to witness more and more the intricacies of life that can only be revealed in the moment.

as a means in conflict transformation

I

n my thesis, I have written about how the practice of mindfulness can be integrated into peacework. I have found that mindfulness is a Buddhist way for internal change of mind frames, stress, concepts, judgments, improving concentration and finally, can lead to total liberation. Besides, mindfulness is also present in Gestalt therapy, Hakomi and Rogerian Therapy as a key to elicit a fruitful, loving and creative counseling relationship in which new perspectives and realities can emerge. Therefore, I evaluated both research in this field as well as my personal experience in order to define what I mean within a conflict transformation scenario. With this definition I came to the conclusion that mindfulness can transform conflicts on three levels: first, internally, which is the most important factor for the wellbeing of the peaceworker, the main reader of my thesis. Then, in relationships, for instance in counseling, meetings, debates, interviews, etc. Finally, mindfulness can be very helpful in respect to a topic; looking mindfully at problems and questions is the very key to let solutions emerge out of intuition and new perspectives. ***

In order to give a glimpse of my personal experience I want to share with you one of my poems in my mother tongue: Gereist, Gereist, nach Außen gegreist, verwaist, fair-weißt? Nach Innen gereist. Wintersonne, Kristall an meinem Fenster, tanze ich die Verwirrung aus meinen Gliedern, Tränen woher wohin rollen über meine Wangen. Die meiste Zeit jedoch der Richter: Du solltest mehr, schneller intelligenter MACHEN! “Was denn? Ich weiß nicht WAS??!!! Es ist alles so schön. Mir fehlen die Worte” schreit das Kind. So tanzte ich, drehte mich und ließ mich fallen... ...auf die Matten und in meine Sofakissen, in die Arme meiner Geliebten, in meine Anspruchslosigkeit, in die Gleichförmigkeit der Tage in der ich mir selbst mein Leben schuf und ebensolch Neues auf weißen Blättern nach und nach entstand.

The Innsbruck School of Peace Studies - 31


MANY PEACES PUBLICATIONS

Florencia Benitez-Schaefer

David Diamond

BEYOND FRAGMENTATION:

Paul Lauer

THEATRE FOR LIVING:

MEIN KLIMAWANDEL:

Integrating Diversity Within Development Cooperation

The Art and Science of Community-Based Dialogue

Die inneren Konflikte der Nachhaltigkeit

hile fostering human diversity is a principal goal of peace and development work, plurality has itself become an immense challenge. The practical reality of fragmentation is of concern to the international development community due to the risk of inefficiency and rupture that it implies. Rooted in the conflict transformation approach of Lederach and Dietrich, this article advances a transdisciplinary perspective for fostering an integrated plurality within development work. Grounded in a relational approach, this article explores (1) the conceptual frame of development cooperation and its challenges for integrating plurality; (2) key premises to consider when building structures of development cooperation; and (3) the method of Theme-Centred Interaction as a useful tool of humanistic psychology for addressing the challenge of plurality in development work. This transdisciplinary approach may usefully serve in the critical examination of current development projects and the initiation of new ones.

greatly admire the achievements of David Diamond and his Headlines Theatre. He is following his own path, doing extraordinary and groundbreaking work in several fields, like his work with many First Nations communities in Canada and the US, and his adaptation of Forum Theatre on TV and on the Internet. This book relates the experiences of his life in theatre. For what he has already done, is doing, and certainly will do, David Diamond deserves all our support.” Augusto Boal, founder of Theatre of the Oppressed, author of Theatre of the Oppressed, Rainbow of Desire, and Legislative Theatre

er Wandel beginnt bei mir. Ich fahre Auto, esse Fleisch und fliege auf Urlaub. Ist es meine Vorstellung eines guten Lebens, die meine Umwelt zerstört? Der Klimawandel ist in aller Munde – aber was ist mit mir? Steckt mein Leben in der Krise? Oder nur das Leben generell? Diesem Buch liegt die Überzeugung zugrunde, dass ich die ökologische Krise nur dann begreifen kann, wenn ich mich auch als entscheidenden Teil dieses Ungleichgewichts erkenne. Gesellschaftliche Veränderung ist die Summe vieler persönlicher Veränderungen. Der Klimawandel ist auch der meine. Zu meinem Wandel wird der Klimawandel, indem ich die Äußerlichkeit der ökologischen Krise auch in ihrer Innerlichkeit begreife: Ich nehme mich und meine inneren Konflikte als Schauplatz der Krise wahr und werde auf jene Möglichkeitsräume aufmerksam, die ich in mir schaffen kann.

W

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I

“This book can be inspiring to anyone concerned about the future of humanity, both inside and outside the theatre.” Fritjof Capra, physicist and systems theorist, author of The Tao of Physics, The Web of Life, and The Hidden Connections

Joking for Peaces

D


Elicitiva: Volume 2

Andreas Oberprantacher (Ed.)

Armin Staffler

TIERE – TEXTE – TRANSFORMATIONEN

AUGUSTO BOAL

Winfried Wagner (Ed.)

AIKIDÔ

Kritische Perspektiven der Human-Animal Studies

Eine Einführung

The Trinity of Conflict Transformation

ieser Band will dazu anregen, gedanklich oder handelnd mit posthumanistischen Transformationen zu experimentieren. Er versammelt neue empirische sowie theoretische Arbeiten internationaler Autor_innen im Forschungsfeld der Human-Animal Studies: Neben Beispielen dafür, wie das Tier-Mensch-Verhältnis in der Vergangenheit gestaltet wurde und wie es in zeitgenössischer Kunst und Wissenschaft dargestellt und diskutiert wird, enthält das Buch auch Perspektiven aus der Literaturwissenschaft, Linguistik und Philosophie. Weitere Beiträge informieren über die beobachtbaren und potentiellen sozialen, wissenschaftlichen und ökonomischen Veränderungen im Verhältnis zwischen Mensch und Tier.

as Theater der Unterdrückten von Augusto Boal hat sich einen festen Platz in der deutschsprachigen Theaterlandschaft erarbeitet. Aber nicht nur dort: In Schulen und Universitäten, im Sozialbereich, in der politischen Landschaft und hier vor allem in der Bürgerbewegung, in der Sucht- und Gewaltprävention und in Gefängnissen kommen die Methoden des brasilianischen Theatermachers zum Einsatz. Diese Einführung gibt erstmals seit demSammelband „Theater der Unterdrückten. Übungen für Schauspieler und Nicht-Schauspieler“ (1989) einen fundierten Einblick in die Entstehungsgeschichte und die Entwicklungen, chronologisch verknüpft mit dem Leben Boals. Das Theater der Unterdrückten ist ein lebendiges System, und diese Einführung legt die philosophischen, theatralen und politischen Grundlagen der Arbeit dar und erklärt die wesentlichen Methoden wie Forumtheater, Unsichtbares Theater und Regenbogen der Wünsche.

n this volume, nine renowned experts delineate their theoretical or methodological approach of Aikidô in potentiating constructive handling of social conflicts. The authors depict the contribution of the Japanese self-defensive art Aikidô to the theory and practice of conflict transformation. The concept of Elicitive Conflict Transformation (Lederach, Dietrich) necessarily calls for a revised understanding of applied peace work and a new personal profile of the conflict worker. This is the point where Aikidô and conflict/peace work meet.

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Joking for Peaces

The Innsbruck School of Peace Studies - 33


THE EDITORIAL TEAM Coordination & Editorial

Editorial

ADHAM HAMED (WT‘12, ST‘12, UPEACE‘12, WT‘13) is a Peace and Conflict Researcher and a PhD student of Political Science at the University of Innsbruck. In his dissertation research he focuses on societal conflicts in relation to forced migration. He is also the Coordinator of the Innsbruck Academic Festival of Many Peaces. Contact: adham.hamed@manypeacesfestival.org; Blog: adhamhamed.wordpress.com

Design & Photography

ISABELLE GUIBERT (ST‘12, WT‘13, ST‘13) is a traveller and a university lecturer in Innsbruck. She teaches languages and social subjects related to peace(s) and elicitiveness. As a workshop facilitator, she uses several methods of Augusto Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed. Her research fields: trauma, amnesia, memory and transformation in relation to Argentina’s last dictatorship and France’s colonial past. She also holds an MA in English studies. Contact: isaguib@hotmail.com

Editorial

PAUL LAUER (WT‘12, ST‘12, WT‘13, UPEACE‘13) is based in Vienna and works as a junior researcher at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig. He is a lecturer at the Institute of Environmental System Science in Graz and facilitates seminars on team building and conflict transformation. His research interests are focused on intrapersonal conflicts linked to social ecology. Contact: paul.lauer@livinglines.at

MAYME LEFURGEY (UPEACE‘10-’11, ST‘12) is a recent graduate of the MA Program for Peace Studies at the University of Innsbruck. Her thesis was supervised by Daniela Ingruber. Currently, Mayme is a Ph.D. student at Western University in London, Canada. She is also an International Engagement Mentor with the international organization Omprakash and a Program Associate with Make Every Woman Count. Mayme has previously completed an MA in Gender and Peacebuilding at the University for Peace in Costa Rica. Contact: malefurgey@gmail.com

Finance & Editorial STEFAN FREYTAG (ST’11, WT’12, ST’12) works at the Haus der Begegnung in Innsbruck organizing and hosting events in adult education. He is as well facilitating workshops about conflict engagement, political education and diversity in schools. He studied political science in Innsbruck and is currently writing his master thesis in Peace Studies about essential space in facilitation. He was born in Tirol in 1982. Contact: Bergele@gmx.at

Reviewing Editor

Reviewing Editor SHIBANI PANDYA was born and brought up in Mumbai, India and she is currently following her dream for gender equality by challenging the norms and stereotypes that encourage violence against women in Singapore and Asia through her work at UN Women.

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MADELEINE WHALEN started her peace studies journey at the UJI, in Castellón, Spain and participated in the 2014 summer term in Innsbruck, where she continued to be inspired by elicitive approaches to conflict transformation - Theatre for Living in particular!


Many Peaces Magazine - Volume 3 - 2016 - 01 Published by AA RESPECT Grillhofweg 100, 6080 Vill, Austria Editorial: Stefan Freytag, Isabelle Guibert, Adham Hamed, Paul Lauer, Mayme Lefurgey

With the kind support of:

Tanzraum Innsbruck

Impressum PUBLISHER: AA Respect, Grillhofweg 100, 6080 Vill, Austria EDITORIAL TEAM: Stefan Freytag, Isabelle Guibert, Adham Hamed, Paul Lauer and Mayme Lefurgey LAYOUT: Paul Lauer PICTURE EDITING: Paul Lauer COPY EDITING: Shibani Pandya and Madeleine Whalen PICTURES: David Cooper (Cover), Anders Nordammer (p.4b, p.15, p.16), Janakaraliya (p.4a, p.9, p.10, p.11) Paul Lauer (p.4c, p.18, p.19), Many Peaces Festival (p.4d, p.23, p.24, p.25), Lena Drummer (p.12, p.13, p.14), AndrĂŠ Wulf (p.17) and Karin Michalek (p.20, p.21) LOGO DESIGN: Paul Lauer (Cover) and Sophie Friedel (Innsbruck Academic Festival for Many Peaces).

Appendix - 35


VOLUME 3 2016 - 01

“INDIVIDUALS NEED TO EXPRESS THEMSELVES IN ORDER TO BE HEALTHY. SO DO COMMUNITIES.” David Diamond

Page 5

“FORUM THEATRE DEALS WITH THE WORLD AS IT IS, NOT AS WE WISH IT TO BE. NOW THAT THE REFUGEES ARE HERE, BEGS THE QUESTION: WHAT NOW?” Freytag/Staffler

Page 6

“I QUICKLY REALIZED THAT I HAD TO CHANGE MY INNER ATTITUDE IN ORDER TO TRANSFORM MY INTERNAL BATTLEGROUND INTO AN OCEAN OF TRANSFORMATIVE POTENTIAL.” Lena-Maria Drummer

Page 12

“THIS IS, FOR ME, THE BEAUTY IN TAKING THIS DANCE TO A STAGE, CONNECTING THE DANCE TO THE UNIVERSAL STORIES THAT AN AUDIENCE ALSO CAN RECOGNISE WITHIN THEMSELVES.” Margrete Slettebø

Page 15

“PEACE IS BEAUTIFUL BUT IT IS DIFFICULT AS HUMANS RUSH TO WAR FASTER THAN TO PEACE. PEACE IS A DREAM.” Abdessatar Ben Moussa

Page 18

“DEVELOPED BY ALUMNI, THE AIM OF THE FESTIVAL WAS TO COMBINE THEORY, PRACTICE, EXCHANGE AND INSPIRATION FROM THE FIELD, WHILE STRENGTHENING THE ALUMNI NETWORK.” Paula Ditzel Facci

Page 23


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