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Contents Introduction..............................................................................2 How it Works...........................................................................13 Éist & Freagair..........................................................................33 Briathra....................................................................................57 Chit Chat..................................................................................81 Frásaí.......................................................................................93 Ainmfhocail & Aidiachtaí..........................................................107 Leathnú Foclora......................................................................125 Foranimneacha Réamhfhoclacha............................................139 Diabhalíní................................................................................153 Amhráin..................................................................................177 Bí ag Caint............................................................................193 Saibhriu Teanga......................................................................207


Introduction This booklet is a companion reference to the online resource AbairLeat!, developed by Colรกiste Lurgan initially as a support resource for students of the Colรกiste. However, because we are dedicated to making Gaeilge more accessible and relevant to people within and outside the education system, it is our policy to freely share our resources, and AbairLeat! is an extremely useful tool for anyone wishing to improve their Gaeilge skills.

AbairLeat! is intended to be a supplementary activity that compliments existing coursework. It is not a language course per se. The whole focus is on spoken Gaeilge as used in ordinary speech by native speakers in the Connemara Gaeltacht, with the objective of helping learners to become more fluent, proficient and comfortable with Gaeilge This is not a grammar book, nor is the AbairLeat! online resource primarily a grammar guide.


Objectives • To help learners develop a solid understanding of the basics of the language • To promote independent learning • To hone pronunciation skills • To overcome difficulties presented by the structural differences between English and Gaeilge

• To help learners enjoy the learning process, and to instil a sense of progress and achievement as they work through the exercises


use it, or lose it NÍ neart go cur le chéile!

(Stronger together)

Independent Learning AbairLeat! Is primarily a tool for independent learning, with learners using their home computers to make their own recordings, complete self-correcting tasks and undergo themed interviews - anticipating the correct answers to preset questions. But independent learning isn’t the whole picture. By far the best way to learn any language is to use it. A great deal of learning happens outside the classroom, away from the desk and the computer. Fortunately, using Gaeilge is one of the most enjoyable aspects of learning it. Playing with the language - using it frequently and informally with other language learners - is the quickest way to develop functional fluency. So you should look for opportunities to chat with other learners, and to use your growing vocabulary in real-life situations. Try not to worry too much about small mistakes of grammar or pronunciation. In informal practice the objective is to make yourself understood. You’ll be surprised how quickly phrases, expressions ... even whole conversations ... begin to become second nature to you.

A Note of Caution: Not using your newly learnt Gaeilge is the best way to waste your time and lose whatever progress achieved. ‘Use it, or lose it.’


Learning Groups One way to create opportunities to practice Gaeilge is through learning groups. A learning group is a group of learners within local communities, the workplace, social groups, schools, etc - managed by a teacher or facilitator. These groups provide ample opportunities for informal conversation as Gaeilge, with the facilitator setting learning goals, overseeing introduction of new materials, setting work schedules (homework) using AbairLeat! Homework Creator, and assessing and scoring homework via the Teacher Administration panel. You can either join an existing learning group - they are always eager for more members - or perhaps you could form one of your own.

How to sign up: To affiliate with AbairLeat!, a class or learning group requires a group manager (teacher or facilitator) 1. The teacher or facilitator applies to AbairLeat! to have the class represented on the available classes list. (see New Classes ) 2. Members of the class go online, locate their class on the available classes list and request admission by leaving their login details. 3. The class manager confirms these details – thus allowing members into their online class.


Lessons have 3 parts The focus of AbairLeat! is always on the fundamentals of the language, presenting relevant vocabulary and materials that are useful in everyday conversation. The simple Q and A format of the lessons underscores the conversational approach to learning, with each lesson’s goal supported by interactive exercises that help you to understand, speak, read, and write the lesson content with ease. There are three parts to each lesson.

Part 1 - Listen / Repeat / Record / Compare New material is presented in written and oral form - with original recordings of native speakers. These may be replayed and repeated aloud as often as you wish. It is important to practice out loud, to attempt to mimic the sounds of the language. The focus here is on accuracy as you practice new words and phrases, and repetition is the key to locking the new vocabulary and pronunciations into your longterm memory. So don’t rush through the exercises. Instead take your time to practice out loud until you are ready to make your own recording. Then, listen to your recording and compare it to the original. If you don’t feel your attempt is sufficiently clear, you can simply try again. The beauty of this independent learning method is that you are not under pressure. You can feel free to make mistakes as you work closer and closer to your goal of mimicking the native speaker. The value of independent learning is for you to discover for yourself the correct form, pronunciation and intonation (for example, the rise or fall of the voice to show questions or surprise). Self-correction and repetition have the effect of gradually imbedding new learning into your long-term memory, so don’t take shortcuts. Practice, practice and then ... you guessed it: PRACTICE!


Part 2 - Reinforce learning targets ‘Task-based learning activities’ are a powerful way to learn form/function relationships in a second language, so AbairLeat! lessons include a task-based component, requiring learners to complete self-correcting interactive exercises. These are usually audio-based, requiring recognising, identifying, spelling, associating and putting in context the key phrases, words and concepts of the lesson. This should not be a passive exercise, with learners quietly guessing correct answers. Instead, take a proactive stance and repeat each audio out loud as frequently as necessary to become comfortable with them. When you complete a task, you’ll receive immediate feedback, and you may redo the tasks as often as you like. Only your final score will be saved in your work portfolio, so keep at it until you are happy that you’ve learned the lesson well. These tasks are ideal for reinforcing fundamentals, and it is a good idea to revisit these at regular intervals - weekly, monthly, quarterly and yearly - to help lock your learnings into your long-term memory.

Part 3 - Challange - Respond This is the most challenging aspect of each lesson, requiring you to use the language in a meaningful way. Instead of simple listen/repeat sequences, here you are asked to record your independent response to questions or prompts, requiring you to recall phrases quickly as you would in real-life conversations. Again, you’ll receive immediate feedback about the correctness of your response. These tasks are listened to and scored by the by the teacher or facilitator, using the integrated class administration facility. Unlike parts I and II, speed counts, as you are challenged to respond to prompts in real time, then move on to the next. This quick-fire, Q & A approach is an excellent way to develop quick reflexes as you begin to actually think as Gaeilge. Remember, as always, the key to developing a rapid linguistic reflex is practice, repetition, practice, repetition. And more practice!


general advice Learning Gaeilge - General Advice Learning a language is a gradual, incremental process requiring a great deal of practice and repetition, but it needn’t be tedious or frustrating. A key to success is to enjoy the process, and pay attention to the little successes - a new word remembered, a difficult pronunciation mastered, etc - and take pride in your progress. Each lesson completed is another step toward your goal of confidence and fluency. And keep practicing!

Tips for Learners: 1.

Live the language. Use Gaeilge as often as you can.

2. Share what you learn. Teaching others is a great way to solidify concepts in your mind. 3.

Invest the time. Learning a language doesn’t happen overnight. It’s a simple equation: the more time spent listening, speaking, reading and writing as Gaeilge, the faster you learn.

4. Get motivated and stay motivated. Think about how you will feel with a good mastery of Gaeilge, and keep that image foremost in your mind. Desire is the key to enjoyment; enjoyment is the key to persistence; persistence is the key to success. 5. Relax! Mistakes are good - a necessary part of the learning process. Don’t be afraid to make them. Speak boldly and with confidence. If you get it wrong, you’ll remember that much better the next time.


Pronunciation Pronunciation In AbairLeat! we use native speaker material to demonstrate and enhance correct pronunciation. The play/record/playback process means you can listen to native pronunciation as many times as you need to to internalise the sounds, and then you may practice as often as necessary to hone your pronunciation skills.

Tips for Pronunciation: 1. Focus on correct pronunciation from the beginning, instead of leaving it for later. 2. Spend 10 or 15 minutes each day on pronunciation practice. These short bursts are more sustainable and effective than occasional longer sessions. 3. Listen carefully. The first step toward good pronunciation is to pay close attention to the sounds of the language. The more you listen the better you’ll become at discriminating between similar sounds, stresses, intonation patterns, etc. 4. Practice with useful, real language that you can use on a daily basis. 5. Listen. Imitate. Repeat. Keep trying, and you’ll gradually find even the hardest words and phrases tripping off your tongue. It’s all about PRACTICE.


An Fhoireann Airím go mór faoi chomaoin chuile dhuine a d’oibrigh ar an ríomhchlár seo le trí bliana anuas. Ba mhaith liom a cheapadh gur ag tús próisis atá muid agus gur ó neart go neart a rachas AbairLeat! sna blianta amach romhainn. Tá mé an-bhuíoch do Chriostóir Mac Dubhaill as a chuid cúnaimh, comhairle agus inchur i réiteach an fhoilseacháin seo.

____________________________ Mícheál Ó Foighil. Bainisteoir Choláiste Lurgan.

Design Creative Direction and Design Mark McGann of Block 5 Design

Diabhailíní Beaga Artwork – Cormac Corcoran

Development Flash interactive components - Jamie Casey, Andrew Mullins, Séamus Murphy Database setup and management -- Daithí Ó Conghaile Flash Animation – Andrew Dewdney, Armour Interactive Online, server consultation and management - Seaghan Ó Muircheartaigh, Digilogue

Voice Recording Recording engineer - Eugene Kelly Voices: Áine Ní Dhroighneáin , Des Bishop, Gearóid Mac Donncha, Bríd Síle Wyndham, Darach Ó Dubháin, Máire Ní Chonaire, Rhona Ní Chearbhaill agus go leor eile.

Video Production: Camera: Conal Mac Eochagáin Actors: Marc Mac Lochlainn, Des Bishop, Marc Mac Cormaic, Jeff Ó Nia, Áine Ní Dhroighneáin, Aoife Ní Chuanaigh agus go leor eile. Edaiting: Éamonn Mac Mánais



Requirments for using AbairLeat! The AbairLeat! platform requires a teacher or facilitator to manage a group of learners. This is done by setting out and overseeing work programs – allocating course work – assessing and scoring recorded materials. New learning groups can be easily accommodated within AbairLeat! Other Requirements:

Broadband access

A Microphone


Access to the lurgan recording server. Take the recording test

HOW IT WORKS In all there are six user levels each allowing different access and usage. AbairLeat! recognises level status on login. Level 1 – Overall administration – inserts content, sets up school managers. Level 2 – School Managers – sets up classes, allocates teachers, makes content available.


Level 3 – Teacher / facilitator – allows members into class, manages class activity.


Level 4 – AbairLeat! Scoile – recordings, scores and teacher feedback saved


Level 5 – Parents of AbairLeat! Scoile – can monitor their child’s work portfolio and confirm their visits.




Level 6 – AbairLeat! PLUS+ - same as level 4 without level 5 access.


Cláir Oibre – Main interface Pre-set work schedules are sample / guide work programs set by Abair Leat! admin. Each preset “Clár Oibre” has a number of themed lessons while each lesson has its own set of tasks / exercises. All of the content is taken from materials that are available in the “Leabharlann”

Overall score

The overall score takes into account the scores of all completed tasks on the “Clár Oibre”

Title of “Clár Oibre”

This link navigates the various “Cláir Oibre” that make up a collection of work schedules.


Clicking on a “lesson” displays the tasks/exercises that comprise the lesson.

Green Tasks

First step in each lesson – new audio materials presented. Listen – repeat – record – compare.

Red Tasks

Recognising / identifying / putting in context / spelling / associating the key phrases, words and concepts of the

Blue Tasks

Learners are required to record their responses to preset questions / prompts. Assessed and scored by the

Purple Tasks

Other relevant materials that are presented in various media formats such as mp3 / ppt / swf / pdf / word etc..


Collection Titles

Work schedules are grouped into collections i.e. Agallamh Lurgan 2011 collection or TY collection etc.

Microphone Activity

How it works...

Activity here confirms that your microphone is properly configured. Advisable to check recording levels.

Logged in name

Recording feedback

Undertake this test to ensure you are connected to the AbairLeat recording server.




Leabharlann - Main Interface The leabharlann is organised as follows • Related subject matter are organised into “Books” (There are a total of 11 at present) • “Books” are further categorised into themed “chapters” • “Pages” usually constitute a specific lesson • Lessons have their associated tasks and exercises.

Book Selection

Click on book selection to display access to all of the 11 “Books”

Homework Viewer

Available for class members only

Mail Box

Available for class members only

Mail Creator

Available for class members only


Access help tutorials and manuals

Recording feedback

Undertake this test to ensure you are connected to the AbairLeat recording server.

Microphone Activity Activity here confirms that your microphone is properly configured. Advisable to check recording levels.

Book and chapter title

Shows what book, chapter and page number you are on.


How it works...


Displays pages that have been bookmarked.

Next / previous page

Navigate forwards or backwards using these tabs.

Next/previous chapter Skip forward or backward from chapter to chapter

Assessment Page

Go straight to assessment page Each chapter has one.


Click here to bookmark the displayed page.

Index page

Go straight to index page. View all available chapters in a “book�


Teachers Admin This dashboard is only available for teachers. Once a teacher allows a learner into his/her online class they will appear on the class list. Teachers can then access and score the completed blue tasks of class members. Follow the steps outlined to display class details / recorded work for all your class across the full range of materials and tasks contained in Abair Leat!


School years or adult learning groups assigned to the teacher appear here in a dropdown menu.

A teacher can have multiple classes within a school year

How it works...

Choose between Leabharlann and Cláir Oibre

Choose either a book from “Leabharlann” or a work schedule from “Cláir Oibre”

Choose either a chapter or a work sheet. This populates details for chapter assessment page

Choose a lesson from the “Clár Oibre”. This populates the details for worksheet tasks

Éist & Taifead exercises are not scored by teachers as they involve repetition of original audios. Scores for self-correcting are displayed and calculated into the overall score. Question – respond tasks are assessed and scored by the class teacher.

The overall score calculates the marks obtained as a % of the total available score. Members are permitted into the online class by the class teacher. Indicates that the teacher has assessed and scored this learners recorded work Indicates that the teacher has yet to assess and score this learners recorded work Indicates that the Éist & Taifead task has been fully completed


Homework Viewer This interface is available to students and their parents. It outlines the follow up tasks assigned by the class teacher in a clear and easy to follow schedule. Tasks along with recorded work can be accessed and progress and feedback are clearly displayed.

Date Selection

Click on the date to display allocated tasks.

Red tasks

Self-correcting interactive tasks.

Green tasks

Listen / repeat / record and compare tasks.

Blue tasks

Record response to preset questions. Assessed and scored by class teacher.

Yellow tasks Video materials.

Purple tasks

Other media type materials mp3 / ppt / pdf / swf /word docs etc.


How it works...

Green tic

Next / previous Week

Indicates that tasks have been assigned for this date

Toggle forwards to next week or backwards to previous weeks.

(Green) Playback

Playback button appears only on completion of all of the recording work

(Blue) Playback

Plays back the recorded responses and outlines teacher feedback

Parental Stamp

Parents can login and view progress. They confirm their visit by putting a parental stamp on the page.


Homework Creator This interface is available to teachers only. All tasks / exercises contained in AbairLeat! can be assigned for “homework” via this interface. It is important that teachers are familiar with the content and associated tasks of various lessons before assigning them as part of a follow on work program. All new materials should firstly be presented and explained during class contact.


Choose a class from a drop down menu. A teacher can have more than one class per school year


School years or adult learning groups assigned to the teacher appear here in a dropdown menu.


Choose a book from the dropdown:

Leathanach/Ceacht: Choose a page / lesson to display the available tasks for that lesson

Assign a task:

Click on tasks to assign them to the “homework” list

Left hand side list

Tasks that can be assigned for Obair Bhaile


How it works... Cúrsa:

Choose a course from the dropdown menu. At present there is only one choice - AbairLeat!

Green tic:

Selected Date:

Indicates that “Homework” has been assigned for this date

The selected date to which tasks are being allocated is highlighted.

Next / previous week: Toggle forwards to next week or backwards to previous weeks.

Attach a note:

Notes for class member may be attached to each task.

Right hand side list

Tasks that have been assigned as Obair Bhaile

Update & Confirm

New lists and alternations to existing lists need to be confirmed


Abairleat Mail View Mail Abair Leat has an inbuilt messaging system that allows teachers to forward messages to class members. Messages sent to students are also sent to the parent’s inbox. Parents and students can also exchange messages. Abair Leat administration can also notify all members. New messages are flagged on the main interface.


Messages from the teacher are also forwarded to the parents inbox

Parents / students

Parents and students can exchange messages

Abair Leat! Admin

Abair Leat admin can notify all members.



Open and display messages

Unopened messages are highlighted.


How it works...

Create Mail Messages are easily created and formatted using the mail creator. Teachers may select the whole class or certain members of the class. Parents who have more than child registered with Abair Leat can also select to whom they forward a message. Members may also notify their teacher or Abair Leat! administration.


Class members / family members / Teacher /Abair Leat Administration

Select - deselect

All recipients within a group may be selected or deselected


The subject title is displayed on unopened messages


click on seol button to forward message


Green Tasks - Listen, Repeat, Record Lessons have between 12-15 native speaker audios. New language items are presentenced in a question/answer format.The focus is on accuracy and in giving intensive practice in listening to and saying particular words and phrases. It’s important to practice out loud, mimic the sounds of the language before you begin recording yourself. Listen carefully, then repeat. When you feel you are ready, record your answer. Then listen to your recording and compare it with the native speaker recording. As with all language learning, repetition is key, so repeat as often as necessary. You should be focusing on accuracy - don’t be content with mediocre pronunciation.

Audio selection


Each tab houses a different recordable audio.

The information popup facilitates the introduction of extra relevant materials

Native Speaker Audio Plays / replays the original audio.



Plays back your own recording followed by the original audio.

Click to begin and to end making your own recording.

Slideshow Replay all recordings Playback all your recordings in sequence. Rerecord individual ones you are not 100% satisfied

Green Feedback

Indicates that relevant recording is complete, also has its own playback button.


Red Feedback Indicates that it is currently being recorded.

Grey button plays original audios only. Button turns green on completion of all recordings allowing the slideshow to feature your own recordings

How it works...

Video Éist & Taifead This listen, repeat, and record activity allows you to imitate dialogue from a video. Analysis of your own recordings will help you improve your pronunciation and intonation (the rise and fall of the voice – e.g. to show questions or surprise) The aim is to help you notice for yourself the correct form or pronunciation of words / phrases and not to settle for poor pronunciation.

For. Réamh. Orm, ort, air .....

Scene Selection

Change the video clip. Each clip has up to 8 recordable audios.

Yellow Playback

Plays the video clip with its original audios

Green Playback

Plays the video clip with your recording inserted.

Mute Recording Functions Listen, repeat, record and playback

Audio Selection

Access each separate dialogue in a scene via its own tab.


Plays the video with audio switched of.

Red Tasks - Task-Based Activities Linking language study with active tasks is proven to speed learning and help learners discover form/function relationships in another language. This part presents learners with self-correcting, interactive tasks - usually audio based - requiring learners to recognise, identify, spell, put into context and associate key phrases, words and concepts. This should not be a passive exercise, with learners quietly guessing correct answers. Instead, take a proactive stance and repeat each audio out loud as frequently as necessary to become comfortable with them. Feedback is immediate, and you may redo the task any number of times - as always, repetition is good! Only the last score received will be saved in your portfolio.

Audio ilroghnach Match four audios with either their corresponding audios or images. The movable audios can be rearranged. You should develop the habit of repeating the audios aloud as you are arranging them.This habit will help store the new vocabulary into your long-term memory.

Quiz FĂ­seĂĄin After watching a brief video clip you are asked to answer some questions on its content. There are four possible answers for each question you choose an answer by clicking it. A hint can be called for but in doing so will incur a 50% deduction of marks available. A correct answer aided by a hint is displayed by an orange mark.


How it works...

Líon na bearnaí

Socraigh an tOrd

This task type doesn’t have accompanying audios. However, you will have encountered audio versions of the content previously in the same lesson. You are required to select the correct inserts to complet partially composed sentences. Incorrect choices are displayed in red while correct choices are displayed in green.

You are presented with a series of audios of words / sentences / instructions along with criteria on how they should be arranged. Audios are arranged in sequence by dragging them, using the mouse, into their holders. Your arrangement may be checked using the play button built into the holder.


Meaitseáil 16 :

The spelling exercises focus on the essential language concept contained in the lesson. An image or a hint prompts what needs to be spelt. The number of letters in each word that needs to be spelt is also outlined. Try and form the words in your head – better still say them out loud.

This task requires you to associate images with their corresponding audios. You play against the clock. To obtain 100% you must match all 16 images within a time limit (usually 45 seconds). You are deducted % points for each second after the time limit has passed. You are permitted to make three incorrect choices – on making the fourth you will have to start over.


Blue Tasks - Challenge / Respond This challenge/respond section is the most ... well, challenging. It is important to be thoroughly acquainted with the 12-15 audio files on which the lesson is based before taking this on. Here you must think for yourself, instead of simply repeating or filling gaps. This is the most active way of learning, and the one that will assess your progress whilst strengthening your growing skills. Unlike parts I and II, speed counts, as you are challenged to respond to prompts in real time, then move on to the next. This quick-fire, Q & A approach is an excellent way to develop quick


In this part, you are given questions or prompts to which you must supply the most appropriate response. These high quality interactive exercises use the principle of anticipation to mimic real life conversation, challenging you to quickly supply the correct phrase.


Start over again from the very beginning.


Replay the question/ prompt as many times as you wish.

Skip back

If you wish to rerecord your previous attempt you can skip back and rerecord.



Press red record button to begin recording your own response. Press green button with tick to stop.

Next question / prompt.

The next question / prompt plays automatically. The sequence continues


Playback a slideshow after completing task. All questions will need to be re-answered to replace a previous version.

How it works...


Your teacher / facilitator assess and score your recorded work. Each of your efforts is given a score from 0 to 5. They may also leave audio feedback on some individual recordings. These will be displayed in green.

Scores & Audio Feedback

Scores for individual recordings are displayed. Green score holders indicate an audio feedback from your teacher

Audio Feedback Recorder

Teachers / facilitaors may leave audio feedback for individual recordings using these recording functions. These are only available to class teachers / facilitators.


Each student recording is scored from 0 to 5 based on its authenticity and pronunciation.


Students and also their parents can access the scored work and listen to the teacher feedback. This is

Scores & Audio Feedback

Listen back to your teachers opinion and advice by clicking on the green score holders

Navigation Toggle

Go to the next or to the previous recording. It is also possible to navigate using the score holders.

Yellow Play Mode

Plays & replays original audios

Green Play Mode

Mute Play Mode

Plays and replays your audio followed by the original audio.

Plays slideshow with audios muted.



Éist & Freagair The who?/ what ?/ when ?/ where? / why?and how?


The Éist & Taifead section focuses on the most commonly posed questions in everyday dialogue and how to deal with them. The who?/ what ?/ when ?/ where? / why? and how? Many conversations are about exchanging simple information. This section focuses on the most commonly posed questions in everyday dialogue and how to deal with them. Being comfortable with the materials in this section will be a great help to you in inquiring about and exchanging information with your fellow learners. Lessons are arranged in a question-answer format with the content further reinforced by the use of associated images.The grammatical constructions are repeated a number of times using different examples leading to better retention.

Céard ?

Cén uair?



Cén chaoi?

Cén fáth ?

Cén áit?

Cá bhfuil?

Cé mhéad?


Céard é seo ? Céard iad seo?

Céard é seo ? Céard iad seo? / What is this? What are these? When identifying things the construction “ Is _______ é” is used. Nouns in Gaeilge are either masculine or feminine and are referred to as being “he” or “she”. There is no word in Gaeilge for “it”

Is úll é Is bróg í

It (he) is an apple –

Is fáinní iad


It (she) is a shoe – They are rings


3 Céard é seo?



3 Céard é seo?



3 Céard iad seo?



3 Céard iad seo?


Céard atá /a bhí / a bheas ann? Céard atá (Céar’ ‘tá*) / a bhí / a bheas ann? What is it? What was it? What will it be? (Is) traein atá ann. It is a train (Ba) c(h)luiche a bhí ann – It was a game (Is) cáca a bheas ann – It will be a cake

* Spoken Gaeilge in Conamara differs in some instances from the standard form. AbairLeat! highlights the most frequently used discrepancies.



3 Céard atá ann? Céar’ ‘tá ann?



3 Céard atá ann? Céar’ ‘tá ann?



3 Céard a bhí ann?



3 Céard a bheas ann?


Céard a bhíodh/ a bhí / a bhíonn / a bheas ann? Céard a bhíodh/ a bhí / a bhíonn / a bheas ann? What used it be? What was it? What “does it be”(habitual present) ? What will it be? (Is) droichead a bhíodh ann – It used to be a bridge. (Ba) f(h)ear sneachta a bhí ann – It was a snowman Bíonn tíogar ann – A tiger “does be”( habitual present) in the Zoo. Surprise a bheas ann – It will be a surprise.



3 Céard a bhíodh ann?



3 Céard a bhí ann?



3 Céard a bhíonn ann?



3 Céard a bheas ann?


Céard atá á dhéanamh aige / aici / acu ? Céard atá (Céar’ ‘tá*) á dhéanamh (á dhéana’) aige/aici/acu ? What is he/she/they doing? This is an important construction and really needs to be nailed down. Tá Tá Tá Tá

sé ag aclaíocht – He is exercising sé á ghléasadh féin – He is dressing (himself) sé á scrúdú – He is examining it an leaba á cóiriú aici – She is making the bed.

* Spoken Gaeilge in Conamara differs in some instances from the standard form. AbairLeat! highlights the most frequently used discrepancies.



3 Céard atá á dhéanamh aige? Céar’ ‘tá á dhéana’ aige?



3 Céard atá á dhéanamh aici? Céar’ ‘tá á dhéana’ aici?

8/ 1


3 Céard atá á dhéanamh acu? Céar’ ‘tá á dhéana’ acu?



3 Céard atá á dhéanamh agat? Céar’ ‘tá á dhéana’ ‘ad?


Céard a bhíodh/ a bhí / a bhíonn / a bheas á dhéanamh .....? Céard a bhíodh/a bhí /a bhíonn/a bheas á dhéanamh .....? What used / did / does / will he-she-they do? Bhíodh sí ag obair le gasúir sráide i gCalcutta – She used to work with street children in Calcutta Bhí sé ag srannadh – He was snoring Bíonn sí ag aisteoireacht - She acts Beidh scrúdú á dhéanamh aige – He will be undertaking an exam



3 Céard a bhíodh á dhéanamh



3 Céard a bhí á dhéanamh ..?



3 Céard a bhíonn á dhéanamh



3 Céard a bheas á dhéanamh


Céard atá air/uirthi? Céard atá cearr leis/léi? Céard atá (Céar’ ‘tá*) air/uirthi? Céard atá cearr leis/léi? What is the matter with him / her? What is wrong with him / her? Tá Tá Tá Tá

tart air - He is thirsty (There is a thirst on him) imní uirthi – She is worried (There is worry on her) pian ina bholg aige – He has a pain in his tummy. pian ina fiacail aici – She has a toothache.

* Spoken Gaeilge in Conamara differs in some instances from the standard form. AbairLeat! highlights the most frequently used discrepancies.



3 Céard atá air? Céar’ ‘tá air?



3 Céard atá uirthi? Céar’ ‘tá uirthi?



3 Céard atá cearr leis? Céar’ ‘tá cearr leis?



3 Céard ata cearr leí? Céar’ ‘tá cearr leí?


Céard atá uaidh? Céard a theastaíonn uaidh? Céard atá (Céar’ ‘tá*) uaidh? Céard a theastaíonn uaidh? Céard atá (Céar’ ‘tá*) sé ag iarraidh ( ‘g iarra’ *)? What does he want / require ? What is he looking for? Tá mil uaidh – He wants honey Teastaíonn cúnamh uaidh – He wants / requires help Tá sé ag iarraidh ( ‘g iarra’ *) dul abhaile – He wants to go home.

* Spoken Gaeilge in Conamara differs in some instances from the standard form. AbairLeat! highlights the most frequently used discrepancies.



3 Céard atá uaidh? Céar’ ‘tá uaidh?



3 Céard a theastaíonn uaidh?



3 Céard atá se ag iarraidh? Céar’ ‘tá sé ‘g iarra’?



3 Céard is maith leis/ leí?


Cé hé / hí / hiad seo? Cé hé / hí / hiad seo? Who is he / she? Who are they? Who are we? Is Is Is Is


é (‘sé*) sin / Sin é Paul O’Connell - That’s / It’s Paul O’Connell í (‘sí*) sin / Sin í Katie Taylor - That’s / It’s Katie Taylor iad (siad*) / Sin iad U2 - That’s / It’s U2 muidne (muide*) Laurel agus Hardy – We are Laurel and Hardy.


3 Cé hé seo?



3 Cé hí seo?



3 Cé hiad seo?



3 Cé muidne? Cé muide?


Cé a bhíodh / a bhí / a bhíonn / a bheas ....? Cé a bhíodh / a bhí / a bhíonn / a bheas ....? Who used to / was / “does be” (habitual present) / will be ....? Bhíodh Paul pósta le Heather – Paul used to be married to Heather Bhí Rosanna ina “Miss World” - Rosanna was Miss World Bíonn an Pápa ina chónaí sa Vatican – The pope lives in the Vatican Beidh Cill Chainnigh sa gcraobh, is dócha! - Kilkenny will be in the final, I suppose.



3 Cé a bhíodh ....?



3 Cé a bhí ....?



3 Cé a bhíonn ...?



3 Cé a bheas .. ?


Cé a chaill .... / a dúirt ...... / a rinne ....... / Céarbh é ....? Cé a chaill ... / a dúirt ... / a rinne .../ a scríobh... / a chan ...? Who lost / said / made ......? (Ba é) Napoleon a chaill cath Waterloo - It was Napoleon who lost the battle of Waterloo (Ba é) Elvis a chan “Jailhouse Rock” – It was Elvis who sang “Jailhouse Rock. (Ba é) Beethoven a chum an “5th Symphony – It was Beethoven who composed the 5th Symphony (Ba é) Armstrong an chéad duine ar an ngealach – Armstrong was the first person on the moon.



3 Cé a chaill / a dúirt / a rinne?




Cé a scríobh / a chan ......?




Cé a tháinig air / a cheap ...?



3 Cérbh é an chéad duine....?


Cé mhéad an ceann ..../ a chosnaíonn ...? Cé mhéad an ceann ..../ a chosnaíonn .../ duine / atá ann? How much each ... / what does it cost ? Tá Euro an ceann orthu – They are a Euro each. Cosnaíonn sé dhá Euro - It costs two Euro Beirt atá ann – There are two people there Tá trí bhád ann – There are three boats there.



3 Cé mhéad an ceann .........?




Cé mhéad a chosnaíonn sé?




Cé mhéad duine atá ann?




Cé mhéad ...... atá ann?


Cé as é / leis é / d(h)ó* é / aige a bhfuil sé? Cé Cé Cé Cé

as é ? - Where is he from? leis é? - Who’s is it? dó (dhó*) é? - Who is it for? aige a bhfuil sé ? - Who has it?

(Is) (Is) (Is) (Is)

as an Iodáil é – He is from Italy le Indiana Jones é – It belongs to Indiana Jones don Phápa é – It’s for the Pope ag an slumdog atá sé – It’s the slumdog that has it.



3 Cé as é?



3 Ce leis é?



3 Ce dó é? Cé dhó é|?



3 Cé aige a bhfuil sé ?


Cén chaoi a bhfuil / a n-airíonn tú? Cén chaoi a bhfuil tú?(Ce’ chaoi ‘bhfuil tú?*) / a n-airíonn tú? How are you? How do you feel? How did you get on? How is the craic? Tá mé togha go raibh maith agat - I’m fine thanks! Airím thar cionn – I feel great! D’éirigh thar barr liom – I got on really well! Tá an chraic mighty – The craic is brilliant

* Spoken Gaeilge in Conamara differs in some instances from the standard form. AbairLeat! highlights the most frequently used discrepancies.



3 Cén chaoi a bhfuil tú? Ce’ chaoi ‘ bhfuil tú?




Cén chaoi an airíonn tú? Ce’ chaoi a’ nairíonn tú?




Cén chaoi ar éirigh leat? Ce’ chaoi ar éirigh leat?




Cén chaoi a bhfuil an chraic? Ce’ chaoi ‘il an chraic?


Cén chaoi a mblaiseann / a ndeachaigh / a n-oibríonn / a ndéanann ... Cén chaoi (Ce’ chaoi*) a mblaiseann / a ndeachaigh / a n-oibríonn an ndéanann ........? Cén Cén Cén Cén

chaoi chaoi chaoi chaoi

(Ce’ chaoi*) a mblaiseann sé? - How does it taste? (Ce’ chaoi*) a ndeachaigh tú ann? - How did you go there? (Ce’ chaoi*) a n-oibríonn sé? - How does it work? (Ce’ chaoi*) a ndéanann tú é? - How do you do it?

* Spoken Gaeilge in Conamara differs in some instances from the standard form. AbairLeat! highlights the most frequently used discrepancies.



3 Cén chaoi a mblaiseann sé? Ce’ chaoi a mblaiseann sé?



3 Cén chaoi a ndeachaigh ...? Ce’ chaoi a ndeachaigh ...?




Cén chaoi an oibríonn sé? Ce’ chaoi a’ noibríonn sé?



3 Cén chaoi a .........? Ce’ chaoi a ........?


Cén chaoi ? Cén áit? Cén fáth? Cén uair? Cén chaoi (Ce’ chaoi*)? Cén áit? Cén fáth? Cén uair? How/where/ why /when? Cén Cén Cén Cén


chaoi (Ce’ chaoi*) ar tharla sé? – How did it happen? uair a tharla sé ? - When did it happen? fáth ar tharla sé? - Why did it happen? áit ar tharla sé? - Where did it happen?


3 Cén chaoi ar tharla sé? Ce’ chaoi .....?



3 Cén uair ar tharla sé?




Cén fáth ar tharla sé?



3 Cén áit ar tharla sé?


Cá bhfuil ......? (Cá ‘il* ) ? Cá bhfuil ......? (Cá ‘il* ) ? Where is ......? In Conamara “Cá bhfuil” is abbreviated to “ Cá ‘il*” . Here are a selection of possible answers to the question “cá ‘il”

* Spoken Gaeilge in Conamara differs in some instances from the standard form. AbairLeat! highlights the most frequently used discrepancies.



3 Cá bhfuil ....? Cá ‘il ...?



3 Cá bhfuil ....? Cá ‘il ...?



3 Cá bhfuil ....? Cá ‘il ...?



3 Cá bhfuil ....? Cá ‘il ...?


Cá bhfuil ......? (Cá ‘il* ) ? Cá bhfuil ......? (Cá ‘il* ) ? Where is ......? In Conamara “Cá bhfuil” is abbreviated to “ Cá ‘il*” . Here are a selection of possible answers to the question “cá ‘il”

* Spoken Gaeilge in Conamara differs in some instances from the standard form. AbairLeat! highlights the most frequently used discrepancies.



3 Cá bhfuil ....? Cá ‘il ...?



3 Cá bhfuil ....? Cá ‘il ...?



3 Cá bhfuil ....? Cá ‘il ...?



3 Cá bhfuil ....? Cá ‘il ...?


Cá bhfaca...? Cá ndearna ..? Cá ndeachaigh...? Cá bhfaighfeá ...? Cá bhfaca...? Cá ndearna ..? Cá ndeachaigh...?

Cá bhfaighfeá ...?

Some irregular verbs have completely different positive and negative forms These need special attention as they are commonly used in conversation. Cá Cá Cá Cá


bhfaca tú an fógra ? - Chonaic mé ar chlár na bhfógraí é. ndearna sé an stóilín? - Rinne sé sa rang adhmadóireachta é ndeachaigh sibh ar laethanta saoire? - Chuaigh muid chuig an Spáinn bhfaighfeá stampa? - Gheofá in oifig an phoist é.


3 Cá bhfaca ......?



3 Cá ndearna ...?



3 Cá ndeachaigh ...?



3 Cá bhfaighfeá ...?


Cá ndeachaigh tú aréir? Cá Cá Cá Cá


ndeachaigh tú aréir? - Chuaigh mé chuig an amharclann dtéann siad chuile gheimhreadh? - Téann siad chun na hAifrice rachaidh sé tar éis a bhricfeasta? - Rachaidh sé ag obair. rachfá chun Gaeilge a fhoghlaim? - Rachfainn chun na Gaeltachta.


3 Cá ndeachaigh ...?



3 Cá dtéann ...?



3 Cá rachaidh ...?



3 Cá rachfá ...?


Cár ....? Cár ....? Where did....? Cár Cár Cár Cár


thit siad? - Where did they fall? fhoghlaim sé a chuid Gaeilge? - Where did he learn his Gaeilge? rugadh é? - Where was he born? smaoinigh sé air? - Where did he think of it?


3 Cár .........?



3 Cár .........?



3 Cár .........?



3 Cár .........?




BRIATHRA Most everyday conversation revolves around asking and answering simple questions in the past, present and future tenses. It is essential for learners to master the basic skill of asking and answering simple questions in these tenses.


Briathra Gaeilge is a Verb Subject Object (VSO) language D’ith an buachaill úll (ate boy apple) the verb is at the very beginning of a sentence. English on the other hand is a Subject Verb Object language i.e. The boy ate an apple.

Gaeilge has three verb groups Group 1 - Regular verbs with one syllable roots, i.e. bris, glan, caith, pioc, ól. Group 2 - Regular verbs with roots of more than one syllable, i.e. ceannaigh, bailigh, inis, freagair. Group 3 - Irregular verbs. Gaeilge has 11 irregular verbs: Abair, beir, bí, clois, déan, faigh, feic, ith, tabhair, tar, téigh.

The three main difficulties encountered by English speakers when coming to terms with verbs as used in Gaeilge are:

1. 2.

There isn’t an equivalent to the yes / no answer as is in English. Instead the verb is always repeated in the answer.

Initial consonants are changed according to the tense and whether answers are positive or negative. Séimhiú - where a h is added after the initial consonant changing the sound Urú - where the sound of the initial consonant changes by placing another letter before it:


Gaeilge has two forms of the verb “to be” which can be represented as follows An bhfuil sé fuar? Is it cold? An scannán é? Is it a film?

Tá / Níl It is / It isn’t Is ea / Ní hea It is / It isn’t


Séimhiú / Urú Gaeilge is a Celtic language. One of the features of Celtic languages is that changes can occur at both the beginning and at the end of words (and even sometimes in the middle!) Changes to the beginning of words always relate to the preceding word or term. These changes are a hugely important feature of the language, and are used extremely frequently. Indeed, it is impossible to speak fluently without being able to master these changes. Séimhiú A séimhiú (or lenition in English) only affects certain consonants. It consists of adding the letter h after the initial consonant. The following consonants are affected: b c d f g

> > > > >

m p s t

bh ch dh fh gh

> > > >

mh ph sh th

The letters h, n, l and r remain unchanged, as do the vowels.

Urú An urú (or eclipsis in English) affects both vowels and consonants. It consists of adding an extra letter before the first letter of the word. This new letter is pronounced instead of the original first letter. Only the following consonants are affected: m before b

--> mb

n before g



g before c



b before p



n before d



d before t

--> dt

bh before f



Eclipsis affects all the vowels in the same way: a > n-a e > n-e i > n-i

o > n-o u > n-u

Note: in certain cases, the letter ‘t’ can appear before words beginning with vowels or the letter s, and ‘h’ can appear before words beginning with nouns. These are not eclipsis. Finally, if a word begins with a letter not affected by séimhiú/urú, this word will remain unchanged – séimhiú/urú only affect the letters above.


Briathra aonsiollacha - Group 1 verbs Group 1 Regular verbs with one-syllable roots, i.e. bris, glan, caith, pioc, ól A séimhiú (h) is added when • asking a question in the past tense • giving a positive answer in the past tense • giving a negative answer in all tenses An urú is added (b>mb, c>gc, d>nd, f>bhf, g>ng, p>bp, t>dt.) when • asking a question in the present and future tenses

Verb Endings The verb endings change according to tense used and whether the last vowel is either slender (i,e,í,é) or broad (a,o,u,á,ó,ú) ...(e)ann is added in the present tense • bris - briseann • dún – dúnann

if the final vowel in the verb is slender the verb takes a slender ending. if the final vowel in the verb is broad the verb takes a broad ending.

...f(a)idh is added in the future tense • caith - caithfidh • glan – glanfaidh

if the final vowel in the verb is slender the verb takes a slender ending. if the final vowel in the verb is broad the verb takes a broad ending.

Indirect speech Past tense: gur + (h) / nár + (h)

Dúirt sé gur chaith / dúirt sé nár chaith

Present tense: go + urú / nach + urú

Dúirt sé go gcaitheann / dúirt se nach gcaitheann

Future tense: go + urú / nach + urú

Dúirt sé go gcaithfidh / dúirt sé nach gcaithfidh

These points may initially seem daunting but will become second nature after successfully completing the tasks and exercises.


Briathra aonsiollacha - Group 1 verbs AbairLeat! concentrates on a selection of 20 group 1 verbs (verbs with one-syllable root).It deals comprehensively with their usage in simple conversation in the past/ present and future tenses. The verbs are grouped into 4 units of five verbs with each unit having 8 associated tasks.


Ar bhéic tú ? An mbéiceann tú? An mbéicfidh tú?

Bhéic mé / Níor bhéic mé. Béicim / Ní bhéicim. Béicfidh mé / Ní bhéicfidh mé.


Ar bhlais tú ? An mbaiseann tú? An mblaisfidh tú?

Bhlais mé / Níor bhlais mé. Blaisim / Ní bhlaisim. Blaisfidh mé / Ní bhlaisfidh mé.


Ar bhrúigh tú ? An mbrúnn tú? An mbrúfaidh tú?

Bhúigh mé / Níor bhrúigh mé. Brúnn / Ní bhrúnn. Brúfaidh mé / Ní bhrúfaidh mé.

Caith Ar chaith tú ? An gcaitheann tú? An gcaithfidh tú?

Chaith mé / Níor chaith mé. Caithim / Ní chaithim. Caithfidh mé / Ní chaithfidh mé.

Caoin Ar chaoin tú ? An gcaoineann tú? An gcaoinfidh tú?

Chaoin mé / Níor chaoin mé. Caoinim / Ní chaoinim. Caoinfidh mé / Ní chaoinfidh mé.


Briathra ilsiollacha - Group 2 verbs Group 2

- (regular) verbswith roots of more than one-syllable, i.e. bailigh, ceangail, dúisigh, foghlaim, tosaigh. A séimhiú (h) is added when • asking a question in the past tense • giving a positive answer in the past tense • giving a negative answer in all tenses

An urú is added (b>mb, c>gc, d>nd, f>bhf, g> ng, p> bp, t > dt) when • asking a question in the present and future tense

Verb Endings The verb endings change according to tense used and whether the last vowel is either slender (i,e,í,é) or broad (a,o,u,á,ó,ú) ...(a)íonn is added in the present tense • deisigh - deisíonn if the final vowel in the verb is slender the verb takes a slender ending. • ceannaigh - ceannaíonn if the final vowel in the verb is broad the verb takes a broad ending. ....óidh / ... eoidh is added in the future tense • inis - inseoidh if the final vowel in the verb is slender the verb takes a slender ending. • breathnaigh – breathnóidh if the final vowel in the verb is broad the verb takes a broad ending.

Indirect speech Past tense: gur + h / nár + h

Dúirt sé gur cheannaigh / dúirt sé nár cheannaigh

Present tense: go + urú / nach + urú

Dúirt sé go gceannaíonn / dúirt se nach gceannaíonn

Future tense: go + urú / nach + urú

Dúirt sé go gceannóidh / dúirt sé nach gceannóidh

These points may initially seem daunting but will become second nature after successfully completing the tasks and exercises.


Briathra ilsiollacha - Group 2 verbs AbairLeat! concentrates on a selection of 20 group 2 verbs It deals comprehensively with their usage in simple conversation in the past/present and future tenses.The verbs are grouped into 4 units of five verbs with each unit having 8 associated tasks.

Bailigh Ar bhailigh tú ? Bhailigh mé / Níor bhailigh mé. An mbailíonn tú? Bailíonn mé / Ní bhailíonn mé. An mbaileoidh tú? Baileoidh mé / Ní bhaileoidh mé.

Ceangail Ar cheangal tú ? Cheangal / Níor cheangal. An gceanglaíonn tú? Ceanglaíonn / Ní cheanglaíonn. An gceanglóidh tú? Ceanglóidh / Ní cheanglóidh.

Dúisigh Ar dhúisigh tú ? An ndúisíonn tú? An ndúiseoidh tú?

Dhúisigh / Níor dhúisigh. Dúisíonn / Ní dhúisíonn. Dúiseoidh / Ní dhúiseoidh .

Foghlaim Ar fhoghlaim tú ? D’fhoghlaim / Níor fhoghlaim. An bhfoghlaimíonn? Foghlaimíonn / Ní fhoghlaimíonn. An bhfoghlaimeoidh? Foghlaimeoidh / Ní fhoghlaimeoidh.

Tosaigh Ar thosaigh tú ? An dtosaíonn tú? An dtosóidh tú?

Thosaigh mé / Níor thosaigh. Tosaíonn / Ní thosaíonn. Tosóidh / Ní thosóidh.


Tá & Is - two ways of expressing the English verb “to be”. Tá is used to associate a noun with an adjective – Tá an teach mór Tá is the positive present tense form of the irregular verb “Bí” (to be) The positive answer “Tá” applies only as an answer to the question “An bhfuil .....?” – it translates as “I am” or “it is”. Tá = ‘I am’ or ‘It is’

Tá = Yes

Níl is the negative present tense form of the irregular verb “Bí” (to be) The negative answer “Níl” applies only as an answer to the question “An bhfuil .....?” – it translates as “I’m not” or “It’s not”. Níl = ‘I’m not or ‘It’s not’

Níl = No

The verb tá is used to describe actions, conditions, locations and emotions

Chun gníomhartha a chur in iúl - Actions: An bhfuil tú ag éisteacht? - Tá / Níl mé ....... An bhfuil tú ag dul amach? - Tá / Níl mé ....... An bhfuil tú ag smaoineamh? - Tá / Níl mé .......

Chun staideanna a chur in iúl - Conditions: An bhfuil sé ag báisteach? - Tá / Níl sé ....... An bhfuil an praghas ceart? - Tá / Níl sé ....... An bhfuil an cúrsa go maith? - Tá / Níl sé .......

Chun suímh a chur in iúl - Locations An bhfuil sé ann? - Tá / Níl sé ....... An bhfuil sé thuas? - Tá / Níl sé ....... An bhfuil sé ag an scoil? - Tá / Níl sé .......

Chun mothúcháin a chur in iúl - Emotions: An bhfuil ocras ort? - Tá / Níl ocras orm. An bhfuil tart ort? - Tá / Níl tart orm. An bhfuil tuirse ort? - Tá / Níl tuirse orm.


Tá & Is - two ways of expressing the English verb “to be”. Here are some common idiomatic phrases that use the verb An bhfuil tú in ann ....? An bhfuil a fhios agat ....?

Tá / Níl

Tá / Níl

An bhfuil tú réidh?

Tá / Níl

An bhfuil tú cinnte faoi? An bhfuil tú sásta leis?

Tá / Níl Tá / Níl

An bhfuil tú ag dul ann?

Tá / Níl

An bhfuil tú ag teacht abhaile?

Tá / Níl

An bhfuil tú ag iarraidh ceann?

Tá / Níl

An bhfuil tú ceart go leor?

Tá / Níl

An bhfuil sé ag báisteach ?

Tá / Níl

An bhfuil tú i ndáiríre ?

Tá / Níl

An bhfuil tú in ainm é a dhéanamh?

Tá / Níl

An bhfuil tú ar tí imeacht?

Tá / Níl

An bhfuil tú i do sheasamh?

Tá / Níl

An bhfuil sé ina shuí?

Tá / Níl

An bhfuil sé ina chodladh?

Tá / Níl

An bhfuil sé ina dhúiseacht?

Tá / Níl


Tá & Is - two ways of expressing the English verb “to be”. The copula “Is” is not quite a complete verb. It is used to identify / define things, to associate one thing with another thing. An múinteoir é?

Is he a teacher?

Is / Ní múinteoir é.

He is / isn’t a teacher.

An cóta atá ann? Is it a coat?

Is / Ní cóta atá ann. It is / isn’t a coat.

An lá breá é?

Is / Ní lá breá é.

Is it a fine day?

It is / isn’t a fine day

Questions constructed with the copula can be answered with Is ea (‘sea) or Ní hea. ‘Sea translates as “It is” not “Yes”. Ní hea translates as “It isn’t” not “No”. ‘Sea = ‘It is’

‘Sea = Yes

Ní hea = ‘It’s not’

Ní hea = No

Céard é? Céard atá ann? An madra é? An leon atá ann?

Is leon é. Is leon atá ann. Ní hea. Ní madra é, is leon é. Is ea (‘sea*). Is leon atá ann.

Céard iad? Céard iad seo? An fataí iad? An cnónna iad?

Is cnónna iad. Is cnónna iad. Ní hea. Ní fataí iad, is cnónna iad. Is ea (‘sea*) is cnónna iad.

An garda é? Céard é fhéin? An múínteoir é? An garda é?

Is garda é Is garda é. Ní hea. Ní múinteoir é, is garda é. Is ea (‘sea*), is garda é.

Céard é fhéin? Is Sasanach é. Cé as é? Is as Sasana é. An Francach é? Ní hea. Ní Francach é, is Sasanach é. An Sasanach é? Is ea (‘sea*), is Sasanach é. 66

Tá & Is - two ways of expressing the English verb “to be”. Here are some common idiomatic phrases that use the verb An maith leat …. ?

Is / Ní maith liom ….

An cuimhin leat …. ?

Is / Ní cuimhin liom ….

An fearr leat …. ?

Is / Ní fearr liom ….

An féidir leat …. ?

Is / Ní féidir liom ….

An cuma leat …. ?

Is / Ní cuma liom ….

An miste leat …. ?

Is / Ní miste liom ….

An mian leat …. ?

Is / Ní mian liom ….

An dóigh leat …. ?

Is / Ní dóigh liom ….

An breá leat …. ?

Is / Ní breá liom ….

An fada leat …. ?

Is / Ní fada liom ….

An eol d(h)uit*…….

Is / Ní heol d(h)om ……

An fiú d(h)uit*…….

Is / Ní fiú d(h)om ……

Nach fíor d(h)uit*……. Is / Ní fíor d(h)om …… Nach méanar d(h)uit*…

An ea? (Ab ea?*)

An é sin é? (Ab ‘in é?*)

Is / Ní méanar d(h)om ……

Is ea (‘Sea*) / Ní hea Sin é / Ní shin é

An iad sin iad? (Ab ‘in iad?*) Sin iad (‘siad*) / Ní shin iad (Ní hiad). An é seo é? ( Ab ‘eod é?*)

Seo é é ( ‘s ‘eod é*) Ní hé seo é (Ní h’eod é*)

* Spoken Gaeilge in Conamara differs in some instances from the standard form. AbairLeat! highlights the most frequently used discrepancies.


Briathra mírialta – Group 3 verbs – Irregular verbs Gaeilge has 11 irregular verbs. Abair, beir, bí, clois, déan, faigh, feic, ith, tabhair, tar, téigh. They also happen to be the most commonly used verbs so they cannot be ignored. The verbs are irregular because different roots are used to form different tenses


















tá / bíonn


























Some irregular verbs have completely different positive and negative forms These need special attention as they are commonly used in conversation.

In the past tense: Bí: Déan: Feic: Téigh:

An raibh ...? An ndearna ....? An bhfaca...? An ndeachaigh...?

Bhí / Ní raibh Rinne / Ní dhearna Chonaic / Ní fhaca Chuaigh / Ní dheachaigh

In the present tense: Bí:

An bhfuil ...?

Tá / Níl

In the future tense: Faigh:

An bhfaighidh ....?

Gheobhaidh / Ní bhfaighidh


Briathra mírialta – Group 3 verbs – Irregular verbs

* San aimsir chaite úsáidtear An in áit Ar and Ní in áit Níor. NB** Tá foirm dhifriúil dhearfach agus dhiúltach ag an mbriathar san aimsir seo. NB

An raibh tú?* An bhfuil tú? An mbíonn tú? An mbeidh tú?

Bhí mé. / Ní raibh mé.** Tá mé. / Níl mé. Bíonn mé. / Ní bhíonn mé. Beidh mé. / Ní bheidh mé.

Ar chuala tú? Chuala mé. / Níor chuala mé. An gcloiseann tú? Cloisim. / Ní chloisim. An gcloisfidh tú? Cloisfidh mé. / Ní chloisfidh mé.

An bhfaca tú?* Chonaic mé. / Ní fhaca mé.** An bhfeiceann tú? Feicim. / Níl fheicim. An bhfeicfidh tú? Feicfidh mé. / Ní fheicfidh mé.

The Diabhailíní Beaga characters outline the irregular verbs, one at a time. One character represents the positive answer while another represents the negative answer.

Téigh amach - téigí amach An ndeachaigh * ? Chuaigh / Ní dheachaigh .**

An dtéann ? téann / ní théann An rachaidh ? rachaidh / ní rachaidh


Lá i nGaillimh le Deasún. Learn the irregular verbs by following the storyboard of Des’s day out in Galway.

Clois Bí

Ar chuala / An gcloiseann / An gcloisfidh ? An raibh / an bhfuil / An mbíonn / An mbeidh?


Ar rug / An mbeireann / An mbéarfaidh?


Ar tháinig / An dtagann / An dtiocfaidh?


An bhfaca / An bhfeiceann / An bhfeicfidh?


An bhfuair / An bhfaigheann / An bhfaighidh?


An ndeachaigh / An dtéann / An rachaidh?


Ar thug / An dtugann / An dtabharfaidh?


An ndúirt / An ndeireann / An ndéarfaidh?

Ith Déan

Ar ith / An itheann / An íosfaidh? An ndearna / An ndéanann / An ndéanfaidh? 70

Briathra mírialta – Group 3 verbs – Irregular verbs


Chuala / cloiseann / cloisfidh sé tuar na haimsire.

Bhí / tá / bíonn / beidh báisteach geallta.


Rug / beireann / béarfaidh sé ar a chóta


Tháinig / tagann / tiocfaidh sé go Gaillimh ar an mbus


Chonaic / feiceann / feicfidh sé leabhar sa leabharlann


Fuair / faigheann / gheobhaidh sé ar iasacht é.


Chuaigh / téann / rachaidh sé chuig an mbialann.


Thug / tugann / tabharfaidh an freastalaí píotsa dó.


Dúirt / deireann / déarfaidh sé gur breá leis píotsa.

Ith Déan

D’ith / itheann / íosfaidh sé chuile phioc de. Rinne / déanann / déanfaidh sé a chuid oibre. 71

Briathra mírialta – Irregular verbs - common phrases Many phrases / sayings incorporate irregular verbs in their construction. The most common phrases that incorporate the irregular verbs Déan, Tabhair, Téigh, agus Tar are thoroughly dealt with using a number of associated tasks.

Nathanna - DÉAN forgetting boasting attempting


Ag déanamh dearmaid Ag déanamh gaisce Ag déanamh iarrachta


Ag déanamh iontais Ag déanamh aithrí Ag déanamh aithrise


Ag déanamh amhlaidh Ag déanamh an diabhail Ag déanamh beagáin de


Ag déanamh neamhairde de Ag déanamh comhbhróin Ag déanamh dochair

wondering repenting imitating acting accordingly making mischief belittling

ignoring commiserating damaging


Praiseach a dhéanamh Rogha a dhéanamh Cinneadh a dhéanamh

make a mess choose make a decision


Casaoid a dhéanamh Gar a dhéanamh Do dhícheall a dhéanamh

complain do a favour do your best


Modh Coinníollach – Conditional tense Learning to use the conditional tense is very straightforward and doesn’t deserve the bad press it has received.

Neither ‘Mé’ nor ‘tú’ are used in the conditional. Instead they are integrated into the verb. ‘An’(+ urú) is used to ask a question Positive answers take a séimhiú or d’ (as in the past tense) and ‘Ní’ (+ séimhiú) is used in the negative.

Group 1 verbs Verb endings ...fainn/-finn are used instead of “mé” and ...fá/-feá are used instead of “tú”

An dtabharfá cúnamh? An íosfá plaic? An ndéarfá sin? An gceapfá go bhfuil? An ndéanfá gar dom? An dtiocfá ar ais? An ólfá braon? An gcaithfeá go leor? An bhfágfá in am? An mbeifeá sásta?

Thabharfainn D’íosfainn Déarfainn Cheapfainn Dhéanfainn Thiocfainn D’ólfainn Chaithfinn D’fhágfainn Bheinn

Ní thabharfainn Ní íosfainn Ní déarfainn Ní cheapfainn Ní dhéanfainn Ní Thiocfainn Ní ólfainn Ní chaithfinn Ní fhágfainn Ní bheinn

Group 2 verbs Verb endings ....óinn/-eóinn are used instead of “mé” and ...ófá/-eofá are used instead of “tú”

An inseofá an fhírinne? An gceannófá mórán? An imreofá cluiche? An bhfoghlaimeofá? An osclófá an fhuinneog?

D’inseoinn Cheannóinn D’imreoinn D’fhoghlaimeoinn D’osclóinn


Ní inseoinn Ní cheannóinn Ní imreoinn Ní fhoghlaimeoinn Ní osclóinn

An tAinm Briathra (Verbal noun) The verbal noun is used to refer to a continuous or progressive action eg eating, talking, writing. Verbal nouns end in -ing in English. Verbal nouns cannot be followed by the pronouns mé, tú, é, í, muid, sibh, iad. This difference in word order needs to be carefully noted by English speakers. Tá mé á rá

I’m saying it .

Tá mé ag rá é

This construction is very frequently used in speech. The ‘it’ in question is always the masculine singular form (and so a séimhiú is added):

á+h it / him

á (gan séimhiú) her

Doing it

á dhéanamh

ag déanamh é

Cleaning it

á ghlanadh

ag glanadh é

Walking it

á shiúl

ag siúl é

Kissing it (him)

á phógadh

ag pógadh é

á pógadh (kissing her)

Answering it (him)

á fhreagairt

ag freagairt é

á freagairt (answering her)

Pushing it (him)

á bhrú

ag brú é

á brú (pushing her)

Praising it (him)

á mholadh

ag moladh é

á moladh (praising her) me / you

do (gu*) mo / do (gu*) do

Knocking me Pulling you

do (gu*) mo leagadh do (gu*) do tharraingt

ag leagadh mé ag tarraingt tú

Blinding me Bringing you

do( gu*) mo chaochadh do (gu*) do thabhairt

ag caochadh mé ag tabhairt tú

Paying me Ordering you

do (gu*) m’íoc do (gu*) d’ordú

ag íoc mé ag ordú tú

Annoying me Inticing you

do (gu*) mo chrá do (gu*) do mhealladh

ag crá mé ag mealladh tú

In Conamara “do mo” is pronounced as “gu* mo” and “do do” is pronounced as “ gu *do” * Spoken Gaeilge in Conamara differs in some instances from the standard form. AbairLeat! highlights the most frequently used discrepancies.


An tAinm Briathra (Verbal noun)

Tá sé á scrúdú.

Tá sé á shábháilt

Tá sí á bholú.

Tá an x-ray á scrúdú aige.

Tá an pheil á sábháilt aige.

Tá an bláth á bholú aici.

Tá sí á mheascadh

Tá sí á bhualadh.

Tá sé á pógadh

Tá an cáca á mheascadh aici.

Tá sí do (gu*) mo bhualadh. Ta sí do (gu*) do bhualadh.

Tá sé do (gu*) mo phógadh Tá sé do (gu*) do phógadh

Tá siad á leanacht

Tá sé á bhrú.

Tá sé á bhodhrú.

Tá siad do (gu*) mo leanacht Tá siad do (gu*) do leanacht.

Tá sé do (gu*) mo bhrú Tá sé do (gu*) do bhrú

Tá tú do (gu*) mo bhodhrú Tá mé do (gu*) do bhodhrú


Má if

- A séimhiú is added to the verb after má

Má is used in the past and present tenses. Má cheannaím : An dtiocfaidh tú liom má cheannaím ticeád dhuit? Má thugann : Gabhfaidh mé in éineacht leat má thugann mo mháthair cead dom. Má bhíonn : Beidh ócáid iontach ann má bhíonn an lá go breá. Má bhí : Bhí, má bhí! Má chonaic : Ní dúirt tú tada liomsa faoi má chonaic tú é. Má cheannaigh : Má cheannaigh sé ceann, bhí sé ar an t-aon duine a cheannaigh.

Má is not used with the future tense. Instead, the present tense is used: Má thagann sé amárach – if he comes tomorrow Beidh chuile dhuine sásta má thagann an beart amárach. Má tharlaíonn sé an bhliain seo chugainn beidh muid réidh lena aghaidh. Má dhéanann tú an obair anocht beidh muid saor amárach.

“Má” combines with “is” to form “más”: Más maith leat! Rachaidh mé leat, más rud é go mbeidh tú ag dul ann. Beidh mé buíoch más féidir leat é a dhéanamh. Fanfaidh muid sa mbaile más fear leat é.


Mura - if not / unless An urú is added to the verb. Mura gcuirim: Cuireann mo chairde glaoch orm mura gcuirim glaoch orthu. Mura gcuirfidh: Beidh tú fliuch mura gcuirfidh tú ort cóta. Mura gcuirfeadh: Thiocfadh an cat isteach mura gcuirfeadh sí glas ar an bhfuinneog.

Mura ndéanann: Bíonn sé déanach don rang mura ndéanann sé deifir. Mura ndéanfaidh: Beidh sé déanach don rang mura ndéanfaidh sé deifir. Mura ndéanfadh: Bheadh sé déanach don rang mura ndéanfadh sé deifir.

Murar - Past Tense - A séimhiú is added to the verb after murar Murar chuir: Beidh sí briste murar chuir sí airgead sa chuntas. Murar fhág: Beidh sí déanach murar fhág sí in am. Murar ith: Beidh ocras uirthi murar ith sí béile.

Exceptions - Mura is used in the past tense for the following irregular verbs téigh / déan / feic / bí / faigh / abair.

bí - mura raibh faigh – mura bhfuair abair – mura ndúirt

téigh – mura ndeachaigh déan - mura ndearna feic - mura bhfaca


SULA before


An urú is added to the verb after sula

Sula gcuireann : Ním an cupán sula gcuireann mé/ gcuirim sa chófra é. Sula gcuirfidh : Nífidh mé an cupán sula gcuirfidh mé sa chófra é. Sula gcuirfeadh : Nífinn an cupán sula gcuirfeadh mé/gcuirfinn sa chófra é.

Sula ndéanann : Itheann sé a dhinnéar sula ndéanann sé an obair bhaile. Sula ndéanfaidh : Íosfaidh sé a dhinnéar sula ndéanfaidh sé an obair bhaile. Sula ndéanfadh: D’íosfadh sé a dhinnéar sula ndéanfadh sé an obair bhaile.

Sular - Past Tense - A séimhiú is added to the verb Sular cheannaigh: Bhain sé triail as sular cheannaigh sé é. Sular thrasnaigh: Bhreathnaigh sé soir agus siar an bóthar sular thrasnaigh sé é. Sular shuigh: Rinne sé a chuid oibre sular shuigh sé síos.

Exceptions - Sula is used in the past tense for the following irregular verbs téigh / déan / feic / bí / faigh / abair.

téigh - sula ndeachaigh déan - sula ndearna feic - sula bhfaca

bí - sula raibh faigh - sula bhfuair abair - sula ndúirt.




CHIT CHAT The key to becoming a confident Irish-language speaker lies in your ability to engage in basic everyday dialogue. Developing a habit of partaking in casual informal conversations as Gaeilge is central to building up confidence and in bonding with the language.


This is a fun part of language learning as it requires social interaction with other learners. As the majority of brief casual conversations are restricted to generalities it is possible to conduct them predominantly as Gaeilge if you have the necessary dialogue that is used in everyday chit chat. This section focuses on common sayings, greetings, and questions that are most frequently used in general everyday dialogue. Getting into the habit of incorporating basic Gaeilge into your daily encounter with fellow learners is only a matter of practice. AbairLeat’s role is to coordinate the delivery of learning materials and outlining concise step by step direction on how to engage with them online. However, there is no substitute to using the language in meaningful interaction in real life situations. Willingness to communicate as Gaeilge with each other is the single most important requirement for learners.


Leaganacha coitianta 1 - Common everyday phrases 1 A challenging aspect of learning a language is moving from the book or Internet to the real-life situations and interacting with others. The following phrases and interjections can be useful as icebreakers to begin a conversation and to indicate that you are able and willing to speak Gaeilge.

Thaitin sé go mór liom I liked it/him very much I succeeded D’éirigh liom Go n-éirí leat! Good luck! Tabhair dom (toram*) é Abair leat! Abair amach é!

Give it to me Say it! Out with it!

Fág mé! Ceist agam ort Ní dóigh liom é

Let me alone! A quick question I don’t think so

Céard a cheapann tú faoi? Cén t-am é? Feicfidh mé ar ball thú.

What do you think/make of it? What time is it? I’ll see you later.

Airím uaim mo chairde A Mhaighdean! Go bhfóire Dia orainn!

I miss my friends Holy Mary! Oh my God! God help us!

Go sábhála Dia sinn! God save us! Tabhair dom (toram) ceann! Give me one An bhfuil tú ag iarraidh ceann? Do you want one?


An bhfuil ........? Are you .../ do you .... / is it ..... ? The following are some very common questions which are used in everyday settings. Although each starts with “An bhfuil...?”, note the numerous meanings which this verb can carry

An bhfuil tuilleadh aráin uait? An bhfuil do dhóthain agat? An bhfuil cúnamh uait?

Do you want more bread? Have you enough? Do you need help?

An bhfuil a fhios agat? An bhfuil tú in ann é a dhéanamh? An bhfuil tú réidh?

Do you know? Are you able to do it? Are you ready?

An bhfuil tú cinnte faoi sin? An bhfuil tú ceart go leor? An bhfuil tú ag iarraidh ceann?

Are you sure about that? Are you alright? Do you want one?

An bhfuil tú ag éisteacht liom? An bhfuil tú ag smaoineamh faoi? An bhfuil tú i ndáiríre?

Are you listening? Are you thinking? Are you serious?

An bhfuil tú sásta? An bhfuil tú ag dul ann? An bhfuil tú ag obair? An bhfuil tú ag imirt? An bhfuil tú ag magadh fúm? An bhfuil tú as do chiall?

Are you pleased? Are you going there? Are you working?


Are you playing? Are you joking me? Are you out of your mind?

Leaganacha coitianta 2 - Common everyday phrases 2 This lesson presents another 18 widely used phrases, interjections. Including them in your general conversation makes learning Gaeilge much more engaging and will add a great deal to your level of fluency

Fág seo! Déan deifir. Tóg d’am! Cá bhfuil (cá ‘il) do dheifir? Éirigh as! Éirigh as an tseafóid!

Come on! Hurry up! Take your time! Where is your hurry? Give it up / Stop it! Don’t be silly!

Fág an bealach! / Fan as an mbealach! Stay out of the way! Gabh i leith anseo! Come over here! Téigh i dtigh diabhail! Go to hell! Lean ort! Ar aghaidh leat! Bailigh leat / gread leat!

Keep going! Go ahead! Get lost! / Clear off!

Cé mhéad atá air? Céard a chosnaíonn sé? Is mise an chéad duine eile.

How much is it? How much does it cost? I’m next!

Cá bhfuil tú ag dul? Fan nóiméad! Oíche mhaith, codladh sámh!


Where are you going? Wait a minute! Good night, sleep well!

Cé leis? Cé ag?

Cé do?

Cé air?

Some more questions and answers that are essential for everyday conversations. These phrases use the prepositional pronouns which do not exist in many other languages, so becoming comfortable with phrases such as these indicates an increasing level of fluency.

An leatsa é seo? Cé leis é? Is liomsa é! Is linne é.

An agatsa atá sé? Cé aige a bhfuil sé? Is agamsa (a’msa) atá sé. Is againne atá sé.

An duitse é? Cé dó é? Is domsa é. Is dúinne é.

An ortsa atá an milleán? Cé air a bhfuil an milleán? Is ortsa atá an milleán. Is orainne atá an milleán.

Is this yours? Whose is it? It is mine! It is ours!

Have you got it? Who has it? I have it. We have it.

Is it for you? Who is it for? It is for me. It is for us.

Are you to blame? Who is to blame? You are to blame. We are to blame.


An chopail “Is” - Common uses of the copula On this page, examples are given of everyday phrases using the copula ‘is’. Again, these are common phrases used naturally in everyday dialogue.

An féidir leat é a dhéanamh? Is féidir liom é a dhéanamh. An féidir é a dhéanamh? Is féidir é a dhéanamh

Can you do it? I can do it. Can it be done? It can be done.

An fearr leat tae nó caifé? Is fearr liom tae. An cuimhin leat é? Is cuimhin liom go maith é.

Do you prefer tea to coffee? I prefer tea. Do you remember it? I remember it well.

Ní cuimhin liom ar chor ar bith é An maith leat é? Cinnte is maith liom é. Ní maith liom ar chor ar bith é.

I can’t remember it at all Do you like it? I sure do like it. I don’t like it at all.

An cuma leat faoi? Is cuma liom sa diabhal faoi. An miste leat é a dhéanamh? Diabhal miste liom é a dhéanamh.

Do you care about it? I couldn’t care less. Do you mind doing it? I wouldn’t mind in the least.


Ceisteanna fút féin - About yourself One of the first things language learners learn is to introduce themselves and to be able to speak a little about who they are. This has the added advantage of opening communication with other learners or native speakers which allows you to practice what you learn.

Cén aois thú? Cé as thú? Cá gcónaíonn tú? Cá bhfuil tú i do chónaí?

What age are you? Where are you from? Where do you live? Where do you live?

Cé thusa? Cá dtéann tú ar scoil? Cén chaoi a dtéann tú ar scoil?

Who are you? Where do you go to school? How do you go to school?

An siúlann tú ar scoil? An gcasann tú uirlis cheoil? An dtaitníonn cócaireacht leat?

Do you walk to school? Do you play a musical instrument? Do you like cooking?

An léann tú mórán? An imríonn tú spórt? An maith leat a bheith ag caint as Gaeilge?

Do you read much/a lot? Do you play sport? Do you like speaking Gaeilge?

An dtéann tú ag rothaíocht go minic? Do you cycle often? An mbreathnaíonn tú ar TG4 riamh? Do you ever watch TG4? An éisteann tú le cláracha nuachta ar an Raidió?

An bhfuil tú in ann snámh? An dtaitníonn léitheoireacht leat? An ndéanann tú do dhícheall?


Are you able to swim? Do you like to read? Do you try your best?

Ag casadh le daoine - Meeting people Asking questions is an essential part of communication in any language. On the following pages, examples are given of different ways to ask questions as Gaeilge

Cén chaoi (ce’ chaoi*) a bhfuil tú? How are you? Tá mé togha, go raibh maith agat (a’d*). I’m fine, thank you. Tá mé thar cionn, go raibh maith agat (a’d*). I am excellent, thank you. Cén chaoi (ce’ chaoi*) a bhfuil an chraic? Níl aon chaill uirthi.

How is the craic? Not bad! / Okay!

Aon scéal /Cén scéal agat (a’d*) ? Have you any news? Whats up? Diabhal scéal! Nothings up / No news /Devil a story! Cá bhfuil (cá ‘il*)tú ag dul (a ghoil’*)? An dtiocfaidh tú in éineacht liom?

Where are you going / off to? Will you come with me?

What’s on you? Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá*) ort? Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá*)cearr leat? What is wrong with you? What do you want? Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá*) uait? Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá*)tú a dhéanamh? What are you doing / up to? Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá*)ar siúl agat? What are you up to? Céard a tharla duit? Céard a cheapann tú faoi? Céard sa diabhal atá ort? Céard faoi?


What happened to you? What do you think of it? What the devil is wrong with you? What about it / him?

Cén ...?

Cé ...... ? - More questions

More examples of questions, this time using cén and cé. On their own, they mean which and who respectively, but they can combine with other parts of speech to change their meaning, as seen below.

Cén ceann is fearr leat? Which one do you prefer? What time is it? Cén t-am é? Cén fáth a ndearna tú é? Why did you do it? Cén fáth a ndeachaigh tú ann? Why did you go there? When did it happen? Cén uair a tharla sé? Cén chaoi (ce’ chaoi*) ar tharla sé? How did it happen? Cén fáth ar tharla sé? Why did it happen?

Cé acu is mó? Cé mhéad ceann atá uait? Cé mhéad atá air?

Which (one) is the biggest? How many do you want? How much is it?

Cé hé mo dhuine? Cé hiad? Cé atá ann?

Who is your man? Who are they? Who is there?

Cé a dúirt é? Cé a rinne é? Cé a chonaic é?

Who said it? Who did it? Who saw it?


6 Chás Tábhachtach - 6 special cases. There are six ocassions where vebs display a compleatly different form for a positive or a negative answer.. They are used very frequently and need to be given special attention by learners.

An bhfaca tú é? Chonaic mé é. Ní fhaca mé é.

Did you see him/ it? I saw him/ it. I didn’t see him/ it.

An ndeachaigh tú ann? Did you go there? Chuaigh mé ann. I went there. Ní dheachaigh mé ann. I didn’t go there. An ndearna tú é? Rinne mé é. Ní dhearna mé é.

Did you do it? I did it. I didn’t do it.

An raibh tú sásta? Bhí mé sásta. Ní raibh mé sásta.

Were you pleased? I was pleased. I was not pleased.

An bhfuil tú in ann feadaíl? Can you whistle? Tá mé in ann. I am able. Níl mé in ann. I am not able. An bhfaighidh tú litir? Gheobhaidh mé litir. Ní bhfaighidh mé litir.

Will you get/receive a letter? I will get/receive a letter. I won’t get a letter.


Cén áit ? / Cén fáth? / Cén uair? / Cén chaoi? The where, why, when and how.

Cén áit ar tharla sé? /Cár tharla sé? Where did it happen? When did it happen? Cén uair a tharla sé? Cén fáth ar tharla sé? Why did it happen? How did it happen? Cén chaoi (ce’ chaoi*) ar tharla sé?

Cén chaoi (ce’ chaoi*) a ndeachaigh tú ann? How did you go there? How did you hear about it? Cén chaoi (ce’ chaoi*) ar chuala tú faoi? Cén chaoi (ce’ chaoi*) a ndearna tú é? How did you do it? Cén chaoi (ce’ chaoi*) a n-oibríonn sé? How does it work?

Cén fáth a ndeachaigh tú ann? Cén fáth a ndearna tú é? Cén fáth nár fhág tú? Cén fáth nach raibh tú ann?

Why did you go there? Why did you do it? Why did you not leave? Why were you not there?

Cá ndeachaigh tú aréir? Cá bhfaca tú é ? Cár chuala tú faoi? Cá ndearna tú é?

Where did you go last night? Where did you see him/it? Where did you hear about him/ it? Where did you do it?


FRĂ SAĂ? Set phrases and figures of speech are a central component of any language. In this section focus is placed on common phrases as Gaeilge that are frequently used and heard.


If you want your Gaeilge to sound natural, a good way to start is to work with authentic sentences. Set phrases and figures of speech are a central component of any language. In this section focus is placed on common phrases as Gaeilge that are frequently used and heard. Most set phrases, and especially figures of speech are unique to Gaeilge and cannot be translated literally. They are varied, some can be quite rude and can be a source of fun and amusement, as you make progress with your language learning. One highly recommended approach is to learn the new words as part of an entire phrase. If you want your Gaeilge to sound natural, a good way to start is to work with authentic sentences. This ensures that the Gaeilge you are learning is really used and not something just out of a textbook.


Leaganacha Cainte (gan íomhánna) 1 AbairLeat! places great emphasis on the importance of figures of speech. A number of lessons each containing 18 themed collections of phrases are presented. All of these lessons have accompanying tasks with the view of thoroughly acquainting you with the content.

i ndeireadh na feide i ndeireadh na dála faoi dheireadh thiar

to be at the end of your tether in conclusion /at the end of the day at long last

droim ar ais bunoscionn bun ná barr

back to front upside down disorganized - pointless

aniar aduaidh unexpected / coming from the north west know how ciall cheannaithe tásc ná tuairisc without trace / sight nor light lá bog braonach gearr gonta gíog ná míog

a soft rainy day short and sweet without sound /as quiet as a mouse

de réir a chéile bit by bit de réir dealraimh seemingly de réir mar a chuala / tharla / dúirt according to what ....... idir mhagadh agus dáirire idir óg agus aosta idir dhá cheann na meá

to be serious for a moment everybody / both young and old it’s in the balance / touch and go


Nathanna Cainte le pictiúir 1

Ag déanamh an diabhail

Ag déanamh aithrise

Ag déanamh gaisce

Tá sé ag déanamh an diabhail ar an rothaí.

Tá na páistí ag déanamh aithrise ar shiúl an fhir.

Tá sé ag déanamh gaisce ar chomh láidir is atá sé.

Ar nós na gaoithe


Tá an marcach agus an capall ag imeacht ar nós na gaoithe.

Tá sí ag cur an dallamullóg ar an mbeirt acu.

Téigh i dtigh diabhail

I bhfostú

Idir óg agus aosta

In ainm a bheith

Tá an carr i bhfostú idir an dá bhus

Bhí idir óg agus aosta ag an gcóisir

Íomhá d’éadan Chríost atá in ainm a bheith sa Turin Shroud.


Sin é a chiallaíonn an gheaitse seo.

Nathanna Cainte le pictiúir 1

Is annamh

An bhfuil tú i ndáiríre?

Ag snámh in aghaidh easa

An bhfuil tú ag magadh fúm nó an bhfuil tú i ndáiríre faoi?

Níl sé éasca ag an mbradán snámh in aghaidh easa.

Go tobann

Ar tí

Gabh i Leith

Las an spéir go tobann le lasair tintrí.

Tá an liathróid ar tí titim isteach sa bpoll.

Gabh i leith anseo nóiméad- tá me ag iarraidh focal leat.

D’aon turas

Thar mholadh beirte

Fág an bealach

Is annamh a bhíonn cat agus luch cairdiúil

Is d’aon turas a chaith sé an t-uisce ar an bhfear

Níl obair na beirte seo thar mholadh beirte.


Fágaigí an bealach tá muid ag teacht.

Nathanna Cainte le pictiúir 2

Ar fhaitíos na bhfaitíos

Go deo na ndeor

I ndáiríre píre.

.... agus mairfidh siad go sona sásta lena chéile go deo na ndeor

Thug mo mhamaí cead dom - tá mé i ndáiríre píre faoi

Sáimhín só

Te teolaí

Fite fuaite

Tá an chuma ar an mbéirín beag go bhfuil sé ar a sháimhín só.

Tá cuma te teolaí ar an mbeirt saighdiúirí

Bhí an fear fite fuaite sa suíochán mar gur theastaigh uaidh a bheith i bhfolach.

Mór millteach

Beag bídeach

Docht daingean

Tá an t-iasc seo mór millteach

Is ainmhí beag bídeach é an luch.

Tá an rópa ceangailte go docht daingean timpeall a riostaí.

Chlúdaigh an póilín baill phríobháideacha an fhir ar fhaitíos na bhfaitíos go bhfeicfí iad.


Nathanna Cainte le pictiúir 2

Rí rá agus ruaille buaille Bhí rí rá agus ruaille buaille ar na sráideanna le linn na hagóide

Ceannann céanna Tá an gúna ceannann céanna á gcaitheamh acu.

Beo bocht

Clú agus cáil

Tá na céadta milliún duine san triú domhan beo bocht

Tá clú agus cáil ar Einstein ar fud an domhain

Ar mhuin muice

Rogha agus togha


Ní ar chapall atá an marcach seo ach ar mhuin na muice.

Anois ‘s arís

Fial flaithiúil

Bíonn an bhanríon í féin ag piocadh a sróine anois is arís

Caitheann scoláirí a gcuid airgid go fial flaithiúil i Siopa GOAL.


Bhí rogha agus togha an bheatha ar fáil ag an bhféasta

Ní mar a síltear a bítear

Nathanna Cainte le pictiúir 3

Go bhfóire Dia orainn!

Ag cur as (dom)

Ar bís

Bhí an fear ag cur as don chailín.

Bhí sí ar bís tar éis di an rás a bhuachaint


I sáinn / i bponc

Tá sí chomh fiosrach, agus tá sí sách dána chomh maith.

Tá an racoon seo i bponc / i sáinn. Níl in ndán dó ach titim san uisce.

Éirigh as sin Leag as sin

I bhfolach

In áireach a chéile

Go bhfóire Dia orainn ! - ní chreidim é.

Ní bealach an-chliste é seo dul i bhfolach.

Tá na himreoirí in áireach a chéile.


Éirigh as sin, níl cead lámh a leagan ar na deilbh.

Breathnaigh air sin – a’ bhfaca tú é sin Breathnaigh air sin a réiteoir! – a’ bhfaca tú é?

Nathanna Cainte le pictiúir 3

I ndán

In ann

Mór lena chéile

Creideann daoine gur féidir a bhfuil i ndán dóibh a léamh ó bhos na láimhe.

An bhfuil tú in ann é seo a dhéanamh le do theanga?

Tá siad an-mhór lena chéile.

Is mise an chéad duine eile


Seachain (tú féin) / fainic

Is mise an chead duine eile sa scuaine

Tá an fear bunoscionn.

Seachain tú féin ar an mada (leon) seo.

Tá scaill air

De ló is d’óiche

Ag caochadh súl

Tá scaill ar an bhfear seo.

Ceithre uaire fichead, seacht lá na seachtaine - bíonn gardaí i mbun oibre de ló is d’oíche.

Tá sé ag caochadh súl orm.


Nathanna Cainte le pictiúir 4

Faraor nach / nár

Is ar éigean

Faraor nach bhfaca an réiteoir an feall seo (Thierry Henry)

Is ar éigean a bhí sé in am don bhus

Fág seo / fágaigí seo

As lámha a chéile

Faoi chois

Gan aon stró

Is fearr oibriú as lámha a chéile.

Tá an fear seo faoi chois ar chuile bhealach.

D’éirigh leis é a dhéanamh gan aon stró.

Fágaí seo – a bhuachaillí tá cluiche le buachaint againn.

I bhfoisceacht

De réir a chéile

Ag tnúth

Chuaigh an tarbh i bhfoisceacht cúpla orlach den cheamara.

Imíonn an ghealach as radharc de réir a chéile agus ansin tagann sé ar ais arís. (Le linn urú gealaí)

Bhí siad ag tnúth go mór le roinnt milseán a cheannach.


Nathanna Cainte le pictiúir 4

Ag fáil faoi réir Tá na reathaithe ag fáil faoi réir don rás.

Sa todhchaí Cá bhfios dúinn, cén teorainn luais a bheas ann sa todhchaí

Tabhair dom (Toram*) Tabhair dom (Toram*) síob, nílim ag iarraidh a bheith fliuch.

Ina phraiseach / ina chiseach

Ceann i ndiaidh a chéile


Tá an áit ina praiseach ag an bpáiste.

Ná déan é, a óinseach!

Thit na boscaí fóin uilig, ceann i ndiaidh a chéile.

Éirí in airde

Go drogallach

San airdeall

Tá éirí in airde orthu.

Is go drogallach atá an madra ag dul leis an bhfear.

Tá an t-éan airdeallach faoi na huibheacha


Leaganacha Cainte (gan íomhánna) 3 Relating sayings to characters and people’s traits is common in Irish-language phrases. Here are some examples

Tadhg an dá thaobh. Tuigeann Tadhg Taidhgín. Gáire Sheáin dóite. Oisín i ndiaidh na Féinne Cothrom na Féinne Fáilte Uí Cheallaigh

Two faced Birds of a feather ironic laugh pining away the Fianna’s equality hearty welcome

Dúirt bean liom go ndúirt bean léi. hearsay Ná bac le mac an bhacaigh is ní bhacfaidh mac an bhacaigh leat. Ualach ghiolla na leisce. lazy man’s load Scéal chailleach an uafáis. doomsday scenario Roinnt na caillí mar is áil léi féin. Two for me - one for you Chomh sean leis an gcailleach Bhéara Old Woman (Hag) of Beare Lá Philib an Chleite. Beidh lá eile ag an bPaorach Mallacht Chromail.

The day of reckoning Live to fight another day Cromwell’s curse

Cuid Pháidín den mheacan. short end of the stick Bíodh an diabhal agat! damnation Níos Gaelaí ná na Gaeil gone native


Leaganacha Cainte (gan íomhánna) 2 Most Irish –language sayings and expressions are unique to the language and cannot be translated literally.

In uair an ghátair in time of need nuair a thagann an crú ar an tairne when it comes to the test nuair a théann tú sa mbearna bhaoil heading towards danger Tá sé ina chíor thuathail Ta sé ina phraiseach / chiseach Ta sé ina chac.

topsy turvey / upside down in a mess it’s shite

ceann scríbe a bhaint amach an sprioc a aimsiú tá a chúrsa rite

to arrive at final destination to achieve the target it has run it’s course

uisce faoi thalamh caimiléireacht mí-ionracas / mímhacántacht

conspiracy crookedness dishonesty

cur i gcéill dallamullóg a chur ort an dubh a chur ina gheal

mislead / pretend pull the wool over your eyes to convince that black is white

Tá ag éirí thar barr/ thar cionn leis Tá sé faoi lán seoil Tá sé ar mhuin na muice.

He is getting on very well. well under way / in full swing He’s on the pig’s back.



Ainmfhocail & Aidiachtaí All nouns in Gaeilge are either masculine or feminine. There are no neutral nouns. The gender of nouns is important. There are some rules of thumb which can help you decide whether a noun is masculine or feminine, but it’s a good idea to learn a new noun along with its gender.


Gender of nouns is not always very logical – cailín (girl) is a masculine noun, stail (stallion) is feminine. In general, names of continents, countries, languages and rivers are mostly feminine. 1. Gaeilge has no indefinite article (a). Bord means ‘table’ or ‘a table’, while ‘cathaoir’ means ‘chair’ or ‘a chair’.

2. The definite article (the) has a singular and plural form an / na An bord na boird


the table the tables

an chathaoir - the chair na cathaoireacha - the chairs

3. Gaeilge doesn’t have a word for “it”: everything is either

é / í “he” or “she”

It’s (the weather) cold - Tá sí (an aimsir) fuar It’s (the day) cold . - Tá sé (an lá ) fuar. It’s a cat

- Is cat é

It’s a mouse – Is luch í.

4. The beginning of nouns can also change through either a séimhiú or an urú, depending on how the nouns are used. Definite Article The sound and spelling of a noun can change after an depending on the gender of the noun and whether it begins with a consonant / vowel or the letter s. Due to the changes that nouns can undergo in Gaeilge, it can be a little difficult to get used to at the beginning. This section aims to explain how nouns are used and what changes are needed, and this should help learners become more confident and comfortable using nouns in their everyday conversations.


An tAlt - alt roimh ghuta. The definite article before vowels. Nouns beginning with a vowel “t-” is added to masculine nouns ainm

(a) name

an t-ainm

the name



an t-aer

the air


(a) fool

an t-amadán

the fool


(a) wonder

an t-iontas

the wonder


(a) drind

an t-ól

the drink


(an) age

an aois

the age


(a) time

an uair

the time


(a) place

an áit

the place

an t-anraith

an ubh

an t-iasc

an abhainn

an t-anlann

an t-arán

an t-oileán

an t-uisce

an t-úll

an eochair

an aimsir

an t-éan

an t-eas

an obair

an t-urlár

an oíche

an t-asal

an oifig

an uimhir

an t-airgead


An tAlt - alt roimh chonsain. The definite article before consonants. Nouns beginning with a consonant Masculine nouns beginning with a consonant remain unchanged after an buachaill

a boy

an buachaill

the boy


a man

an fear

the man


a house

an teach

the house

A séimhiú (h) is added to feminine nouns after an (only if possible – no séimhiú if the first letter is n for example). Exceptions are nouns beginning with the letters d or t bean

a woman

an bhean

the woman


a morning

an mhaidin

the morning


a tooth

an fhiacail

the tooth


a year

an bhliain

the year


a stone

an chloch

the stone

Nouns beginning with the letters d or t remain unchanged tír

a country

an tír

the country


a prize

an duais

the prize

an bhróg

an chathaoir

an fharraige

an ghealach

an fheadóg

an ghaoth

an chistin

an bháisteach

an fhuinneog

an bhrionglóid

an duilleog

an duais

an tír

an trá

an pháirc


An tAlt - alt roimh S The definite article before S Masculine nouns beginning with the letter ‘s’ remain unchanged after an solas

a light

an solas

the light


a shop

an siopa

the shop

The letter t is placed before feminine nouns which beginning with: s+ vowel

sl+ vowel

sn+ vowel

sr+ vowel


an eye

an tsúil

the eye


a street

an tsráid

the street


a nose

an tsrón

the nose


a way

an tslí

the way


a ceiling

an tsíleáil

the ceiling


a shelf

an tseilf

the shelf



an tseafóid

the nonsence



an tsaoirse

the freedom


a jewel

an tseoid

the jewel

an tsubh

an scoil

an staighre

an seomra

an tsnáthaid

an tSín

an tSeapáin

an siopa

an tslí

an tsúil

an spéir

an stoirm

an sliabh

an solas

an sreangán


Urú roimh ainmfhocal An urú (eclipse in English) is when a letter related to the first letter of a word is put in front of the letter thus eclipsing the original sound and replacing it with a closely related sound. The table below shows how the relevant consonants may be eclipsed.

b > mb

ar an mbóthar , as an mbus , ón mbád

c > gc

leis an gcóta, faoin gcathaoir, chuig an gcathair

d > nd

seacht ndath, i ndáiríre,

f > bhf

tríd an bhfuinneog, ar an bhfoireann, thar an bhfarraige

g > ng

faoin ngrian, as an ngloine, i nGaillimh

p > bp

ar an bpointe, tríd an bpoll, chuig an bpictiúrlann

t > dt

ocht dteach, i dtimpiste, i dtrioblóid

Nouns beginning with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u,á,é,í,ó,ú) remain unchanged. An urú is placed on nouns beginning with a consonant (except d,t or s) following: ag an

at the

leis an

with the

ar an

on the


from the

as an

out of the

roimh an

before the

chuig an

to the

thar an

over the


under the

tríd an

through the

faoin ...

tríd an...

pluid - faoin bpluid

bearna - tríd an mbearna

fuinneog -faoin bhfuinneog

pluais - tríd an bpluais


Urú roimh ainmfhocal Ar an...

Leis an...

Ag an...

Capall - ar an gcapall

Fuacht - leis an bhfuacht

Páirc-spraoi - ag an bpáirc

Gruaig - ar an ngruaig

Faisean - leis an bhfaisean

Grian - ag an ngrian

ón ...

as an...

roimh an...

Clann - ón gclann

bosca - ..... as an mbosca

Cluiche - roimh an gcluiche

Gaeilge - .... ón nGaeilge

Coláiste - as an gColáiste

béile - roimh an mbeile

chuig an...

thar an...

Gealach - chuig an ngealach

Fiaclóir - chuig an bhfiaclóir

Balla - thar an mballa

Farraige - thar an bhfarraige


Aidiachtaí Sealbhacha - Possessive Adjectives Possessive adjectives are used with nouns to indicate possession Nouns following possessive adjectives often undergo change There are two types of changes 1.

Lenition – séimhiú (h)

2. Eclipse – urú

Nouns beginning with consonants. my

mo +h

bhád – chóta – dhinnéar – phíosa - theach


do + h

bhád – chóta – dhinnéar – phíosa - theach



bhád – chóta – dhinnéar – phíosa - theach



bád – cóta – dinnéar – píosa - teach


ár + urú

mbád – gcóta – ndinnéar – bpíosa - dteach


bhur + urú

mbád – gcóta – ndinnéar – bpíosa - dteach


a + urú

mbád – gcóta – ndinnéar – bpíosa - dteach

Nouns beginning with vowels. my

mo > m’

m’aois – m’ainm – m’oíche – m’uimhir


do > d’

d’aois – d’ainm – d’oíche – d’uimhir



aois – ainm – oíche – uimhir



haois – hainm – hoíche – huimhir


ár + urú

n-aois – n-ainm – n-oíche – n-uimhir


bhur + urú

n-aois – n-ainm – n-oíche – n-uimhir


a + urú

n-aois – n-ainm – n-oíche – n-uimhir

Certain phrases use the possessive adjective along with the preposition Codladh – dúiseacht – suí – seasamh – luí – cónaí Tá mé i mo


dhúiseacht – chónaí - sheasamh

Tá tú i do


dhúiseacht – chónaí - sheasamh

Tá sé ina


dhúiseacht – chónaí - sheasamh

Tá sí ina

dúiseacht – cónaí - seasamh

Tá muid inár

+ urú

ndúíseacht – gcónaí - seasamh

Tá sibh in bhur

+ urú

ndúíseacht – gcónaí - seasamh

Tá siad ina

+ urú

ndúíseacht – gcónaí - seasamh



Ag Comhaireamh Rudaí - Counting Objects Nouns that are being counted undergo change either by adding a seimhiú or an urú. The singular form of the noun is used in counting. Nouns beginning with a consonant: One is expressed as aon _______ amháin for example aon bhliain /cheann / dath / fhreagra amháin. A séimhiú is added to nouns following 2/3/4/5/6 An urú is added to nouns following 7/8/9/10

aon +h amháin

bhliain - cheist - dath - fhreagra - gheansaí - mhála -phictiúr - teach - seomra

dhá + h

bhliain - cheist - dhath - fhreagra - gheansaí - mhála -phictiúr - theach - sheomra

trí + h

bhliain - cheist - dhath - fhreagra - gheansaí - mhála -phictiúr - theach - sheomra

ceithre + h

bhliain - cheist - dhath - fhreagra - gheansaí - mhála -phictiúr - theach - sheomra

cúig + h

bhliain - cheist - dhath - fhreagra - gheansaí - mhála -phictiúr - theach - sheomra

sé + h

bhliain - cheist - dhath - fhreagra - gheansaí - mhála -phictiúr - theach - sheomra

seacht + urú

mbliain - gceist - ndath - bhfreagra - ngeansaí - mála -bpictiúr - dteach - seomra

ocht + urú

mbliain - gceist - ndath - bhfreagra - ngeansaí - mála -bpictiúr - dteach - seomra

naoi + urú

mbliain - gceist - ndath - bhfreagra - ngeansaí - mála -bpictiúr - dteach - seomra

deich + urú

mbliain - gceist - ndath - bhfreagra - ngeansaí - mála -bpictiúr - dteach - seomra

Nouns beginning with a vowel: nouns following 2/3/4/5/6 are unchanged An urú (n-) is placed before nouns following 7/8/9/10

aon ___ amháin ainm - éan - iasc - óstán - uimhir dhá

ainm - éan - iasc - óstán - uimhir


ainm - éan - iasc - óstán - uimhir


ainm - éan - iasc - óstán - uimhir


ainm - éan - iasc - óstán - uimhir

ainm - éan - iasc - óstán - uimhir

seacht + n

n-ainm - n-éan - n-iasc - n-óstán - n-uimhir

ocht + n

n-ainm - n-éan - n-iasc - n-óstán - n-uimhir

naoi + n

n-ainm - n-éan - n-iasc - n-óstán - n-uimhir

deich + n

n-ainm - n-éan - n-iasc - n-óstán - n-uimhir


An tuiseal ginideach - genitive case This is another prominent feature of Gaeilge which does not exist in many other languages. It relates to nouns and how they change in certain cases. The tuiseal ginideach is not optional when speaking Gaeilge as it must be used when required. There are many rules that govern An Tuiseal Ginideach which we need not go into at this stage. Some rules of thumb are:

Masculine nouns

Feminine nouns

preceded by ‘an’

‘an’ changes to ‘na’

a séimhiu is added to nouns beginning with a consonant

no séimhiú for nouns beginning with consonant

nouns beginning with a vowel remain unchanged

nouns beginning with vowel preceded by ‘h’

‘t’’ is added to nouns beginning with a ‘s’

nouns beginning with ‘s’ remain unchanged

noun ending may change

noun ending may change

Nouns following the prepositions chun, cois, timpeall, lár, bun, barr, tús, deireadh, and trasna are also placed in the genitive:

chun to

na Fraince

na páirce

an Fhrainc

an pháirc

na cistine


an ghairdín

an chistin


an gairdín

na leabharlainne

na coille

an leabharlann

an choill

na farraige

na míosa

an fharraige

an mhí

bun / barr

an tsléibhe

tús / deireadh

an scéil

top / bottom

an sliabh

start / finish

an scéal

an foirgneamh

an tsamhraidh

an fhoirgnimh

an samhradh


An tuiseal ginideach (genitive case) Nouns following compound prepositions (a simple preposition and a noun) are placed in the genitive case.

an tí

na bliana

an teach

an bhliain

ar aghaidh

an choláiste

ar feadh

an lae


an coláiste


an lá

na scoile

na seachtaine

an scoil

an tseachtain

na foirne

na báistí

an fhoireann

an bháisteach

i gcoinne

an bhalla

tar éis

an ranga


an balla


an rang

an chogaidh

na hoibre

an cogadh

an obair

na tine

na trá

an tine

an trá

os cionn

an dorais

in aice

an chrainn


an doras


an crann

na leapa

na cathrach

an leaba

an chathair

na tíre

na hócáide

an tír

an ócáid

ar fud

an tseomra

le haghaidh

an chraic

all over

an seomra


an craic

na háite

an dinnéir

an áit

an dinnéar


An tuiseal ginideach (genitive case) Expressing quantity

go leor / beagán a lot of / a little of

rúinín / píoisín a little piece of

go leor, beagán, mórán, roinnt, tuilleadh, dóthain, neart etc ama


an t-am

an t-im


tuilleadh / dóthain

an t-airgead

more / enough

aráin an t-arán




an subh



an cháis

an chiall


an iomarca / easpa

an fheoil

to much / to little

codlata an codladh



an tseacláid

an chaint

Nouns following the verbal noun:

ag treasnú crossing

na habhann

na cistine

an abhainn

an chistin

an bhóthair

ag scuabadh

an tseomra

an bóthar


an seomra

na sráide

an urláir

an tsráid

an t-urlár

na feadóige

na fuinneoige

an fheadóg

an fhuinneog

ag séideadh

na tine


an tine

ag oscailt /dúnadh opening / closing

an dorais an doras

na póige

na scoile

an phóg

an scoil


An tuiseal ginideach (genitive case) To indicate possession Hata

an fhir


an fear


na mná


an bhean


an chailín


na máthar

Cathaoir an mhúinteora



an dochtúra

na sráide an tsráid


an múinteoir

an buachaill

na hoifige an oifig

an mháthair

an cailín

Seaicéad an bhuachalla

an athar an t-athair

an tí an teach


an dochtúír

na scoile an scoil

When two nouns come together in a sentence the second noun is usually presented in the genitive case. Teach

an asail


an t-asal


na cathrach

na trá



na Gaeilge

na Nollag


an tsíocháin

na Samhna

na móna an mhóin

Cathaoir rotha


an Uachtaráin an tUachtarán

an Ghaeilge

an trá



an Ghaeltacht

an chathair


na Gaeltachta

an roth



éalaithe an t-éalú

When two nouns come together in a sentence the second noun is usually presented in the genitive case. Cluain



an mhil



Abhainn na Sionainne

an t-eas



na Gaillimhe Gaillimh

Cill Chainnigh Cainneach


an tSionainn




Luimnigh Luimneach

na Bóine


an Bhóin


Átha Cliath Áth Cliath


na hÉireann Éire

Mhara an mhuir


Fheirdia Feirdia

Aidiachtaí - Adjectives Nouns with adjectives Adjectives usually follow the noun in Gaeilge Adjectives following masculine nouns remain unchanged A séimhiú is added to adjectives following feminine nouns

Masculine noun + adjective

Feminine noun + adjective

an fear cliste

the clever man

an bhean chliste

the clever woman

an doras mór

the big door

an fhuinneog mhór

the big window

an cóta dearg

the red coat

an bhróg dhearg

the red shoe

an t-athair maith

the good father

an mháthair mhaith the good mother

“Níos” and “Is” are used to compare two nouns

Somtimes a different form of the djective is used after níos and is








níos láidre

is láidre


níos mó

is mó


níos sciobtha is sciobtha


níos lú

is lú


níos airde

is airde


níos teo

is teo


níos fuaire

is fuaire


níos fearr

is fearr


níos daoire

is daoire


níos measa

is measa

There are two constructions to express the comparative. Tá Seán níos airde ná Pádraic

Is airde Seán ná Pádraic

Tá tusa níos sine ná mise

Is sine tusa ná mise

Tá Meiriceá níos mó ná Sasana

Is mó Meiriceá ná Sasana

Tá traein níos sciobtha ná bus

Is sciobtha traein ná bus.


Samhail The construction “chomh ...... le ......” is used to express “as ..... as a .......” Chomh salach le cró muice

As dirty as a pigsty

Chomh glan le huisce

As clean as water

Chomh mór le teach

As big as a house

Chomh beag le fríd

As small as a mite

Chomh sciobtha leis an ngaoth Mhárta As fast as the March winds Chomh mall le seilmide

As slow as a snail

Chomh te le tine

As hot as fire

Chomh fuar le sioc

As cold as frost

Chomh sabhair le Rí

As rich as a king

Chomh bocht le bacach sráide

As poor as a street beggar

These opposite pairs of adjectives ard / íseal, mór / beag, trom / éadrom, te / fuar, glan / salach, láidir / lag, sciobtha / mall, óg / sean, sabhair / bocht are presented online using the following format.

Cé chomh hard is atá sé?

Tá sé chomh hard leis an mballa

How tall is he / it?

He / it is as tall as the wall

Tá sioráf níos airde ná asal A giraffe is taller than a donkey

Cé acu is airde, sioráf nó asal? Which is taller, a giraffe or a donkey?

Is airde an sioráf The giraffe is tallest


Treisiú Aidiachtaí - Emphasising adjectives Sách enough

an very

ró too

sách casta complicated enough sách díreach straight enough sách íseal low enough sách trom heavy enough

an-chasta very complicated an-díreach very straight an-íseal very low an-trom very heavy

róchasta too complicated ródhíreach too straight ró-íseal too low róthrom too heavy.


sách mór



mór míllteach


sách beag



beag bídeach


sách maith





sách te



te teolaí


sách fuar



Préachta fuar


sách éasca



Éasca péasca


sách sciobtha





sách mall





sách gearr



gearr gonta


sách fliuch



fliuch báite


sách tuirseach





sách bocht



beo bocht


sách dáiríre



dáiríre píre


sách láidir





sách lag







Leathn煤 Focl贸ra Learning vocabulary is a very important part of learning a language. The more words you know, the more you will be able to understand what you hear and read; and the better you will be able to say what you want to when speaking or writing.


Most learners find that they memorise words better if they do something with them. Learning vocabulary is a very important part of learning a language. The more words you know, the more you will be able to understand what you hear and read; and the better you will be able to say what you want to when speaking or writing. Learning Gaeilge means learning lots of new words. You’ll probably need at least 1,500 to 2,000 words to start feeling comfortable. Most learners find that they memorise words better if they do something with them, if they use them in a real and practical way, rather than simply learning a list of vocab. In this section each themed word group has an accompanying series of tasks to help place the new words into your active vocabulary. Research shows that it takes from 10 to 20 repetitions to really make a word part of your vocabulary.


Gaolta - Family Tree Bríd Uí Bhriain

Seán Ó Briain

Aodhán Ó Briain

Pól Ó Briain

Siobhán Uí Bhriain

Tomás Ó Briain

Pól Ó Briain

Aoife Ní Bhriain

daideo mamó garmhac gariníon

athair máthair mac iníon

Niamh Ní Bhriain

Orflaith Uí Cheallaigh

Pádraic Ó Ceallaigh

Áine Ní Cheallaigh

Seosamh Ó Ceallaigh

deaide mama deartháir deirfiúr

Uncail Aintín nia neacht

fear céile bean chéile cliamhain banchliamhain

Is é (‘sé) Seán athair Aodháin agus is é (‘sé) Aodhán mac Sheáin Is í (‘sí) Bríd máthair Shiobháin agus is í (‘sí) Siobhán iníon Bhríd. Is í (‘sí) Orflaith bean chéile Phádraic agus is é (‘sé) Pádraic fear céile Orflaith. Is í (‘sí) Niamh aintín Sheosaimh agus is e(‘se) Seosamh nia Niamh. Is é (‘sé) Pól deartháir Niamh agus is í (‘sí) Niamh deirfiúr Phóil Is é (‘sé) Seán daideo Thomáis agus is é (‘sé) Tomás garmhac Sheáin Is í (‘sí) Bríd mamó Áine agus is í (‘sí) Áine gariníon Bhríd. Is é (‘sé) Aodhán uncail Áine agus is í (‘sí) Áine neacht Aodháin


Stór Focal – Naming things There are 14 groups of themed word collections with each group having its own set of tasks & exercises. Topics cover food types, the weather, colours, animals, occupations, countries, clothes etc.. This sample collection deals with the parts of the face.

Baithis an bhaithis

Súil an tsúil

Mala an mhala

Cluas an chluas

Fabhra an fabhra

Leiceann an leiceann

Srón an tsrón

Muineál an muineál

Beola na beola

Smig an smig

Fiacla an fhiacail

Gruaig dhíreach an ghruaig

Gruaig chatach an ghruaig

teanga an teanga


Cloigeann maol an cloigeann

féasóg an fhéasóg

Stór Focal – Naming things AbairLeat! recomends learning new words as they are used in context as part of sentences. These sentences are presented in ÉIst & Taifead type exercises and can be practiced and recorded. Your reward for making the effort will be a native-like pronunciation.

Éisteann muid agus cloiseann muid leis na cluasa. Tá an bhaithis idir na malaí agus an ghruaig. Is é an smig an pointe is ísle den éadan. Tá an ceann suite ar an muineál. Faightear boladh leis an tsrón. Is iad na beola doras an bhéil. Labhraíonn duine lena theanga. Is leis na fiacla a chognaíonn muid bia. Feiceann muid lenár súile. Tá mala os cionn chaon súil ag duine. Fásann na fabhraí ar mhogall/chaipín na súl. Is ionann féachaint faoi na fabhraí ar dhuine agus féachaint i ngan fhios orthu. Tá dhá leiceann ar an éadan, ceann chaon taobh, idir an tsrón agus na cluasa. Gruaig chatach, níl sí díreach! Gruaig dhíreach, níl sí catach, fásann sí síos díreach! Cloigeann maol, níl ribe gruaige air! Bíonn/Fásann féasóg fhada bhán ar Dhaidí na Nollag.


Comhaireamh Bunuimhreacha - Úsáidtear na bunuimhreacha nuair nach dtagann ainmfhocail ina ndiaidh

a haon

a ceathair

a seacht

a deich

a dó

a cúig

a hocht

a haon déag

a trí

a sé

a naoi

a dó dhéag

Ag comhaireamh rudaí – ceann, péire etc...


ceithre cinn

seacht gcinn

deich gcinn


cúig cinn

ocht gcinn

aon cheann déag

trí cinn

sé cinn

naoi gcinn

dhá cheann déag

Uimhreacha pearsanta - chun daoine (beirt pháistí , triú cailíní, cúigear buachaillí) agus slite beatha (beirt mhúinteoirí, triúr gardaí, cúigear imreoirí etc..) a chomhaireamh duine







aon duine dhéag





Na hOrduimhreacha - Úsáidtear na horduimhreacha chun 1st 2nd 3rd 4th etc a léiriú. An chéad cheann

An ceathrú ceann

An seachtú ceann

An deichiú ceann

An dara ceann

An cúigiú ceann

An t-ochtú ceann

An t-aonú ceann déag

An triú ceann

An séú ceann

An naoú ceann

An dara ceann déag


Cén t-am anois é? am lóin

am sosa

am dinnéir

am codlata

chun a .... (an uair)

Tá sé ceathrú chun a dó

tar éis (théis*) .... (an uair)

Tá sé deich tar éis (théis*) a hocht

Tá sé fiche cúíg chun a sé

ag tarraingt ar a ... / beagnach a .....

Tá sé cúig tar éis (théis*) a haon déag

baiithe (bailí*) ... / díreach bailí* a ....

Tá sé ag tarraingt ar (beagnach) ceathrú tar éis (théis*) a naoi.

Tá sé ag tarraingt ar (beagnach) deich chun a cúig.

am imeachta

Tá sé díreach bailithe (bailí*) fiche cúig chun a ceathair.

Tá sé díreach bailithe (bailí*) deich tar éis (théis*) a seacht.





Arú anuraidh

Arú inné

Arú aréir


Arú amárach

Anocht oíche dár gcionn An Iarnóin Croílár na hoíche





Breacadh an Lae




An Mhaidin




An Nóin

10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00


Meán Oíche An Tráthnóna

14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00


An Oíche

18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00

22:00 23:00 0:00

Ag Gluaiseacht - going to / coming from Going translates as ag dul. In Conamara the verb “gabh” is used instead of the verb “téigh” and is pronounced as “a ghoil’” (ag gabháil) Coming translates as ag teacht When a person or object is stationary its location is described as – thuas / thíos / thall / thoir / thiar etc.. As the main road in Cois Fharraige runs east-west, the most common travelling description is a ghoil’ (ag dul) siar / soir - ag teacht aniar / anoir.

Ag Gluaiseacht ag dul (a ghoil’)* suas


ag teacht anuas

ag dul (a ghoil’)* síos


ag teacht aníos

ag dul (a ghoil’)* amach


ag teacht isteach

ag dul (a ghoil’)* sall


ag teacht anall

ag dul (a ghoil’)* soir


ag teacht anoir

ag dul (a ghoil’)* siar


ag teacht aniar

ag dul (a ghoil’)* ó thuaidh

ó thuaidh

ag teacht aduaidh

ag dul (a ghoil’)* ó dheas

ó dheas

ag teacht aneas

ag dul (a ghoil’)* ann


ag teacht as

ag dul (a ghoil’)* go Gaillimh

i nGaillimh

ag teacht as Gaillimh

Ag tabhairt treoracha Cas ar dheis

Cas ar chlé

Cas thart

Gabh (téigh) ar aghaidh díreach

Cas ar an solas

Cas dhó an solas

Gabh (téigh) siar / soir

Tar aniar / anoir

Gabh (téigh) ó thuaidh / ó dheas

Tar aduaidh / aneas

Gabh (téigh) suas / síos

Tar anuas / aníos

Gabh (téigh) amach / isteach

Tar isteach / amach

Gabh (téigh) sall / anonn

Tar anall

* Spoken Gaeilge in Conamara differs in some instances from the standard form. Abair leat highlights the most frequently used discrepancies.


Ag Gluaseacht - going to / coming from Gabh (téigh) suas – Gabh (téigh) síos


Tar anuas - Tar aníos

Is tusa Bróna

Is tusa Seán

Cá bhfuil (cá ‘il)* tú?

Cá bhfuil (cá ‘il)* tú?

Cá bhfuil (cá ‘il)* Seán?

Cá bhfuil (cá ‘il)* Seán?

Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá) á dhéanamh ag Reics ?

Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá) á dhéanamh ag Reics ?

Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá) á dhéanamh ag Tibi ?

Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá) á dhéanamh ag Tibi ?

Gabh (téigh) isteach – Gabh (téigh) amach


Tar isteach - Tar amach

Is tusa Bróna

Is tusa Seán

Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá) á dhéanamh agat (a’d) ? Cá bhfuil (cá ‘il)* Seán?

Cá bhfuil (cá ‘il)* tú? Cá bhfuil (cá ‘il)* Reics? Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá) á dhéanamh ag Bróna ?

Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá) á dhéanamh ag Tibi ?

Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá) á dhéanamh ag Tibi ?

Cá bhfuil (cá ‘il)* Reics?

Gabh (téigh) suas – Gabh (téigh) síos


Tar anuas - Tar aníos

Is tusa Bróna

Is tusa Seán

Cá bhfuil (cá ‘il)* tú?

Cá bhfuil (cá ‘il)* tú?

Cá bhfuil (cá ‘il)* Seán?

Cá bhfuil (cá ‘il)* Seán?

Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá) ar bun ag an mbus?

Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá) ar bun ag an mbus?

Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá) ar bun ag an rothaí?

Céard atá (céar’ ‘tá) ar bun ag an rothaí?


Cén chaoi a n-airíonn tú? How do you feel? Describing how you are feeling or what is the matter if you are feeling unwell is a must. This lesson will help you convey your health issues as Gaeilge. Ag aireachtáil tinn

– Feeling unwell

Cén chaoi a bhfuil tú ag aireachtáil?

How are you feeling?

Cén chaoi a n-airíonn tú?

How do you feel?

Céard atá ag cur as d(h)uit?

What’s bothering you?

Airím tinn.

I feel sick.

Níl mé ag aireachtáil go maith.

I’m not feeling well.

Níl mé ar fónamh.

I’m not in a healthy state.

Cuireadh ga ionam.

I have been stung.

Tá fonn múisceadh orm.

I feel like throwing up.

Tá pian i mo bholg.

I have a pain in my stomach.

Ta tinneas cinn orm.

I have a headache.

Tá slaghdán orm.

I have a cold.

Tá scornach thinn orm.

I have a sore throat.

Tá tinneas droma orm.

I have back pain.

Tá tinneas fiacaile orm.

I have a toothache.

Níl aon ghoile agam.

I have lost my appetite.

Fuair mé dó gréine.

I was sunburnt.

Tá mé gortaithe.

I am injured.

Níl mé in ann análú.

I cannot breath.

Tá rud éicint faoi mo shúil.

I have something in my eye.

Airím lag.

I feel weak.

Bhí fuil shróine orm.

I had a nosebleed.


Fuaimeanna a dhéanann daoine - Human sounds This lesson describes 32 everyday sounds that are made by people. The meanings for the sound discriptions are explained using audio files instead of relying on an English translation. The sound discriptions are further reinforced by associated images.

Ag sú

ag feadaíl

ag cogaint

ag seideadh

Ag méanach

ag sraothfairt

ag srannadh

ag líochán

Ag brúchtáil

ag cogarnáil

ag bromanaí

ag caoineadh

Ag gáire

ag béiceach

ag sciotaíl

ag tochas

Tá fail air.

ag screadach

ag casacht


Ag pógadh

ag osnáil

ag sioscadh

ag dúil

Ag sliogadh

ag fual

ag plaiceadh

ag cnagadh

Ag múisceadh


ag análú

ag bualadh bos

Sounds that convey what people are thinking. Bhí sé sin gar!


Ní cheapaim morán de!

Pooh / pah

Faoi dheireadh!


Tá mé fós ag éisteacht


Nach álainn é!

Ooh! Aah!

Nach mór an crá é!


Gortaíonn sé!


An-iarracht – is beag nach bhfuair se cúl Oooj! Bhí sé sin dian!


Tá sé sin scannalach.

Tch! Tch!

I ndáiríre?


Céard sa diabhail atá á dhéanamh agat?


Tuigim anois



Cé chomh minic? go minic go hiondúil i gcónaí - an t-am ar fad

often usually always

feasta ón lá seo amach uair sa gcéad

from now on from this day on once in a blue moon

forever go deo - go síoraí go deo arís never again go deo na ndeor for ever and ever occasionally ó am go ham - uaireanta de ghnáth usually go rialta regularly formhór an ama anois is arís go hannamh

most of the time now and then seldom

riamh ever / never riamh arís ever / never again riamh cheana ever / never before

Cén uair a tharlóidh sé?

sul i bhfad / go luath / gan mhoill i gceann uaire / seachtaine go ceann uaire / seachtaine riamh / go deo / choíche


before long / shortly / without delay in a weeks / hours time for a week / hour never



ForAINMNEACHA rÉAMHFHOCLACHA A major difference between certain Celtic languages such as Gaeilge and other languages is that simple prepositions are combined with pronouns (I, you, he ....) to form prepositional pronouns in Celtic languages.


As prepositional pronouns don’t have an English equivalent they need to be given careful consideration so as not to become problematic. A major difference between certain Celtic languages such as Gaeilge and other languages is that simple prepositions are combined with pronouns (I, you, he ....) to form prepositional pronouns in Celtic languages. Ag + mé > agam Do + mé > dom Ar + mé > orm Le + mé > liom Because they don’t have an English equivalent they need to be given careful consideration so as not to become problematic. They are an essential component of everyday conversation and well represented in sayings and phrases. To express emotion: Tá áthas orm / I am happy - There is happiness on me Tá ocras air / He is hungry - There is hunger on him To express possession: Tá ceann agam / I have one - There is one at me Tá cóta aige - He has a coat - There is a coat at him On successfully completing this section using prepositional pronouns as Gaeilge will become second nature to you. That’s a guarantee.


Pearsana Mise/mé (me*)/mo Is mé / mise - Ní mé / mise Tá mé (me*) / mise --- Níl mé (me*) / mise Mo +h - mo chóta, mo sheans, mo pheann, mo bhróg Agamsa (a’amsa*), liomsa, domsa (dhomsa*), ormsa.

Tusa / tú / do Is tú / tusa ... - Ní tú / tusa ... Tá tú / tusa ... - Níl tú / tusa ... Do +h - do chóta, do sheans, do pheann, do bhróg Agatsa (a’dsa*), leatsa, duitse (dhuitse*), ortsa.

Eisean / é / a Is é / (‘sé*) - Ní hé Tá sé (se*)/ seisean --- Níl sé (se*) / seisean A +h - a chóta, a sheans, a pheann, a bhróg Aigesean, leisean, dósan (dhósan*), airsean.

Ise / í / a Is í / (‘sí*) ... - Ní hí Tá sí / ise ... - Níl sí / ise ... A gan h - a cóta, a seans, a peann, a bróg Aicise, léise, dise , uirthise.

Muidne (muide*) / muid/ ár Is muidne (muide*) / - Ní muidne (muide*) Tá muidne (muide*)- Níl muidne (muide*) ár + urú - ár gcótaí, ár seans, ár bpeann, ár mbróga Againne (a’ainne*), linne, dúinne (dhúinne) , orainne.

Sibhse / sibh / bhur Is sibh / sibhse ... - Ní sibh / sibhse ... Tá sibh / sibhse ... - Níl sibh / sibhse ... bhur + urú - bhur gcótaí, bhur seans, bhur bpeann, bhur mbróga Agaibhse, libhse, daoibhse (dhaoibhse*) , oraibhse.

Iadsan / iad / a Is iad / iadsan ... - Ní hiad / hiadsan Tá siad / siadsan ... - Níl siad / siadsan ... A + urú - á gcótaí, á seans, á bpeann, r mbróga Acusan, leosan, dóibhsean (dhóibhsean*), orthusan.

* Spoken Gaeilge in Conamara differs in some instances from the standard form. Abair leat highlights the most frequently used discrepancies.


Ag Ag is combined with personal pronouns in the following manner. The forms in brackets are used to add emphasis, in the same way as the tone of the voice is changed in English. ag + mé

a’am(sa)* / agam(sa)

ag + muid

a’ainn(e)* / againn(e)

ag + tú

a’d(sa) * / agat(sa)

le + sibh


ag + sé


le + siad


ag + sí


Cé aige a bhfuil an freagra? agam (a’am*) agamsa (a’amsa*)

agat (a’ad*) agamsa (a’adsa*)

* Spoken Gaeilge in Conamara differs in some instances from the standard form. Abair leat highlights the most frequently used discrepancies.

aige aigesean

An bhfuil snámh


An bhfuil dóthain airgid fágtha Is


is fearr atá fios.

An bhfuil aithne

aici aicise

ar Thomás?

An bhfuil eolas

ar Ghaillimh?

An bhfuil an freagra ar eolas Níl mórán céille



Tá an tsláinte go maith

againn (a’ainn*) againne (a’ainne*)


Tá Fraincis agus Gearmáinis ar a thoil Fág


an leabhar.

Feicfidh mé ar ball sibh, tá gnó D’fhág sé slán Tá buntáiste

sular imigh sé.

agaibh agaibhse

orainn, tá siad níós airde ná muid.

Bíodh an fheamainn Tá cruinniú


, níl ionat ach amadán. acu acusan

leis an bpríomhoide.

Caithfidh siad málaí a bheith



Ag Aithne ar dhaoine to know / recognise people (not things/places) Fios ar rudaí to know things (not people or places) Eolas ar áiteanna to have knowledge of places (not people / things) An bhfuil aithne agat air? An bhfuil eolas agat ar Ghaillimh? An bhfuil a fhios agat an freagra?

Do you know him? Do you know Gaillimh? Do you know the answer?

An bhfuil snámh agat? An bhfuil do dhóthain agat? An bhfuil Fraincis agat?

Can you swim? Have you enough? Do you speak French?

Fág agamsa é. Is agat is fearr atá fios. Sin agat anois é.

Leave it to me. You know best. That’s it now.

Bhí agat é a dhéanamh. Tuilleadh an diabhail agat! Tá tú agam anois.

You should do it. Good enough for you I have / understand you now.

Tá súil agam. Tá an ceart agam. An baile sin againne!

I hope. I’m right. Our own village.

Bíodh ciall agat. Biodh an diabhal agat! Bíodh misneach agat.

Have sense Go to hell Be confident


Le Le is combined with personal pronouns in the following manner. The forms in brackets are used to add emphasis, in the same way as the tone of the voice is changed in English.

le + mé


le + muid


le + tú


le + sibh


le + sé


le + siad


le + sí


An cara


An bhfuil tú ag siúl amach Ní cuimhin An

leat leatsa

leis leisean


atá tú ag caint? an cluiche a bhuachaint?

Ar mhaith

dul chuig an trá?

Tá deartháir

ag teacht ar chuairt.

Dia go deo

, tá obair mhaith déanta.

Cuirfidh mé geall

go mbeidh an bua agam.

an car dearg.


An cuimhin

léi léise

linn linne

na ceisteanna go léir a fhreagairt.

Labhair an múinteoir go crosta

. libh libhse

céard a thárla?

Cé acu is fearr


Cé a dúirt nach féidir An miste

liom liomsa

an uimhir theileafóin.

Ar éirigh


Cé leis an cóta/na cótaí?

é a dhéanamh?

cabhrú liom? leo leosan


Le An dtaitníonn sé leat? An ritheann sé leat? An réitíonn sé leat.

Do you like / enjoy it? Does it occour to you Does it occour to you

Is cuma liom = ní miste liom Is miste liom = ní cuma liom Is fada liom.

I don’t care - mind I care - mind I cannot wait.

Rith sé liom. Réitím go maith leis. Taitníonn sé liom.

it occurred to me we get on well. I like / enjoy it

Dia go deo leat! Ar aghaidh leat! Bailigh leat!

Well done! off you go get lost

Tá ciall leis. Tá mé ag tnúth leis. Tá mé tógtha leis.

It makes sense I’m looking forward to. I’m impressed by it.

Tá mé ar aon intinn leat. Tagaim leat. Glacaim leis.

I’m of the same opinion as you I agree with you. I accept it.

An féidir leat? An fearr leat? An cuimhin leat?

Can you? Do you prefer? Do you remember?


do Do is combined with personal pronouns in the following manner. The forms in brackets are used to add emphasis, in the same way as the tone of the voice is changed in English.

do + mé

dhomsa(sa)* / dom(sa)

Ag + muid

Dhúinn(e) / dúinn(e)

do + tú

dhuitse(se) * / duitse(sa)

le + sibh

dhaoibhse(se) / daoibh(se)

do + sé

dhó(ean)* / dósan

le + siad

do + sí


dhóibh(sean) / dóibh(sean)

* Spoken Gaeilge in Conamara differs in some instances from the standard form. Abair leat highlights the most frequently used discrepancies.

Ar thug sí

. .


an ceann seo.

Tugann múinteoirí comhairle mhaith Is cóir

Is fiú


do dhícheall a dhéanamh.

Lá breithe sona

Is méanar

dúinn (dhúinn*) dúinne (dhúinne*)

na cártaí agus beartáin uilig?

Thug bean an tí aire mhaith

Is eol

dó (dhó*) dósan (dhósan*)

na litreacha seo.

Caithfear aire a thabhairt


duit (dhuit*) duitse (dhuitse*)

di dise


Cheannaigh me bronntanas


dom (dhom*) domsa (dhomsa*)

an leabhar?

Tugadh bualadh bos mór Is

Cé dó (dhó*) an litir?

daoibh (dhaoibh*) daoibhse (dhaoibhse*)

. an scéal. é.

dóibh (dhóibh*) dóibhsean (dhóibhsean*)

é a dhéanamh.

Ba chóir

é a rá.




do Cheannaigh sé dúinn (dhúinn*)é. He bought it for us Chan sí daoibh (dhaoibh*) é. She sang it for you Réitigh sé dóibh (dhóibh*) é. He prepared it for them

Lig sé dom (dhom*). Gheall sé dom (dhom*). Chuaigh sé go maith dom (dhom*).

He allowed me - let me be He promised me It went well for me

Nach cuma duit (dhuit*)! Ba chóir duit (dhuit*). B’fhearr duit (dhuit*).

It’s none of your business. You should. It’s advisable that you.

Is fíor duit (dhuit*). Is méanar duit (dhuit*). Is fiú duit (dhuit*)é.

True for you. It’s well for you It’s worth your while.

B’éigean dom. (dhom*) Feictear dom (dhom*) Go bhfios dom (dhom*).

I had to. It seems to me ... As far as I know

Maith dom (dhom*)é. Tabhair dom (dhom*)é Inis dom (dhom*) é.

Forgive me Give it to me. Tell it to me.

Tá sé ag dul duit (dhuit*). Déanfaidh mé gar duit (dhuit*). Is duitse é (dhuit*).

You deserve it. I will do you a favour Its for you.


Ar Ar is combined with personal pronouns in the following manner. The forms in brackets are used to add emphasis, in the same way as the tone of the voice is changed in English.

ar+ mé


ar + muid


ar + tú


ar + sibh


ar + sé


ar + siad


ar + sí


Cuir Ar theip

do chóta báistí.


An bhfuil fonn

dul chuig an trá?

An bhfuil áthas




Bhí An raibh tuirse Bhí díocas An mbíonn faitíos

orainn orainne

trí mhíle a shiúl gach lá. , tá sibh ag déanamh thar cionn.

An raibh díomá Bail ó Dhia

uirthi uirthise

a bhí an t-ádh!

Cén praghas atá Bíonn

ort ortsa


Tá slaghdán


orm ormsa

air airsean

sa scrúdú?

An nglaofaidh tú

Cé air a bhfuil an lucht?

leis an scéal? ! éirí ar a seacht ar maidin.

oraibh oraibhse

tar éis an turais? i leith na hoibre. sa dorchadas?


orthu orthusan

Ar Tá an locht ort. Tá an t-ádh ort. Tá an cháil ort.

You pretend You’re lucky You have a (the) reputation

Lig ort féin Tá ort (é a dhéanamh). Coinnigh / Lean ort.

You pretend You have to do it. Keep it up

Bhí dul amú orm. Theip orm. Glaoigh orm.

I was mistaken I failed call me

Droch-rath ort. Cac an diabhail ort. Scread asail ort.

May you have bad luck. Bad luck to you! Bad luck to you!

Tá orainn.. Go bhfóire Dia orainn! Tá slaghdán orm.

We have to .... God help us! I have a cold.

Ar fheabhas! Ar iasacht Ar iarraidh

Ar m’anam Ar aon nós Ar buile

excellent on loan missing

upon my soul anyway very angry



Ta díomá air.

Tá drogall air.

Tá ocras orthu.

Tá sé dubh dóite ag an díomá.

Níl sé leis.

Tá siad stiúgtha.

Tá tart air.

Tá tuirse uirthi.

Tá fearg orthu.

Tá sé spalptha leis an tart.

Tá sí traochta.

Tá siad gal.

Tá faitíos air.

Tá áthas air.

Tá imní air.

Tá sé ag crith le heagla.

Ta ríméad an domhain air.

Tá sé ciaptha leis an imní.






Tá amhras air.

Tá buairt uirthi.

Tá ionadh an domhain uirthi.

Ní sé cinnte faoi.

Tá sí thíos inti féin.

Tá déistin uirthi.

Tá éad air.

Tá aiféala air.

Ní thaitníonn sé ar chor ar bith léi.

Tá sé éadmhar.

Tá brón air faoina rinne sé.

Tá uaigneas air.

Tá sceitimíní air.

Tá sé as fhéin.

Tá sé ar bís.

Tá díocas air. Fág an bealach.

Tá ionadh uirthi.



DiabhailĂ­nĂ­ The intention here is to use playful situations to introduce informal dialogue. While the characters are 13-14 years of age it is hoped that the dialogue and associated tasks are relevant to learners of all age groups.


Is cleasaí é Murach. Tá sé cliste agus seiftiúil ach ní théann gach iarracht de réir pleain. Ní bhíonn an saol riamh leamh agus Murach timpeall.

Murach atá ormsa. Is maith liom nuair a théann rudaí de réir pleain. Tá bealach éasca agus bealach deacair ann chun gach rud a dhéanamh. B’fhearr liomsa an bealach éasca a roghnú i gcónaí.

Máirín meabhrach a thugann a cairde uirthi. Tá sí anstaidéarach agus ní dhéanann sí rudaí seafóideacha rómhinic. Bíonn sí fial flaithiúil

Is mise Máirín. Deir mo chairde go gcaithim i bhad an iomarca ama ag léamh ach is breá liom léitheoireacht. Tá an-spéis agam i gcúrsaí eolaíochta ach go háirithe. Ba bhreá liom a bheith i m’eolaí lá éicint.

Is imreoir sciliúil deaslámhach é Rónán. Is breá leis comórtas d’aon chineál agus déanann sé tréan iomaíocht. Bíonn sé ag iarraidh a bheith sa chéad áit i gcónaí.

Rónán atá ormsa ach tugann chuile dhuine Rónánaldo orm. Tá súil a’am a bheith i m’imreoir mór le rá lá éicint. Bíonn orm go leor cleachtaidh agus treanáil a dhéanamh.


Bíonn Gearaí i gcónaí ag gaisce agus ag áibhéal ar chomh hiontach is atá sé fhéin. Tá sé an-tógtha leis fhéin. Ta sé in ann a bheith sách pianmhar nuair a leanann sé ar aghaidh ag maíomh as fhéin.

Is mise Gearaí. Tá go leor talann agam. Is aisteoir agus ceoltóir den scoth mé. Tá mé an-chruthaitheach. Scríobhaim mo chuid amhrán féin agus tá siad iontach ar fad.

Bíonn Babarí i gcónaí ag pleidhcíocht. Ní thógann sí aon rud i ndáiríre. Is cailín misniúil ábalta í ach is breá léi rudaí dána a dhéanamh.

Babaró a thugann mo chairde orm. Sílimse go dtógann daoine an saol seo i bhfad ródháiríre. Cá bhfuil an chraic a bheith ag leanacht rialacha an t-am ar fad. Is le briseadh atá rialacha ann, sin a deirimse.

Is buachaillín místuama liobarnach é Criostóir. Bíonn sé míchuaramach, ciotach go minic agus tarlaíonn go leor timpistí dá bharr. Is duine neamh ghoilliúnach é agus is beag a chuireann as dó.

Is mise Criostóir, is brea liom a bheith ag tabhairt cúnamh. Tárlaíonn timpistí beaga scaití agus cuirtear an milleán ormsa ar chúis éicint.

Is nerd IT é PC. Tá sé an-tógtha leis an saol digiteach. Ceapann a chairde go gcaitheann sé i bhfad an iomarca ama suite os comhair ríomhaire.

Padraic Colm atá ormsa ach tugann mo chairde uilig PC orm. Is breá liom a bheith ag obair nó ag spraoi ar mo ríomhaire.


Fifi foirfe a thugann a cairde uirthi. Is maith leí ord agus eagar a bheith ar gach rud. Tá sí andáiríre faoin saol.

Is mise Fifi. Is maith liom gach rud a bheith néata agus ceart. Sílim go bhfuil rialacha an-tábhachtach.Dá gcloífeadh gach duine leis na rialacha ní bheadh fadhb ar bith ann d’aon

Trish an dris a thuagann a cairde uirthi. Tá sí in ann a bheith mí-fhoighneach agus dreacair le sásamh.

Trish atá ormsa. Is maith liom rudaí a bheith déanta ceart. Tá go leor pleidhcí thart anseo.Cuireann sé olc orm go minic gur mise an t-aon duine a dhéanann iarracht rudaí a fheabhsú

Sorcha dorcaha a thugann a cairde uirthi mar gheall gur breá leí éadaí dubha agus stíl dorcha. Téann sí trí phases difriúla ach ní mhaireann aon cheann acu ró-fhada.

Sorcha is ainm domsa. Duine ar leith (individual ) mise.Ní cosúil leis na daoine eile i mo rang. Is fada liom go mbeidh mé fásta suas agus go mbeidh mé in ann mo rogha rud a dhéanamh.

Ní Dá ró-chliste. Tá go leor daoine den tuairim go bhfuil sé beagainín dúr. Is duine cabhrach, gnaíúil é ach is minic a dhéanann sé praiseach fiú de na jabanna is simplí.

Is mise Dáibhéid. Tá go leor cairde a’am agus tugann iadsan “Dá” orm. Ní dhéanann tada imní díom. Ní fiú a bheith buartha faoi aon rud.



Yippee Dé hAoine ‘tá ann- Is fada liom go mbeidh an scoil thart. Deireadh seachtaine fada saor ó mhúinteoirí cantalacha.

Yea,..mise freisin. Tá cluiche mór againn tráthnóna, théis na scoile – níl mé in ann fanacht.

Maidin bhreá Aoine atá ann. Tá na buachaillí ar a mbealach chuig an scoil – agus níl tada faoin spéir ag cur as dhóibh.

Mm…Ta rud eicínt nach bhfuil ag rith liom - meastú céard é fhéin?

Tá PC ar phlainéad eile – é dírithe ar a bhfuil á fhoghlaim aige.

Ce’ chaoi bhfuil sibh, a leaids. Bhuel, ‘bhfuil sibh réidh don scrúdú staire?

Cén sórt bobaide é PC? – é sáite sna leabhra maidin álainn mar seo.

I 1845 tháinig an dúchan ar na fataí den chéad uair…….. Ba é Lord Trevelyan a bhí i gceannas an relief work…

A PhC, a’ bhfuil tú alright? Scrúdú staire! Ó a dhiabhail, rinne mé dearmad glan air.

Ah, Scrúdú staire, b’in an rud nach raibh mé in ann cuimhniú air.


Cac asail! Má choinneofar siar théis scoile mé, beidh mé as an gcluiche mór.

B’fhearr don scrudú ar an Aoine a bheith i bhfad níos fearr ná an phraiseach a déanadh den cheann deireanach. Tá mé ag cur fainic ar chuile mhac máthar dhaoibh. Go bhfóire Dia ar an té nach reitíonn i gceart dhó.

PC – Ah a leaids - Ná habair gur dhearmad sibh an scrúdú staire faoin nGorta Mór. Sure, níor stop Grumble ach ag caint faoi an tseachtain ar fad. Nach cuimhin libh chomh spréachta is a bhí sé théis an scrúdú deireanach.

Tá a gcac anois acu.

Éist a leaids – ba mhaith liom cúnamh a thabhairt dhaoibh ach caithfidh mé é a ghearradh.

B’fhéidir nach gcuimhneoidh Grumble ar an scrúdú ach an oiread?

Fan go bhfeice mé anois …. Mmmmmm cuimhnigh …….. Ah frig! Níl feic all ar eolas a’amsa faoi.


Éistí liomsa, go sciobaidh, anois - céard sa diabhal atá ar eolas a’ainn faoin nGorta Mór?


Tá ‘ fhios a’am …. Tá sé ag teacht ar ais a’am. Fatái ---sin é fataí .. rud eicínt faoi fhataí

Togha fir, a Rónáin – sin é an freagra -- fataí – is cuimhin liom anois é. Fataí an freagra

Fair plé dhuit a Rónain, shábháil tú muid

Fataí do thóin! Ach céard faoi na damned fataí. Ara, is beag an mhaith fataí mar fhreagra. Teastaíonn i bhfad níos mó na “fataí” uainn .

Bhuel, bhí fataí agus sausagachaí a’ainne don dinnéar aréir. M’anam go raibh siad blasta. Is breá liom fataí agus sausagachaí.


Bangers agus brúitín – ní raibh sé sin ar eolas agam. Scríobhfaidh mé sa scrúdú é. Go raibh míle maith agat.

Leagaí as an tseafóid, a phleotaí – sé ‘n scrúdú ‘tá le sórtáil – agus níl a’ainn ach cúpla nóiméad

Bangers agus brúitín a thugtar air sin. Taitníonn siad go mór liomsa chomh maith Tóg go réidh é – níl muid ach ag iarraidh cúnamh a thabhairt.

Sin é - An Ice Age – Sin ba chúis leis. Chonaic me film faoi – bhí sé iontach. Ah a dhiabhail! Beidh an scrúdú seo chomh heasca.

Fanaigí nóiméad tá sé ag teacht a’am – tharla an gorta mar gur theip ar na fataí - sin agaibh anois é – theip ar na fataí – níl me cinnte cén fath -an sioc b’fhéidir …..?


Beidh sé éasca péasca – fágfaidh muid ár malaí sna tomacha ar chúl na scoile – agus caithfidh muid an lá á thógail go brea réidh dhúinn fhéin thíos faoin mbaile. Beidh an-time a’ainn agus bíodh an fheamainn ag Grumble agus a scrúdú fánach.

Éistigí: níl hope a’ainn an scrúdú seo a phasáil.– Tá gá le plean Gabhfaidh muid uilig ar an hop don lá. Ceard a cheapfadh sibh de sin?

Coach ag caint “ Chúig chead pressup eile don súrachán a lig síos don chluiche mhór muid”.

Céard fútsa a Chriostóir? Bhfuil tú liom nó nach bhfuil?

Fág mise as! Má bheirtear orainn ní bheidh seans ar bith agam imirt sa gcluiche mór. Chaillfeadh “coach” an bloc liom agus bheinn ag déanamh pressups go Nollaig. Ah Jeepers! Mharódh mo mhama mé dá bhfaigheadh sí amach faoi.


Ab é a’ chaoi go mbeidh muid ag hopáil timpeall an bhaile an lá uilig. Bheadh an-chraic leis sin all right, ach nach mbeadh muid frigeáilte théis tamaill leis an hopáil about uilig?

Gabhfaidh mise leat, a Mhurach! Beidh sé iontach dul ar an hop - Ach ní thuigim do díreach céard atá i gceist leis an “hop” seo.

A Dhá, a mhate, ní bheidh stró ar bith ortsa sa scrúdú. Tá a fhois ag chuile dhuine go bhfuil tusa iontach ag stair. Ach gabh i leith anseo nóiméad, tá jabín speisialta a’am dhuitse.

Cogar : Clúdóidh tusa dhom. Tabharfaidh tú nóta do Ghrumble. Sin an méid a chaitheas tú a dhéanamh. ‘Bhfuil sé sin ‘ad?


Scríobhann Murach nóta. Nóta chuig an Uasal Gruaimbhéal – Níl Murach bocht ar fónamh. Ta drochdose den fliú air. Tá an créatúr ag obair róchrua. Sínithe; Mama Mhurach.

Buaileann an clog scoile:

Dála an scéil! An dtugann tú aon rud difriúil faoi deara fúm?

Oh a Rónáin . Beidh mise a’ ghoil chuig an gcluiche mór trathnóna. Is breá liom a bheith ag breathnú ort – gabh mo leithscéal- oraibh ar fad ag imirt.


Sin anois é, a leaids – ná déanaigí dearmad “Ní fhaca ceachtar agaibh ar maidin mé” – Slán losers – bainigí craic as an Scrúdú ….

Is mór an crá croí í seo– Diabhal fhios agamsa céar’ ‘tá difriúil fúithi – Trish an dris i gcónaí í.

Tá sé a’am anois – ab é a’ chaoi nach bhfuil tú ag caitheamh spéacláirí inniu?

Cá ‘il do bhoyfriend, Murach inniu. Chonaic mé sibh ag pleanáil rud éicint níos luaithe.

Ní chaithimse spéaclairí riamh- ‘Sí mo chuid gruaige atá difriúil – breathnaigh uirthi – nach bhfeiceann tú an chaoi go bhfuil sí cóirithe inniu a’am – Tusa ar cheart spéacláirí a chaitheamh.


Ní fhaca ceachtar a’ainn Murach ar maidin -- ní fhaca – sure ní fhaca – abair léi nach bhfaca muid é, a Rónain,

Cé atá ag caint leatsa? Céar’ ‘tá ansin i do lámh ‘ad? Dá: Nóta tinnis atá ann. Is don mhúinteoir é. Ní .. ní bhaineann sé leat. Trish: Ó a Mhaighdean, shílfeá gurbh é an mada fhéin a scríobh é. Inis dhom cé uaidh an nóta? - céard sa diabhal atá ann?

Ach nach ndúirt tú soicind ó shin nach bhfaca tú ar chorr ar bith é.

Is ó Mhurach é – ta an créatúr an-tinn – níl fhios a’am an dtiocfaidh sé as.


Deargaíonn leicne Dhá – tagann fuarallas ar a bhaithis.

B’fhéidir go bhfaca – déanaim dearmad – níl a fhios agam – ó tá mearbhall ag teacht orm- Éist liom, maith an cailín agus ná bí do mo chur craiceáilte le ceisteanna.

Céard sa mí-ádh atá ar bun anseo – tá rud éicint ar siúl ag na scaibhtéirí seo agus bí cinnte dhe go bhfuil Murach sáite ina lár.

Dia dhaoibh a rang.

Rang ar fad. Dia ‘s Muire dhuit a mhúinteoir.

Tagann an focal Grumble ón dá fhocal Gaeilge Gruaim – gloom(ly) / sad/ despondent agus béal / mouth


Suígí síos – stopaigí an chaint – cuirigí isteach na leabhra – faighigí réidh le tosú ar an scrúdú

Ciúnas! Bígí ciúin ! Fanaigí socair

Meabhraím dhaoibh aríst nach nglacfar le lagiarracht shuarach mar a tharla sa scrúdú deireanach. Gearrfar pionós trom ar leisceoirí atá ag milleadh an dea-cháil a bhí riamh ar mo chuid rangannasa.

Mmm- (go cantalach) Bí istigh


A uasail Gruaimbhéil! Tá cailín deas óg ó do rang anseo agam. Bhí an creatúr bocht bailithe amú agus ní raibh sí in ann teacht ar do sheomra. Tháinig mé uirthi i leithreas na gcailiní. Tá sí seo cinnte imithe sna síóga – damn – caithfidh mé an friggin scrúdú amaideach seo a dhéanamh anois.

Tá tú ceart anois, a stór. Bíodh lá álainn agaibh ar fad.

Tá tú alright a Bhabaró – Ní tú an t-aon duine a théann amú – tarlaíonn sé dhom fhéin, corruair. Tá an t-ádh ort gur tháinig an múinteoir Sona Sásta ort.


Is gealt cruthanta an friggin amadán sin.

Fan nóiméad! Tá rud éicínt cearr anseo. Tá an rang róchiúin. Ah, tuigim anois, níl Murach anseo. B’fhearr dhó leithscéal maith a bheith aige.

Rinne mé go maith éalú ón scrúdú sin. ‘Sé’n trua nár tháinig duine ar bith liom. Ba mhór an spórt a bheith in ann cúléisteacht ar an gcraic uilig sa rang .

Tá muid ar tí tosú ar an scrúdú. A’ bhfuil chuile dhuine anseo?


Gabh aníos anseo leis. B’fhearr don leithscéal seo a bheith go maith.

Go sábhála Dia sinn! Breathnaigh an bhail atá ar an nóta. Toram é

A mhúinteoir, a mhúinteoir tá nóta a’am dhuit, nóta ó Mhurach

Ag léamh dhó fhéin - Nóta chuig an Uasal Gruaimbhéal – Níl Murach bocht ar fónamh. Ta drochdose den fliú air. Sílim go bhfuil se ag obair róchrua. Sínithe: Mama Mhurach.

Ga’ ‘ile’ anseo a’am. Cá bhfuair tusa an nóta --- an nóta fíor-aisteach seo?

Dreapfaidh mé an crann go bhfeice mé an chraic níos fearr. Tá sé seo iontach ar fad.


Thug Mama Mhurach dhó é. Thug sí dhó ar maidin é. Tá Murach bocht an-tinn.

Níl fhios a’am faoi swine fliú- cén ceann eile … an bird fliú sin é sé’n bird fliú atá air

Inis go cúramach dhom a Dháibhéid, céard go díreach an scéal faoi Mhurach agus an nóta seo.

Aisteach go bhfuil eolas ‘adsa faoi seo chomh maith. Tá an scéal seo ag éirí níos aistí chuile nóiméad.

Bhuel …! Tá .. tá Murach bocht an-tinn.Tá an fliú air, droch-dose

Bird fliu ab ea? Sách dona – meastú cén chaoi a bhfuair sé an bird fliú?

Sílim go bhfuil budgie acu sa mbaile – b’fhéidir gur ón mbudgie a fuair sé é..

Is bobaide ceart é Grumble. Ta sé chomh heasca an dallamullóg a chur air.

An bhfuil anois agus cén cinéal fiiú atá air? Swine fliu ab ea? Ab ea anois – A Dháibhéid, anocht, scríobhfaidh tú aiste trí leathanach ar Bird Fliú ó tharla go bhfuil an oiread sin ar eolas agat faoi.

Breathnaigh ormsa Dá, breathnaigh ormsa – nay nay nay nay nay

Caithfidh go gceapann tusa gur simpleoir amach is amach mé…..


Ah ……Trí leathanach ! Ar bhird fliú, ó a dhiabhail…..

Bhí Murach ag luascadh ar chraobh nach raibh sách láidir – scoilt – briseann an chraobh

Ní ar an talamh ach anuas díreach ar dhíon chairr. Buaileann aláram an chairr. Ach cé leis an carr? Cé a cheapfá?

Mo charr nua,mo, mo charr breá nua. Murach, céar’’tá déanta a’at (ag fuarchaoineadh) -- tá mo charr nua míllte ‘ad

Ó ná habair

titeann Murach síos de phlop

Cloiseann Grumble an torann, breathnaíonn sé amach an fhuinneog – ní chreideann sé a bhfuil le feiceáil aige.

Cá ‘il mé? Céard a tharla? A‘ bhfuil mé a’ brionglóidí? Tá pian i mo dhroim, i mo chois. Tá pianta i ngach áit.


Cé ‘tá ag caint ar scrúdú, lá chomh hálainn seo. Fágaigí seo a aingle as na flaithis Rachaidh muid ar shiúlóid sa bpáirc ag breathnú ar na bláthanna agus ag éisteacht leis na héin.

Mo leithscéal a rang, ach ní bheidh an tUasal Gruaimbhéal ar ais don chuid eile den lá.Tá an fear bocht trína chéile faoi charr nó rud eicínt mar sin.

Sin seift amháin nach ndeachaigh de réir phleain.

Níl tú ag breathnú rómhaith a Mhurach. Ab ‘in é an bird fliú atá ort? Tá súil a’am nach bhfaighidh mise é. Nach iontach nach gcaithfidh muid scrúdú ar bith a dhéanamh inniu. Slán go fóilleach.




Amhrรกin Learning and singing along the lyrics of popular songs is both an enjoyable and very effective way of improving your Gaeilge


Abair Leat!

Fea rgha ill, Dai thí Ó Rua idh. Liri cí: Ca tha l Ó Rua idh, Sti ofán Ó

Toram (Tabhair dom) beatha! Toram

(Tabhair dom) saoirse!

Déan an iarracht! Gabh níos airde! ! Déan do rogha! ’Séard (is éard) atá uait (agat)! Cuir do cheann suas! Bíodh an bród a’d Ó na tithe chuig na sráide (sráideanna), tá muid dírithe, níl muid caillte, ile, tá muid sásta ag ceiliúradh lenár dteanga, muid le ché go léir os ard, ag canadh go léir mar chór, ag canadh ’Sí (Is í) do thír is do theanga féin (í), ’Sé (Is é) do rogha ag deireadh an lae. ’Is (agus) deir muid: (Is) Muide an todhchaí, gach éinne agaibh! t)! Gaeilge gan eagla, tá sí ar eolas a’d (aga (Is) Muide an todhchaí, gach éinne agaibh! t)! Gaeilge gan eagla, tá sí ar eolas a’d (aga ! so abair leat! So abair leat! so abair leat! so abair leat ir leat! So abair leat! so abair leat! abair leat! aba Beidh muid á chanadh linn! Gach duine á chanadh linn!



Fea rgha ill, Dai thí Ó Rua idh. Liri cí: Ca tha l Ó Rua idh, Sti ofán Ó

a leanán, Seo anois é, tú is mé, tá fadhb againn ach is féidir leatsa Beidh sé i gceart leis an troid, mar le grá t É a chruthú. Níl ag teastáil ach an iarrach Curfá: ith anseo. Más mian leatsa fágáil, ní gá duitsa ‘bhe háil i bhfolach. Go luath tuigfidh tusa, d’fhéadfá rith gab Ach níl éalú ó mo ghrá. ca dearmad Fágfaidh mé thú. Ach tá’s a’t, níl sé éas r ach A dhéanamh ar ár ngrá, do bhí sé an-fhío tábhachtaí ná Fós, sin an méid: sa deireadh, an rud is Curfá t, Seo anois é. Níl ag teastáil ach an iarrach Curfá

Tóg Mo Lámh

s mé, ach Tá muid ag plé. Níl’s a’m céard a dhéarfa alaí an aimsir. Fós déarfaidh mé é, mar is maith an scé is Is féidir é, tabharfaidh me mo ghrá duit Curfá : Tóg mo lámh. Saol nua ai’nn úúúúúú? Beidh mé ann, Ach an dtiocfaidh túú anois, bhuel So ní gá a rá, thar bharr mo chéile, ach i deara go bhfuil saoi nua Caithfidh mé a rá, táim ag tabhairt fao ann. mall ná go brách Abair i mo dhiaidh: is fear a bheith go Curfá fíor nó ‘bhfuil siad bréagach. Oh, na focail ó do bhéal, ‘bhfuil siad r ‘tá a’msa. Táim i ndáiríre: is fút na cuimhní is fea ar aon chaoi Is féidir é, beidh méfós i do dhiaidh Curfá


Damhsa Amháin

ill. Ceol & Liricí: Ciarán Dooley, Seán Cah

c(h)éad (lá) Caithfidh mé a rá, nuair a tháinig mé an Ní raibh mé cinnte, d a dhéanamh anseo. Ó, ní raibh mé cinnte, céard ’tá (a bhí) mui s agam! Ní raibh mé cinnte, ach anois tá (a) fhio s agam! Ní raibh mé cinnte, ach anois tá (a) fhio c(h)éad (lá), an mé Caithfidh mé a rá, nuair a tháinig ! Chonaic mé cailín, ó chonaic mé cailín Thosaigh mo chroí ag rá, Curfá ’Ar mhaith leat damhsa liomsa? Ar mhaith leat do lámh a chur i mo lámh? Damhsa amháin? Ar mhaith leat damhsa liomsa? Ar mhaith leat do lámh a chur i mo lámh? Damhsa amháin?’ uil a fhios a’d (agat) Tá sé deacair chun (é) a rá nuair nach bhf Cén fáth ’tá (a bhfuil) sí mar seo? idh tú? Céard a dhéanfaidh, ó, céard a dhéanfa s agam! Ní raibh mé cinnte, ach anois, tá (a) fhio s agam! Ní raibh mé cinnte, ach anois, tá (a) fhio h, Ach tiocfaidh an lá nuair atá mé réid Cuirfidh mé ceist uirthi. Beidh misneach agam, beidh mé ag rá:


Ú La La

Liricí: Bobbaí Ó Deá.

Mo Dhaideo bocht! bhí mé ag spochadh as a ch aoi! Cheap mé gur fear searb h é, óna fhocail ’s (agus) óna chaoi ag caint faoi chleasa na gcailíní, Agus tabharfaidh tú faoi deara, An grá caoch ní oibríonn sé, is caithfear tosú arís! Curfá Ba bhreá liom dá mbeadh an t-eolas seo a’m (agam ) nuair a bhí mé níos óige! Ba bhreá liom dá mbeadh an t-eolas seo a’m (agam ) nuair a bhí mé níos láidre! Nuair (a)tá a bealaí (beola ) uait, faigheann tú a leice ann, níl ’s a’d (níl a fhios agat) cá bhfuil tú! Nuair atá níos mó ag tea stáil agus níl tú ag freastal , tá tú i d’aonar léi! Mo gharmhac bocht! Níl tada a’m (agam) le rá! Foghlaimeoidh tú trí dhul amú! Sin an chaoi is fearr! Curfá ‘Sé (Is é) an Can Can an seó is fearr, stopfadh sé do chroí! Bíonn na rinceoirí ag caoc hadh súl, is tagann teas uathu! Is é an grá an rud is láidr e, agus déanann sé do sh aol! An grá caoch, ní oibríonn sé, Is tá ort tosú arís!


Lady Ga(eilge) Lir icí: Jen ny Ní Rui séil

Rah rah ah-ah-ah Roma roma-mah Ga-ga ooh la-la Ag iarraidh grá... oh-oh!), …Níl aon rud fágtha i mo cheann (oh oh Ag canadh ach níl mé in ann! Cén chaoi ar tharla sé? Ag damhsa ó inné Cá ndeachaigh an t-am ? Ó, níl a fhios a’m (agam)! Damhsa, gan aon stró, ! Is cuma, beidh an chóisir ar siúl go deo a, Bunoscionn anseo sa hall a… Tá an oíche ag dul an- sciobtha, sciobth liom do dhíoltas! Toram (tabhair dom) do ghrá, ba mhaith t! Tú ’s mé, ní bheidh ár leithéidí (ann) arís liom do dhíoltas! Toram (tabhair dom) do ghrá, ba mhaith Tú ’s mé, bíonn muid i gcónaí ar bís! Oh oh oh oh ohhhhh oh oh oh oh oh oh

oh …!

! …Déan damhsa, beidh sé ceart go leor hsa Ní fheiceann éinne thú ag dam ! Déan é mo stór, doo doo doo doo… (x2)


…Lig dúinn cluiche grá a imirt! Ar mhaith leat grá nó cáil, ’bhfuil tú sa chluiche? Cluiche grá! (x2) ’Bhfuil tú ag iarraidh cluich e grá a imirt? Do rogha! grá nó cáil, an mbeidh tú (ag) spraoi? Cluiche grá! (x2)) Ag iarraidh breith ort ar nó s a dhéanann imreoirí Te xas! Beir greim! lig dom! fáisc mé! ardú, a stóirín fan lio msa…! Tá…’sé draíochtúil, beidh muid thar cionn, oh, ohhh h! …Cluiche grá! Tar éis sin, is féidir imeach t le poll mór i do chroí! Toram (tabhair dom) na so ilse! mar tá a fhios ad (ag at) gur mé do mhúirnín féin! Leanfaidh mé thú go dtí go bfhuil grá ad (agat) do msa! Paparazzi! A stóirín níl aon duine eil e… tá a fhios ad (agat)! Ní féidir é! ní féidir é! Ní féidir m’aghaidh a léa mh! Ní féidir! ní féidir é! ní féi dir….! Seans go mbeidh mé togh a! Ach ní stopfaidh mé go de o! A ghrá ghil beidh tú cáiliú il! Rachaidh mé i do threo, Ale! Alejandrooooooo.! Ná cuardaigh mé! ná cuard aigh mé! Alejandro! Ní leatsa mé! ní leatsa mé ! Fernando! Gan grá, gan póg, just to ram (tabhair dom) píosa de d’aird! Ná cuir glaoch orm! ná cu ir glaoch orm! Roberto! Roberto!


Sé amhrán le chéile Feargha Liricí - Cathal Ó Ruaidh, Stiofán Ó

ill, Daithí Ó Ruaidh.

uil mé Bhuel! do thit tú ormsa! is bí cinnte go bhf té (duine speisialta) fíoran Ag iarraidh do ghrá-sa! mar is tusa atá uaigneach! A bhíonn in ann spreagadh an fear seo namh an-iarracht, Roimh dheireadh an lae, beidh mé ag déa s do thoil, ach Agus ní stopfaidh tada mé ar bith, seacha i ndán. Is dócha go mbeidh mé in ann; má tá sé Ní fhanfaidh mé ortsa, níos mó! níos mó! msa) go deo! Tá tú uaimse! agus beidh tú a’msa (aga Dúisíonn an ghrian, solas a’ teacht anuas! tús! Tá mé i do dhiaidh! tá muid ar ais arís ón tú! Oscail anois do shúile is (agus) feicfidh bhrú! Oscail amach do mheabhair mar níl aon crá, ortsa! Breathnaigh taobh istigh, is ní bheidh crá, in éineacht liom! tú dh Éist le mo cheol! is b’fhéidir go gcanfai Is mothóidh do chroí éadrom! ! Níl rud ar bith eadrainn ach grá! grá! grá h! Táim saor ach níl tú! Imeoidh mé go luat tú arís! mé h cfid Tá’s a’m. (Tá a fhios agam) Ní fhei s seal is (agus) thíos Ní bhíonn uasal ná íseal, níl ann ach thua seal! dheireadh tá muid le Amach as an amhras atá am(agam), faoi chéile! in! Ba bhreá liomsa eitilt! Gabhfaidh mé i gcé dom féin! Mar tá mé fós ag lorg na páirte is fearr


Ag déanamh iarrachta, ga ch uile lá Ach ní féidir liom mo scáth a chaitheamh uaimse! Is níl sé éasca, ar aon ch aoi! Nár leor duit mo chuid sp reagtha! Rith sé liom an lá cheana , ní féidir an fhíric a shéa nadh! Níor éist tú le mo chaint! Ní féidir liom smaoineam h ar rudaí nua! Is cuma lio m céard a déarfaidh tú! So, seo anois mo chinnea dh! Bíonn tú i gcónaí ag cailli úint smachta, so, ní fiú do m an iarracht! Bhí mé caillte gan treo, ag siúl tríd an gceo! I bhfostú san áit seo gan éalú go deo! Gan aon chúis, gan aon aidhm, mar an t-amhrán as feidhm! Is b’in tú ag seasamh an n os comhair m’aghaidh ! Céard atá déanta anois, Le do dheora a shil’ ’s d’a nam a bhris(eadh)? Ó! nuair a d’imigh tú uaim , Fágadh mo chroíse boch t, ’s anois, tá a fhios am(ag am)! Anseo gan tú a stoirín, tá tusa fós ar m’ intinn Smaoiním fút a stóirín, ag us bíonn tú i mo bhriong lóidí, Anseo gan tú a stóirín ac h beidh tú fós ann i mo ch roí! Is anocht beidh tú amsa (agamsa)! So, ná habair go bhfuil sé críochnaithe! Níl ciall ar bith leis, bím i gcónaí ag smaoineamh fút ! Bhí mé caillte gan treo! Ach tá tú fós ann i mo ch roí! Tá tú uaimse! ‘s beidh tú a’msa (agamsa)! Ba bhreá liomsa eitilt!


Céilí ar an Trá

Daithí Ceol & Liricí – James, Daragh, Cian,

hsa san uisce nuair a Céilí ar an trá! b’aoibhinn liom é! ag dam chonaic mé í! an teach ina raibh sí Ní raibh a fhios am (agam) a hainm, nó ngrá! ann, ach bhí sí speisialta, agus thit mé i Curfá: Céilí ar an trá, b’aoibhinn liom é! Bhí craic agus spraoi ag deireadh an lae! Céilí ar an trá, b’aoibhinn liom é! Bhí craic agus spraoi ag deireadh an lae! le cailín álainn, ach Céilí ar an trá, ba bhreá liom é, chas mé d’imigh sí uaim! g! Ag smaoineamh fúithi, níor éist mé sa ran am (agam)! s) fhio Cá ndeachaigh mo chailín? Níl ’s (a Curfá a glas! Chonaic mé í an oíche sin, chaith sí gún ? sa’ liom Dúirt mé ‘ar mhaith leat damhsa s”! Agus d’fhreagair sí “Bheadh sin go dea ró-ghearr! Bhí am iontach againn, ach bhí an t-am t-am gearr thar barr! Bhí an céilí sin críochnaithe, ach bhí an Curfá


Can os Ard !

Ceol & Liricí – Ciarán

Dooley, Saoirse Nic Ga


Céard a deireann tú nuair a thiteann tú arís? Níl aon am ag éinne duits e, is ní fheiceann tú an gh rian. Céard a dhéanann tú nu air nach bhfuil gach rud ceart? Bíonn tú i gcónaí ag iarrai dh faoisimh ach tá do sh eans tha

Lean ar aghaidh! Tá muid ag dul. Tá tú saor! Seo é an t-aon saol atá ag ainn, Is tá gach rud timpeall or t ag athrú duit. Tá sé ró-ghearr le bheith ag fanacht, Ró-mhór le bheith chom h beag. Ní féidir leat a bheith ciú in! Caithfidh tú canadh os ard !

Céard a dhéanann tú nu air a thiteann tú i ngrá? Cailleann tú do chiall is tá do sheansaol thart. Níl aon rogha ad (agat) nu air a tharlaíonn sé sin. Ach ní bhíonn tú ag smao ineamh Nuair atá tú faoi na geas a sin! Lean ar aghaidh! Tá muid ag dul. Tá tú saor! Seo é an t-aon saol atá ag ainn Is tá gach rud timpeall or t ag athrú duit. Tá sé ró-ghearr le bheith ag fanacht, Ró-mhór le bheith chom h beag. Ní féidir leat a bheith ciú in, Caithfidh tú canadh os ard ! Tá sé ró-ghearr le bheith ag fanacht! Ró-mhór le bheith chom h beag! Tá sé ró-ghearr le bheith ag fanacht!



An Buachaill Ceart

Uí Chadhain, Ceol & Liricí: Buachaillí Tigh Chathy

Chonaic mé í ar an gcéad lá. Dúirt sí, ‘Dia duit!’ Thit mé i ngrá. ‘Sí an cailín ó mo bhrionglóid í, Ach níl m’ainm ar eolas aici ! dom. Ach is cuma liom! Is í an cailín is foirfe . Ach is cuma liom! Tá sí fós ina réalt dom Gabh mo leithscéal! Tá rud le rá! Tá mé anseo lán le grá! Cailín deas atá mé ag iarraidh, Ach ní mé an buachaill ceart di! (x2) Chonaic mé í ag an gcéilí. Fuair mé damhsa amháin léi. Níor thug sí aon aird orm, Aird orm, aird orm! . Ach is cuma liom! Is í an cailín is foirfe dom . dom t réal Ach is cuma liom! Tá sí fós ina Gabh mo leithscéal! Tá rud le rá! Tá mé anseo lán le grá! Cailín deas atá mé ag iarraidh, Ach ní mé an buachaill ceart di! (x2) Chonaic mé í ag an dioscó deireanach. Bhí sí leis an mbuachaill eile. Bhris mo chroí! Ní raibh a fhios aici Céard a cheap mé fúithi. Gabh mo leithscéal! Tá rud le rá!


Cúrsa C - 2009.

Níl Mé Ag Bogadh Liricí: Keith Ó Briain

Chuaigh mé siar chuig an gcúinne, áit a chonaic mé thú Agus beidh mé anseo go deo ag fanacht go ciúin. Scríobhtear mo chás ar chúl do ghriangraf Ag rá go mbeidh mé an n nuair tá sí feicithe a’d. Tugtar airgead dom mar ní thu Níl mé briste ach chaill mé igeann siad mo chroí Céard tá a’m le rá, níl ao n chiall sa scéal Tá mé fós i ngrá, tá tú fós i mo shaol Curfá: Nuair a dúisíonn tú agus feiceann tú nach bhfuil mé ann, Agus braitheann sé cosú il go bhfuil mé fós i do ch ea nn, B’fhéidir (go) dtiocfaidh tú chugam agus nuair a shroicheann tú, Beidh mé fós ar taobh na stráide, ag fanacht go ciú in. Níl mé ag bogadh, níl mé ag bogadh. Deirtear liom nach bhfuil cead agam fanacht, Ach fós beidh mé ann ar feadh lá nó bliain is cuma liom. Táim chun seas’ mo fhód, is cuma faoin sneachta fiú Má athraíonn sí a hintinn, tiocfaidh sí anseo Cúrfá Táim i mbéal an phobail ‘nois, mar gheal ar mo gh rá. Níl aon phóilín i mo bhró g, ach ceann i mo chroí Seans go mbeidh mé cá ilúil, ar an teilifís mo íom há Seans trí thimpiste,go bh feice tú, mo chroí agus Rachaidh tú chuig’n gcúin ne Mar ní féidir dallamullóg a chur ort féin Mar a rinneadh cheanna féin Cúrfá


Goile! (Gabh i leith!) Rúiséil. Liricí: Liam Murtagh White, Jenny Ní

Goile! Goile! (Gabh i leith!) (Gabh i leith!) Beidh sé togha! Níl aon rud mícheart leis. Beidh ár n-am ag teacht! Ach anois, Tá fonn orm dul thar fóir! Mar táimid anseo, Ag deireadh an lae, Le chéile go deo. Is cuimhin linn é! Ná bí buartha anois Faoi chúrsaí inné! Tosóidh saol nua! Goile! Goile! (Gabh i leith!) (Gabh i leith!) Cén fáth Nach féidir leat aon rud a rá?


Foot loose

Liricí: Bobbaí Ó Deá.

Ag obair go cru’, ag fágáil go Ocht n-uaire, cén mhaith? lua’ Tá sé mar seo gach lá. Tá sé a’ rith liom go bhfui l an t-am ag imeacht uaim . Táim ar an díon, is tá sceit imíní orm. Tosóidh muid Curfá 1: Ón dtús, seas suas, cuir ort do bhróga nua. Suigh síos, lig scíth, níl sé in aghaidh an dlí Jeaic, a staic, dean anois é don chraic. Fiú gan chúis, chuile dhuin e léim suas Tá cuma ciúin ort, ag gla cadh le chuile short Breathnaigh taobh istigh ionat, tá tú ag lorg, lorg du ine Duine a dhéarfas leat na ch bhfuil an t-am ag imea ch t uait. Is tá’m a rá leat, oh bíodh túann nó bíodh tú as. Goile liom, is muid ar ais Curfá 2: Ón dtús, seas suas, cuir ort do bhróga nua. Suigh síos, lig scíth, níl sé in aghaidh an dlí Whoa, Liamo, bog do ch osa go beo Fiú gan chúis, chuile dhuin e léim suas Caithfidh tú do bhealach a roghnú Is do cheann a choinneál togha ‘nois seas siar is tóg anáil Tosóidh muid ón dtús! Curfá 1 Chuile dhuine léim, chuil e dh

uine léim



BĂ? AG CAINT This section offers sample interviews to help preparation for the oral exams of the junior cert and leaving cert syllabi.


This section offers sample interviews to help preparation for the oral exams of the junior cert and leaving cert syllabi. Bí ag caint na sóisear- Junior - has 11 lessons based on a series of interview type questions about oneself. Parlez Vous is a French language version of the junior Bí ag caint, where the translation support is given as Gaeilge. Practice your French while reinforcing the Irish language content. Bí ag caint na sinsear - Senior - is based on three sample interviews of pre-leaving cert students partaking in a mock oral exam. All of the audios are recordable and you too can undertake your own mock oral exam.

Also in this section Topical issues – views and opinions outlined. Giving your own opinion Giving advice Personality traits


Agallamh na Sóisear – Junior Cert Sample Interview The materials presented in “Agallamh na Sóisear” focuses on basic conversations about you, yourself. The content will provide a varying level of challenge to learners within a range of competency levels. However, everyone can benefit from spending quality time working on their pronunciation skills. The themed lessons follow a question-answer format between a teacher and a young student under the topics Fút Féin / Do Mhuintir / Do Scoil / Ábhar Scoile / Caithimh Aimsire / An Ghaeltacht etc. Each lesson has a number of accompanying recording tasks.

Cén chaoi a bhfuil tú? How are you?

Tá mé togha, go raibh maith agat. I’m fine, thanks.

Cá bhfuil cónaí ort? Where do you live?

Tá cónaí orm i nGaillimh. I live in Galway.

Cé mhéad deartháir agus deirfiúr agat? How many brothers and sisters have you got?

An tusa an duine is sine / is óige sa gclann? Are you the eldest / youngest in the family?

Tá beirt deartháireacha agus deirfiúr amháin agam. I have two brothers and one sister

Mise atá lár báire. I’m the one in the middle.

An dtaitníonn ceol leat?

Taitníonn go mór. Tá mo chroí sa gceol

Do you like / enjoy music?

I really like/enjoy it. My heart is in music.


Parlez Vous? This section replicates the exact same material as “ Agallamh na Sóisear” but with a difference. The target language is French while the support language is Gaeilge. Info panels are available in both Gaeilge and French.

Developing good efficient skill sets in learning Gaeilge will enhance your ability to learn other languages.

Bonjour / Salut

Bonjour / Salut

Dia dhuit

Dia ‘s Muire dhuit

Comment vas-tu? Comment allez-vous? Ça va?

(Je vais) bien, merci Ça va bien, merci

Cén chaoi a bhfuil tú?

Où travaillent tes parents ? Quel travail font tes parents ? Cén obair a dhéanann do thuismitheoirí?

Dans quel collège/ lycée es-tu?/êtes-vous?

Tá mé go maith, go raibh maith agat.

Mon père est gérant et ma mère est coiffeuse. Is bainisteoir é m’athair agus is gruagaire í mo mháthair.

Je vais au collège/lycée de Tuaim. Tá mé ag freastal ar Chlochar na Trócaire i dTuaim

Cén scoil ar bhfuil tú ag freastal?

Quelles sont les matières que tu aimes / que vous aimez ?

J’aime le commerce. Is maith liom staidéar gnó.

Cé na hábhair is maith leat?


Agallamh na Sinsear – Leaving Cert Sample Interviews This section introduces three sample mock interviews and covers Fáiltiú /Fút Féin / Do Mhuintir / Do Cheantar /Do Scoil / Ábhar Scoile / Caithimh Aimsire / An Ghaeltacht / Taisteal / Tar éis na hArdteiste / Obair etc.. Students can use the sample interviews as a basis to prepare and record their own answers.

Inis dom fút féin

Tá mé i rang na hardteiste i mbliana. Is breá liom chuile chineál spóirt.

Cáit Ní Lúing is ainm dom. Tá mé ocht mbliana déag d’aois. Cónaim cois fharraige i gCinn Mhara, i gContae na Gaillimhe.

Is mise Seán Ó Gríofa. As Sligeach mé. Tá mé seacht mbliana déag d’aois.

Tá cúigear againn sa chlann, beirt bhuachaillí agus triúr cailíní. Is mise an dara duine is óige.

Eoin Ó Néill an t-ainm atá orm. As contae Laoise mé. Páiste aonair is ea mé ach tá go leor cairde agam.

Tá cónaí orm ar fheirm deich míle as Portlaoise. Taitníonn peil go mór liom agus tá súil agam geanasí an chontae a chaitheamh lá éicint.


Tuairim a nochtadh – giving an opinion Expressing an opinion is just as important in Gaeilge as it is in every other language. Tuairim a nochtadh comprises of four lessons that will help you give or defend your own opinion with confidence.

Céard é do thuairim faoi ? ……. Is é mo thuairim go /gur……. Níl aon tuairim agam faoi ……. Níl tuairim faoin spéir agam faoi !....... Braitheann sé……. Déarfainn go /gur /nach /nár…….

Céard a cheapann tú? An gceapann tú? Céard a cheapfá faoi?.......

Ceapaim go / cheapfainn go ….. Ceapaim gur /cheapfainn gur……. Ceapaim nach / cheapfainn nach ……. Ceapaim nár / cheapfainn nár……. Ní cheapaim go/ gur / ní cheapfainn go /gur…


Ar intinn agam .. –

I intend to ......

To be able to explain your intention or what it was you intended is central to communicating with others. The aim of this lesson is to equip you with the necessary language to do just that.

Céard atá fút a dhéanamh ag an deireadh seachtaine? Tá fúm bualadh le mo chairde ag an deireadh seachtaine. Tá fúm féin agus mo chairde dul chuig cluiche peile/iománaíochta.

Céard atá ar intinn agat a dhéanamh tráthnóna? Tá sé ar intinn agam dul amach le mo chairde. Tá sé ar intinn agam dul ag siúl agus ansin dul ag obair.

Céard atá i gceist agat a dhéanamh tar éis na hArdteiste? Tá sé i gceist agam dul ar aghaidh go dtí an tríú leibhéal. Tá sé i gceist agam dul ag obair ar feadh bliana ar dtús.


Comhairle a thabhairt – Giving advice Giving and receiving advice is part and parcel of everyday dialogue. This lesson gives very good advice on how to advise as Gaeilge.

Comhairle a chur..... Glac le comhairle... Mo chomhairle duit ná ... ‘Sí an chomhairle a chuirfinn ort ná .... Mholfainn duit ..... B’fhearr duit ...... Ní mór duit ..... Ar chraiceann do chluaise ...... Ar a bhfaca tú riamh ...... Tabhair faoi deara .... Glac foighid - Foighid ort - Bíodh foighid agat. Coinnigh ort - Lean ort! Ná luigh ar na maidí Coinnigh do mhisneach Coinnigh an cloigeann Ná caill an block. Seachain - Fainic thú féin Seachain / Fainic a ndéarfá/ a ndéanfá / a rachfá Tabhair aird ar a ndeirim leat ...


Pearsantachtaí agus tréithe – Personalities and characteristics This section has three lessons about describing people’s personalities, characteristics and traits.

Tréithe a thaitníonn leis /léi: Fírinneacht Cairdiúlacht Measarthacht Oscailteacht Freagracht Prionsabáltacht Spraíúlacht Dáiríreacht Macántacht

Truthfulness Friendliness Moderatiom Open / frank Responsibility Moral Principles Playfulness Earnestness Honesty

Iompar nach dtaitníonn leis /léi: Cur i gcéill Bréaga Foréigean Éagóir Fimínteacht Ciníochas Maistíneacht Aineolas Mímhacántacht

Pretentiousness Lying Violence Injustice Hypocrisy Racism Bullying Ignorance Dishonesty


Cur síos ar rud – Describing things Describing things / events / happenings is another “must have” ability so as to communicate effectively as Gaeilge.

Tá sé sin ....... Ta sé áiféiseach Tá sé áisiúil Tá sé aisteach Tá sé fiúntach Tá sé éifeachtach Tá sé tairbheach

It is ridiculous / outlandish It is convenient / handy It is peculiar / weird It is worthwhile / has merit It is efficient / effective / capable It is beneficial

Tá sé tubaisteach Tá sé tromchúiseach Tá sé truamhéalach

It is tragic / disastrous It is a grave / serious matter It is pityful / pathetic

Tá sé ina phraiseach / chac. Tá sé ina chnámh spáirne Tá sé ina shamhradh

It is (the situation ) a mess / shite It is a bone of contention It is (the weather) summer like

Tá sé dochreidte Tá sé domhaite Tá sé dodhéanta

It is unbelievable It is unforgivable It is undoable

Tá sé barrúil It is funny Ta sé uaillmhianach It is ambitious Tá sé coitianta / neamhchoitianta It is common / uncom.


Topaicí Comhaimseartha – Topical issues Contemporary topical issues such as Drink Culture / Obesity / Fashion / Drug Abuse / Peer Pressure / Human Rights / The Environment / Music are thoroughly addressed as Gaeilge. Audio versions of these articles are available for rerecording etc ...

Cúrsaí Ólacháin Cloistear go leor faoi chúrsaí ólacháin i saol an lae inniu. Is beag lá nach mbíonn cur síos nó tuairisc, de shórt éigin, faoi chúrsaí ólacháin ar na páipéir, ar an raidió nó ar an teilifís. Deirtear gur ól is cúis le go leor timpistí bóthair. Deirtear gurbh é is cúis le go leor de na hionsaithe agus den troid a tharlaíonn sa tír seo, go speisialta ag an deireadh seachtaine. Tá níos mó airgid ag daoine anois ná bhí riamh le caitheamh ar ól. Is féidir ól a cheannach saor in ollmhargaí agus i siopaí eischeadúnais (offlicence). An toradh atá ar seo ná go bhfuil fáil ag daoine faoi aois ar alcól. De réir dlí, níl cead ól a dhíol le daoine faoi ocht mbliana déag d’aois. Bíonn ócáidí, ag cur óil chun cinn, eagraithe ag comhlachtaí óil sna coláistí tríú leibhéal. Bíonn fáil ar ól ar phraghas laghdaithe ag na hócáidí seo. Cuireann seo brú ar dhaoine óga níos mó deochanna alcólacha ná mar is maith dóibh a ól. Bíonn daoine ag gearán faoin méid fógraíochta a dhéantar ar ól ar an teilifís agus sna meáin. Is cosúil go mbíonn tionchar ag an bhfógraíocht seo ar dhaoine óga go speisialta. Tá mórán den phobal míshásta faoin urraíocht a dhéanann comhlachtaí óil ar chúrsaí spóirt. Deir mórán gur cheart an ceangal idir spórt agus ól a bhriseadh. De réir an tseanfhocail tá trí rud ag baint le hól i.e. é a ól, é a íoc agus é a iompar. Is maith an chomhairle í!

Nóta - ar nós gur fiú go mór na leaganacha cainte atá léirithe i mbuí a fhoghlaim agus a chleachtadh. Is féidir iad a athúsáid agus ailt eile á réiteach.


Díospóireachtaí – Debates Debate is an excellent activity for language learning and is also highly effective for developing argumentation skills Class debates can be a great motivational tool for creating meaningful interactions and discussions with language learners. At present there are 6 partly prepared debates available on AbairLeat!

Is fearr an tsláinte ná na táinte Ar son an rúin: Is fíor an seanfhocal é! Cén mhaith airgead mura bhfuil tú in ann sásamh a bhaint as? Ní dhéanfaidh tú sin mura bhfuil an tsláinte agat. Má tá do shláinte agat, tá tú in ann dul amach agus lá oibre a dhéanamh agus airgead a shaothrú. Tá ar do chumas dul ag siúl, cluichí a imirt, dul ag taisteal, bualadh le do chairde agus spraoi agus spórt a bheith agat.

In aghaidh an rúin: Ní ghabhfaidh tú i bhfad i saol an lae inniu gan airgead. Ní féidir teach ná carr a cheannach gan airgead. Ní bheidh mórán de shaol sóisialta agat ar phócaí folmha! Tá an costas maireachtála anard sa tír seo faoi láthair. Tá praghas bia agus ola ardaithe go mór le cúpla bliain. Is cúnamh an t-airgead chuige seo. Má tá gasúir agat beidh airgead ag teastáil le hiad a thógáil agus oideachas a chur orthu.




SaibhriĂş Teanga Gaelic culture similar to other major cultures, has age -old memorable phrases, proverbs and sayings about matters that were deemed important to society. These expressive words of wisdom offer advice of practical value in the form of short easily-remembered phrases and are of great importance to any language.



Seanfhocail Gaelic proverbs are called “seanfhocail” – literally means “old words”. These soundbites of knowledge have been passed down for generations and offer excellent advice as well as being interesting learning materials.




Beannachtaí / Mallachtaí



Triads (three together) – using arrangements of threes to encapsulate certain ideas. This form can be seen in 9th century manuscripts.

Irish blessings, greetings and curses are world famous. The words beannacht / mallacht derive from the Latin- benedictio (bene – good, dictio – talk) and maledictio ( bad – malicious talk)

The study of place names demonstrates an inextricable link with the language. The vast majority of placenames from county to town to parish to town lands along with geographical features are either Irish-language names or derived from an earlier Gaelic version.

Also covered in this section are: Tomhais: Riddles Rabhlóga: Tongue twisters Moladh – cáineadh: Praising and admonishing If you want your Gaeilge to sound natural, a good way to start is to work with authentic sentences. This ensures that the Gaeilge you are learning is really used and not something just out of a textbook.


Tréanna - Triads The use of the triad form (arrangement into threes) to encapsulate certain ideas was particularly popular in the literatures of Celtic-speaking areas. A famous collection dating back to the 9th century covered a variety of topics, such as nature, geography, law, custom and behaviour.

Here are some samples: Na trí bhall den chorp is éasca a ghortú:

Na trí rud is deacra a thoghadh:

An ghlúin,


an uillinn,

agus an tsúil

bó bhán,


Na trí tréithe a bhaineas le hól:

Na trí rud is suntasaí: Bean bhreá,


agus teach ar ard

É a ól,

é a íoc,

é a iompar

Na trí bhreac is sciobtha sa bhfarraige:

Trí rud nach féidir a fhoghlaim:




agus ronnach


Trí rud nach dtagann meirg orthu:

Trí rud nach féidir a cheilt:

Crú capaill,


teanga mná, airgead sagairt.

Trí bhua an chait: Dearmad bhean an tí,

siúl gan torann,

Súil gabha i ndiaidh an tairne

agus grá

Trí rud nach bhfágann rian: radharc géar sa dorchadas.

Éinín ar an gcraobh,

Na trí shúil is géire: Súil circe i ndiaidh an ghráinne


agus filíocht

breac ar an linn,

is grá mná ar chroí fir.

Na trí rud is measa amuigh; Súil ógmhná i ndiaidh a grá ghil.

Béal searbh,


intinn bhuartha

agus póca folamh

Seanfhocail 1

Ar scáth a chéile a mhaireann na daoine

Is fear an tsláinte na ná táinte

Is fear rith maith ná drochshesaamh.

Éist le fuaim na habhann agus gheobhfaidh tú breac

Céard a dhéanfadh mac an chait ach luch a mhárú

Is minic a bhíonn ciúin ciontach

Is binn béal ina thost

Cuir síoda ar ghabhar ach is gabhar i gcónaí é

Filleann an feall ar an bhfeallaire


Seanfhocail 1

Is túisce deoch na scéal

Mol an óige agus tiocfaidh sí

Ná fág an sionnach i mbun na ngéanna

Ní dhéanfaidh an saol capall rása d’asal

Ní eitlíonn cuileog i mbéal dúnta

Ní mhealltar an sionnach faoi dhó

Ní neart go cur le chéile

Níl aon tinteán mar do thinteán fhéin

Giorraíonn bóthar.



Seanfhocail 2

Aithníonn ciaróg ciaróg eile

Ní uasal ná íseal ach thuas seal ‘is thíos seal

Bíónn siúlach scéalach

Bíonn blas ar an mbeagán

Briseann an dúchas trí shúile an chait

Múineann gá seift

Is trom an tualach an leisce

An rud is annamh is iontach

Is maith an t-anlann an t-ocras


Seanfhocail 2


An rud nach féidir ní féidir é.

Ní thagann ciall roimh aois

Nuair a bhíonn an bolg lán is maith leis na cnámha síneadh

Nuair a bhíonn an bhraon istigh bíonn an chiall amuigh.

Is fearr cairde ná ór

An rud is gaire don chroí is gaire don bhéal

Tús maith leath na hoibre

Is maith an scéalaí an aimsir

Ní bhíonn gan locht.



Droichead ar loch gan mhaide gan chloch.

Chomh hard le balla, chomh dearg le fuil, chomh bán le sneachta, chomh milis le mill.

Cén rud a bhíonn ag corraí agus ag corraí agus nár chorraigh riamh as an áit.

Filleann sé ón sliabh de ló ‘s d’oíche ach ón machaire mín ní fhilleann sé choíche.

Céard atá ag duine nach féidir leis a choinnéail ach nóiméad amháin.

Tá sé ann ó thús ama agus níl sé ach mí d’aois.

Chomh bán le sneachta, chomh glas le féar, chomh dearg le fuil agus chomh dubh le simléar.

Dá aosta a bheadh sé is ea is lú a éireoidh sé.

Tá súil mhór amháin aige ach ní fheiceann sé aon rud léi.



Chaith mé suas é chomh bán le bainne agus tháinig sé anuas chomh buí le hór.

Trí chois nach siúlann. Clab mór nach ndúnann.

Teachtaire beag ó theach go teach agus fanann sé amuigh san oíche.

Deatach sa ngleann agus gan aon splanc ann.

Céard nach foláir duit a choinneáil tar éis é a thabhairt uait.

Cén rud is mó a ritheann gan chosa ?

Dá mhéad a bhaintear as is ea is mó a éiríonn sé.

Tá sé ort agus ní trom leat é?

Cén tsúil nach bhfeiceann agus cén teanga nach labhraíonn?


Beannachtaí Irish blessings, greetings and curses are world famous. The word beannacht derives from the latin- benedictio – (bene – good, dictio – talk)

Go méadaí Dia do stór - Nuair a thugann duine rud duit Nár laga Dia thú - Nuair a thugann duine cúnamh duit. Go gcuití Dia leat e - Nuair a dhéanann duine gar duit.

Dia idir sinn agus an anachain Go bhfóire Dia orainn - Nuair a chloisfeá drochscéal I bhfad uainn an anachain - Nuair a chloisfeá drochscéal

Go dtuga Dia slán abhaile thú - Le duine ag dul ar aistear fada. Go n-éirí an bóthar leat. - Le duine ag dul ar aistir bóthair. Go dtéigh tú slán - Le duine a bhí ag fágáil

Go maire sibh bhur nuaíocht - Le lánúin nuaphósta. Go maire tú is go gcaithe tú é. - Le duine a cheannódh rud nua. Go maire tú an céad - Le duine ar a breith lá.

Bail ó Dhia ort / ar an obair. - le duine a bheadh i mbun oibre. Go mba hé duit! - An freagra ar “Bail ó Dhia ort” Go raibh (míle) maith agat! - Thanks

Dia linn. - Le duine a bhí ag sraothfairt. Go ngnóthaí Dia dhuit! Agus tú ag fágáil slán ag duine. Dia go deo leat - Ag moladh duine


Mallachtaí We normally hear about Irish blessings, but they were famous irish curses as well. Be careful with curses. They can come back to you. The word mallacht derives from the Latin maledictio ( bad – malicious, dictio – talk)

Titim gan éirí ort. Múchadh agus bá ort. Loscadh agus dó ort.

Imeacht gan teacht ort. Go n-imí an drochaimsir leat. Droch-rath ort.

Ná raibh tú ann ar maidin. Mo sheacht mallacht ort. Go dtachta an diabhal thú.

Nár chuireadh Dia an t-ádh ort! Go n-ithe an cat thú, is go n-ithe an diabhal an cat! Marbhfháisc ort!

An eascainí chéanna ort fhéin! Mallacht Chromail ort! Scread mhaidne ort!

Gabh suas ort fhéin! Gabh i dtigh Diabhail Freig soir thú agus an bád a thóg anoir thú


Moladh - Téarmaí Ceanna Saying terms of endearment as Gaeilge will mean so much more to the person for which they are intended. These love phrases as Gaeilge should help you express your feelings to your special somebody.

Togha fir - togha cailín An-fhear - an-chailín tu féin Rinne tú thar cionn - thar barr

the best of / excellent good man/girl yourself you did very well

Mo ghrá go deo thú! Scaoil amach an pocaide! Fair play dhuit!

Well done (My love forever) Well done (Let out the billy goat) Well done (Fair play to you)

Mo cheol thú! Fáinne óir ort! Tréaslaím leat

You Are My Music A gold ring on you I commend you

Terms of Endearment A / mo chroí My sweetheart A /mo mhúirnín My Dear A stóirín My Darling A stór mo chroí My Heart’s Beloved A mhaicín mhuirneach My loving affectionate son A mhac bán My fair-haired son A ghrá ghil My Bright Love Mo mhíle grá You are my thousand loves A chuisle (mo chroí) You are my heartbeat. Grá mo chroí thú! You are the love of my heart. A Thaisce My treasure Is liomsa mo ghrá My beloved is mine Tá cion agam dhuit, I have affection for you Tá mé i ngrá leat! I love you Bheith i bpian an ghrá. To be lovesick Is breá liom thú I really like you


Moladh - Cáineadh Is crá croí t(h)ú. Is pian sa tóin t(h)ú. Is cloigeann cipín t(h)ú.

You are a terrible nuisance You are a pain in the ass You are a featherhead

Tá sifil ort. Tá scail ort. Tá lúb ar lár ort.

You are dotty You have lost the run of yourself You aren’t the full shilling

A shuaracháin petty / mean / contempible person A straoiseacháin grinner / grimacer A shlíbhín sleaze-ball

A phleota! you idiot A phleidhce! you messer A cheoláin! you dimwit

A amhais A alpaire A shlíomadóir!

you savage you glutton you slimeball

Ag caint cacamais! Ag baothchaint Ag caint seafóide - ag caint ráiméise

talking bullshit. foolish talk talking nonsense

A chacsmuitín A raicleach A smaoiseacháin A scubaide

you gobshite you hussy you snot you hussy


Logainmneacha (Placenames)

The placenames of Ireland are both ancient and interesting. Many of them come from a time when Gaeilge was spoken by a large majority of the population throughout the country and, containing both a wealth of knowledge and heritage, they are an important part of our culture. Many placenames were anglicised during the 19th century based on the words’ sound rather than meaning and, as a result, much of the sense and meaning was lost in translation. To find the original meaning of a placename, it is necessary to look at the original version as Gaeilge rather than the anglicised version. Many placenames can be grouped as follows: • Places where people lived, e.g. dún, ráth, caiseal… • Description of the land, e.g. corcach, brí, cluain, ard… • Names of trees, e.g. beith, iúr, eo, dair… • Religious names e.g. cill, domhnach, teampall… • Description of the countryside e.g. lug, rinn, ros… • Roads and paths e.g.bealach, slí, bóthar… • Rivers and features of rivers e.g. béal, eas, gabhal, áth…


Logainmneacha (Placenames)



droim, druim






aill, faill




alt, ard

high land, height







ford, river crossing

marsh, boggy ground


town, townland


grassy land or plot


top, summit



beag, beg




béal, bun bealach bearna binn brí caiseal, cathair caisleán caladh carn carraig cath ceann/cionn ceapach cill clár clochán

river mouth


river fork garden

cluain cnoc coill craobh dair domhnach


garraí glas, glaise gort inis leac leath leithinis leitir lios loch machaire, má mainistir muileann mullach oileán páirc poll ráth rinn rua sí, sídh sliabh

path, way, pass gap peak hill circular stone fort castle port, harbour stack of stones rock battle headland planted ground church flat, level ground stepping stones or stone beehive hut hill wood branch oak church


green, grey, stream field island flat stone or rock half peninsula hillside ring fort lake plain, flat land monastery mill hilltop, high land island field hole, pool earthen ring fort point, headland red, red place fairy mound mountain


Rug rón liath ar roc leathan rua.

Sionnach sleamhain slioctha ag seilg sicín séimh socair.

Fástar fataí fada feoite go fairsing le feamainn.

Ná bac le mac an bhacaigh ‘is ní bhacfaidh mac an bhacaigh leat.

Cheannaigh cailín cliste ceanúil císte clasach cearnach.

Tá neascóid ar ioscaid an easpaig!

Cearc uisce i mbarr uisce ag plobáil ‘is ag plabáil. Cé a déarfadh naoi n-uaire é gan anáil a tharraingt.

Gé roimh ghé, gé i ndiaidh gé agus gé idir dhá ghé. Cé

Meicneoir mear meanmnach ag méachan meacan i Muiceannach.

mhéad gé é sin?


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