SETsquared - Changing Worlds

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Changing Worlds

THE IMPACT OF UNIVERSITY RESEARCH


Changing Worlds: the impact of university research

The SETsquared Partnership (Universities of Bath, Bristol, Exeter, Southampton and Surrey) have been involved in long running research programmes that have genuinely changed the world for the better economically, environmentally and socially.

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Ever wonder why we now put babies to sleep on their backs or where the technology that gave us the internet came from? Many may believe such technologies or knowledge came from industry or public bodies but in fact much of our world as we know it today was created through pioneering research at Universities. The SETsquared Partnership (Universities of Bath, Bristol, Exeter, Southampton and Surrey) have been involved in long running research programmes that have genuinely changed the world for the better - economically, environmentally and socially. This brochure gives a unique snapshot of the very best examples of such work: 25 stories from contrasting fields and with very different beginnings, all demonstrating how closely our academics work with industry and other partner organisations to create world changing outcomes. Without many of these innovations the way we live our lives and do business today would be very different. Sometimes this research is focused with clear goals on the impact it hopes to achieve but many of these examples come from ‘blue sky’ research where discoveries are made which could not have been envisaged at the outset. These are often the “leaps” required to save people’s lives both here in the UK and all over the world or just simply create a step change in our business world. Hopefully you will be inspired to engage with the Partnership and the world leading academics from our five Universities and be part of the new wave of discoveries that will change the world over the next decade.


Contents:

Babies and cot death: how research led to a life saving campaign

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New training programmes at work: injury reduction in the forces

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Transforming treatment in Diabetes: reducing the need for injections

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Drug inhalation technologies: delivering medicines without injections

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Safety and advantages of beating heart coronary surgery

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The Exeter Hip: 40 years of keeping us mobile

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Microwaves in medical therapy: non-invasive treatments for cancer

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The Speech Scrambler: the invention of secure mobile networks

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Surrey Space Centre: new satellite research & technologies

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Pioneering optical fibre research: connecting our world together

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A catalyst to our digital world: strained quantum well lasers

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Understanding climate change: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton

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Hormone disruption in UK rivers: the consequence to wildlife exposed to chemicals discharged into the environment 20 Rice blast fungus: using gene research to control crop destroying disease

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Predicting and cutting landslide risk in developing countries

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Low-energy production of fresh water from sea water: manipulated osmosis

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Safe water – saving lives: the DelAgua story

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Striking Gold: innovation in performance sports

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Fuel efficient, low carbon cars: 25 years of engine research

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Reducing aircraft noise

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Transparency and Open Data: data.gov.uk

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35 million ‘invisible’ poor: understanding poverty in Bangladesh

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The Glass Cliff: Facing gender discrimination in the workplace

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Public sector procurement policies: finding cost savings through research

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The Innocence Network UK: students work to help free wrongly convicted prisoners

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Babies and cot death: how research led to a life saving campaign

“Thanks to continued research at the University of Bristol and collaborations with different research groups, the work we do has enabled us to have had a considerable impact in over 30 different countries.” Professor Fleming

Two decades ago, 2,000 babies in the UK died each year from what became known as Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), commonly referred to as ‘cot death’. Today, these cases have been reduced by 80% thanks to the research and recommendations developed by Peter Fleming, Professor of Infant Health and Developmental Physiology at University of Bristol, and his team. The research has prevented approximately 10,000 deaths in the UK, and at least 100,000 worldwide, as other countries have adopted these recommendations.

Initial research A series of surveys in the mid-1980s conducted by Prof Fleming and his team, pinpointed three potential risk factors - babies sleeping face down; being covered in too many blankets; and being exposed to parental tobacco smoke. The results were published in 1990. After a further study in 1991 confirmed the initial findings, Fleming approached the Government with his advice, and there followed the successful ‘Back to Sleep’ campaign, fronted by TV personality Anne Diamond. After just two years, cot deaths fell by 70% – the equivalent of saving 12 babies a week.

Advice should be followed both day and night Another study led by Bristol University found that the advice in ‘Back to Sleep’ applied equally to babies sleeping during the day. Around 75% of the babies who died of cot death in the daytime were sleeping in a room without an adult present.

Developing better approaches to investigation and care Professor Fleming and his team are involved in policy decisions relating to their research in areas such as preventing SIDS, and developing better approaches to the investigation and care of families after unexpected childhood deaths. Professor Fleming said: “Thanks to continued research at the University of Bristol and collaborations with different research groups, the work we do has enabled us to have had a considerable impact in over 30 different countries.”

Peter Fleming, Professor of Infant Health and Developmental Physiology at Bristol University

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As a result of Professor Fleming’s work, he has been named as one of the UK’s pioneers of science in ‘Eureka UK’, a book celebrating 50 years of life-changing research, developments and interventions by academics at universities throughout the UK.


After just two years, cot deaths fell by 70% – the equivalent of saving 12 babies a week.

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New training programmes at work: injury reduction in the forces For the last ten years, Dr James Bilzon, Director of Studies for the Sport and Exercise Medicine Programme at the University of Bath, has worked closely with the Army Recruiting & Training Division (ARTD) to reduce the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries (MSI). The research has proved successful with a range of trainees, including paratroopers, new trainees with lower fitness levels and female recruits.

Female-only training regimes Research showed a higher incidence of injury in females than males when they formed a minority proportion of mixed-gender platoons. Medical discharge (MD) due to injury was at the rate of 95 per 1000 trainees, compared to 25 per 1000 in males. The formation of single sex platoons, offering improved training techniques and female commanders, was piloted. After a 12-month evaluation, women were achieving the required level of operational fitness, with a huge reduction in MD, which now stands at a similar rate as that of their male colleagues. To date, the British Army is believed to be the only army in the world to introduce female-only training regimes.

Parachute Regiment Training

Medical Discharge of female recruits down by 74% and male by 60%

Training to be an elite Parachute Regiment soldier is widely regarded as the most arduous in the British Army. Pass out rates were very low – around 43%, and MD was high, at 14.4%. An in-depth study resulted in a complete overhaul of the 26-week training programme, including the introduction of a fourth meal in the evening and a more rigorous selection procedure to ensure the best candidates were joining training at the front end. First time pass-out rates increased to 58% and discharges due to musculoskeletal injuries decreased to 5.1%.

Broadening the impact The benefits of combining occupational physiology research in the lab, with intensive testing in the field, have been proven for, and continue to benefit, the British Army. Studies in low oxygen environments, such as storage facilities used by the British Library, have helped to develop new working practices, and Dr Bilzon continues this work in other sectors, as diverse as the fire service and grocery retailing, where operational fitness and injury rates can be improved through better training techniques.

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Transforming treatment in Diabetes: reducing the need for injections

Professor Andrew Hattersley and his Exeter team at the Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry have worked to understand the precise genetic mutations which cause diabetes in individual patients and found that this can have a marked effect on the type of treatment required. Their research has dramatically changed the treatment options for certain patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a life-long illness, most frequently developing in childhood: patients are obliged to receive exogenous insulin often by multiple daily injections in perpetuity. This places considerable psychological pressure on the individuals and their families whilst significantly constraining their lifestyle. In particular, their research has shown that drugs which are effective in patients with the normal form of Type 2 diabetes could be four times more effective in patients with the most common genetic form of monogenic diabetes. This has enabled hundreds of patients to take tablets to control their diabetes and released them from the requirement to inject insulin.

The Exeter team have found four new genetic causes of this type of diabetes and more than 50% of these children can swap their insulin injections for sulphonylurea tablets and get better blood sugar control.

Their latest work has centred on children diagnosed with diabetes in the first six months of life. The Exeter team have found four new genetic causes of this type of diabetes and more than 50% of these children can swap their insulin injections for sulphonylurea tablets and get better blood sugar control. Research in this field has improved patient care and quality of life, correspondingly improved public services, and achieved international impact.

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Drug inhalation technologies: delivering medicines without injections Incurable respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are on the increase. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates the number of asthma sufferers at around 300 million and the number of COPD sufferers at 210 million, worldwide. Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children. Research teams at The University of Bath Centre for Drug Formulation Studies have developed treatments which help control symptoms and increase the quality of life for sufferers.

Inhaled pharmaceuticals – the challenge Drugs delivered through an inhaler are formulated to go directly into the airways, but the particle size is crucial. A dose larger than 10µm (or 10 thousandths of a millimetre) will be swallowed and never reach the lungs. Anything smaller than 1µm is exhaled. The optimal particle size is between 2 and 5µm, but these particles can adhere together to form agglomerates much larger than the critical 5µm.

Overcoming particle adhesion

The use of inert carrier particles means that around 50% of the dose is now delivered, consistently.

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In the 1990s, research at the Centre for Drug Formulation Studies at the University of Bath resulted in significant progress in overcoming the issue of drug-drug particle adhesion by including pharmacologically inactive materials within the formulation to modify how individual drug particles interact. Old-style inhalers delivered approximately 20% of the dose to the respiratory tract – but the amounts varied. The use of inert carrier particles means that around 50% of the dose is now delivered, consistently.


Vectura Group plc Vectura Group plc originated from this research and is focused on the development of pulmonary products using its proprietary inhaler device and formulation technologies. The company has eight products marketed by its partners and a portfolio of drugs in clinical and pre-clinical development, some of which have been licensed to major pharmaceutical companies. As well as developing its own products, Vectura continues to benefit from its technological skills and intellectual property, and in July 2010 signed a dry powder formulation licensing deal with GlaxoSmithKline worth ÂŁ20 million in up front and milestone payments, as well as royalties on product sales.

The future Some of the original research team are now back at the University of Bath working on transdermal and topical drug delivery. Developments include a novel tablet which delivers a metered dose of a drug when applied to the skin via an applicator and gentle rubbing. This provides a less messy and more accurate way of administering drugs than creams.

Research teams at The University of Bath Centre for Drug Formulation Studies have developed treatments which help control symptoms and increase the quality of life for sufferers.

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Safety and advantages of beating heart coronary surgery

Beating heart surgery offers a 25% cost saving per patient, with the Bristol Heart Institute performing over 750 such operations a year.

In 1995, an innovative technique in heart coronary bypass surgery, known as off-pump beating heart coronary surgery (OPCAB), was pioneered at the Bristol Heart Institute, part of the University of Bristol. The technique significantly reduces the risk of post-operative morbidity, time in intensive care and length of hospital stay, and is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. OPCAB is now used in 15-20% of all coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, with the Bristol Heart Institute performing over 750 such operations a year.

Conventional ‘on pump’ surgery During surgery, the heart is normally paralysed by a cardioplegic solution, while blood is diverted from the vascular system and pumped through plastic tubing outside the body. This artificial pump temporarily performs the functions of the heart and lungs.

New challenges Today, the risks of on pump heart surgery are greater than they were 20 years ago. This is because many people face heart surgery later, and, as a consequence, have more serious heart disease and require urgent or emergency procedures more frequently.

New solutions that improve lives and reduce costs The new technique - beating heart surgery - uses a special stabiliser to keep a small part of the heart still, so the surgeon can operate on that part while the rest of the heart keeps beating. The technique is known as ‘off-pump’ surgery, since there is no need for the artificial pump. Beating heart surgery results in fewer post-surgery complications, such as infections due to inadequate clearance of fluid from the lungs and temporary kidney failure. There is also less blood loss and transfusion requirement, and reduced damage to the heart muscle itself. The technique generates a 25% cost saving per patient, and has proved particularly beneficial for obese patients, reducing inhospital mortality and neurological injury. Continued monitoring of early and long-term outcomes for patients, including in-hospital outcomes, survival rates and quality of life, and the provision of training for cardiac surgeons in off-pump techniques are now under way to determine whether off-pump surgery performed on the beating heart will supersede conventional surgery.

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The Exeter Hip: 40 years of keeping us mobile

The Exeter Hip Replacement was designed by Professor Robin Ling of the Princess Elizabeth Orthopaedic Hospital, Exeter, and Dr Clive Lee of the University of Exeter and first implanted in November 1970. It is currently the most widely and commonly used cemented hip replacement in the world, with over 40 years of clinical results, continuing to be at the forefront of technology and innovation. The Exeter Hip is suitable for patients of all ages. It is also a hugely successful treatment, with over 90% of patients being totally pain-free following surgery. Success rates, with the endpoint being loosening of the socket or stem, are better than 95% at 15 years and many patients have now had their Exeter Hip Replacement in position for over 30 years.

“We were proud to name the hip after Exeter as so many people in the University and the hospital were instrumental in its development.” Dr Clive Lee

First used in 1970, the Exeter hip revolutionised hip replacement operations with a ‘metal on plastic’ cemented hip and is now the most frequently used cemented hip replacement in the world, with over 1 million operations undertaken by the end of 2010. Approximately 90,000 hips are now used each year – that’s the equivalent of the adult population of Exeter being given a new spring in their step every 12 months. According to Dr Clive Lee “We were proud to name the hip after Exeter as so many people in the University and the hospital were instrumental in its development. We had significant technical and other support from the University’s former department of Engineering Science…. Still the biggest pleasure for me is when people who have had replacement hips come up to me and thank me for changing their lives.”

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Microwaves in medical therapy: non-invasive treatments for cancer Worldwide, there are over ten million new incidences of cancer and more than six million deaths from cancer, annually. There are over 600,000 new incidences of liver cancer every year, across the world. Surgical removal of tumours is often impossible due to the presence of multiple tumours, or because the patients are not fit enough for such invasive procedures. The University of Bath is closely involved in the development of systems which make an important contribution to the treatment of cancer. The systems are commercially developed by Microsulis Medical Ltd which was set up specifically for that purpose.

Liver tumour treatment In 1998, University of Bath began work with Mr David Lloyd, Consultant Hepatobiliary and Laparoscopic Surgeon at Leicester Royal Infirmary, and Microsulis Medical to develop a new microwave-based treatment for large liver tumours. Microwave Tissue Ablation - marketed as MTA™ - allows surgeons to treat previously inoperable patients. MTA operates at the same frequency as a domestic microwave, and can fully treat a 5 cm diameter liver tumour in just five minutes. MTA is now used in approximately 60 centres around the world.

Menorrhgia

MTA operates at the same frequency as a domestic microwave, and can fully treat a 5 cm diameter liver tumour in just five minutes.

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This work was preceded by research which began in 1994 on a system for the treatment of menorrhgia - a painful gynaecological condition which causes dysfunctional uterine bleeding. The traditional medical solution had been hysterectomy. Prof Nigel Cronin at the University of Bath and Mr Nick Sharp at the Royal United Hospital in Bath developed a minimally invasive microwave-based treatment - Microwave Endometrial Ablation (MEA). Operating at 9.2 GHz, MEA treated only the endometrium, leaving the rest of the uterus unaffected and intact. MEA treatment takes just three minutes and can be performed in an outpatients setting, generating massive cost savings for the NHS. Over 75,000 successful treatments have now been completed.

Smaller devices There is a growing need for very small microwave devices which can be placed directly through the skin under imaging guidance. In these smaller formats, it is crucial to cool the shaft of the applicator and the microwave feed cables which go through the skin. A new system, again developed in collaboration with Microsulis – Percutaneous (through the skin) Microwave Tissue Ablation (pMTA™) – keeps the whole device at ambient temperature. pMTA has only recently been released, but is already in use at over 30 surgical and radiological centres.


The Speech Scrambler: the invention of secure mobile networks In 1992, a secure mobile phone system came into service for the first time, when the Thames Valley Police started using a new ‘speech scrambler’ system, following research directed by Professor Joe McGeehan at the University of Bristol Centre for Communications Research. Until this time, unauthorised listeners could scan mobile and fixed telephone calls - eavesdropping the police and posing a threat to their safety and operational effectiveness. The scrambler started a new era of higher police security, and the encryption techniques involved allowed for the massive expansion of commercial and personal mobile phone usage we see today.

Early improvements to mobile radio In 1975, Prof McGeehan began research to manipulate the spectrum of received mobile radio signals so they would reach the recipient without fading or loss of quality. By 1980, this work resulted in an improved AM transportable mobile radio, which was adopted by the Securicor fleet of vans, significantly reducing their operational costs. However, there were still problems with the privacy and security of calls made from analogue phones, which especially concerned the police and, in the late eighties, the Home Office called for competitive trials to be undertaken to research a variety of speech scrambler systems. Prof McGeehan and his team conducted research in response, and their prototype was then developed by GEC-Marconi Secure Systems into the Marconi Advanced Scrambler (MASC) system. The Home Office selected MASC as the recommended speech scrambler for UK police forces, out of five options.

“I spotted that existing technology, with the addition of new novel engineering solutions, could provide the answer.” Prof McGeehan

MASC scrambler handset produced by Motorola.

The Speech scrambler By 1992, the police were using the scrambler in active service. The new mobile device was no more than a couple of inches in length and could be incorporated into the officer’s uniform radio. Prof McGeehan recalls: “I spotted that existing technology, with the addition of new novel engineering solutions, could provide the answer. Then, as now, the challenge was to find a commercial partner willing to take a risk, and support the work and its commercial exploitation.” Although Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) digital radio has taken over today’s mobile communications, the speech scrambler allowed police forces to convert to digital gradually, as costs came down.

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Surrey Space Centre: new satellite research & technologies The Surrey Space Centre at the University of Surrey is Europe’s largest Universitybased Space Engineering and Technology Research Centre. In 1985, Professor Sir Martin Sweeting formed Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) as a spin-out company to transfer the results of its space engineering into a commercial enterprise. SSTL has been delivering small satellite missions for over 25 years and its knowledge and experience fully justify its reputation as the world’s premier provider of operational and commercial satellite programmes. In 2002, Professor Sir Martin Sweeting was knighted in recognition of his pioneering work.

Changing Space Economics Conventional satellites are big, bulky and expensive to build and launch, but Sir Martin broke new ground, pioneering small, highly advanced satellites using robust ‘commercial off-the-shelf’ (COTS) consumer technologies, such as those used in personal computers, and adapted them to the unique environment of space. In 1981, his first satellite - UoSAT-1 – was successfully launched by NASA and transmitted signals back to the University of Surrey. His second satellite, launched in 1984, still transmits signals back to Earth, 26 years later! SSTL now produces satellites for Earth observation and imaging, telecommunications and navigation, scientific research and instrument testing, for both civil and defence purposes, worldwide. In 2009, SSTL was acquired by EADS Astrium, but maintains strong working links with the Surrey Space Centre. By August 2010, SSTL had launched 34 spacecraft, and achieved total export orders of £490m. Turnover for 2009 was £36m.

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The Disaster Monitoring Constellation The Disaster Monitoring Constellation shares data between partners owning satellites designed and built by SSTL. Members provide 5% of capacity free for daily imaging of disaster areas. Deputy Director of Surrey Space Centre, Dr Craig Underwood, explains: “Satellite technology is already playing a key role in helping to quantify and manage environmental challenges around the world, and we are working to make that contribution more effective.”

New projects In January 2010, SSTL won a major part of a €3.4 billion contract to provide a European GNSS system - an alternative to the US Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian GLONASS system.

“Satellite technology is already playing a key role in helping to quantify and manage environmental challenges around the world, and we are working to make that contribution more effective.” Dr Craig Underwood

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Pioneering optical fibre research: connecting our world together

From enabling the internet to navigating aircraft, fibre optic technology developed at the University of Southampton is connecting our world together.

Professor David Payne is the Director of the University of Southampton’s Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC). In 1987, he led the research group which, in a major breakthrough, invented the world’s first Erbium-Doped Fibre Amplifier (EDFA) which overcame the problem of signal fading during data transmission over large distances. Today our everyday lives are connected by the optical fibre technologies developed at the University of Southampton. Global fibre optic networks connect up the internet, carry telecommunications traffic around the world and deliver media to our homes. The ORC was established in 1989, with funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) , and is now a world-leading centre for photonics, optical telecommunication and high-power lasers. The centre has licensed over 30 key patents, and regularly collaborates with industrial giants, such as Boeing, Cisco, Sharp and BAE Systems. In 2010, the EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Photonics was established at the University of Southampton under the leadership of Prof Payne.

The fibre laser revolution Fibre lasers, also developed by Prof Payne and his team, have transformed the way things are made, repaired and destroyed, worldwide. Small size, maintenance-free operation, thermal and electrical efficiency, and outstanding beam quality have made the fibre laser a huge success. Prof David Richardson, Deputy Director at the ORC, said: “Fibre lasers can be used to cut inch-thick steel, to weld your car during manufacture, perform delicate eye surgery, or even mark the dates on fruit.”

A cluster of stars In the Southampton area alone the formation of a photonics cluster of ten start up companies has generated revenues in excess of £100m and created over 500 jobs

A shining light In 2008, Prof Payne was awarded the Marconi Society Prize and Fellowship for his work at the ORC, joining a list of previous winners including world wide web creator, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, and Google founders, Sergey Brin and Larry Page.

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A catalyst to our digital world: strained quantum well lasers Prof Adams FRS (Emeritus Distinguished Professor of Physics at the University of Surrey), headed the Optoelectronic Materials and Devices Research Group. In 1986, he had an idea which has had an impact on almost all of us – at work, at home and in the way we choose to communicate. The strained quantum well laser has led to technologies and products which are worth billions of dollars worldwide, and are now used in everything from car manufacture to the internet.

Straining the laser Prof Adams discovered that, if the laser’s crystal lattice was grown in a way which put it under strain, it could be ‘squashed’ into a shape which produced a more controlled, concentrated beam of light – making it more energy efficient and powerful than any other laser at that time.

First commercial applications to everyday use Strained lasers could be used in many applications: CDs, DVDs and Blu-ray, allowing them to become smaller and cheaper, yet with greater data capacity. Today, they are used in many other sectors, including computers and optical fibre communications, scanners and readers at supermarket checkouts.

Telecommunications & the internet The photonics group at the University of Surrey is now led by Prof Stephen Sweeney who is building on Alf Adam’s work and expanding research into new areas. He recalls: “I looked at the limitations of the laser technology and set out to develop faster and more efficient lasers for communications.” The technology produces short and powerful pulses of light to transfer information extremely fast, ‘at the speed of light’. With optical fibres as carriers, this led to the development of high speed telecommunications, and eventually the internet. Nowadays, all optical telecommunications use strained lasers.

“I was walking along the beach on holiday in Bournemouth, and the idea just jumped out. The more you take control of light, the more efficiently you can use it” Prof Alf Adams FRS

Prof Sweeney says: “The internet currently consumes about 1% of total energy consumption, and web usage is increasing exponentially. So by continuing to develop the strained laser, we can reduce costs, energy consumption and environmental impact.”

More uses for strained lasers Research continues to create new opportunities including environmental pollution sensing equipment and strained layer solar cell and low energy LED-based lighting.

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Understanding climate change: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton “Some of our figures are being used to inform extreme scenarios for flood protection plans for strategic centres like London, Manhattan, Rotterdam and Seattle.”

The National Oceanography Centre, Southampton brings together scientists and engineers from the Natural Environment Research Council and the University of Southampton in a collaborative environment on the city’s waterfront. The centre is a multidisciplinary hub of expertise, housing oceanographers, geologists, ecologists and physicists and delivering the technologies needed to carry out world-leading research that answers pressing questions about our planet. Three key areas of research which feed into UK and global policy on climate change, demonstrate the wide range of work undertaken there.

Studying sea levels and climate change Eelco Rohling is Professor of Ocean and Climate Change at the University of Southampton’s School of Ocean and Earth Science, based at the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton. His team have developed a new method to reconstruct sea-level changes in 100-year time steps, going back over the last 500,000 years which increases our understanding of the impact of more recent climate changes on sea-levels.

Prof Rohling Prof Rohling explains: “Some of our figures are being used to inform extreme scenarios for flood protection plans for strategic centres like London, Manhattan, Rotterdam and Seattle.”

How marine animals and plants capture carbon Dr Debora Iglesias-Rodriguez has been studying ocean biochemistry and ecosystems for 15 years, looking at the effect of ‘ocean acidification’ on marine organisms. “For the first time”, explains Dr IglesiasRodriguez, “we have proved that calcification by phytoplankton varies depending on species. Some of these microscopic organisms, which are major players in the Earth’s cycling of carbon, are responding to climate change by increasing the size of their calcium carbonate plates.”

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RAPID Programme - global scale research and the future Professor Meric Srokosz is science co-ordinator of the NERC RAPID climate change programme at the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton. His project, which started in 2004, is to track a decade of the North Atlantic circulation and its effect on climate. The project monitors changes to the circulation, and using these to develop improved models to forecast future change. The programme is working with the Meteorological Office Hadley Centre which advises the Government on climate change issues, and is funded through the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) and the Ministry of Defence (MOD).

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Hormone disruption in UK rivers: the consequence to wildlife exposed to chemicals discharged into the environment Research conducted in the Tyler Laboratory at the University of Exeter has identified the widespread disruption of sexual development in roach fish (Rutilus rutilus) in UK rivers. The team has proven that the condition arises as a consequence of exposure to wastewater effluents containing oestrogens. This work has shown that feminised males have a reduced reproductive capability with potential impacts for the sustainability of wild fisheries. This work on roach has led to recognition internationally that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can have widespread impacts on the natural environment. The University of Exeter’s Ecotoxicology and Aquatic Biology Research Group is a large, dynamic group studying the effects of environmental pollutants on aquatic wildlife and investigating the basic physiology of fish. The work on pollutants investigates the effect in individuals to population-level impacts. Long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of pollutants and mixture effects are key themes in this work and reproductive behaviour are the major processes studied. The research has led to: • £40m of direct investment into the National Endocrine Disruption Programme to remove compounds from the water system. • £4.9m per annum of efficiency savings to the UK production industry via Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP). • £54m per annum to safeguard the UK angling and tourism industry, by looking after fresh water fish stocks. The group has very extensive international collaborations with academic institutions, government bodies and industry and is well funded from a wide range of organisations including, UK Research Councils, The European Union, The Environment Agency, DEFRA, and various industries. The research team is now focusing on identifying the source of anti-androgenic chemicals, as well as continuing the study their impact on reproductive health in wildlife and humans.

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Rice blast fungus: using gene research to control crop destroying disease Researchers in the School of Biosciences at the University of Exeter are studying the devastating rice blast disease, which each year destroys enough rice to feed 60 million people. The disease, caused by a fungus, occurs throughout rice-growing regions of the world and has recently caused epidemics in Korea and China. This ‘plant pathogen’, known scientifically as Magnaporthe grisea, is the most serious disease of cultivated rice. Therefore knowledge gained about this fungus can be applied to a disease of critical importance to the global food supply. Exeter researchers were part of the international team which first sequenced the genome of the rice blast fungus in 2006 and they have now used next generation DNA sequencing facilities at Exeter to compare the genomes of isolates of the fungus from around the world. Professor Nick Talbot who leads the research said “We are trying to find out what makes this fungus special in being able to cause such an aggressive disease. By comparing strains with different virulence, we can learn more about the precise genes which allow disease to occur.”

“By harnessing the power of genomic research, we can rapidly develop a detailed understanding of rice blast disease and use this to guide new strategies for its control.” Professor Talbot

The Exeter group have also developed new high throughput methods to study rice blast disease using targeted gene knockouts. This method precisely deletes a single gene from the fungus, allowing its role to be investigated. The research, published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, is a major breakthrough in studying the disease process. “By harnessing the power of genomic research, we can rapidly develop a detailed understanding of rice blast disease and use this to guide new strategies for its control” said Professor Talbot.

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Predicting and cutting landslide risk in developing countries

To date, MoSSaiC has helped 12 communities and approximately 3,500 of the poorest people living in unplanned settlements Community meetings are held to discuss and agree the drainage project

Professor Malcolm Anderson, from the University of Bristol has spent more than 20 years studying how to predict and reduce the risk of landslide disasters, in poor urban areas around the world. The software he developed, CHASM (Combined Hydrology and Stability Model), models the dynamic effect of rainfall and other factors on the stability of slopes, helping predict potentially devastating landslides and assessing ways of reducing risk through water management. He decided to test his model in the field. Professor Anderson said: “We chose St Lucia as our lab because there is a high risk of hurricanes and landslides. We simply got on a plane and started working out there.” Professor Anderson and his research associate, Dr Liz Holcombe, looked at the effects of vegetation, housing density, surface water and soil conditions and modelled these factors using CHASM, confirming their assertion that surface water management and drainage was the key to reducing risk. The Government of St Lucia endorsed this new approach and the MoSSaiC (Management for Slope Stability in Communities) project began.

Community involvement Dr Holcombe explained: “In Skate Town, we advised where drains could go. Local people were involved throughout. They helped us produce ‘hazard maps’, they helped us plan; they tendered for the construction work; they learnt new skills through building the drainage and, of course, they benefited from fewer landslides.”

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The impact of a landslide caused by heavy rainfall

Promoting and funding MoSSaiC The following year, the St Lucia government extended the scheme to a further six communities. SETsquared provided a £12,000 grant to the project in its 2nd year, through its Social Enterprise Fund, and offered consultancy support as part of the package. This included help with business models; how to work with NGO’s; gaining recognition and influencing government policy makers, in particular identifying ways to illustrate the financial benefits. Other funding streams included the World Bank, USAID (US Agency for International Development) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). What starting as a self-funded trip by two academics has evolved into a global partnership over a five-year period, with MoSSaiC methodology being rolled out to St Vincent and the Grenadines, Dominica, Jamaica and, potentially, areas of Latin America. To date, MoSSaiC has helped 12 communities and approximately 3,500 of the poorest people living in unplanned settlements. Risk reduction programmes such as MoSSaiC offer savings of $2-3 to every $1 spent. Utilising local people means that about 80% of the funding Professor Anderson obtains is actually spent in the community.

“We’ve looked at the cost of our projects and found that it’s about 2% of the relocation costs in the aftermath of a disaster, so by building drainage and reducing landslide risk, you’re hopefully avoiding this massive cost of relocation.” Dr Liz Holcombe

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Low-energy production of fresh water from sea water: manipulated osmosis By 2025, it is estimated that five and a half billion people - two-thirds of the world’s population - will live in countries that are classified as ‘water stressed’.

Manipulated Osmosis uses around 30% less energy than conventional desalination.

The manipulated osmosis (MO) technique developed by Prof Adel Sharif at the University of Surrey’s Centre for Osmosis Research and Applications (CORA) converts seawater to drinking water through a process combining forward osmosis and reverse osmosis. With low capital and operating costs, MO also has a positive impact on the environment, as it uses around 30% less energy than conventional desalination and lowers the consumption and disposal of hazardous chemicals. In 2005, Professor Adel Sharif was awarded the prestigious Royal Society Brian Mercer Award, and the subsequent funding helped build a pilot-scale desalination plant at the Guildford campus.

Surrey Aqua Technology Ltd and Modern Water plc In November 2006, Surrey Aqua Technology Ltd was formed, as a spin-out company from the University of Surrey, to develop MO technology. In June 2007, it was incorporated into Modern Water plc, and listed on the AIM with a market value of £70 million. Modern Water has two desalination plants in operation - a proving plant in Gibraltar and a commercial-scale plant in Oman, which has been supplying high quality water to the region since March 2010. Prof Sharif comments: “MO and its associated technologies can significantly change the economic and performance characteristics of industries such as desalination, conventional water treatment, power generation, oil and the chemical and energy industries.” Current Modern Water applications include evaporative cooling systems, pre-treatment for thermal desalination plants, secondary oil recovery and hydro-osmotic power. A proving plant for evaporative cooling systems is now commissioned in Oman. The technology reduces electricity consumption by up to 90% compared to a conventional cooling plant. Neil McDougall, Executive Chairman of Modern Water plc, comments: “We are proud of the successes we have achieved in taking these technologies from the lab to commercialisation in a short timescale.”

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Safe water – saving lives: the DelAgua story

In 1984, when the World Health Organisation (WHO) published international guidelines for drinking-water safety, the only portable water testing equipment available was ungainly and heavy to transport. At the University of Surrey, Professor of Environmental Health Engineering, Barry Lloyd set up a multidisciplinary team with the goal of producing a water testing kit, which was light, reliable, simple to use and accurate. The result was the DelAgua Water Testing Kit which is now used in 130 countries across the globe by over 1000 different organisations. Typical users include UNICEF, IFRC, WHO, Red Cross, Water Aid and Oxfam. Prof Lloyd comments: “The WHO estimates that around a quarter of all humankind is carrying intestinal parasites, as a direct result of inadequate sanitation. The DelAgua kit allows people to carry out simple chemical tests and to incubate samples. Training is straightforward and takes around two days.” The kit tests for five water quality indicators, which in combination can show the likelihood of pathogens being present. It holds incubation temperatures accurately for up to 24 hours and can conduct as many as five testing cycles a week, without battery recharge. Field life expectancy is an amazing 15 years.

The DelAgua Water Testing Kit is now used in 130 countries across the globe by over 1000 different organisations.

An evolving success In the early 1990s, Dr Steve Pedley, Senior Research Fellow, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey became involved, working on ways to improve the kit to make it even more reliable. The resulting version has many different applications: UNICEF uses it for data monitoring; Oxfam uses it in emergency situations; UNHCR uses it in refugee camps in war zones; and armed forces use it to test water supplies. In 2006, the business was transferred out of the University of Surrey, and a new business team, under the direction of James Beaumont, was created to take the not-for-profit company forward.

The future James Beaumont of DelAgua says: “The company is launching a low cost canister which can collect and store water safely, and can be used, without training, by a family of four for up to 12 months. We are also continuing to encourage water authorities to use the DelAgua kit to monitor the quality of water supplies, in non-crisis relief situations.”

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Striking Gold: innovation in performance sports

Southampton wind tunnels

The University of Southampton’s wind tunnels have been used by most of the current Formula One teams, and the development of the Ferrari A1GP racecar.

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Chris Hoy, cycling gold medal winner, Bejing

Since October 2006, research engineers from the University of Southampton have been working with UK Sport to help athletes prepare for major competitions. Rachel Blackburn and James Roche, both engineering doctorate students funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) at the University of Southampton, co-designed the all-important sled - affectionately known as ‘Arthur’ – which helped Amy Williams win gold in Vancouver in 2010. Competition within the sport is fierce, and the margin of victory can be as little as 0.01 seconds. Amy Williams explains: “It gives you such confidence, knowing that your equipment is world class and your preparation methods are at the cutting edge of your sport. All you need to worry about is delivering on the day.”

Performance Sports Engineering Laboratory The Performance Sports Engineering Laboratory in Engineering Sciences at the University of Southampton has over five decades of research and development in performance sailing and motorsport, and, recently, through UK Sport, has expanded into cycling, rowing, canoeing and bob skeleton.


Amy Williams with ‘Arthur’ her world beating-sled

The laboratory’s expertise is in the synthesis of first principles-based analysis, the latest computational analysis and simulation tools, and expertise in model-scale experimentation to maximise the capability of the athlete.

The Wolfson Unit Wind tunnel testing was also carried out by our world-renowned Wolfson Unit for Marine Technology and Industrial Aerodynamics (WUMTIA) to accelerate the development of British cycling’s track bikes and riders ahead of the Beijing 2008 Olympics. The large, low-speed wind tunnels have been used by most of the current Formula One teams, and, most recently, for the development of the Ferrari A1GP race car. Marine projects include work on the Luna Rossa and Team New Zealand America’s Cup yacht race contenders, while student projects have included the Bonneville 400 world F1 land speed record car and the Quicksilver world water speed record contender.

“It gives you such confidence, knowing that your equipment is world class and your preparation methods are at the cutting edge of your sport.” Amy Williams

As long as the fans keep turning up, the University of Southampton will continue to supply the world with performance engineers of the highest calibre.

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Fuel efficient, low carbon cars: 25 years of engine research There has been a 25-year history of collaboration between the University of Bath and Ford Motor Company. For the last ten years, the partnership has focused on fuel economy and cutting CO2 emissions. This collaboration has resulted in improvements across the range of engines within everyday passenger cars, such as the Focus, Fiesta and Ka. For example, in terms of carbon emissions ratings, Ford now offer several A-rated models, producing less than 100g/km of CO2, which simply didn’t exist three years ago.

“A 1% improvement in fuel economy represents 750,000 tonnes CO2 saved each year if applied to all passenger cars.” Prof Hawley, University of Bath

Professor Gary Hawley said: “Passenger cars in the UK produce around 72 million tonnes of CO2 every year, but over the last ten years this been gradually reducing through advances in engine technology, vehicle dynamics and greater use of lightweight materials.” Average CO2 emissions from new cars in the UK fell from 189.9g/km in 1997 to 149.5 g/km in 2009 - a reduction of 21.3%. The industry is well on its way to meeting EU regulatory targets of 130g/km fleet average by 2015, but the current rate of improvement must be maintained.

The research programme Research at the University of Bath has focused on enhancing the fuel economy of diesel-powered passenger cars, and has shown that the accumulation of a number of small but measurable improvements can deliver a significant impact. Improvements to the layout, operation and control of vehicle engine cooling systems has led to fuel economy savings of up to 2%. New oil pump designs have demonstrated fuel savings of up to 3%. Research into lubrication oils and fuel economy will feed into the next generation of lubricating oil formulations and should deliver a 1% fuel economy saving. Prof Hawley commented: “A 1% improvement in fuel economy represents 750,000 tonnes CO2 saved each year if applied to all passenger cars. Here, at the University of Bath, we are working to achieve a 10% fuel saving.” Ian Pegg, Senior Research Engineer at Ford Motor Company in Essex, is enthusiastic: “Working with the University of Bath, we can look at things differently. In industry, it’s very easy to get stuck in a rut and take things for granted, but the academics will challenge and investigate measurable benefits.”

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Reducing aircraft noise

With the global explosion in air travel, aircraft noise has become a major public issue. For over 40 years, scientists and engineers at the University of Southampton’s Institute of Sound Vibration Research (ISVR) have been working with the aircraft industry to reduce aircraft noise. As a leading international centre for aircraft noise research, the ISVR has played a significant role in reducing noise levels. Compared to aircraft in the 1960s, today’s jets produce less than one hundredth of the sound (20 -30dB quieter). In 1999, Rolls-Royce founded a University Technology Centre (UTC) in Gas Turbine Noise to benefit from the ISVR’s capabilities. The Southampton centre now has over 30 staff and postgraduate researchers. Andrew Kempton, Chief Noise Specialist at Rolls-Royce said: “The ISVR Research brings a breadth and depth of knowledge, an independence of thought and an aptitude for innovation that helps to ensure the best technology is built into Rolls-Royce engines.”

Demand for quieter aircraft Global passenger and freight air traffic continues to grow and has resulted in increasingly tough noise reduction targets. Southampton UTC focuses on two key areas: reducing the amount of noise generated at source and trying to reduce the noise ‘effect’ before it reaches the ears of the public.

The technology behind noise reduction Most aircraft engine noise comes from the fan blades or from the jet exhaust. ISVR work has contributed significantly to the understanding and reduction of these sources of noise, and to technology being built into the new quiet engines from Rolls-Royce like the Trent 900 (on the Airbus A380 ‘super jumbo’) and the Trent 1000 (on the ‘Dreamliner’ Boeing 787). The ISVR will continue to play an important role in driving down aircraft engine noise still further.

The noise of a modern superjumbo passing overhead is less than one hundredth of that of passenger jets flying in the 1960s and 1970s

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Transparency and Open Data: data.gov.uk Leading University of Southampton academics, Professor Nigel Shadbolt and the British inventor of the world wide web, Professor Sir Tim Berners-Lee, have led the development of a ground-breaking new portal: data.gov.uk. It is a website containing a collection of almost 4000 (and growing) data sets of nonpersonal data from across Government, ranging from education to transport, from government spending to crime.

The concept Sir Tim Berners-Lee has observed: “If data can be published under a Freedom of Information request, why not publish it online? By releasing this data, we can unlock new ideas for delivering public services, help communities and society work better, and let talented entrepreneurs and engineers create new businesses and services.” Prof Shadbolt commented: “The vision is that citizens, consumers and Government can create, re-use and distribute public information in ways that add value, support transparency, facilitate new services and increase efficiency.”

“The vision is that citizens, consumers and Government can create, re-use and distribute public information in ways that add value, support transparency, facilitate new services and increase efficiency.” 30 30

Prof Nigel Shadbolt

Beta version In September 2009, a beta version of data.gov.uk - developed using open source software and open standards - was released to developers. It contained more than 1100 datasets, ranging from traffic counts to planning applications and from schools reference data to the Farm Survey. Over 1000 people began testing the site and creating applications to bring together information from different sources.

Public launch On 21 January 2010, the new portal - data.gov.uk - was launched with a collection of 2500 sets of non-personal data from across the whole of Government. This was a huge achievement. Most notably, it has successfully drawn together data across England, Scotland and Wales. The data format means it can be reused by any individual or business to create innovative new software tools, such as applications providing information on house prices, local schools, amenities and services, or access to local hospitals.

The future The current Government has been quick to release important new data sets, for example, all central government departments must publish spending above £25,000; local authorities will have to provide data on each item of spending above £500; and police forces have to publish data about crime at the local level.


“If data can be published under a Freedom of Information request, why not publish it online?” Sir Tim Berners-Lee

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35 million ‘invisible’ poor: understanding poverty in Bangladesh In Bangladesh, around 56 million people still live in poverty of which 35 million live in extreme poverty.

The Centre for Development Studies – a centre of expertise The Centre for Development Studies (CDS) at the University of Bath is a centre of expertise on poverty and wellbeing, and is internationally renowned for its work in Bangladesh. For over three decades now, staff at CDS have been involved in action research and policy advocacy in Bangladesh aimed at improving the lives of the country’s most disadvantaged and poorest. Recent work by Dr Joe Devine and Prof Geof Wood of the University of Bath, in collaboration with Harewelle International Ltd, a leading UK-based international consultancy firm, builds on and extends the application of CDS’ expertise in poverty reduction strategies.

Significant impact

In Bangladesh, around 56 million people still live in poverty, and 35 million of these live in extreme poverty.

There is evidence of impact throughout this work. There are client level impacts, which usually mean marked improvements in the lives of individuals and households. For example, ‘The Water Sellers’ project where 6,000 companies were established by the landless to sell water to farmers through the provision of irrigation equipment. In 2007, an independent assessment found that almost all of the 432,000 members of the organisation reported improved income and food security. Interactions with parliamentarians have directly led to the formation of Bangladesh’s first All Party Parliamentary Group on extreme poverty. Improved policies will impact the livelihoods of the extreme poor well beyond the life of particular projects.

Economic Empowerment of the Poorest - a new initiative Dr Devine and Prof Wood are now involved in a new DFID-supported initiative called Economic Empowerment of the Poorest. The programme has a grant of £65 million and was designed to address the livelihood needs of the poorest 10% of the country’s population. The programme supports a variety of tested interventions, and also experiments with innovative approaches and projects.

Permanent engagement – informed by research and knowledge The poverty landscape in Bangladesh has changed over the years, and being able to engage with this changing scenario requires continuous innovation and adaptation, informed by research and knowledge. This is a case where research seeks impact immediately as well as over time.

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The Glass Cliff: Facing gender discrimination in the workplace The glass cliff research at the University of Exeter has investigated the context in which women and minority groups are appointed into leadership positions. It suggests that women tend to be appointed to leadership positions under very different circumstances than men. Specifically, the research suggests that women are more likely to be appointed to leadership positions that are associated with an increased risk of criticism and failure. Women’s leadership positions can therefore be seen as more precarious than those of men. Extending the metaphor of the ‘glass ceiling’, Exeter researches have dubbed this phenomenon ‘the glass cliff’. The Exeter research by Dr Michelle Ryan, Professor Alex Halsam and others discovered that shareholders responded negatively to women being appointed to their boards. However the research showed that appointing a woman does not compromise objective financial performance. Lead Author, Professor Alex Halsam said “What is not clear is whether this is because shareholders feel that women perform less well on boards than men or whether they see a woman’s appointment as a signal that the company is in crisis. Whatever the reason, it is clear that this response is unwarranted, because there is no objective evidence that having female board members damages a company’s performance. If anything, the opposite is true.” The team seeks to address gender discrimination in the workplace by providing evidence to challenge industry preconceptions around women’s performance, and also engaging with businesses and organisations to educate them and help develop more appropriate HR systems. The team achieves these aims through three main knowledge transfer activities: promotion of the research through the media, business engagement through workshops and industry conferences, and by catalysing change in organisations.

The research suggests that women are more likely to be appointed to leadership positions that are associated with an increased risk of criticism and failure.

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Public sector procurement policies: finding cost savings through research The Centre for Research in Strategic Purchasing and Supply (CRiSPS), based at the University of Bath, is a world-leading centre for research, education and consultancy in supply strategy - working with highly complex, inter-organisation networks and systems, and influencing policy. Through its 15-year research partnership with the NHS, CRiSPS has developed a deep knowledge, and enabled research, education and consultancy to be spread over the NHS procurement network. This has delivered positive outcomes to patients, NHS organisations and taxpayers alike. As a result of the partnership, a more strategic, integrated approach was adopted to influence the £18 billion spent by the NHS on goods and services. Here are a couple of examples of the impact.

Benefiting hearing impaired patients and taxpayers

The resulting collaborative approach, allowed the NHS to purchase and supply over 260,000 digital hearing aids a year, at the much reduced cost of £60 per unit.

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In the UK, hearing impairment affects 8.7 million individuals. From the 1930s onwards, patients were prescribed highly visible, analogue aids which amplified all sound, rather than selected sound. The wearer had little control over the device, other than total volume, and 25% of analogue users don’t wear their aids for this reason. Digital hearing aid settings can be customised to suit the user, and adjusted according to background conditions. By the 1980s, an analogue hearing aid would cost the NHS £222 per patient, whereas private digital aids cost around £1750 each. The NHS Purchasing and Supply Agency (NHS PASA) worked closely with CRiSPS and the main stakeholders involved in hearing impairment services. The resulting collaborative approach, allowed the NHS to purchase and supply over 260,000 digital hearing aids a year, at the much reduced cost of £60 per unit. Better hearing aids became more widely available, and the NHS saved £45.5 million a year.

Learning through international research The International Research Study of Public Procurement has completed four phases of research and now involves 17 nations. As a direct result of learning from this study, the Welsh Assembly changed its public procurement practice enabling Wales-based SMEs to supply the public sector more easily, thereby generating more jobs for the local economy. The Welsh Assembly Business Procurement Task Force website now states: “It is estimated that some 49% of the Welsh public sector’s procurement expenditure is won by Wales-based businesses.”


The Innocence Network UK: students work to help free wrongly convicted prisoners Established in September 2004 by Dr Michael Naughton from the School of Law at the University of Bristol, The Innocence Network UK (INUK) is dedicated to overturning wrongful convictions, improving the criminal justice system and preventing future miscarriages of justice. The first project working with a prisoner was started in January 2005. INUK has three core functions: casework investigations, research into key aspects of wrongful conviction, and informing public debate about wrongful convictions and imprisonment.

Innocence Projects INUK now acts as an umbrella organisation for Innocence Projects in 26 UK universities, with around 500 staff and students working collectively on approximately 80 cases. The protocols to which all the Innocence Projects work have been devised at the University of Bristol in collaboration with Network colleagues. There is a stringent assessment process, and from its first 800 applications, INUK only deemed around 150 cases to be eligible for investigation by a member Innocence Project. In each project, undergraduate and postgraduate law students work under academic supervision and guidance, where appropriate, from pro bono criminal lawyers, forensic scientists, and others. Projects teach students about the deficiencies of the criminal justice system and demonstrate how wrongful convictions can occur.

Positive results Seven undergraduate and postgraduate students from the University of Bristol Innocence Project received a ‘Highly Commended’ award in the category ‘Best Contribution by a Team of Students’ in the Attorney General’s Student and Law School Pro Bono Awards 2008. Members of the Bristol Innocence Project also worked with Channel 4 to produce a ‘Rough Justice’ documentary, aired on 12 April 2007, to help explain the issue to the wider public. The first UK case involving INUK has recently been referred to the Court of Appeal – a major achievement.

The Innocence Network UK (INUK) is dedicated to overturning wrongful convictions, improving the criminal justice system and preventing future miscarriages of justice.

Dr Michael Naughton from the School of Law at the University of Bristol

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The SETsquared Partnership is the enterprise collaboration of the Universities of Bath, Bristol, Exeter, Southampton and Surrey. Together the Universities employ over 7,400 top quality academic staff; earn nearly 10% of the UK’s higher education research budget; and produce 11% of all university patents. The partnership has a fantastic track record in building strong and mutually productive relationships with industry, stimulating the UK economy and creating jobs. We provide opportunities for business to access academic ideas with commercial potential. We provide expert help for high-tech, high-growth businesses and early stage companies through business incubators and science parks. Above all we try to ensure that our work has real impact and helps to change the World. SETsquared is one of the UK’s most successful and long-running university collaborations, spanning nearly a decade of activity. We work with industry, investors, experienced entrepreneurs and sector specialists. For more information on how you can work with SETsquared to benefit your business please visit the website www.setsquared.co.uk.

SETsquared Partnership Universities of Bath, Bristol, Exeter, Southampton and Surrey www.setsquared.co.uk Email: impact@setsquared.co.uk Twitter: @setsquared

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