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LEAF LIGHT

Master in LIGHTING DESIGN & LED TECHNOLOGY VIII edizione - anno accademico 2011-2012 Cultura della luce / Leaf Light Docenti: prof. M. Rossi, Bassani Antivari by Luca Salas

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Index: Nature of Light ( introduction ) 4 How do we perceive Light? 5 The tree states of visual perception. Image´s Perception. (image and communication) 6 Light and Nature. 7 The shape of light. 8 The world of Leafs. 9 The Leaf of Light. 10 Deffinitions. 16 Bibliography. 17

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Nature of Light: This essay started as a research based on the communication of light. It wants to improve the understanding of the form of light. Giving the reader a basic knowledge of the generation of light, visual perception and a classification of the light distribution. Each luminaire or source of light generates a photometric curve. These curves express the direction and intensity of the light by which materials are illuminated. As a light designer or “proggettista”, the aim of this essay is to create a classification of the different distribution of light (represented with 2D graphics “A”) and relate them to the classification of Leafs. Photometric curves, graphics, and Leafs have something in commune, both have similar shapes, margins and intensity of color than change by the time of life. If we can see light as part of the kingdom of nature we can have a wider understanding helpt by what surounds us. To create a comoun language of light that can be understud by the ones who are realated to the natural world of plants and their interest of light.

(A)

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How do we perceive Light? Light is what make us see and give names to what is blind. Light is a pehnomena of nature percive mainly with the eye. This we can call it the visual preseption of Light. It is devided in tree states: The tree states of visual perception: “• First stage; the spectral radiation is absorbed by the light sensitive cells of the retina. • Second stage; neural cells of the retina perform the first processing of the Chroma signal to send to the optic nerve. • Third stage; Cognitive development and training of the sensation of color from the cerebral cortex. Depends on several factors: - The external light stimuli – The context of observation, History of what has been observed, - Sviluppoecontestocultural edell’individuo.”1 (“B”) The preception of light is like a path that brings the external phenomena of nature to an understanding by the human eye. It is important to understant the the preception of light in terms of its generation as a visible energy, the manifestation of its form and the clasification in its context.

(B)

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Image´s Perception (image and communication) The thee states of visual perseption play an important roll in the understanding of the world and creation of comunication. The visual perception is one of the sences of the human been that generates images. “The image, as sign, as an element in a system of communication. An image conveys different meanings, which is its polysemy is notably reduced by the context and the presence of other signs that guide the Choice and understanding of reader or listener. The image, on the other hand, presents itself as a whole and sole, not as a continuation of something else, and this is why it is difficult to determine its context. It should not be forgotten that communication is just one part of language. Language is also a means of conceptualization, a way of organizing the World, and thus is much more than mere Communications. Animals, for example, communicate very well with both each other and human beings. What distinguishes the human from the animal is not Communications but Symbolization, i.e. the invention of nonanalogical signs. At present the image is primarily part of the sphere of communication. It is repeatedly said that we have now entered the civilization of image. But this is to overlook the fact that images are hardly ever used without words whether as caption, commentary subtitle or dialogue.�2 We live in a word full of images and deffinitions of the same. This little passage of Roland Barthes will help me to sustent the clasiification of the form of light with images representations. The primary images of human are the natural suroundings and I belive that in nature we can find imitations of light.

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Light and Nature In a workshop given By Ulrike Brandi in Boisbuchet 2011, she asked the participants to name a source of light as the representation of themselfs. All of them had a different source of light: star, moon, sun, candle, lightbug, lighstorm. They all named natural light sources. Nature is the commoun ground of humans to creat a comunication. When light is in a conversation, it can take a lot of abstract concepts. Light can be talk as spiritual belife, artistic representation of the world, cientific phenomenas observed and explain with grafics. What all of this concepts of light have in commoun, is that is part of the kingdom of nature. What is intresting is to understand its given forms. In the world of sciense the study of light is based on its measurments of light, in terms of its perceived brightness to the human eye; thi is call photometry. “The companies that produces light fixtures,use to present the Light feature through a diagram said Solid Photometric or photometric curve (which is represented by planes of section).�3 This planes and sections explain the shape of light. For a light designer they are idealy to identificate as angles and intencities of distribution of light. This shapes can be related to the forms of nature. One classification of nature that is similar in grafic form are the Leafs.

(C)

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The shape of light This title does not refear to the product design of a Lamp but to the shape of the visible energy of the lamp, LIGHT. Light takes shapes by the fitures of the light fixture or lamp. These fitures are materials that interact with light, giving form and directions. “-An ideal-point source emits light with the same intensity of light in all directions. The devices emit light with light intensity as a function of different direction relative to a reference axis. (“C”) - The uneven distribution is due to: 1-intrinsic difference of the ideal point source with respect to the case. Elements of an optical system: Ensures the interception, control and distribution of the luminous flux generated from the source to send the light in the direction you want. 2-Presence of reflectors; They use suitably shaped mirror surface for reflecting light produced by the source and focus it in the light cone, more or less wide. 3-Presence of optical-refractors; The distribution of the luminous flux is changed by passing the light through suitably shaped lenses that use the principle of refraction. 4-Presence of screens; The light is diffused by passing through translucent materials of various kinds. Elements shielding of the source; The purpose is to prevent direct view of the source in order to prevent its luminance cause glare. The screen is obtained by diffusing or refracting elements, or with reflective elements arranged appropriately (anti-glare strip).” 4

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The world of Leafs Plants, like light, are a phenomenom of nature that human kind can not live with out. I can not imagine our world with out a plant, the same with light. Each country and continent has its types of plants. In the norden countries such as in Canada, is comonly seen and represented by the Maple tree. In Mexico or parts of Mexico, cactus or Agaves are the symbol of the nation. “A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, as defined in botanical terms, and in particular in plant morphology. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves as a feature of plants. Typically a leaf is a thin, flattened organ borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis, but many types of leaves are adapted in ways almost unrecognisable in those terms: some are not flat (for example many succulent leaves and conifers), some are not above ground (such as bulb scales), and some are without major photosynthetic function (consider for example cataphylls, spines, and cotyledons).�5 In the world it existes 40 types of leafs shapes each one of the refer to a type of plants.If we analyse the leafs as a form of light we can find that each country has its fitures of light. And light can be understood worldwide.

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The Leaf of Light Classification of light by the form of leafs. We come back to the deffinition of Image. “Image: the word comes from Latin imago, linked with imitari, to imitate.”6 This classification attempt to imitate the light fitures from Lumsearch.de (German light fixtures search engine). classification with forms of nature ( leafs). My reasearch is based on the Led Lamps and the distribution of the light ( theire photometric curves ). The classification of the photometric curves are taken form a search engine in internet ( www.lumsearch.de). -10º Symmetrical-narrow -30º Symmetrical-medium -90º Symmetrical-wide -2 axis symmetrical -Asymmetric -Direct and indirect -Free and diffuse The following clasification is an analysis from the 40 types of shape from leafs related to the matematical clasification use in photometric curves. It is an attempt to find a relation bettwen the shape of leafs and the form of light.

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Acicular Needle Shape

Linear

Subulate

-10º Symmetrical-narrow

-10º Symmetrical-narrow

-10º Symmetrical-narrow

Obtuse

Cuneate

-30º Symmetrical-

-30º Symmetrical-

medium

medium

Obcordate

-30º Symmetrical-narrow

Ovate-eggshape

-30º Symmetricalmedium

Elliptic -30º Symmetricalmedium

Spatulate

-30º Symmetricalmedium

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Truncate

Obovate

-30º Symmetrical-

-30º Symmetrical-

medium

medium

Digitale

Flabellate

-90º Symmetrical-wide

-90º Symmetrical-wide

Rhomboid -90º Symmetrical-wide

Palmate

-90º Symmetrical-wide

Acuminate -30º Symmetricalmedium

Aristate -90º Symmetrical-wide

Hastate -90º Symmetrical-wide

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Spear-shaped

Deltoid

-90ยบ Symmetrical-wide

-2 axis symmetrical

-2 axis simetrical

Orbicular

Trifoliate

Lanceolate -2 axis symmetrical

-Free and diffuse

Odd-pinnate

Reniform

-Free and diffuse

-Free and diffuse

Pinnatisect

-Free and diffuse

Cordate -Free and diffuse

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Peltate

-Free and diffuse

Whoreled

-Free and diffuse

Lobed

-Asymmetric

Opposite

-Free and diffuse

Unifoliate -Asymmetric

Pedate

Tripinnate

-Free and diffuse

Falcate

-Asymmetric

Rosette

-Asymmetric

-Asymmetric

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Bipinnate

-Asymmetric

Perfoliate

-Direct and indirect

Alternate

-Direct and indirect

Even pinnate

-Direct and indirect

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Deffinitions: LIGHT: Electromagnetic radiation of the leading high frequency signal and short wave 7 EFFITIENCY: Indicates how much luminous flux is emitted for every watt of power consumed. n=lm/w 8 ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION: is a form of energy that exhibits wave-like behavior as it travels through space.9 SPECTRAL RADIATION: radiation with a wavelength between approximately 400 nm and 700 nm is directly detected by the human eye and perceived as visible light.10 CHROMA: from Greek khrōma ‘color.’ purity or intensity of color11 LUMINUS FLUX: The total amount of light radiation (light) emitted per second by a light source (primary or secondary) 12 LUMINANCE:The amount of light or luminous flux falling on a unit area of surface 13 ILLUMINANCE: Relationship between intensity emitted by a source in a given direction and the area of the surface illuminance 14 LIGHT INTENSITY: Relationship between total flow and the solid angle 15 LUMEN: Units of measurement of luminous flux. 16 CANDEL: Unit of mesurment of light intensity. 17

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Bibliography: 1-Fondamenti percettivi del proggetto di illuminazione/ Lab. Luce/ Politecnico di Milano / Maurizio Rossi 2-Image / abc of 20th-century graphics/ sergio polano, pierpaolo vetta/ passage of Roland Barthes page 12. 3-Lab. Luce/ Politecnico di Milano / Maurizio Rossi, Fulvio Musante 4-Lab. Luce/ Politecnico di Milano / Maurizio Rossi, Fulvio Musante 5-WIkipedia-deffinition of Leaf 6-Deffinition of image 7/13/14/15/16/17Deffinition of Light,Illuminance,Luminance,Lumen,Candel By Proffessore Mario Bonomo/ Corso di Iluminotecnica Lab. Luce Politecnico di Milano 2011-2012 8/9/10Deffinition of Effitiency and spectral radiation. Lab. Luce/ Politecnico di Milano / Maurizio Rossi 11 Chroma / Apple dictionary 2011 12-Fondamenti di fotometria Lab. Luce/ Politecnico di Milano/C.Fallica, M.Rossi All Photometric curves have been taken from: http://www.lumsearch.de Images A,B,C : Lab. Luce/ Politecnico di Milano / Maurizio Rossi, Fulvio Musante Leafs: Graphic work by Luca Salas Bassani Antivari

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Luca Salas Bassani Antivari 18


LEAF LIGHT  

ARTICLE ABOUT THE FORM OF LIGHT. WRITEN BY LUCA SALAS

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