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NGO Personality Development (Estonia) N G O E d u c a t i o n I n n ova t i o n s Tra n s f e r C e n t r e ( L a tv i a ) UAB “Globalios idėjos” (Lithuania)

EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING

Fu n d e d i n t h e f ra m e w o r k o f N o r d p l u s A d u l t development project “EFFECTIVE L ANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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Effective Language Learning Project Book Vitali Samoiljuk Anna Vintere Agnė Bliuvaitė Loreta Golubevaitė Rasa Žilionė

Estonia-Latvia-Lithuania, 2013 This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the Nordic Council of Ministers cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained herein.

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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Project title: Effective language learning for people aged 18-30 Project ID: AD-2012_1a-29721 Project period: 2012-08-01 - 2013--08-01 Project website: http://effective-learning.eu Project team Project coordinator: MTÜ Personality Development (Estonia) Project partners: UAB Globalios idėjos (Lithuania) NGO Education Innovations Transfer Centre (Latvia) Authors: Vitali Samoiljuk, MTÜ Personality Development (Estonia) Anna Vintere, NGO Education Innovations Transfer Centre (Latvia) Agnė Bliuvaitė, Loreta Golubevaite, Rasa Žilionė UAB Globalios idėjos (Lithuania) Editor: Vitali Samoiljuk (Estonia)

ISBN 978-9949-33-168-0 Printed in Lithuania

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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CONTENTS PREFACE 5 I. INTRODUCTION 6 1.1 General information about the project 7 1.2 Project team 10 1.3 Project group meetings 15 II. SURVEY 20 2.1 General information 21 2.2 Summary of questionnaires 22 2.3 Summary of interviews 30 III. THE ESSENTIALS OF THE SEMINARS 36 3.1 General information 37 3.2 Seminar “Successful language learning” 38 3.3 Seminar “The Possibilities of Foreign Language Learning and the Culture of Plurilingualism” 41 3.4 Seminar “Problem based learning (PBL) paradigm in the contemporary foreign language learning process: theoretical and practical aspects of communicative competence development” 45 3.5 Seminar “Process approach in teaching writing” 49 3.6 Seminar “English club as an informal learning/ teaching method” 54 3.7 Seminar “Use of the internet resources” 56 IV. COURSE "START EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING!" 58 Lesson No. 1 Introduction 59 Lesson No. 2 Your plans and ambitions 61 Lesson No. 3 You, your personality and your beliefs. Overcoming the psychological barriers 68 Lesson No. 4 You and your emotions 74 Lesson No. 5 A systematic approach (part 1). A complex process 76 Lesson No. 6 Your self-study (part 1) 81 Lesson No. 7 Your self-study (part 2) 87 How to use various resources for language learning Lesson No. 8 How to learn new words 91 Lesson No. 9 How to study grammar 96 Lesson No. 10 A systematic approach (part 2). Regular and nonstop learning 98 Lesson No. 11 Conclusion 110 Review of the E-course evaluation 112

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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CONCLUSION APPENDIX 1. Questionnaire APPENDIX 2. Interview questions APPENDIX 3. E-course evaluation form Your notes

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”

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PREFACE The present project book was created in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project „EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30“. It contains all the essential information about the project, its activities and outcomes. In this project book you can find: -general information about the project and the project team -analyzed survey -the essentials of the seminar materials -the original training course “Start effective language learning!” in full -the appendixes containing the survey forms and the final test We hope that the book will be both interesting and useful to anyone who is connected with education, especially adult education and language learning and teaching.

Acknowledgements We wish to express thanks to anyone who took part in this project!

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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1.1 GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE PROJECT The Nordplus Adult development project „EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30” was officially launched on 1 August 2012 and it finished in one year`s time. This project was meant to analyze the major difficulties people aged 18-30 face when learning foreign languages and to find out about the best ways to overcome them, to discover the principles of successful language learning in order to help learners to get the best results. The project was carried out in the Baltic States and it was done in 5 languages (English, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Russian). The project was implemented by a small project team: Estonia (the coordinator), Latvia and Lithuania. Project activities and outcomes Project group meetings During the project there were 3 project group meetings. The first project group meeting took place in Estonia on 14 – 15 October 2012. The second meeting was arranged in Lithuania on 7 – 9 January 2013 and the third one was in Latvia on 12 – 15 June 2013. Each project group meeting included intensive work in terms of workshops and seminars as well as interesting cultural and social programme. Seminars and workshops 6 seminars concerning various aspects of successful language learning were arranged in the Baltic States. 14-15 October 2012 (Estonia) – seminar “Successful language learning”. 7 January 2013 (Lithuania) – 2 open seminars: “Problem based learning (PBL) paradigm in tne contemporary foreign language learning process: theoretical and practical aspects of communicative competence development” and “The possibilities of foreign language learning and the culture of plurilingualism”. 14 June 2012 (Latvia) – 3 open seminars on learning and teaching foreign languages in formal and informal way: “Process approach in teaching writing”, “English Club as an informal learning/teaching method” and “Use of the Internet resources”. There were also a lot of workshops connected with every stage of the project.

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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Survey (online questionnaire) This questionnaire was aimed to find out what problems young people face while learning foreign languages. The survey also helped the project team to investigate how language learners usually solve the problems and other aspects of language learning. The link to the online questionnaire and the report are on the project website. Survey (Interviews) Another essential part of the survey included the interviews with experienced language teachers in the Baltic States. The main idea of each interview was to get more detailed information about the difficulties in language learning, the optimal ways of overcoming them and the principles of successful language learning. The interview reports are on the project website. E-course “Start effective language learning!” The e-course is based on the survey, the seminar materials and the author`s learning and teaching experience. The e-course contains the recommendations for successful language learning. It consists of 11 lessons and it is meant for 2-3 weeks of self-study. The first piloting target groups were tested in June 2013. The link to the e-course is on the project website. Brochure The brochure contains the most essential information about the project (general information, the project activities and outcomes, the most important recommendations concerning successful language learning). Project book It contains all the e-course materials, the essential information about the survey, the seminars and more relevant information. It is available in 5 languages (in pdf format) on the project website. The printing version was also distributed among the libraries, the interview and course participants in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Project website http://effective-learning.eu Project website was created in 5 languages (ENG, EST, LAT, LIT, RUS) to suit the needs of most website visitors in the Baltic States. On the project website you can get detailed information about the project Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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activities and the outcomes. You can get access to the E-course, the online survey and download the project book and other useful materials. Publicity The project received enough publicity in different ways: at the open seminars, on local TV, in the press and on the Internet.

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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1.2 PROJECT TEAM Coordinator: MTÜ “Personality Development” (Estonia)

The non-governmental organization “Personality Development” was founded in November 2010. Its name reflects its mission – to support the personality development. The organization mostly offers: -various language courses concerning learning and teaching English -translation services (English, Russian) -language learning consulting -writing and managing the education and sport projects In summer 2012 the organization started to take part in the European education projects such as Lifelong Learning programme (mostly Grundtvig) and Nordplus Adult. Location: Kohtla-Järve, Estonia Contact: phone number: +37258231208, e-mail: vitalisam@rambler.ru Website: www.vs-personality.narod.ru The head of the organization is Vitali Samoiljuk. He is an experienced teacher of English and a language consultant. He is also a project manager.

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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PROJECT TEAM Partners: NGO Education Innovations Transfer Centre (Latvia)

The non-governmental organization "Education Innovation Transfer Centre" was founded in order to gather international issues of education and make them more accessible to the Latvians as well as enhancing learning opportunities for everyone throughout life. This nongovernmental organization brings together actors of all education levels – teachers, university lecturers, formal and non-formal adult education teachers, students of education science, researchers, as well as all levels learners, etc. Therefore, the organization's main focus is to promote international cooperation, creating networks for the identification of innovative experiences as well as the coordination of the cooperation, to promote the educational development projects. The organization is also engaged in other activities that promote educational innovation in the promotion and transfer: ● promotes the usage of modern educational technologies in the educational process, ● provides recommendations for educational development, ● forms the infrastructure for the practical implementation of educational research, ● carries out information activities in society as an educational innovation, ● organizes training courses for adults etc. The organization is new, but already has experience in international projects:  NORDPLUS Adult Education preparatory visit Nr. AD-2010_1b24542 „Adult today” (11/2010-03/2011)  EU LLP Grundtvig Learning Partnership Project No. 2011-1-PL1GRU06-199824 „Aging With Active Knowledge and Experience” (AWAKE) (1/08/2011 – 31/07/2013)

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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EU LLP Grundtvig workshop INOVATE – “Implement New Operating Changes for Valuing Adult Training and Education” (22/05/2012 – 28/05/2012) NORDPLUS Adult Education Development Project No. AD2012_1a-29721 " Effective language learning for people aged 1830" (01/08/2012 – 01/08/2013) NORDPLUS Adult Education preparatory visit No. AD-2012_1b32124 „Cooperation to strengthen the citizens’ math skills in the context of sustainable development” (11/2012 – 03/2013) NORDPLUS Adult Education Development Project No. AD2012_1a-28886 „How to challenge an adult to teach an adult” (01/09/2012 – 01/09/2014) NORDPLUS Adult Education Mapping Project No.NPAD2013/10268 “Cooperation to strengthen the citizens' math skills in the context of sustainable society development and welfare” (01/07/2013 – 30/09/2014) Location: 23 Kronvalda Street, Jelgava, Latvia Contacts: phone number: +371 29419351, e-mail: iipc@tl.lv Website: www.iipc.lv

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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PROJECT TEAM Partners: UAB “Globalios idėjos” (Lithuania)

UAB “Globalios idėjos” / GLOBAL IDEAS is a Lithuanian private enterprise established in 2008. UAB “Globalios idėjos” provides training services throughout all Lithuania and is based in Vilnius city. Today, company has 4 employees and more than 300 freelancer trainersexperts. UAB “Globalios idėjos” cooperates closely with training providers and is a co-manager of training centre PRO (www.mokymaipro.lt). This training centre provides various non-formal educational offers for the unemployed, people returning to labour market after a break, for those who are willing to increase their qualifications (topics, to name a few: bookkeeping, personnel, document, sales management, languages) and tailor-made training for various specialists: e.g., public servants, medical workers, employees of business services, school and university teachers, etc. Courses and seminars take place in 6 largest cities of Lithuania. Some of them are delivered all over the country and overseas via constantly expanding e-learning platform. This Moodle-based platform was launched in 2009 and since then it allows UAB “Globalios idėjos“ to reach learners from distant and deprived areas, as well as those who have no opportunity to leave their homes for training. Around half of clients of distance learning courses come from rural areas or small towns that lack educational opportunities. Moreover, the company organizes student placement activities (IVT, PLM, VETPRO) in various fields such as accountancy and finance, administrative and secretarial work, IT (web design, programming, graphic design), tourism, skin and hair care, photography, mechanics, welding, etc.

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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UAB “Globalios idėjos” cooperates actively with various adult and vocational education institutions from other EU countries in development of innovative educational pathways and practices. During first five years of its operation, UAB “Globalios idėjos” took part in the following initiatives: ● LLP Grundtvig Learning Partnership project „eSenior – ICT and multimedia techniques for senior citizens“ (2008-2010) ● Anna Lindh Foundation short term project „The Rights Perspective“ (2009-2010) ● Nordplus Adult Education preparatory visit “MASCOT - Matching Adult Learners’ Skills and Competences to the Requirements of Today’s Labour Market” (2010) ● LLP Grundtvig Learning Partnership project „Open (H)Art“ (20092011) ● LLP Leonardo da Vinci Partnership project „SOS: Strengthening the Orientation from School to Job“ (2010-2012) ● LLP Grundtvig Learning Partnership project “ITAAT: Information Technology Applied to Adult Training“ (2010-2012) ● LLP Leonardo da Vinci Transfer of Innovation project “Mentor T Mentor training for learning support assistants and apprentices (2012-2014). The Nordplus Adult development project “Effective language learning for people aged 18-30” (2012-2013) is a very important step forward to strengthening efficiency of language training within the curriculum of UAB “Globalios idėjos”. Location: Elektrinės street 8, Vilnius LT-03150, Lithuania Contacts: Phone number: +370 677 83374, e-mail: info@globaliosidejos.lt Website : www.globaliosidejos.lt

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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1.3 PROJECT GROUP MEETINGS The first project group meeting Johvi-Toila-Narva, Estonia (14-15 October, 2012) It took place in Estonia on 14-15 October 2012. It consisted of 2 days full of interesting and intensive work and cultural programme. The first workshop was arranged in the Toila Spa hotel located at the seaside in the north-east of Estonia. The second workshop was held in Narva (mostly in the Narva Castle) situated near the border with Russia. The participants managed to discuss many questions connected with successful learning and major difficulties adults face when learning a foreign language. They also managed to create the drafts for the logo of the project, the project website, the questionnaire and the online course. During the meeting there was 1 seminar – “Successful language learning”.

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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The second project group meeting Vilnius, Lithuania (7 – 8 January, 2013) From 7 to 9 of January, 2013 the second project partnership meeting was held in the capital of Lithuania – Vilnius. These 3 days were full of interesting activities and a lot of intensive discussions and work. On 7 January partners met in “Artis Centrum Hotels” conference centre where, apart from the hard work on discussing issues related to the project, they participated in two open seminars: 1. “Problem based learning (PBL) paradigm in the contemporary foreign language learning process: theoretical and practical aspects of communicative competence development” by Assoc. Prof. Nijolė Čiučiulkienė. 2. “The possibilities of foreign language learning and the culture of plurilingualism” by Assoc. Prof. dr. Roma Kriaučiūnienė. During the first day partners solved administrative issues. In the afternoon work sessions partners decided on structure of interviews, draw questions and described the target group. After a very intensive day, partners enjoyed a traditional dinner. On 8 January partners had a meeting in another conference room, in “Villa Alicante” hotel. During the morning session the partners finalized

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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the discussions on the interview structure and overviewed the preliminary questionnaire results. Plan for future actions including the strict deadlines and the partners’ responsibilities were developed. In the afternoon session partners worked on the project website – its structure and design. Besides, the plans and ideas for the dissemination were discussed. In the evening partners were invited to take part in a cultural programme. On 9 January the partners had a great trip to Trakai, where they visited the Trakai castle, the history museum and tried Karaites` national food kibinai. After lunch all the partners met in the UAB “Globalios idėjos” office in order to summarize all the results and decisions of the meeting and to draw milestones for the further project period.

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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The third project group meeting Jelgava, Latvia (12 – 15 June, 2013) Three workshops - on project progress, on creating the project book and on reporting - were organized on 13 June in the Hotel "Jelgava" Conference hall. During the workshop the project team concluded that the project is implemented according to the planned schedule. It was also noted that in the project implementation process all the planned results were achieved (and even more!). During the workshop the project book structure was set up in and the responsibilities were distributed among the partners as well as the deadlines were agreed. The reporting procedure was also considered and as well as about documents - what and were to be submitted and the deadlines for the preparing and sending the copies of the financial documents were set up.

On 14 June, three open seminars were organized for the project meeting guests and everyone who was interested in learning and teaching foreign languages in formal and informal way: “Process approach in teaching writing”, “English Club as an informal learning/ teaching method” and “Use of the Internet resources”.

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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Despite the hard work on 13 – 14 June, the project group meeting participants took part in some social/cultural events: the tours "Explore Jelgava!", of the Rundale Palace and Jurmala, as well as the team building activities in Jelgava Holy Trinity Church Tower.

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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CHAPTER II

SURVEY

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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2.1 GENERAL INFORMATION The survey was organized in the framework of this project to analyze the major difficulties people aged 18-30 face when learning foreign languages and to find out about the best ways to overcome them, to discover the principles of successful language learning in order to help learners to get the best results. The survey consisted of two parts: the questionnaire for people aged 18-30 and the interviews with foreign language teachers. The questionnaire was aimed to find out what problems young people face while learning foreign languages, to learn about barriers in learning foreign languages as well as to investigate how language learners usually solve the problems and other aspects of language learning. The interviews with the experienced language teachers were organized to get more detailed information about the difficulties in language learning, the optimal ways of overcoming them and the principles of successful language learning.

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30�


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2.2 SUMMARY OF QUESTIONNAIRES METHODOLOGY The sequence of activities was as follows: 1) Preparation of the questionnaire “Effective language learning for people aged 18-30” for analysis of the major difficulties that people aged 18-30 face when learning foreign languages. 2) Creating the electronic questionnaires in 5 languages (EN, EE, LT, LV and RU) and placing them on the webpage http://effective-learning.eu/. 3) Analysis of results of the survey into the difficulties that adults aged 18-30 usually face when learning a foreign language. The survey became a knowledge background for the development of the e-course containing the recommendations for successful learning foreign languages. ORGANIZATION OF THE SURVEY The survey in Estonia was carried out in the following ways: a) by surveying the students in 2 colleges; b) by surveying the learners who use the organization`s educational services; c) by inviting the young people to take part in the survey with the help of a big article about the project in the local newspaper; d) by inviting the young people to take part in the survey with the help of an article about the project on the Internet (e.g. various forums); e) by inviting the major universities and colleges to take part in the survey. The sample in Latvia was formed in three ways: a) using the random probability sampling approach: by random principle 300 e-mails were sent to the students of the Latvia University of Agriculture, who use the e-learning system in the Moodle environment; b) using social networks "Draugi", "Facebook" and "Twitter". Through these social networks the organization's members delivered the information about the survey and asked the people to complete a questionnaire; c) sending a written request to all the English schools in Jelgava with the address of the webpage where the electronic version of the questionnaire was placed.

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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The sample in Lithuania was formed: a) by surveying the learners who use the organization`s educational services; b) by using social networks, mainly, "Facebook”; c) by involving participants of the two seminars, held in Vilnius on 7th Of January, in the framework of this project, and their personal networks; d) by using other organizational networks THE SAMPLE OF THE SURVEY The total sample of the research includes 341 cases, 234 full responses, 107 incomplete ones. In the following analysis, we use 234 full responses, as the basis. Quality Gender

Age

Place of residence Place of residence

Educational level

Job/position

Category Female Male Younger than 18 18-25 26-30 31and older Latvia Estonia Lithuania Other A city A town A village Basic Secondary Professional Higher education Master's degree PhD a pupil a student emplyee unemployed a housewife

Number 155 79 126 55 53 95 47 85 7 95 114 25 6 63 35 85 42 3 4 81 127 4 4

Percent 66.24 33.76 53.85 23.50 22.65 40.60 20.09 36.32 2.99 40.60 48.72 10.68 2.56 26.92 14.96 36.32 17.95 1.28 1.71 34.62 54.27 1.71 1.71

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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other no answer Latvian Russian Mother tongue Estonian Lithuanian Other Interested take part in other project activities

1 13 88 55 5 81 5 79

0.42 5.56 37.61 23.50 2.14 34.62 2.14 33.76

THE ANALYSIS OF THE RESEARCH RESULTS 74.4% of the surveyed respondents are currently studying one or more foreign languages. The further results of a foreign language learning experience have been obtained by respondents who are currently studying: English – 115 (people), Estonian - 10, German - 8, Russian - 4, Spanish -3, Italian - 3, Turkish - 2, Norwegian - 2, Swedish - 2, Finnish 1, Japanese - 1, Danish - 1, Dutch - 1. The information on how a foreign language is learnt is summarized in the following table.

Do you like this language? How long have you been studying it? How often do you study? How much time a week? How/where do you study it?

Yes

More Yes than No

More No than Yes

No

I can`t answer this question 31.1% 4.6% 1.3% 3.3% 6-12 1-3 years 3-5 years More than Other months 5 years ________

59.7% Less than six months 13% 7.1% 12.3% 8.5% 48.1% 11% Every 4-5 2-3 Once a Once a Once a Other day times a times a week fortnight month _____ week week 4.5% 2.6% 29.9% 37.7% 6.5% 8.4% 10.4% less than 1 1-2 hours 3-4 hours 5-6 hours more than 6 hour hours 24.7% 46.1% 21.4% 5.2% 2.6% At At At At At On my Using Other school vocatio higher Langua Individu own E______ nal educ. ge al learning school institu- school courses tion 18 5 68 10 10 97 22 16

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Evaluate your level of desire to learn this language (1-poor, 5 very much) What level of language proficiency do you want to achieve? When do you want to achieve this level?

1

2

3

4

5

-

2.6%

22.1%

35.1%

40.2%

Beginner

Elementary

Intermediate

Advanced

1.3%

3.9%

22.7%

35.1%

UpperOther advanced 30.5%

6.5%

In less than 1 year

In 1-2 years` time

In 3-4 years` time

Other

21.4%

47.4%

27.3%

3.9%

79.3% of respondents say they have difficulty learning foreign languages. The difficulties are in a variety of language skills. For the 62.6% of respondents the most problematic skill is grammar. Very big problems are also speaking (50.4%) and vocabulary (52%). The other difficult language skills are pronunciation (30.08%), listening (34.96%) and writing (26.83%). The most problematic languages skills % of respondents 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

To determine foreign language learning difficulties and barriers three diagnostic questions were set up, each of which contained a number of statements. The content of statements could be divided in three factors groups: respondents’ psychological problems, their learning experience (methodological problems) and so-called external factors affecting the learning of foreign languages.

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The following chart sets out the so-called psychological problems that create barriers for foreign language learning. The biggest problem is that respondents do not have enough language practice. A large role in the acquisition of language skills is also played by laziness. 31.71% of respondents recognized it as a major obstacle to language learning. Almost one third of all the respondents are afraid of failing, but 24.39% are too shy to speak. Nearly one-fifth of the respondents have a lack of motivation.

Psychological problems, % of respondents I do not have enough language practice I am lazy I am afraid of failing I am too shy to speak I have a lack of motivation Quite often I am not satisfied with my learning results I think I am not good at learning languages I think it`s too difficult for me None of the above-mentioned 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

The respondents were asked to evaluate their learning experience by several statements. The results show that the biggest problem is that the respondents do not know how to study effectively. The respondents’ learning experience is described in the next chart.

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Learning experience, % of respondents I do not know how to study effectively Mixture of languages I know I have had a bad teacher experience My learning materials are not good enough I have had a bad learning experience I do not like learning at all None of the above-mentioned 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

As for the external factors which affect learning foreign languages the biggest barrier is lack of time. It is a problem for more than half of respondents (55.28%).

External factors affecting the learning of foreign languages, % of respondents I do not have enough time I do not have enough money I do not have any information about… I do not know where to get study materials I live in a place without internet access Other None of the above-mentioned 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

One of the barriers in language learning was the mixture of languages respondents know. 23.58% of respondents chose this option. The most popular language among people aged 18-30 is English. 75.66% of the respondents think that they know English – their average selfassessment of knowledge is "6". Although the Nordic languages are not so popular in the Baltic countries, but the number of respondents knowing each of them vary from 6.45 to 7.04%.

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Foreign languages respondents know % of respondents 75,66

35,48 6,45

7,33

7,33

7,04

11,73

14,08

The questionnaire also included the question of how the identified problems are solved. The results show that the most popular way of solving problems is the Internet. More than half of respondents (54.47%) search for some advice on the Internet. 39.84% of respondents solve problems themselves, asking for no help. Information on how the respondents solve the above-mentioned difficulties is in the chart.

Ways in which the problems are solved 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

The respondents were asked to identify what are their major reasons for learning a certain foreign language. As it can be seen in the table below,

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30�


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the main reason for learning languages is career development and education. 51% of respondents have indicated migration as a cause of language learning, however, the importance assessed only by 2.73 of a 5-point system. Reasons for % of respondents who learning currently are studying the indicated foreign foreign language language Career development 38.89 Travelling 37.61 Personal 56.84 relationships Education 58.97 Migration 51.71 Hobby 51.28 Self-development 58.12

Average assessment: 1-insignificant, 5-very important 4.19 3.75 3.44 4.16 2.73 3.01 3.65

The three most important reasons for learning a certain foreign language according to average self-assessment are: career development, education, travelling, etc.

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2.3 SUMMARY OF INTERVIEWS INTERVIEWS IN ESTONIA A number of experienced and well-known language teachers were invited to take part in the interview. The teachers work at school, at college or university, at language courses. Each interview contained at least 30 questions concerning the learning and teaching experience. The main idea of each interview was to get more detailed information about the difficulties in language learning, the optimal ways of overcoming them and the principles of successful language learning. According to the interviews with the language teachers in Estonia we found out the following. The difficulties in language learning 1. Laziness 2. Lack of patience 3. Lack of motivation 4. Lack of self-discipline 5. Negative way of thinking 6. A lot of psychological barriers 7. Being passive 8. No rapport between the learner and the teacher 9. Being rigid and avoiding anything new 10. Lack of self-study The principles of successful language learning 1. In-depth treatment of the language 2. Avoiding learning single words. Advantages of learning the phrases and sentences. 3. Using a theme-based approach 4. Personalized learning (I think …, I would …, If I were you…) 5. Using a communicative approach 6. Everyday learning 7. Real life practice 8. Following the teacher`s requirements 9. Importance of doing homework and other self-study 10. Importance of a good teacher 11. Knowing what you want 12. Taking the responsibility

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13. Importance of getting regular feedback 14. Loving the language and studying the language 15. Regular review 16. Practicing all the language skills every lesson 17. Working hard 18. Believing in yourself 19. Positive emotions 20. Being open-minded 21. Creating the language environment.

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INTERVIEWS IN LATVIA In the framework of the project "Effective language learning for people aged 18-30" trainers / teachers / educators who provide language training for people aged 18-30 were interviewed with the aim to identify successful language learning methods and techniques. The most common language learning problems among students in Latvia are identified based on the interview results. The results show that the students: ● Do not identify their needs; ● Do not determine their goals; ● Do not allocate time for learning; ● Learn the words by heart, but do not know how to use them and do not see the language interconnections; ● Try to talk (in English), translating from the native language; ● Acquire communicative minimum and hope to implicitly align the level of interaction; etc. In the interviews with the language teachers the ideas were found out how to overcome these situations and how does trainer/ teacher can help the students: ● According to the interviews results the most important is to learn foreign language structure. Trainer/ teacher can help indicating where students need to learn the regularities; ● The trainers / teachers role is also to promote a healthy psychological environment for students to support each other rather than compete; ● Do not stint on the praise: praise and praise again! The Latvian foreign language trainers / teachers believe that effective language learning is one that allows you to achieve the goals. The ideal situation is to learn the basics of a foreign language and then is to be "thrown into" natural language users` environment. The most problematic area of language learning in Latvia is grammar. Listening and speaking are also cause the major problems for the students. The Latvian foreign language trainers / teachers believe that successful language training needs to: ● Use an action-oriented approach; Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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● Use different interactive teaching methods; ● Enrich the learning experience with the modern tools for language learning (such as e-courses, video courses, online tests, etc.); ● Facilitate the students' ability to learn; ● Increase motivation of students to learn a foreign language, etc. Key recommendations for foreign language learners: ● Devote time to achieving your goals; ● Try to communicate in a foreign language; ● Overcome confusion if you need to use a language; ● Watch movies, read books in a foreign language, etc.; ● Use the opportunities offered by the Internet (e.g. learners’ social networks, etc.).

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INTERVIEWS IN LITHUANIA During the project “Effective language learning for people aged 18-30” ten language teachers were interviewed. The purpose of the interviews was to get more information about the difficulties in language learning, used methods to overcome them and the principles of successful language learning. Each interview contained 21questions about learning and teaching experience. Based on the results of the survey, the following general conclusions were drawn: The main language learning difficulties / barriers among 18-30 y.o. learners are: 1. Lack of motivation; 2. Laziness; 3. Lack of time; 4. Psychological barriers; 5. Inefficient time distribution; 6. Inexperienced teachers. The solutions for overcoming the above listed barriers: 1. Increasing the motivation; 2. Showing the importance of being able to communicate in foreign language; 3. Remote training, homework; 4. No critics; 5. Communication and interaction with the students; 6. Training program must be individualized according to the needs of the students; 7. Training program must be individualized according to the personal learning difficulties; 8. Complex training programme; 9. Regular improvements are necessary both for the teachers and for the students. The best way to learn foreign language: 1. Internship or work in countries that speak a language that the student is learning; 2. Travelling to countries that speak a language that the student is learning; Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Watching movies; Listening to music; Reading books, newspapers; Communication with foreigners; Talking, telling stories.

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CHAPTER III

THE ESSENTIALS OF THE SEMINARS

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3.1 GENERAL INFORMATION 6 seminars connected with successful language learning were arranged during the project. The seminars were about teaching and learning foreign languages in formal and informal way – theory and experience, barriers in learning foreign languages, how foreign languages affect successful career development and concerning other aspects. The seminars were attended by language learners, teachers and the project team. The well-known invited speakers took part in the seminars. Seminar timetable 14-15 October 2012 (Estonia) – seminar “Successful language learning”. 7 January 2013 (Lithuania) – 2 open seminars: “Problem based learning (PBL) paradigm in tne contemporary foreign language learning process: theoretical and practical aspects of communicative competence development” and “The possibilities of foreign language learning and the culture of plurilingualism”. 14 June 2012 (Latvia) – 3 open seminars on learning and teaching foreign languages in formal and informal way. In this chapter only the most essential information concerning the content of each seminar is presented. To obtain more detailed information about the seminars (e.g. presentations), visit the project website http://effective-learning.eu

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3.2 Seminar “Successful language learning” The authors: the project team, the invited speakers and other participants. The invited speakers: Irina Petrova, Virumaa College, Estonia; Olesja Ojamäe, MTÜ Kõla Koolituskeskus, Estonia. What is successful language learning? It includes - achieving set goals and - getting mainly positive emotions in the process of learning. How to learn a language? What are the main difficulties that a foreign language learner faces?

What is necessary to successfully learn a foreign language?

Psychological aspects Lack of belief in oneself, in one’s abilities, in success

Belief in oneself, in one’s abilities, in success

Lack of proper motivation

Proper motivation

Lack of clear, achievable goal

Clear, achievable and realistic goal

Negative way of thinking

Positive way of thinking

Negative emotions in the process of learning -boredom -tiredness -annoyance etc.

Positive emotions in the process of learning -interest -energy -satisfaction, etc.

Negative attitude towards the studied language

Positive attitude towards the studied language

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Laziness

Active attitude

Fears -failure -talking -expressing one’s opinion, etc.

Overcoming one’s fears

Having had a bad experience

Reasonable attitude towards one’s experience

Frequent dissatisfaction with oneself, with the results, the teacher, etc.

Positive emotional environment during the lessons

Unwillingness to spend a lot of time learning

Willingness to study every day for 1-2 hours

Lack of patience

Having enough patience

Lack of insistence

Perseverance and insistence

Lack of creativity

Creativity

Conflicts with the teacher

Cooperation with teacher

Lack of self-analysis

Self-analysis

Poor memory and attention

Good memory and attention

Methodological aspects Unsystematic learning

Regular and systematic learning Everyday lessons

Superficial approach

Going through each stage thoroughly from the beginning till the end

Absence or lack of self-study

Doing a lot of independent work

Inappropriate choice of study materials

Selection of suitable study materials

inappropriate choice of language course - concerning level

Selection of suitable language course, concerning level, goals and quality.

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- concerning goals - concerning quality Inappropriate choice of study methods

Selection of suitable study methods

Lack of feedback

Getting feedback (from the teacher, classmates, acquaintances, native speakers)

Absence of a teacher

Regular lessons under the guidance of a qualified teacher (at least 1 hour a week)

Not knowing how to -learn grammar -enlarge vocabulary -develop oral speech and writing -develop listening -develop reading

Basic knowledge of how to successfully learn a language

Monotony

Diversity

Lack of language practice

Searching and finding best opportunities for language practice

Other aspects Lack of free time

Knowing how to arrange time Working on motivation Enough free time to learn the language

Can’t afford -to take up a language course -to go to a consultation -to buy study materials etc.

Searching and finding best opportunities to learn a language in accordance with the financial situation

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3.3 Seminar “The Possibilities of Foreign Language Learning and the Culture of Plurilingualism” The author: Assoc. Prof. dr. Roma Kriaučiūnienė, The Institute of Foreign Languages, Vilnius University. Plurilingualism is the lifelong expansion of the individual’s linguistic repertoire. Each individual’s plurilingual profile is made up of different languages and language varieties at different levels of proficiency in terms of various competences and skills. It is dynamic and changes in its composition throughout the life of an individual. What distinguishes the concept of plurilingualism from the more usual term 'multilingualism' is that the languages and language varieties making up the linguistic repertoire of an individual are not seen as simply coexisting as completely separate entities, but as interacting, modifying and enriching each other, so as to form one overall communicative competence, all or any part of which can be called upon at any time as the situation demands. Changes in language education in Europe Profound changes in the language teaching and learning context are taking place in Europe: • A growing awareness at local, regional and national level of importance of language skills that has resulted in very high priority of language acquisition competences in the whole educational policy. • Seeking for quality and effectiveness of language learning and teaching, notion of competence is placed at the heart of the debate. Often, it is offered as a model for other disciplines. • Growing mobility and exchanges of citizens, especially of workers and students, throughout Europe brings need to improve transparency and portability of language qualifications. • Growing personal and professional trans-border contacts and the clear value of international co-operation give new importance to development of linguistic and intercultural understanding between citizens. • Rapid changes in the social fabric of society have added special focus on communication, involving both plurilingual and intercultural skills, as a key means of contributing to social cohesion and intercultural understanding.

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• Need to recognize the value of the linguistic and cultural diversity of Europe requires a re-examination of the role and place of the various languages (including national languages, regional or minority languages, languages of migrants), as well as of teaching objectives and the means of making plurilingualism accessible to every European. EU political context for language education Council of Europe language education policies aim to promote:  PLURILINGUALISM: all are entitled to develop a degree of communicative ability in a number of languages over their lifetime in accordance with their needs.  LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY: Europe is multilingual and all its languages are equally valuable modes of communication and expressions of identity; the right to use and to learn one’s language(s) is protected in Council of Europe Conventions.  MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING: the opportunity to learn other languages is an essential condition for intercultural communication and acceptance of cultural differences.  DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP: participation in democratic and social processes in multilingual societies is facilitated by the plurilingual competence of individuals.  SOCIAL COHESION: equality of opportunity for personal development, education, employment, mobility, access to information and cultural enrichment depends on access to language learning throughout life. EC recommends that governments of member states implement the use of the Council of Europe’s Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) and the promotion of plurilingualism at national, regional and local levels. Meanwhile education authorities are invited, among other things, to encourage learners, teachers and other related bodies to consider and treat each language in the curriculum as part of a coherent plurilingual education. At the same time language teachers should be assisted in using the CEFR effectively through appropriate training programs, be familiarised with the aims, principles and possible implementation of plurilingual education and give due consideration to the development of learners’ plurilingual capacities. Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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Moreover, EC policies encourage language policy makers and education administrators at all levels to ensure that language instruction is fully integrated within the core of the educational aims and to use a holistic approach, ensuring the coherence of objectives and attainments in all languages within a lifelong learning curriculum framework. Plurilingual education Educational systems need to ensure the harmonious development of learners’ plurilingual competence through a coherent, transversal and integrated approach that takes into account all the languages in learners’ plurilingual repertoire and their respective functions. This includes promoting learners’ consciousness of their existing repertoires and potential to develop and adapt those repertoires to changing circumstances. Plurilingual education promotes an awareness of why and how one learns the languages one has chosen and the ability to use transferable skills in language learning. The learning objectives of plurilingual and intercultural education in vocational education curricula are the following: • Ability to effect transfers a mediate between languages; • Ability to make a controlled shift from one language to another according to needs and individual resources, and even to master situations of multilingual dialogue; • Ability to relate to intercultural skills, i.e. to interact responsibly and critically, but in a friendly way, with people who are different. In language education, project-based teaching and simulations of specific situations are frequently part of training. The main objective is to enable learners to experience regular success. In this case they will come to realize that the teaching does effectively enable them to learn ways of successfully completing certain tasks. Language education content may be summed up in a few points: • It must include consistent work on learning strategies, during independent work as well; • It must give priority to competencies which cut across all languages; • It should include learning of systematic exploitation of the synergies between the languages being learned and those already known by the learners (through contrast-based work, through valuing risk-taking in transfers between languages, etc); Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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The content taught must include reasoned and continuing learning of communication strategies transferable to all languages.

The importance of languages in business world The survey “Effects on the European Economy of Shortages of Foreign Language Skills in Enterprise” conducted by UK National Centre for Languages found out that a significant amount of business is lost in UK due to lack of language skills. The survey identified a clear link between languages and export success. Conclusions and recommendations, driven from this survey suggest the following actions: • Exploit and develop language skills; • Provide training for employees; • Provide work experience opportunities for foreign students / employees; • Make use of language skills available, including those of migrant workers; • Support education and training programs linking languages and enterprise, working with schools, colleges and universities.

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3.4 Seminar “Problem based learning (PBL) paradigm in the contemporary foreign language learning process: theoretical and practical aspects of communicative competence development” The author: Assoc.prof. Nijolė Čiučiulkienė, Vilnius. The seminar was aimed to discuss formal and informal foreign language learning methods. It is dedicated to analyzing difficulties that occur while learning a foreign language as well as influence of a foreign language knowledge towards a successful career. Context Our future society is conceptual society. Therefore future education focuses on Research based learning and Inquiry based learning. Contemporary teaching discourse is mostly based on science communication. In this context, emancipation of verbal communication in a foreign language could be viewed as key issue of foreign language teachers. Problem based learning (further herein PBL) is one of relevant issues in Lithuanian higher education. There is only one doctoral dissertation on problem based learning and methodical guidelines about the implementation of PBL in medical studies. Main concept PBL idea springs out from a very rich educational tradition the beginning of which is Ancient Greece. During Middle Ages idea of the problem based learning was developed during trivium and quadrium curriculum based on rethoric and argumentation. Besides, PBL has got links with the Jesuit spiritual paradigm which is based on experiential analysis and reflection. According to Boud (1985), Barrows (1986), Feletti (1991), Woods (1994), Savin–Baden (2000) PBL is a student centered learning process, during which during which a student analyses information sorts it out, evaluates the gaps, defines the problem tries to find problem solution ways and makes common decisions. It‘s worth mentioning that PBL is very popular in medical studies, because it highlights the analysis of clinical cases, hypothetical – deductive thinking (Vernon, Blake, 1993).

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The implementation of problem based learning in higher education is a complex process which enhances philosophical attitudes towards education, changes roles and relations of the traditional university teacher and student, moderates the approach towards the origin of knowledge, problem solving and decision making. Structure Priorities of problem based learning comprise of: • Stress to the development/improvement of general knowledge; • Early involvement into practical activities; • Group centeredness; • Collaboration; • Systematic evaluation; • Analysis of the results of each PBL cycle. Problem based learning can be compared to problem based teaching (further herein PBT). While the first one is student-centered, PBT is teacher-centered. PBL structure can be described as follows: • Development of learning friendly environment; • Full context of the problem issue; • PBL challenge; • Teacher’s responsibility directed towards support; • Learner’s responsibility for learning feedback; • Meta Reflection.

learning

Application in practice PBL can be applied in language learning using variety of activities. First of all it is organized via active talking. While talking tutor and learners clarify terms and concepts, analyze problem situation and identify the problem. With the help of brainstorming they consider necessary information and possible solutions. This way the language learning process is organized, students study the active material, discuss it, generalize and evaluate. In general, problem based language learning application has certain framework that contains 4 major steps: 1. Problem situation; 2. Individual studies; 3. Problem solving discussion;

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4. Decision making. PBL success depends highly on an effective problem situation. The group must prepare for PBL situation while stating the problem issue context, making PBL situation, identifying and formulating the key problem and finally analyzing knowledge possessed and knowledge which is still necessary for problem solving. All the mentioned activities are performed while actively talking. This is the beginning of speaking emancipation. PBL situation may be created while using different methods. First of all, teacher can create the challenging situation while following the curriculum guidelines. PBL situation could be contradictory loaded. It could be based on different opinions about the same question. PBL situation could end while creating the design for individual studies. Finally when the future problem solving activities are planned, group can agree on public speaking activities. Another stage is individual studies are devoted for realization of problem solving tasks. Within this task, students form their knowledge thesaurus, develop communicative skills, plan their activities for problem solving discussion. Problem solving discussion is the exposition of the knowledge possessed while actively speaking. Teacher coordinates speaking process and performs the monitoring of the lesson. The last step - decision making is the synthesis of presented ideas and methods. It is based on collective decision on final result. Correctness of decision making may be checked during future learning process. Conclusions In fact, PBL application in language learning is based on real life situations which require practical realistic decisions which find the way out from problem situations, and usage of wide range of general, special and transformable skills. It is linked to experiential learning and collaborative learning in a community. PBL also provides the authentic feedback about the quality of accepted practical decision. It is directed to particular results, problem solving and active verbal communication.

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Worth seeing and listening: •http://larryferlazzo.edublogs.org/2011/03/13/excellent-video-explainingproblem-based-learning; •http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yiB49SUxyDI; •http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i_HJf0MmJnk.

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3.5 Seminar “Process approach in teaching writing” The author: Ilze Liepa-Nagle, Inga Liepa, Ltd. "Centre for Modern Languages”, Latvia There are many writing activities during the English lessons where students can practice grammar or vocabulary. These activities may be also a letter or a story writing that can seem a very useful activity to develop writing skills, but mostly these tend to concentrate solely on accuracy. However, writing is not only a skill to develop language, but also a very essential part of communicative competence. Thus, teachers’ assistance is needed during the whole writing process not only as the teacher’s correction and comments on the final product. The most apparent problem in writing is lack of vocabulary or grammar, but this is a very narrow view on the problems in developing writing skills. “A lack of competence in writing in English results more from the lack of composing competence than from the lack of linguistic competence” (Krapels,1990). Silva (1990) describes the writing process like this: “the teacher's role is to help students develop viable strategies for getting started (finding topics, generating ideas and information, focusing and planning structure and procedure), for drafting (encouraging multiple drafts), for revising (adding, deleting, modifying and rearranging ideas), and for editing (attention to vocabulary, sentence structure, grammar and mechanics)”. Thus the process writing approach can be organized in the following model (Figure 1) given by White and Arndt (1992:17). According to White and Arndt (1992) the writing process is not only a forward movement. When writing something, students can move from one stage to another stage. Even if it is a final version of the composition, they still can re-plan or re-edit it whenever they consider this to be necessary. In the brain-storming stage, the student starts thinking about the topic given. This may be done as a whole-class activity or in groups so that students benefit from each other as well. The ideas can be put in linear order or in mind-maps (Ozagac 2004).

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Figure 1. The writing process (White and Arndt 1992:17) To initiate thinking and generate possible writing topics, students may use a variety of pre-writing strategies. Ghaith (2002) provides several ideas for the brain-storming stage, for example, constructing thought webs and graphic organizers, interviewing a person knowledgeable about the topic, engaging in peer or teacher-student discussions and conferences, listening to music, reading about and researching the topic, free writing or timed free writing about the topic, viewing media such as pictures, movies, and television, listing and categorizing information, reflecting upon personal experience, examining writing models, responding to literature, role playing and other drama techniques, asking the 5 wh-questions like who, what, where, when and why. When the ideas are brain-stormed, students may eliminate the ones that they consider to be worthless and organize the rest of the ideas; in other words, plan the writing. During the planning stage, students may add or eliminate ideas; moreover, the process of adding or eliminating information continues until the final product is achieved.

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To develop an initial plan for the composition, students must examine the purpose, audience, point of view, and format because these elements define the layout for the planning and the drafting of the written product. Students organize the information they have generated during brain-storming by using already mentioned models like outlines, story frames, maps, diagrams, charts, and concept webs (Ghaith 2002). When students think about the purpose of their writing, they think about their ideas, feelings, emotions and opinions. Ghaith (2002) lists different purposes students may consider. These could be writings to express personal feelings or viewpoints, to imagine "What if ...?", to narrate, to entertain and/or amuse, to describe, to inform or explain, to persuade or convince, to request, to inquire or question, to explore and experiment with ideas and formats or to clarify thinking. Considering audience, students may distinguish between familiar and known audiences like self, friends, peers, family, teachers and unknown audiences like community, student body, local media, wider range of media and other authorities (Ghaith 2002). Thirdly, students have to think about the point of view from which the ideas will be told. Ghaith (2002) has offered three groups of consideration. Firstly, there is a physical point of view answering the question where the narrator in relation to the action is. Secondly, there are objective and subjective points of view answering the question what emotional involvement the narrator has in relation to the situation. And thirdly, there can be a personal point of view where narrator may take a first person, third person, or an all-knowing omniscient point of view. Finally, students will analyse the audience and the purpose of their writing and determine format and genre. The formats can be narrative, descriptive, expository, and poetic. Their writings may include formats and genres such as: advertisement, advice column, autobiography/ biography, comic strip, letter of complaint/request/inquiry, diary/journal, readers theatre/ role play/monologue, book review, report, fable/fairy tale, greeting card, game rules, directions, interview, news story, poem/song, anecdote/personal experience story, sports column, short story, and many more (Ghaith, 2002). When all preliminary activities are done, students start writing their first drafts. During this stage the order of ideas can be re-ordered or some information can be added or deleted. All famous writers have admitted Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30�


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writing drafts because there always can be some inaccuracies in organization, grammatical mistakes, the choice or form of vocabulary. During the drafting stage of the writing process, meaning begins to evolve. At this stage, students record their ideas rapidly in order to capture the essence of what they have to say. No revision or editing takes place at this point. They focus on the reader and begin to develop a personal style. The work continues in developing subsequent drafts by crossing out, adding, and rearranging ideas directly on the page. Students do not have to rewrite the whole composition here. Thus, students are lead to the next stage – editing and proof-reading. Ozagac (2004) emphasises that editing and proof-reading must be distinguished. He states that editing refers to what one writes, whereas proof-reading refers to how one writes. This author emphasises that usually when teachers focus on both grammar and organisation, students can get confused and unable to correct all the mistakes. He also suggests starting with editing, thus focusing on writing’s organisation and content since the sentences may change with the help of the feedback. If the writing lacks something, this is the time to add or delete. Once the content and the organization of the ideas satisfy the student, a second draft may be written and the writing is ready for proofreading. While proof-reading, the paper is checked for any spelling, punctuation mistakes, lack of parallelism in the structures, flaws in the style (formal/informal), and grammar mistakes. To be more precise, Ozagac (2004) offers a list of items to be looked for, for example, if there are any sentence fragments and run-on sentences, if references are without pronouns, one could check verbalism of ideas, lack of parallelism, spelling mistakes, repetition of the same words, punctuation mistakes, wrong tense choice, misused modifiers, and the style could be inappropriate for the audience. The author also suggests leaving proofreading to the last since the text may change many times before the writer is content with the written work. Furthermore, this stage of editing and proof-reading can be organized not only as student – teacher or student’s individual work. The Ghaith (2002) introduces several approaches to reflect upon the writing. This can be performed also as a conference with peers and the teacher. Thus students can receive constructive feedback and support to improve their Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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writings. Here different checklist would be very suitable in order to assist writers and peers as they aim at making the meaning clear. After having done all the editing and proof-reading, students are ready to prepare a final product. It can be done in legible handwriting or typed. Then Ghaith (2002) proposes three different ways how students’ writing can go public. Firstly, students may share their written work. Thus it is a very useful post-writing activity since it provides students with an immediate audience. Sharing could be performed as the author’s chair when the writing is presented aloud with the whole class, it could be done in groups as well or bulletin boards could be used to display writings. Sometimes students are asked to decide how they would like to share their written work. Secondly, the works can be published in class booklets, school or local newspapers, yearbooks, writing contests or magazines. Thirdly, the portfolios can be used to gather students’ written works. Then teachers and students may negotiate about the assessment criteria and the amount of works placed in the portfolio. Gardner and Johnson (1997, in Ozagac 2004:9) describe the stages of the writing process that “writing is a fluid process created by writers as they work. Accomplished writers move back and forth between the stages of the process, both consciously and unconsciously. Young writers, however, benefit from the structure and security of following the writing process in their writing.” Editor’s checklist: ● Is the story grouped into logical paragraphs? ● Are there any unnecessary details? ● Is any necessary information missing? ● Are there any parts that you can’t understand? ● Are a lot of the same words repeated? ● Is there too much repetition of linkers like and, but, then etc? ● Do all the verbs agree with their subjects? ● Have articles been used correctly? ● Have the correct verb forms been used? ● Is the punctuation correct?

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3.6 Seminar “English club as an informal learning/ teaching method” The author: Dita Štefenhagena, Leader of the English Club, Jelgava Structure 1. Idea of opening an English Club in Jelgava 2. English Club`s goals, objectives and tasks 3. How English Club operates 4. Strengths and weaknesses in the English club activities 5. Future plans English club leader informed where the idea of establishing an English Club is coming from. This idea is originated from the US Peace Corps where the author worked at 90ies. US Peace Corps volunteers came to serve at Latvian, Estonian and Lithuanian cities and towns as business, NGO and English language consultants. In many occasions because of language and cultural barriers their professional skills were not used completely, and American volunteers organized little English speaking clubs at their communities. These English clubs attracted a lot of attention and interest from people of different age and professional qualification. English Club in Jelgava (EC) was established on 1 October, 2003. It is located at the Zemgale NGO Support Center. The goal is to promote English language knowledge and skills for various age and social groups. The goal is implemented by several tasks: (1.) to make discussions in English (professional activities, free time and travelling experiences) (2.) to express and maintain one’s opinion in English; (3.) to attend EC meetings on a regular basis once a weak. EC members are united by (1.) English knowledge and practical application skills, love to English language; (2.) willingness to socialize. English Club members have to fulfill the following guidelines: (1.) come to EC meetings on a regular basis; (2.) participate at EC organizing activities– information research, material development (books, newspaper articles on social, economic, culture and business topics, traveling experiences, etc.) (3.) organize guest speakers for the EC meetings. EC members have to accept the following rules: (1.) talks and discussions only in English; (2.) active speaking out, participation, respect for others’ opinion; (3.) sharing of knowledge and experience not

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only in regard to English language but also at professional and interest level; (4.) active participation and speaking out in English. Strengths: long time and continuous working experience – the core of participants (10-12 members) come to EC meeting already 10 years. The EC activities are more of discussion type, and less English grammar and lexicology learning. EC activities are organized by all EC members. There is a practice that English books are later visualized and watched as English movies. Some weaknesses: EC meetings are not always completely structured – sometimes discussions on one topic (e.g. travelling experience) may take all meeting time. There is a necessity to vary topics and activity methodology. Future plans: (1.) keep the existing core of EC members (attract new, motivated members if possible); (2.) maintain and improve the existing discussion topics; (2.) improve grammar and lexicology acquisition; (3.) attract EU financing for English Club future projects.

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3.7 Seminar “Use of the internet resources” The author: Ilze Liepa-Nagle, Ltd. "Centre for Modern Languages”, Latvia „Our students have changed radically. Today’s students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach”. /Marc Prensky/ Today’s students have not just changed incrementally from those of the past, nor simply changed their slang, clothes, body adornments, or styles, as has happened between generations previously. They are the first generation to be born and grow during the arrival of the digital technology in the last decades of the 20th century. These students are the first ones to grow up with this new technology. They have spent their entire lives surrounded by and using computers, videogames, digital music players, video cams, cell phones, and all the other toys and tools of the digital age. Today’s average college grads have spent less than 5,000 hours of their lives reading, but over 10,000 hours playing video games (not to mention 20,000 hours watching TV). Computer games, email, the Internet, cell phones and instant messaging are integral parts of their lives (Prensky 2001). It is now clear that as a result of this ubiquitous environment and the sheer volume of their interaction with it, today’s students think and process information fundamentally differently from their predecessors. These differences go far further and deeper than most educators suspect or realize. “Different kinds of experiences lead to different brain structures” says Dr. Bruce D. Perry of Baylor College of Medicine (Prensky 2001). What should we call these “new” students of today? Some refer to them as the N-[for Net]-gen or D-[for digital]-gen, or, as I have named them in this work - Digital Natives. Our students today are all “native speakers” of the digital language of computers, video games and the Internet. So what does that make the rest of us? Those of us who were not born into the digital world but have, at some later point in our lives, become fascinated by and adopted many or most aspects of the new technology are, and always will be compared to them, Digital Immigrants. In the table below, we can see, how does the changes in the generation Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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affect the classroom work, and why it is essential to use their comfort tool for achieving better results. Net Gen students Teacher Multi tasking Single or limited tasks Pictures, sound, video Text Random access Linear, logical, sequential Interactive, networked Independent or individual Engaging Disciplined Spontaneous Deliberate Table 1. Comfort zones. Using Internet resources is one way how teachers can re-connect with their students and make their lessons interesting and creative. Let us look at some of the Internet resources that could be used in lessons. Blogging. Blogs motivate students with real world writing experience (www.blogs.lv, www.wordpress.com). Wiki (Wikipedia). Wiki can be an effective tool for group work in various subject (www.wiki.com, www.wikipedia.com). Aniboom. It is a site with short cartoons on different topics suitable not only for small children (www.aniboom.com). Socrative. Socrative is a smart student response system that empowers teachers to engage their classrooms through a series of educational exercises and games via smartphones, laptops, and tablets (www.socrative.com). Other useful sites are: www.teachertube.com – similar to already popular Youtube, it has various videos in different subjects. www.bbc.co.uk and www.nytimes.org – reading material on various topics, as well as, ready lesson plans for some of the topics. www.slideshare.net – a lot of presentations on various topics, there are a lot of presentations on grammar topics for language teachers. www.ted.com – short videos with people’ talks that can be used as an introduction to the topics and discussions. Why? What for? http://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity.html

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CHAPTER IV

TRAINING COURSE

Start effective language learning!

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Lesson No. 1 Introduction Part 1 Essentials Any good job requires appropriate work and patience. (A well-known fact) Welcome to the course “Start effective language learning!” This course is an important part of the international project “Effective language learning for people aged 18-30” supported by the Scandinavian and Baltic educational programme Nordplus Adult. The course is meant mostly for people aged 18-30, but it can also be very useful for other age groups. The course is based on the survey in the Baltic States which was conducted among the language learners and the language teachers. Thanks to this research the project team managed to get a lot of precious information about the possible difficulties in language learning. The main causes of failures and the major principles of success in language learning were discovered. The course contains the authors’ findings, the ideas of the well-known language teachers who took part in the interviews, some modern practical psychology and language methodology. The course consists of a number of topics which might be interesting for all the language learners (and language teachers as well), e.g.:  how to set the goals and how to achieve them,  how to overcome the psychological barriers,  how to learn vocabulary and grammar successfully,  how to develop speaking skills effectively,  how to use various learning materials, etc. While taking part in this course you can notice that you already know some (or a lot of) ideas concerning the effective language learning. It makes a very big difference if you just know them and if you know them and regularly use them in practice. So if you want to get really good results in language learning, you have to use ALL the principles discussed in this course. Use them regularly and patiently and in about 1-2 months` time you will notice a progress in your studies. There are 11 lessons in this course designed for 2 weeks of self-study.

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You should study only one lesson a day. It takes about one hour of calm work to study one lesson. There are 2 parts in each lesson: part 1 – the essentials and part 2 – practice. You should use a copybook for doing most of the exercises of the course. Note! (one more time) The most important part of this course is applying the new (and old) knowledge to practice concerning your foreign language learning. We wish you a lot of success in studying this course and in further foreign language learning! Part 2 Practice 1. To do the course exercises, you need a copybook (about 45-90 pages, A4 or A5). Your copybook should be with colourful and interesting cover. On the cover write down the name of the course, the date of the start and your name. 2. On the first page write down the date, the number and the name of the lesson. 3. Describe your experience connected with foreign language learning. Describe both positive and negative moments. Do your best to find more positive ones. Describe your achievements (even if you think they are not so important). 4. Answer the questions “What are you studying the foreign language(s) for?”, “What do you want to achieve?”. They are going to be discussed next lesson. 5. Close your eyes and dream a little. How would you like to study the language? What about your teacher? What about the learning materials? Write down your ideas. 6. Write down your questions concerning foreign language learning.

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Lesson No. 2 Your plans and ambitions Part 1 Essentials Are you studying a foreign language, because you really want to do it and because it is only your personal decision? Or are you studying a foreign language, mostly because you have to do it, because it is so obligatory? Because it was decided by your parents, your background, your school, your college, your university, your government, the modern society, etc. Learning a language as an obligation is not interesting. It is unpleasant and it is not effective. If you learn a language and most of the time you feel that you don`t want to do it at all, there are 2 major ways of solving that. The first way is to leave the language learning alone and concentrate on what you really like doing. The second way If the first way is not good for you (for some reasons), you must change your attitude towards learning the language. You must have a strong desire to learn it. Think about all the possible advantages of knowing this language in your life. Think about broadening your mind, your career, the new opportunities, the interesting relationships, etc. Besides think about what you like about learning this language. Decide what exactly you desire to achieve when learning the language. Sometimes learners can`t explain what exactly they want. Or they can say a very abstract statement “I just want to know a language” which contains too little of useful information. So what do you want to achieve in the end when learning this language? Do you only want to pass a test in your college or university? Or do you want to know the language to feel more comfortable when going abroad? Or do you want to know the language at a high level to enter a prestigious college abroad? Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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Or do you want to know the language at an intermediate level to be able to work abroad? Or do you want to pass a state exam at school? Or do you want to learn the language just for fun and pleasure? Or (add your ideas)? After discovering what you want you need to have a clear and realistic goal to aim for. In order to do that you need to get some essential information about the levels of proficiency and understand what level you are at the moment. It will help you choose an appropriate course, saving your time and money. Let`s look at the chart about the levels concerning the English language. This chart can be applied to other languages as well. CEF levels

The levels concerning the English language

Description Level aims

How many lessons ?

С2

Upper-advanced

use English well in demanding situations performance level may be above average native speaker

More than 120 hours of classwork or self-study

С1

Advanced

use English well in all but the most demanding situations use and understand complex language

120-200 hours of classwork+ self-study

В2

Upperintermediate

use English effectively in all familiar situations use more complex English and cope with more demanding situations

120-200 hours of classwork+ self-study

В1

Intermediate

use English to express simple ideas and

120-200 hours of classwork+

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achieve results use range of basic language well in most situations

self-study

А2

Pre-intermediate

use English in most familiar situations use English in a limited way in more difficult situations

120-200 hours of classwork+ self-study

А1/А2

Elementary

develop English skills to survival level use English only in very familiar situations

120-200 hours of classwork+ self-study

А1

Beginner

learn basic vocabulary and structures for simple communication

60-90 hours of classwork+ selfstudy

THE COMMENTS:  According to CEF there are 6 levels of proficiency (2 beginner levels А1 and А2, 2 intermediate levels – В1 and В2 and 2 advanced ones – С1 and С2). As for English language learning there are 7 levels (2 beginner levels, 3 intermediate levels and 2 advanced ones).  Necessary classwork - For example, you need 120-200 hours of regular classwork to learn at the intermediate level. It means that 120 hours is a minimum. 200 hours of classwork is what you need for more thorough learning and preparation for the exam at this level. - It is also worth considering the personality of each student. About 10 % of learners are fast learners while another 10% are quite slow.  A number of hours required for self-study have to be the same or more than a number of hours of classwork. Now decide what level you want to achieve in the end? If you are quite shy and you think you deserve only level A1 or level A2, you need to know that these levels don`t give you many benefits.

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It is much wiser to consider achieving higher levels, at least level B2 or even advanced levels as you will be able to get very good benefits of knowing the language connected with your career, education, easier communication, etc. After that identify your level at the present moment and what level you have to achieve next. How to identify your level Sometimes it is not difficult to do. For example, if you haven`t studied this language before, you need to take a beginner course (level A1). Or if you have recently successfully completed course at intermediate level (B1), you can easily start the upper-intermediate course (level B2). Or if you failed the exam concerning level A 2, you have to do this course again. Sometimes you need to take a language test in order to identify your level. You can take this test at the language centres or on-line. Or you can attend 1-2 private lessons and get a more detailed view of your level (especially concerning your speaking skills). If you studied the language a long time ago (at school or at the language centre), such kind of test will help you to decide whether to start from the very beginning or take a more challenging course. Think about what you can invest in learning the language in terms of the present moment and a period of 1 year. Answer the question “How much time per week during the year can you invest?” It has to be at least 2 hours per week. Answer another important question “How much money per week/month/year can you invest in learning the language?” Can you afford to take one-to-one lessons or can you afford to study in a small group? Or can you afford to study only in a group of 10-15 people? Can you afford a 1-2 study trips abroad? What else do you have? Maybe you already have some good learning materials or there is probably someone who can help you . Now you are ready to set a clear and realistic goal. According to what you have, your ambitions and the chart information think about when you can achieve your final goal. Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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For example: “By summer 2016 I will have known German at C1 level.” And you need to think of short-term goals. It means every major step of your way requires a goal. For example: “By June 2014 I will have successfully completed A2 level in German… By June 2015 I will have successfully completed B1 level…In summer 2015 I will be studying in Germany for 2 weeks…etc.” You have to decide what very first steps you are going to take. For example “This week I am going to find out about the suitable language courses in my town” Or “Next week I am going to take a couple of one-to-one lessons and I am going to find out what level I am at the moment”. The essential principles of setting the goals 1. Your goal has to be clear and positive. It has to contain the word “I”. For example “ By June 2014 I will have passed my state exam in English.” Or “In June 2016 I will be speaking Spanish at the intermediate level.” 2. In your mind you must have a very colorful picture of achieving your final goal. Dream for 5-10 minutes. Imagine different situations which show you that you have achieved your final goal. Include a lot of details, the sound and the emotions (e.g. joy, satisfaction, gratitude) in the picture. You should also express your dreams in detail in your copybook. You should do this mental exercise at least once a week. It helps you be highly motivated. Do it, especially if you feel lazy. 3. On your way to success you can correct your goal(s) if necessary. You can add new details and change the deadlines.

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Tip: A trip to the country is very stimulating for every language learner. Set one of your goals – to visit the homeland of the language you are studying. It can be a study trip, a business trip or just for fun. If you are studying Estonian as a foreign language in Estonia, consider visiting some interesting place in Estonia where you can hear mostly Estonian. After identifying your major goal you have to act. Take all the responsibility for achieving your aims. Find the appropriate course, teacher and learning materials. Note: When choosing the language course pay your attention to the following options. One-to-one courses (i.e. only you and your teacher) are considered to be optimal, but they are quite expensive. You can arrange the course where only you and your friend can be taught. It is also effective and it is not very cheap. You can also find a mini group course (i.e. 3-4 students) or a bigger group course (i.e. 6-10 students). Sometimes the course can be designed for a large group of students (11-25 students). The latter option is usually the cheapest, but it is not so effective. Language learners often use the combination of different options. For instance, they study the language in a big group of 20 students and take private lessons. Searching for the right language course and the teacher usually takes a lot of time. For example, if you want to study the language in a group of 10-15 students, you will probably have to wait for a few months until the group is arranged. If you don`t want to spend much time on waiting, you have to consider a one-to-one course which can be arranged much faster. Part 2 Practice 1. In your copybook write down:  the number and the theme of the lesson  the date

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 at least 5 moments of this lesson which you consider the most essential (or interesting or new). You can also write down your questions concerning this lesson. 2. According to the lesson information set your final goal, your short-term goals and your first steps. Write them down. Next day start acting according to your aims.

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Lesson No. 3 You, your personality and your beliefs. Overcoming the psychological barriers Part 1 Essentials Almost every language learner faces some psychological barriers which affect his/her learning a lot. Some learners can see and feel them, some learners can`t. During this lesson we are going to discuss the major psychological barriers in language learning and the optimal ways of overcoming them. Note: Fortunately, you can find a teacher, or a psychologist or any other person who can help you overcome your barriers in language learning. But in most cases you can solve most of your difficulties on your own. Barrier 1 Low self-esteem, pessimism, negative beliefs, lack of selfconfidence You must believe in yourself, even if nobody believes in you. This is the only way of winning. The language learners tend to create the difficulties for themselves. It is a very important question “Do you believe in your success in language learning?” Or “Do you believe in yourself? “ If you don`t believe in yourself, you create a number of barriers which prevent you from achieving your aims. A low self-esteem causes a lot of negative beliefs. Every negative belief is not a fact, but it is very limiting for any language learner. For example, “I am sure I will never know this language well”. Or “I will probably fail this examination”. Or “This language is too difficult for me”. Or “I am not able to learn any language”. Etc. One of the most popular negative beliefs is “I don`t have enough language practice”. For example, the language learner studies English twice a week and sometimes does a self-study, etc. And he/she says that there is severe lack of available language practice. What should he/she do to create enough language practice? Option 1 Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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He /she can go to England or any other English-speaking country to study English for 1-2 years. It is really good, but it is very expensive. Option 2 He/ she can stop being passive and be waiting for a lot of language practice. And he / she can start being active and creating a number of good opportunities for a lot of language practice: -be active at language courses -take extra private lessons -take part in various interesting (e.g. language) projects -find a native speaker (or another foreigner who can speak English well) in the social network and start communicating regularly -practice “live language“ listening a lot using the Internet, films, songs, etc. Nowadays the list of such kind of opportunities is long enough. Solution: First you have to identify your beliefs (positive and negative) concerning language learning. Write them down. You must replace every negative belief with a positive one. For example, “I believe in my success” or “I will be able to know this language well”. Or “I can easily learn grammar”. You regularly have to convince yourself of the new positive ideas in order to absorb them completely. Auto-suggestion is a good way of changing way of thinking if it is often used. Think of your achievements even if they don`t seem significant. Remember your new achievements and expect the further ones. You should also read at least one book about positive thinking and practise the main ideas. Barrier 2 Constant dissatisfaction If the person is often not satisfied with himself/ herself, it makes language learning very complicated. Constant dissatisfaction means that the person doesn`t respect himself/herself and its main cause is a low self-esteem. For example, you made some mistakes doing an exercise. You are not satisfied because you wanted a better result. You don`t pay any attention to what you did well. And if you not satisfied with yourself, you are not satisfied with who/what

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is around you. You tend to criticize your teacher, your classmates and your learning materials. Solution: You must learn to praise yourself and feel grateful for any work you do and anything you achieve. Even if you fail to do a simple exercise, you should praise yourself for your time and efforts, anything done correctly, precious learning experience, etc. Don`t wait until your teacher or someone else says something good about you and your work. Instead praise yourself! Barrier 3 Laziness and passiveness Almost every language learner feels lazy to some extent. It is so natural to feel lazy when attending the language courses, when doing homework, when learning a dialogue, when searching for some information on the Internet, etc. It is very natural to want to get a lot, but there is no desire to work hard at all. And the most interesting thing is that everyone is aware that laziness doesn`t help you achieve what you want. Solution: It is your choice. Every time you win or your laziness wins. Everyone has some will-power to overcome laziness. If you tend to be lazy, you should often think about your goals. Think about achieving your final goal in detail and your desire to learn will become stronger. Barrier 4 Fears Quite often language learners have some fears, for example a fear of speaking. There can be a lot of reasons for a fear of speaking. For example, it can be caused by some sad experience. Some people are very afraid of making any mistakes (it means they are afraid of failing). Or some people feel uncomfortable communicating with someone. Or a language learner can be afraid of hearing any critics expressed by other people. Listeners can say something offensive or they can laugh at a speaker.

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Or a language learner can be afraid of something new, of making a new step as it is not very comfortable. Or a person can be very shy and not very communicative. Some people lack live communication. Solution: Identify your fears concerning language learning. Think about the possible reasons. Understanding your fears and the reasons can help you a lot when solving this problem. Then imagine doing something without any fear, for example any successful communication, public speaking, etc. and believe in it. In some cases you need to discuss your fears with the person you trust (your teacher, your psychologist, your friend, etc.). Barrier 5 Lack of patience, too high expectations A well-known peculiarity of a modern human mind “I want to get a lot and in no time at all!” is also connected with foreign language learning. For example, a student who is studying or who has just completed the beginner level wants to be able to speak a fluent language. Solution: Any language learning takes a lot of time and patience. In order to be able to speak any foreign language at a more or less good level (especially communicating with native speakers) you need to know a language at B2 level. And if your real language level is A1, you need a one-year intensive course (i.e. most of your time is devoted to language learning) or at least 2-3 years of studying as usual. Barrier 6 Lack of self-discipline and being irresponsible Sometimes a language learner states that he/she has a great desire to learn the language accepting all the teacher`s requirements. In practice he/she skips 50% of the lessons, doesn`t follow most of the requirements, etc. And besides that he/she feels surprised as there is no progress in language learning. Some language learners tend to forget that they mainly are responsible for their results. Your teachers, classmates, friends, your school or university, the state, etc. are not primarily responsible for any of your achievements.

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Solution: If you have a goal concerning language learning, you should have all the responsibility for anything connected with achieving your goal. You should have all the responsibility for attending classes, working hard, doing all of homework, etc. Barrier 7 Shyness and bad communicative skills Some language learners are shy about expressing their opinions, sharing their problems or achievements, asking any questions, talking about themselves. They are painfully shy because of their appearance, voice, etc. The major language function of the language is communication. So you should be communicative to make the language learning effective. You should be interesting and feel interested in what and who is around you. Solution: Shyness is mainly the tension of your body and mind. You must relax your body and mind to get rid of any tension. You can find a number of easy relaxation exercises which can help you a lot. Shyness is also based on a low self-esteem. Build up your sense of self-esteem by regular thinking about your achievements and your goals. And you must develop your communicative skills. Take up communication training or something like that. Be more active when studying and in everyday life. Find a number of interesting people to practice communicating. Barrier 8 Innate conservatism Some language learners are very active opposing any new ideas or approaches. They don`t want to change their usual beliefs and methods which haven`t been successful for them so far. They tend to argue with the teacher sticking to their old ideas. These language learners don`t want to experiment ad they don`t want to be creative at all. Solution: You should consider anything new and any changes. Don`t try to reject anything new immediately. Try it. It can be interesting and useful for you. Barrier 9 Lack of persistence Some language learners can quickly lose any interest in learning the language and they prefer to give up when they face some difficulties.

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Solution: Pay your attention to a small child learning to do something, e.g. learning to walk. A small child falls down and stands up, falls down and stands up, falls down and stands up, etc. until one day he/she is able to walk. Adults should do the same. After “falling” they should stand up and try again. So if you fail to do something in your learning, you should analyze the reasons, “learn this lesson” and move on. Sometimes a huge success comes after a number of failures. Barrier 10 Perfectionism Some language learners, especially educated ones, tend to be perfect. As a result they are very tense and very sensitive about any mistakes. For example they try to understand everything they hear or read. They stick to any new word in the text and they think too much before they say something. Solution: Don`t try to be perfect! Take your mistakes lightly! All the successful language learners have made a lot of mistakes so far and they still make them. Part 2 Practice 1. In your copybook write down:  the number and the theme of the lesson  the date  at least 5 moments of this lesson which you consider the most essential (or interesting or new). You can also write down your questions concerning this lesson. 2. Think about what makes your language learning problematic. Think about the possible causes. Think about the possible ways out. Write down your ideas. Start using the lesson recommendations regularly when overcoming your psychological barriers. If necessary discuss your difficulties with your teacher, psychologist or your friend(s).

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Lesson No. 4 You and your emotions Part 1 Essentials How do you usually feel when studying a foreign language (with the teacher and on your own)? Do you often feel good or bad? What emotions do you usually have? Do you often feel bored, indifferent or interested? Do you often feel irritated or satisfied? Do you often feel tired or relaxed? Do you often think of something else are do you concentrate properly on learning? Do you study because you mainly want to or have to? Do you like how you learn the language? Do you agree that language learning is supposed to be interesting, bringing satisfaction and other positive emotions to you? It is really wonderful if the language learner mainly feels good. But if he/she feels mainly bad, he/she can lose any interest in learning the language. If you feel mainly bad when learning the language, you should do something about it. First you must think about the reason(s) for your negative emotions. For example, you attend the language courses which start just after your work and you can`t get enough rest. Or you don`t like your language course and your teacher or someone in your class. Or you often tend to feel bad during the day. Or you have been recently under a lot of stress. Or you are easily put in a bad mood and it is not so easy for you to switch from feeling bad to feeling good. Or you have been ill lately. Knowing the real cause(-s) of your usual bad mood, you can find appropriate ways out: 1. You must learn how to put yourself in a good mood quickly. You can use various simple methods e.g. some relaxation, thinking about something pleasant, doing what you like, listening to your favorite kind of music, chatting with interesting people, doing exercise, etc. There are also other useful methods of controlling emotions which you can learn and practice.

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2. If you have been ill, it is wise to avoid attending your language courses for a while. If you want to and you can, revise what you have learnt, e.g. practicing listening. 3. If you have to work with the teacher or someone else you don`t like, you must change your attitude. You must pay attention to something good about this person and ignore something bad about him/her. 4. If you have to attend really boring and tiring language courses, you must try to find something good and useful in this challenging situation. You can learn to feel good even at the most boring lessons! Note! Fortunately, you can meet some teachers who can often put you in a good mood. Even if you feel really bad before the lesson, you can feel much better during the lesson. But very often you will have to be able to control your emotions and feel better, especially when doing any selfstudy. Part 2 Practice 1. In your copybook write down:  the number and the theme of the lesson  the date  at least 5 moments of this lesson which you consider the most essential (or interesting or new). You can also write down your questions concerning this lesson. 2. Think about your frequent and usual emotions during language learning. If they are mainly negative, think about possible causes and solutions. Learn to control your emotions.

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Lesson No. 5 A systematic approach (part 1). A complex process Part 1 Essentials You can study a foreign language using different methods and ideas. Some language learners are very “shallow” studying it from time to time, doing little of necessary work, etc. And according to their efforts their achievements are not good enough. To be successful in language learning you must stop using a “shallow” approach. What does it mean? 1. MASTERING EACH STEP. EVERYTHING IN SEQUENCE. For example, studying the unit of your student`s book, you must master all the key vocabulary and grammar of the unit, do all the exercises in sequence, practice all the skills. Only after mastering one unit of your book, you can start the next one. If you don`t study one unit properly and start another one, you will have a lot of difficulties in the new unit. How should you check if you have mastered something? In the modern learning materials there are unit tests, progress tests (concerning a few units) and exit tests. If your test score is below 60%, you should study the unit(s) again. Don`t forget to check your listening and speaking skills. If your test score is 60% or higher, you can start the new unit. Even if you pass a test, it is necessary to analyze your mistakes and do some extra exercises (concerning your problematic areas). You should follow the same principle doing any exercise. Don`t hurry to start a new exercise if you haven`t mastered the present one. Also use a step-by-step approach. After succeeding in doing one exercise start working with the next one. You shouldn`t skip any activities in your course even if some of them seem boring or not so useful. You must use this principle when completing your language course. Do an exit test (including listening and speaking parts). If you fail it, you will have to take this course again.

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2. YOUR TEACHER AND YOUR SELF-STUDY While learning any foreign language you should use both lessons with a competent teacher and lot of self-study. You should have at least one lesson with a teacher every week. And your self-study also has to take as much time (or more) as your lessons with a teacher. In case you do too little self-study, it means your language learning is passive. Note: Of course you can decide to use self-study only. But you should know that you are very likely to need some help connected with developing speaking and writing skills as well as studying grammar and vocabulary. It makes sense to use only self-study after you have acquired the basics of a foreign language. Knowing the basics you can feel much more comfortable in the situations where you have to use only a foreign language. In this case your “teacher” is everyone and everything around you (your foreign friends, colleagues, neighbours, anything you hear or see, etc.). 3. VARIETY Language learning is meant to be a very interesting experience for you! A wise use of various approaches and learning materials can make your study exciting. If you tend to study a language at school or university, you should also try to use other less formal ways of learning the language, e.g. one-toone and mini-group lessons, language clubs, watching films, reading, etc. Don`t forget about travelling, excursions, taking part in projects, chatting with native speakers on the Internet, studying songs, videoclips, etc. Choose what you like. 4. MASTERING ALL THE LANGUAGE SKILLS You should master 4 language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing.

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Note: Your vocabulary and grammar have a great impact on mastering these 4 skills. If your vocabulary or proficiency in grammar is not good enough, you have a lot of difficulty while listening or reading, etc. So mastering listening, reading, speaking and writing also means mastering your vocabulary and grammar. If some language skills are difficult for you, you should pay a lot of attention to mastering a difficult skill. Mastering speaking skills Create a lot of opportunities for developing speaking skills. Try one-toone lessons, be more active at language courses, chat with native speakers and foreign people on the Internet, etc. Practise reading essential dialogues and short texts aloud a lot. Speaking is deeply affected by listening. So practise listening much more, e.g. while watching films, TV programmes and video clips, etc. An essential method for improving speaking skills using audios or videos. Mastering the pronunciation: 1. Choose a 1-2 minute interesting audio or video recording which contains a key dialogue or a short text. You can use a part of the song or a film, etc. The recording of good quality should only be used. You should also have a tapescript. And you need a good noise cancelling headset. 2. Practise listening to it many times (at least for 15-20 minutes) without looking at the tapescript. 3. Then practise listening to it many times looking at the tapescript. 4. After that practise reading the tapescript aloud and emotionally. Try to copy the original (e.g. intonation). Use can practise the words and phrases first. You can also use the well-known method “listen and repeat”. 5. REGULAR AND NON-STOP LEARNING Your study should be regular. It has to be a part of your everyday life, your pleasant and useful habit.

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Note: Many language learners make the same mistake. For example, they complete a language course and take a break for a few weeks or months. As a result after such kind of breaks they often have to start learning what they learned some time ago. You shouldn`t stop learning a language until you achieve your aims. And even if you succeed in knowing the language, you should continue mastering it. So after completing one course successfully, you have 2 good options. You should immediately start a new course. Or you can choose to consolidate your success until you are ready to start a more advanced course. In conclusion, it is not wise to take a long break (from 1 week) in language learning. 6. MAIN AND EXTRA LEARNING MATERIALS Any good language course is supposed to be based on main learning materials. It can be a popular course written by well-known authors. Or it can be designed by your teacher. If you use a trusted language course, you should have all the components of it: a student`s book, a workbook, audio CDs, and even a video course. It is also good to have a teacher`s book which can help you in your self-study. You also need extra learning materials which can be expensive or free. You can use reference books, grammar and vocabulary books, video and audio courses, etc. 7. A LIVE LANGUAGE AND IN-DEPTH TREATMENT OF A LANGUAGE You should have a lot of listening practice to get access to a real language. Choose interesting audio and video recordings which can be a part of your course or other courses. You can also use films, TV programmes, video clips and songs. Choose one interesting unit or theme and treat it thoroughly. Focus on developing speaking skills. Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30�


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Besides language learning find some time to study some aspects (e.g. history, traditions, culture, famous people, etc.) Part 2 Practice 1. In your copybook write down:  the number and the theme of the lesson  the date  at least 5 moments of this lesson which you consider the most essential (or interesting or new). You can also write down your questions concerning this lesson. 2. Using the lesson information think about what you need to change in your study. And think about your first steps. Write down your ideas. 3. Start following the principles of a systematic approach mentioned in this lesson. Follow them regularly.

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Lesson No. 6 Your self-study (part 1) Part 1 Essentials Independent work is an important part of language learning. In addition to lessons with a teacher on a course, you should devote significant amount of time to self-study. Unfortunately, many students do not want to spend their free time on homework. There are several reasons why: inability to work independently, lack of perseverance and patience, low motivation, and so on. Why is it important to work independently? For example, when you do your homework, you revise what you studied in the classroom with the teacher and you can do that at your own pace and when it is convenient for you. You can also deepen your knowledge of the things that you are currently studying with the teacher. Self-study requires concentration and you should perform it without being distracted. How much time should you spend on self-study? At least as much time as you spend studying with the teacher. Of course, you can allocate more time to it, if it is necessary to achieve your goals, or if you have enough free time. In any case, self-study has to become a habit and should be performed at least several times a week. Independent work should include not only home tasks. It is also worth using additional materials for language learning (e.g. video courses, video clips, Internet resources, etc.). This will bring diversity in the learning process, and prevent boredom, which seriously hinders the learning process. How to best use additional study materials General principles: 1. Choose an additional study material that matches your level, goals and is interesting for you. Note: To practise listening and “absorbing” a real language you can use audio or video materials of higher language levels. Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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2. Try to choose additional study materials that mostly contain positive information. 3. Also make sure the materials are up-to-date. The quality of sound and video is also very important. In this lesson, we will discuss in detail how to work with course sets and video materials. COURSE PACKAGES Course packages usually include a student’s book, workbook, audio CD(s), sometimes video course with worksheets, answers, recommendations for use. Student’s book is often accompanied by CDROM or DVD-ROM that contain both basic and additional interesting interactive study materials. The good news is that over the past 10-20 years, the number of highquality and interesting study materials has increased significantly. And almost every student can find a suitable study material. Let us, for example, consider the following situation. Maria is studying English on a course for the level A2. As the main study material the teacher uses the well-known coursebook, New Headway Elementary (4th edition) with audio materials. But for whatever reason the teacher does not use the other interesting materials that are included in the course package (for example, a workbook, video materials). Maria likes this course and wants to study more thoroughly. She acquires workbook with key, video course with worksheets and answers. She successfully uses these materials in her independent work. When necessary she addresses her teacher for consultation. It is worth mentioning that using teacher’s book can also prove beneficial, because it usually contains tests (with answers), a list of new words, entertaining additional exercises. Working independently with a course package, it is recommended to perform all tasks, without missing anything out, because each exercise is a part of the system and is interconnected with other parts of the course. How to use various video materials (video courses, video clips, films and TV programmes) Video courses represent a great opportunity to dive into a living language, to practice listening and speaking skills, to widen vocabulary. Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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You can find video courses in the form of a comedy series, a series of reports, television shows, and so on. There are courses offering language learning through a variety of psycho-technologies. Some video courses contain subtitles related with the most important aspects of the studied topic. Also contemporary video courses include a small book for the student, containing exercises to develop all the necessary language skills. When studying independently it is useful to have teacher’s book, where you can find answers to the exercises, recommendations and additional exercises. Over the past 10 years the choice of high quality video courses has expanded, so now you can find video courses suitable for different ages and levels of proficiency. How to work with a video course (containing student’s book and teacher's book) Contemporary video courses offer a number of interesting exercises:  before watching (getting acquainted with the topic, keywords, and grammar);  while watching (listening, vocabulary and grammar practice);  after watching (speaking and writing practice, a quick test). In any case you should complete all of the proposed exercises, as they are all closely interconnected. Mostly the work should be carried out as follows: 1. Watch the video clip to get an overview (1-3 minutes). 2. Complete the related exercises. 3. Watch the same extract again to check. If necessary, watch one more time. 4. Check your answers using the teacher’s book. Analyse your mistakes. Analyse what was not clear. Write down your questions (that you can later ask your teacher) 5. Read the content of the movie expressively (emotionally) if it is available in the book. You can also practice pronunciation listening and repeating phrases many times. 6. Choose the most important phrases, write them down and compose mini-dialogues with them.

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It is recommended to memorize separate phrases, parts or the whole video clip. You can also use the method for developing speaking skills discussed in lesson 5: 1. Choose a 1-2 minute interesting episode which contains a key dialogue or a short text. You should also have a tapescript. 2. Practise listening to it many times (at least for 15-20 minutes) without looking at the tapescript. 3. Then practise listening to it many times looking at the tapescript. 4. After that practise reading the tapescript aloud and emotionally. Try to copy the original (e.g. intonation). Use can practise the words and phrases first. How to work with a video course (if there is no student’s book and teacher’s book or if it is not possible to acquire them) Let us consider the well known video course for English learners “Look Ahead. BBC Learning“. The course contains 60 lessons. (Lesson 1 corresponds to beginner’s level, while lesson 60 – to the level B2.) The course represents a successful combination of a television show and a series. Each lesson lasts 10 minutes. Each lesson is concerned with a concrete exciting topic. How to work with such courses? 1. Watch the whole lesson to get an overview. 2. Write down all the main words and phrases from this lesson (which are provided in the subtitles). You should definitely write down everything that was new and not clear for you. 3. Analyze what you have written down from this lesson. Analyze new words and expressions. If anything is still not clear, ask your teacher about it. 4. Practise pronunciation. Listen over and over again and repeat the phrases (that are given in the subtitles) expressively and loudly. 5. Revise the most important new words and phrases by composing interesting sentences and mini dialogues with them. 6. Watch the lesson, or at least the most interesting fragments, one more time. Chose 1 or 2 interesting episodes and practise listening (and listening and repeating) many times. Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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7. Check yourself whether you have learnt the main things from this lesson. How to work with the video courses (which employ various psychotechnologies) If you like such video courses use them in accordance with the recommendations proposed by the authors of the course. Note: Use these courses only as a supplementary learning material. Video clips Videos can be academic and non-academic (for example just an interview with a star, sports coverage, etc.). You can find academic videos on many topics that interest you, such as grammar or spoken language. Non-academic videos can mainly be used to practise listening skills. They can also be useful for expanding vocabulary. 3-4 phrases from every video clip can easily be remembered. Films, TV programmes Films and television programmes are suitable for those who study a language at the intermediate and advanced levels. It is better to use these genres – comedy, family, animation, documentaries (about animals, travel, fashion and so on), adventures, music shows and erotic films. It is also worth paying attention to series (preferably comedy). The principle of usage is very simple: You choose your favourite film or TV program. You enjoy watching the show and listening to the authentic foreign language. Do not try to understand everything. Just watch and listen! Note: Watch films without subtitles. If you have not understood something from the film, it's possible to sort this out by watching again. It is not necessary to re-watch the whole film. Simply choose the most difficult part, and the part that you liked most (at this point you can use subtitles). It is advisable to write at least 5 phrases from the film in the notebook and memorize them. If you watch films and TV programs regularly you will notice that you quite easily memorize key words and phrases that you hear while Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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watching. Your vocabulary (especially related to the spoken language) will expand significantly and you will considerably develop your listening skills. It is worth exploiting some interesting episodes (frequent listening, thorough analysis, a lot of listening and repeating). In our next lesson we will discuss how to work effectively with other interesting language learning resources. Part 2 Practice 1. In your copybook write down:  the number and the theme of the lesson  the date  at least 5 moments of this lesson which you consider the most essential (or interesting or new). You can also write down your questions concerning this lesson. 2. If you have performed your independent work unwillingly or not regularly before, think about how you can improve this situation. Write down your ideas. 3. If previously you have unwillingly used additional language learning materials (discussed in this lesson), or you have not used them regularly, reflect on what you would like to use additionally during your studies. Write down all your ideas. Over the next 7 days, find out which additional materials you can get. For example, find out what kind of video courses or course packages that are suitable for you, are available. Ask for advice from teachers, friends, look for information on the Internet, in catalogues of specialty shops that sell educational materials, etc. 4. Starting from the next day, constantly use independent work and supplementary materials in your foreign language study. Also do not forget about the basic rules and guidelines related with their use.

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Lesson No. 7 Your self-study (part 2). How to use various resources for language learning Part 1 Essentials Lesson 5 was about using various video materials and standard course materials.This lesson is about exploiting songs, the Internet and reading resources. Let`s revise how to best use additional study materials. General principles: 1. Choose an additional study material that matches your level, goals and is interesting for you. Note: To practise listening and “absorbing” a real language you can use audio or video materials of higher language levels. 2. Try to choose additional study materials that mostly contain positive information. 3. Also make sure the materials are up-to-date. The quality of sound and video is also very important. How to exploit songs Songs are valuable resources for language learning. They play a major role in studying any mother tongue, especially in the beginning (think about your childhood). And they have to be used when learning a foreign language. Nowadays you can easily find a lot of songs that can be interesting and useful for you. Moreover, they are free. Songs meant for educating children It may sound very strange but such songs can be successfully exploited by adults who learn a language at beginner and elementary levels. They are very emotional and simple, so it`s pleasant to listen to them and you can memorize easily. If you manage to learn at least 10 exciting songs,

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you will improve your pronunciation, practise and extend your vocabulary and grammar. How to use them Note: Use the most popular children`s songs meant for language learning first! 1. Watch a video clip if possible. After that practise listening to the song many times (for about 15-20 minutes). 2. Analyze the song text. Then practise listening to the song while reading the song text silently (many times). 3. Listen and repeat the lines of the song. Read the whole song text aloud (a few times). 4. Listen and sing along a few times. Even if you can`t sing very well, try to do it. 5. Extra Karaoke is also good! Standard pop songs Do you want to feel a real language? Do you want to practise and extend your vocabulary and grammar? How about improving your pronunciation? If your answer is “Yes”, you can try to exploit songs. It`s better to aim to find out about the most popular and interesting songs concerning the language you are learning. And it is worth exploiting your favourite ones. Choose songs which are performed by native speakers only. For example, there are a lot of songs in English, but you should exploit ones that are performed by English-speaking singers. Note: Be very careful when selecting songs for language learning. Avoid songs which convey any negative meaning and emotions (sadness, depression, anger, etc.). Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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How to use standard songs 1. Watch a video clip if possible. Listen to the whole song. Choose an extract (a part of the song) to exploit. After that practise listening to the extract many times (for about 15-20 minutes). 2. Analyze the song text. Find the translation of the song on the Internet and compare it with your translation. Pay your attention to some interesting vocabulary and grammar patterns. Then practise listening to the extract while reading the song text silently (many times). 3. Listen and repeat the lines of the extract. Read the extract aloud (a few times). 4. Listen and sing along a few times. 5. Extra Try to sing karaoke. Note: Exploit the songs regularly (one new song per week). Save the songs and the song texts in a separate folder on your computer and your phone. Don`t forget to practise listening to and singing the songs you have already exploited. Reading books, press, manuals, etc. Do you enjoy reading? If you like it, you can benefit from reading a lot. If your language level is higher than intermediate, it is worth reading anything in the original. If your language level is intermediate and lower, you should exploit learning adaptations (e.g. special books, newspapers and magazines) matching your level. They have a number of comprehension and extension activities and a CD. How to use this resource 1. Extensive reading with minimal use of a dictionary. 2. In-depth treatment of the most interesting parts.

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Internet resources There is a great choice of various Internet resources meant for language learning. There are special websites which can be free or not free. There are on-line courses covering various levels and themes. There are on-line reference books and other study materials. It is worth mentioning social networks which have some groups for language learners who want to extend their communication practice. A lot of forums and chat rooms can be useful. And skype can be used a lot. Part 2 Practice 1. In your copybook write down:  the number and the theme of the lesson  the date  at least 5 moments of this lesson which you consider the most essential (or interesting or new). You can also write down your questions concerning this lesson. 2. Start using the songs according to the main recommendations. Exploit one song per week. After exploiting at least 5 songs make your choice. 1) If you like this kind of language learning, continue doing it. 2) If you feel this method is not for you, leave it and choose something else. 3. Over the next weeks, find out which Internet resources you can get. Choose ones that match your needs and likes most of all and start using them regularly. 4. If you like reading or using audio courses, find out what you can get. Choose ones that match your needs and likes most of all and start using them regularly.

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Lesson No. 8 How to learn new words Part 1 Essentials Please, answer honestly – Do you like studying new words? Unfortunately, many learners do not really like studying new words. A reason for such attitude is hidden in the belief that studying new words is a rather boring and tedious process. But studying new words can be a quite interesting creative process, which brings joy and other pleasant emotions. In this lesson we will analyze how to turn studying new words into your new pleasant experience. How to study new words effectively Let us begin with the fact that many learners use a rather simple, primitive, boring and ineffective way of studying new words. They usually study lists of new words (together with the translations). And what is interesting, some even enjoy this. In any case, even if you manage to learn a list of words by heart (for example 20 words), this does not have any practical value. It means that, for example, in a real situation of live communication it will not help much. What can you do instead? First of all, it should be noted that if you use the basic principles of successful language learning, that is, you have a strong desire, a clear goal, you regularly attend lessons with a teacher, as well as study independently, you put positive emotions in the learning process, and so on, you considerably help yourself revise new words, increase your vocabulary and apply it in practice. Also, there are some additional aspects that you should know when working with new words. First of all, let us discuss this step by step. The process of studying new words can be divided into several steps.

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Step 1 GETTING ACQUAINTED First you hear or see a new word (or phrase) and pay attention to it. It may be in some context, such as a text or dialogue. It may also be accompanied by a corresponding picture. Step 2 ANALYSIS You need to figure out how to pronounce a new word, pay attention to how to spell it and learn what it means. Pronunciation of the word can be found for example on the Internet with the help of an online dictionary or using a conventional dictionary (if you know transcription well). In order to define the meaning of a new word, do not turn to dictionary or your teacher straight away. Instead, try a different method. Try to predict what the word or phrase means. Look carefully at the sentence or dialogue where you saw this word. In this context, do you think the word is a verb, noun or another part of speech? Does it mean something positive or negative? Maybe it will remind you of a familiar word (even from your native language). After that, you can check your guesses with the help of a dictionary or your teacher. To your surprise you might discover that you guesses are correct much more often than you can imagine. Naturally, such an approach requires more time, but it is much more interesting and useful than the conventional approach. With such regular practice you will develop the so called linguistic intuition. You will feel what a new word means in most situations. Moreover, you will feel which words are worth special attention and which are not worth your time. Step 3 MEMORISING After you have understood what new words mean, you need to learn them by heart. VERY IMPORTANT! DO NOT LEARN SEPARATE WORDS! INSTEAD, LEARN COLLOCATIONS WITH THE WORD, SENTENCES WITH THE WORD, OR MINI DIALOGUES WITH THE WORD! For example, you see a new word in a sentence. Memorize the sentence. If the sentence is rather complicated, learn the part of the sentence containing the new word. In this way you will also develop your knowledge of grammar, because you learn the word order, different tenses and other useful grammatical constructions. Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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A hint: It is easier to remember bright emotional moments, especially those that concern us personally. That is why, when you start learning collocations, sentences, or mini dialogues, create a bright emotional image in your mind of the thing that you are trying to remember. It is also very useful to write what you are studying in your notebook and draw a bright picture about it (even if you cannot draw very well). In this case, apart from the emotional memory you also train your motor memory. It is useful to read what you are studying aloud, expressively for several times. Then you should check yourself both orally and in writing. Step 4 PRACTICE So, you have successfully acquired sentences and collocations with new words and now you need to apply this new knowledge in practice. First, you have to carry out standard exercises related with these new words and expressions in your course book. After you have completed one exercise, check if your answers are correct (if, for example, you are working independently, you can use teacher’s book). Also, analyze your mistakes. After checking, read the whole exercise expressively. There are a number of exercises where you need to apply new vocabulary in oral speech (for example, asking and answering questions) and in writing (for example, composing a short story on the given topic). After successful completion of standard exercises in your textbook or workbook, move on to a more complex and more interesting practical work - composing your own sentences or mini dialogues. This is a very creative process, and will require much more time and effort. Use your sense of humour, imagination and all your current knowledge, when composing something of your own. Ask yourself the question, “In the future, in which real situations could I hear or say this new word or expression?” For example, in a conversation on the phone, while watching a film, or reading the original books, and so on. If you feel that you are unlikely to use a concrete new word in the near future, try the Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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following. Imagine that you are a writer or a film writer and compose something unusual (and illogical). Reflect on the possible use of each new word and write down your sentence or mini dialogue. Try to keep your writing emotional and vivid, and preferably concerning you personally. Hint: It is highly recommended to compose and write down a few sentences (or phrases) with each new word. You can also write short stories, poems, songs, using one or several new words. Note: It is highly recommended to ask your teacher to check your creations (unless of course, you are not shy about it.) Save your creative work, they are also an indicator of your work and your progress. In the future, try to use what you have learned (especially in communication). Reminder: When working with new words and expressions you may also need additional study materials. These are special books, vocabulary exercise books (containing a variety of topics) and phrasebooks. You should have a large dictionary (bilingual, that is, 2 languages). It is also desirable to have a large monolingual dictionary (1 language, that is, explanatory dictionary) where you will find a definition of a new word, synonyms and example sentences and other useful information. To expand your vocabulary it is also useful to work with video and audio materials and read regularly.

Part 2 Practice 1. In your copybook write down:  the number and the theme of the lesson  the date  at least 5 moments of this lesson which you consider the most essential (or interesting or new). You can also write down your questions concerning this lesson.

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2. Pick any 5 new words, expressions that you recently studied or that you need to learn and work with them in accordance with the recommendations from this lesson. Note what you liked and what caused difficulties. After a few days, check the effectiveness of your work with new words; see what you can remember and what you will have forgotten. 3. Starting from the next day, constantly use the basic principles and techniques in the study of new words that you learned in this lesson.

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Lesson No. 9 How to study grammar Part 1 Essentials You can study grammar using the same principles of studying vocabulary that were discussed last lesson. Of course, in addition to that there are some aspects you need to know. 1. If you have some negative beliefs connected with learning grammar such as “Learning grammar is not exciting”, “It is too difficult”, etc., you should change your attitude. Maybe, you have had quite a bad learning experience. You probably had to use very boring course books or your teacher couldn`t teach you grammar very well. But it is in the past. Nowadays you can find much more interesting, useful learning materials which can help you with learning grammar. And the quality of teaching grammar has improved a lot. 2. You shouldn`t focus on learning grammar only. It is not supposed to be your primary concern in language learning. You should study grammar naturally in context. 3. While studying any grammar structure learn a few sentences or even a short dialogue illustrating the main aspects. Later during practice activities, be creative making your sentences or mini dialogues. 4. For in-depth treatment of grammar you need grammar reference and practice books. They usually contain a theoretical part (i.e. examples, rules, illustrations, etc.) and a practice part (i.e. main and extra exercises, keys, tests, etc.). Most of these books have a CD-ROM or a DVD-ROM providing extra information and motivating practice. You can also find a lot of exciting grammar activities on the Internet. Part 2 Practice 1. In your copybook write down:  the number and the theme of the lesson;  the date;  at least 5 moments of this lesson which you consider the most essential (or interesting or new).

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You can also write down your questions concerning this lesson. 2. Pick any new grammar structure you have been studying, work with it in accordance with the recommendations from this lesson. Note what you liked and what caused difficulties. After a few days, check the effectiveness of your work with new grammar; see what you can remember and what you will have forgotten. 3. Starting from the next day, constantly use the basic principles and techniques in the study of new grammar that you learned in this lesson.

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Lesson No. 10 A systematic approach (part 2). Regular and nonstop learning Part 1 Essentials Please, answer the question: If you have 1-3 foreign language study sessions a week, can you hope for success? Unfortunately, no. Analyzing the patterns of successful language learning, the following was revealed. Those who are successful in language learning, spent (and are spending) their time and efforts on this every day. There is another important aspect you need to know. Your language learning has to be non-stop. It means that any breaks (a few days/weeks/months) have a negative effect on your learning experience. After these breaks language learners tend to forget what they have learnt. And they need to do it again wasting their time, energy and money. So it is essential to find opportunities for language learning during the summer, holidays, weekends, etc. Then another important question occurs: How much time daily should you devote on studying a foreign language? On average, from 30 minutes to 2 hours. More than 2 hours can be very tedious and in the end turn out to be a stressful experience. An exception is the situation when you are abroad (travel, study, work, residence, etc.) and naturally you have to spend more time on the use of a foreign language in various forms (beginning from the perception of a lot of information visually and aurally and ending with communication); or else in case you are studying the language on an intensive course (4-8 sessions a day). Note: When you get used to everyday learning, you should extend an everyday minimum of 30 minutes. First, it should be 45 minutes. After that in 1-2 months` time make it 1 hour, etc. Many students are aware of the principle of daily regularity, but unfortunately do not use it in practice. You can hear such excuses, "I had absolutely no time" or "I have so many other things to do at the moment." and so on.

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Figuratively speaking, when you study a language, you either take a step forward towards your goal, or take a step back. For example, during the week you devoted 3 days to the language study, and on the remaining 4 days you failed to find an opportunity to do any language work (for various reasons). It means that this week you took 3 steps forward towards your goal and four steps back. Thus, in the end, ignoring the principle of daily regularity, you waste your time. Look at how many steps forward and backward you have done this week (month, year). As a result, an average student either goes round in circles in the study of the language, or, at best, is moving forward very, very slowly. The principle of regular language study should go hand in hand with other principles of successful language learning. It is necessary to take into account your purpose, a variety of study methods, harmonic language acquisition, and so on. Let's see how this might look like in practice. So, here is an example SCHEDULE FOR THE STUDENT TAKING A BASIC COURSE. Week day

Time

Foreign language learning activities

Mon

2 hours in the evening

Language course with a teacher. Studying a new topic “Jobs”. Working with new words and grammar.

Tue

30 minutes in the evening

Completing a home task. Writing.

Wed

30 minutes in the evening

Working with songs and video clips. Working with new words.

Thu

2 hours in the evening

Language course with a teacher Revision. Speaking and listening practice.

Fri

30 minutes in the evening

Completing a home task. Working with a video course.

Sat

1 hour during the day

Communicating with the foreign language speaking friends over the Internet. Watching a film in the foreign language.

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Sun

30 minutes in the evening

Reading a book, journal (or working with the video course)

Make your schedule of language practice for the next 7 days. Make it as interesting and relevant to your goals as possible. During the week, try to stick to it. If necessary, make changes in your schedule. In addition to the weekly planning, include a bit of daily self-analysis. In the evening spend 5-10 minutes on writing down what you have done during the day in terms of language learning. You can also write down questions that you have had and that sooner or later will be answered. For example: January 19 (Sun) Studied for 30 minutes. Worked independently with the video course Look Ahead. Studied the third episode: "Meeting people". Noted down the most important new phrases. Practiced pronunciation. Composed a few interesting sentences and mini dialogues. Repeated the most interesting parts from episodes 1 and 2. 2 questions arose: 1. What does the phrase "Please call me Susan" mean? 2. What does the phrase "How do you do" mean? Within 1 or 2 months such self-analysis will help you acquire the principle of regularity and give you more confidence in language learning.

Part 2 Practice 1. In your copybook write down: ● the number and the theme of the lesson; ● the date; ● at least 5 moments of this lesson which you consider the most essential (or interesting or new). You can also write down your questions concerning this lesson.

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2. Compile a schedule of your study of a foreign language for the next 7 days. Your schedule should include daily practice (from 30 minutes to 2 hours). Try to make it varied by using different ways of language learning (course with a teacher, doing homework, watching movies, working with video clips and songs, reading, socializing with foreign friends, etc.). Specify at what time you will be studying the foreign language (in the evening, during the day, and so on). Remember that your studies should include working on the new material as well as revision. Try to stick to this schedule for the next 7 days. Once you have studied for 7 days, analyze what went well and what did not. And make a new schedule for the following 7 days. 3. Also, to check yourself it is recommended to keep daily records in your notebook that describe what you have done that day to learn the language, how much time you practiced, what you liked, what was difficult. You can also write down questions that you have had and that you might soon get an answer to. It only takes 5-10 minutes and it is better to carry out such an analysis in the evening. Write down your thoughts in a simple way, using your emotions and creativity. At the end of self-analysis praise yourself for your work and for every little achievement. If your level is quite high, it is better to make such records in the foreign language. This will be a good additional practice in the use of the language. If your level of language knowledge does not allow you to perform self-analysis in the foreign language, you should do it in your native language. 4. Starting from the next day, use the principle of regular practice in your foreign language studies. And after about 20-40 days of constant application of this principle, it will become a useful habit that will greatly help you in learning a foreign language.

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Lesson No. 11 Conclusion Part 1 Extra situations This last lesson we are going to raise some more issues that worry many language learners. “I don`t have enough free time to study a foreign language” Time is a very important element in language learning. You have to invest a lot of your time in your study. Language learners often say that they want to learn a language, but unfortunately they don`t have time for that. Let`s analyze this situation. If language learners mention a total lack of time, there can be several reasons for that. Reason A (often) He/ she is lazy and tries to justify his/her laziness. Reason B (often) He/ she has difficulties with time management. It means that a language learner spends a lot of precious time doing less significant things. So there is no time left for more important things. Reason C He/she is so busy with work or study or anything else that he/she doesn`t have any time for any elementary rest. If language learning is quite important, it is worth changing a lifestyle. Reason D A language learner studies a few foreign languages and tries to pay enough attention to each language. It`s much better to focus on learning one language which is the most important of all. It makes sense to know one foreign language very well instead of knowing a few ones at a beginner level.

There is one more frequently asked question. Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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“Is it possible to learn the language fast, easily, investing no or little money and doing almost nothing?” Is it fast? On the Internet you can see a lot of surprising and promising adverts such as “English in 2 weeks!”. In bookshops you can often notice a number of books with astonishing titles, e.g. “ Finnish in 4 weeks. A selfstudy book. Easy and fast!”. Is it real? Unfortunately, it is not real. In 2-4 weeks you can`t learn to speak any language. In 2-4 weeks you can learn 2-4 units, about 10-20 % of what you need to know at this level. In order to know the language at a good level (e.g. B2 level) you need much more time. Besides a lot of time you should also invest a lot of your energy and money. Language learning is your development and your future. The more you invest, the more you get! Is it easy? It can be easy if you enjoy learning this language and you work a lot. Part 2 Summary. Next step We are delighted that you have taken part in this course! We hope you have learned something useful which can help you study the language effectively! If you have any questions, suggestions or comments, please contact the partners of this project (for the contact information, please visit www.effective-learning.eu). The project team wishes you a lot of success in further language learning!

Review of the E-course evaluation Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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The e-course evaluation form (Appendix 3) was created in order to evaluate an e-course. It was completed by the pilot group of the students. The final test results show that 90% of the pilot group of the students have not acquired skills how to learn foreign languages before. The second question was “Was this course useful to you?” About 40% of the pilot group of the students believe that the gained e-course knowledge will help them to learn foreign languages better. Other students (about 60%) do not see the importance of the course, but they think that some of this might be useful someday. Nobody thinks that it was a waste of time. The third question was “Which skills are the most useful to you?” Students had to rank their opinion writing the number 1, 2, 3 ... where 1 the most important. The responses are summarized in the following table. The results show that the most important skill for the students (answers were given more frequently) was how to overcome the psychological barriers and how to learn regularly and non-stop. But the most insignificant skills were identifying the levels of proficiency. Average

Mode

How to identify the levels of proficiency

7.6

11

How to overcome the psychological barriers

3.7

1

How to set the goals

4.9

8

How to master each step and everything in sequence

5.7

7

How to learn regularly and non-stop

4.2

1

6

2

How to organize self-studies

6.4

3

How to use various course materials

5.4

4

How to use various resources for language learning

5.6

3

How to master the language skills

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How to learn new words How to study grammar

5

6

4.7

5

By a five-point scale the pilot group of the students also evaluated this elearning course by several indicators (see the following chart). The overall average rate according to a five-point scale is 3.63. The results show that the online interaction among the students should be improved. Modular organization of topics as well as easiness of the navigability through the course, are more beneficial. Average Mode Course content

3.7

4

Logical sequence and organization of the course content

3.9

4

Adequacy of the course content to the course goals

3.8

4

Modular organization of topics

3.6

5

Easiness of access to content

3.4

3

Content adjusted to e-learning

3.6

4

Applicability and relevance of content to students professional practice

3.6

4

Visual appeal and interest of the course

3.2

4

Easiness of navigability through the course

3.7

5

Usefulness of the course

3.8

4

Clarity and objectivity of tasks and assignment

3.8

3

Efficiency in registration process

3.7

4

Clear information on deadlines and times

3.9

4

Online interaction between teacher and student

3.6

4

Online interaction among students

3.2

3

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CONCLUSION The project was successful. In spite of its short duration and the small size of the project team all the expected outcomes were achieved. Moreover, the project team managed to achieve more results (e.g. a longer course, more publicity, etc.). In fact during only one year the project team managed to do the amount of work that it is usually done during several years of project work. In cooperation with three organizations involved in adult education in the Baltic States several language education aspects were covered: the major difficulties and barriers in learning foreign languages, the principles of successful language learning, the organization of learning process, learning / teaching formal and in-formal methods as well as a support system. The most visible results of the project are as follows:  Created new knowledge: o Study report as well as the interview summaries, o Collection of the seminar materials concerning successful language learning / teaching in formal and in-formal way, o E-course about effective language learning, o Project monitoring and evaluation instrument – the agreement among the project partners;  Developed tools for identifying the major difficulties that people aged 18-30 face when learning foreign languages and how language learners usually overcome the difficulties (the online questionnaire „ Effective language learning for people aged 18-30” and the interview questions);  Established database – the survey results;  Formed project website, etc. The outcomes of this project can be adapted to other target groups:  Different age groups;  Different learning methods (e-learning, one-to-one learning, group learning);  Not just to learners – to teachers as well (so they could see the problems that learners have and the possibilities to overcome them);

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 

Can be adjusted and modified to people with different knowledge and skills of languages (if learner knows one or two languages / three or four / more); Can be modified to usage in private / public schools, vocational training, non-formal education; Can be used as a course (alone) or in cooperation with language courses or other studies.

The greatest value of the project:  An opportunity to gain new experiences  To compare and discuss our achievements and problems with colleagues from other countries  To learn about other cultures  To meet people from other Baltic countries; etc. By evaluating the cooperation experience and the progress achieved we can see the knowledge and experience of each partner organization. This means that the partners have the potential to learn from each another. It also outlines the future opportunities for cooperation which should be continued in the following directions:  To exchange new experience through teaching staff mobility;  To develop joint methodical literature, e-communication etc;  To create joint e-learning materials;  To work out new teaching methods;  To promote the mobility of language learners;  To develop a common platform that motivates teachers to use suitable teaching tools and change their professional activities; The perspectives include common studies concerning several language learning/ teaching aspects, e.g. didactic aspects of e-learning, promotion of the development of the competences necessary for the labour market at any age, the impact of language competence on career development, etc. The partners are planning to use this course in their organizations, also to spread it to other organizations, schools, adapt the course to various needs and target groups. So the project has great potential. It will be extended at the regional level. And in a few years` time it will be extended at the international level.

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APPENDIX 1 Questionnaire Within the framework of Nordplus Adult Learning Programme project ”Effective language learning for people aged 18-30”, we are implementing the survey, aiming to analyze the major difficulties that people aged 18-30 face when learning foreign languages. This questionnaire is anonymous, meaning that results will be published only summarized. Thank you for your sincere answers. 1. What foreign language(s) do you know? Please evaluate the level of your language proficiency! Please mark it in the scale from 1 to 10, where 1 – complete beginner and 10 – excellent the level of a native speaker. English

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Danish

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Swedish

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Norwegian

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Finnish

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

French

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Spanish

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

German

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Russian

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Estonian

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Latvian

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Lithuanian

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Add more languages if necessary and evaluate your level: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

2.

What foreign language/languages are you studying?

a. ________________ b. ________________ c. …. If you are not studying any foreign language, go to question 11. 3.

Please choose one of the foreign languages (if you are studying more than one) you are going to talk about:

Your foreign language: ________________________

2

3

Beginner

Once a week

3-4 hours

At higher educational institution

1

1-2 hours

At vocational school

less than 1 hour

2-3 times a week

3-5 years

4

Elementary

5

Intermediate

Once a fortnight

Once a month

5-6 hours

6

7

Advanced

8

Other ____

more than 6 hours

9

Upperadvanced

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”

Other ____

4-5 times a week

1-3 years

I can`t answer this question More Other than 5 ___ years

Using Elearning

Every day

6-12 months

No

At Language courses abroad

Less than six months

More No than Yes

On my own

More Yes than No

At Language school At Individual courses

Yes

At school

Do you like this language? How long have you been studying it? How often do you study? How much time a week? How/where do you study it? (You can choose more than one answer) Evaluate your level of desire to learn this language (1-poor, 10 very much) What level of language

10

Other


110

proficiency do you want to achieve When do you want to achieve this level?

4.

In less than 1 year

In 1-2 years` time

In 3-4 years` time

Other ......................

What are your major reasons for learning this language? Please mark it in the scale from 1 to 5, where 1 - insignificant, 5 - very important Career development

1

2

3

4

5

Travelling

1

2

3

4

5

Personal relationships

1

2

3

4

5

Education

1

2

3

4

5

Migration

1

2

3

4

5

Hobby

1

2

3

4

5

Self-development

1

2

3

4

5

Other ...............

1

2

3

4

5

5. Do you face any barriers or difficulties in your language learning? a. Yes – go to question 6 b. No – go to question 11 6.

Which language skills are problematic for you? (you can mark more than one option if necessary) a. Grammar b. Pronunciation c. Listening d. Writing e. Vocabulary f. Speaking g. None of the above-mentioned Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


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7. What barriers/difficulties do you face when learning this language? (you can mark more than one option if necessary) a. I am too shy to speak b. I am afraid of failing c. I do not have enough language practice d. I think it`s too difficult for me e. I have a lack of motivation f. I am lazy g. I think I am not good at learning languages h. Quite often I am not satisfied with my learning results i. None of the above-mentioned 8.

What is your language learning experience? (you can choose more than one answer) a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

9.

I do not like learning at all I have had a bad learning experience I have had a bad teacher experience My learning materials are not good enough I do not know how to study effectively Mixture of languages I know None of the above-mentioned

Are there any other factors that affect your language learning? (you can choose more than one answer) a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.

I live in a place without internet access I do not know where to get study materials In my residence area there are no suitable language courses I do not have any information about language learning I do not have enough money I do not have enough time None of the above-mentioned Other: ....................

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10. How do you solve the above-mentioned difficulties? (you can choose more than one answer) a. Only on my own b. I ask my friends for help c. I ask my relatives for help d. I ask my teacher/lecturer/instructor for help e. I search for some advice on the Internet f. I can get no or little help g. I don`t try to solve them h. I successfully solve them i. I can`t answer this question j. Other: …

11. Information about the respondent: Gender Age Place of residence Educational level Job/position (In case you don`t work, choose one of the following : a pupil, a student, unemployed, a housewife, etc.) Mother tongue

Female Younger than 18-25 18 A city Basic

Secondary

Male 26-30 A town

Professional

31and older A village

Higher Master's education degree

PhD

If you are willing to receive the survey results or if you are interested in taking part in other project activities, please write your e-mail here: We are grateful for your collaboration!

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If you are studying one more foreign language, you can fill in another application form. This project has been funded with support from Nordplus Adult Learning Programme. This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the Nordic Council of Ministers cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained herein.

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APPENDIX 2 Interview questions AIM: methods and means of successful language learning TARGET GROUP: trainers / teachers / educators who provide language training for people aged 18-30 QUESTIONS: 1. Where do you work (secondary (high) school / VET school / HEI / language school / as a tutor)? 2. What language do you teach? 3. What is your language teaching experience like? 4. Do you have any need to improve their language skills / pedagogical skills 5. How many languages do you know? 6. What language learning method is the most effective for you? 7. According to your own teaching experience describe an extremely successful / unsuccessful case in their practice? 8. What language training methods do you use? 9. What language training method could be more efficient? 10. What are the most common language learning problems among your students? 11. How do your students overcome these situations / how does a trainer help them? 12. What main mistakes are made during language learning process that might affect learning process? 13. What should be done (what support system / activities) in order to facilitate language learning process? 14. How do you define a successful foreign language learner? 15. What tools / materials / equipment do you need for successful language teaching? 16. What do you think of effectiveness of modern tools for language learning (such as e-courses, apps, video courses, online tests)? 17. What are the best ways of increasing motivation of students to learn foreign language? 18. What are the best ways of overcoming psychological barriers of students that might affect language learning? Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30�


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19. What is the most problematic area of language learning: grammar / listening / writing / vocabulary / reading? 20. What would you recommend for a language learner? 21. What would you recommend in terms of using informal (self -) study?

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APPENDIX 3 E-course evaluation form Have you ever learnt how to learn foreign languages? □ yes □ no Has this course been useful to you? □ Knowledge will help me to learn foreign languages better □ Maybe someday will use some of this □ I am not sure whether this course will help me to learn a foreign language □ Taking the course was the waste of time □ other …………………………. Which skills are the most useful to you? (Please rank your view - write the number 1, 2, 3 ... where 1 - the most important) □ how to identify the levels of proficiency □ how to overcome the psychological barriers □ how to set the goals □ how to master each step and everything in sequence □ how to learn regularly and non-stop □ how to master the language skills □ how to organize self-study □ how to use various course materials □ how to use various resources for language learning □ how to learn new words □ how to study grammar By five-point scale evaluate this e-learning course: (Please mark it in the scale from 1 to 5, where 1 –very bad and 5 – excellent.) Course content Logical sequence and organization of the course content Adequacy of the course content to the course goals Modular organization of the topics Easiness of access to the content Content adjusted to e-learning Applicability and relevance of the content to students` professional practice

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5

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Visual appeal and interest of the course Easiness of navigability through the course Usefulness of the course Clarity and objectivity of the tasks and assignments Efficiency in the registration process Clear information on the deadlines and times Online interaction between the teacher and the student Online interaction among the students Other ......

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

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YOUR NOTES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………... …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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YOUR NOTES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………... …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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YOUR NOTES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………... …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Funded in the framework of the Nordplus Adult development project “EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30”


Effective Language Learning The present project book was created in the framework of Nordplus Adult development project „EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30“. It contains all the essential information about the project, its activities and outcomes. This project book consists of: - general information about the project and the project team - analyzed survey - essentials of the seminar materials - full training course “Start effective language learning!” - appendixes We hope that this project book will be both interesting and useful to anyone who is connected with education, especially adult education and language learning and teaching. ======================================================= Nordplus Adult development project „EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30” was officially launched on 1 August 2012 and it finished in a year`s time. This project was meant to analyze the major difficulties people aged 18-30 face when learning foreign languages in order to find out about the best ways to overcome them, the principles of successful language learning and help learners get the best results. The project was carried out in the Baltic States and it was done in 5 languages (English, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Russian). The project was implemented by a small project team: the coordinator - MTÜ Personality Development (Estonia), the partners: NGO Education Innovations Transfer Centre (Latvia), UAB Globalios idėjos (Lithuania).

Project website: http://effective-learning.eu

Effective language learning project book  

This is major coutcome of Nordplus Adult Learning project EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING FOR PEOPLE AGED 18-30 (Ref. No. AD-2012_1a-29721). Fo...

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