LIS RE-Imagining a NEW Outdoors

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The Landscape Institute Scotland are proud to present this digital showcase from its members that focus on reclaiming the outdoors as we emerge from the effects of the Covid19 global pandemic. The ideas demonstrate simple and effective design solutions going forward, as well as support the longer term climate crisis action, and address the following challenges that can utilise the outdoors:1. How to encourage health and wellbeing activities; 2. How to safely educate children; 3. How to get people moving safely to work or around; 4. How to recreate a social life for our communities; 5. How we can use more of our outdoor spaces for the benefit of society and the planet. The LIS would like to thank the following:The individuals and organisations that provided ideas for this showcase who are listed on the rear cover. The staff and landscape students at the School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Edinburgh School of Art for preparing the digital edition of the showcase and also content for a future exhibition.


How to Encourage Health and Wellbeing Activities Outdoors

IGO Spaces

a free-standing solution to create safe green outdoor space in a pandemic


• Instant • Green • Outdoor IGO Spaces can help solve the need for additional space required by social distancing during the COVID 19 pandemic and allow all types of organisations and businesses to reopen quickly and safely. IGO Spaces can offer shelter, comfort and security in a positive outdoor space for staff and visitors to use, making it easier for them to return to work and access services. IGO Spaces: •

• • •

are an instant green outdoor environment that can be erected anywhere. They do not have foundations so they can create temporary or permanent green space in places where this might not otherwise have been possible. are created using a circular economy approach from a sustainable, modular timber kit can be configured in a limitless number of ways to suit the location, budget or need are tried and tested as the modular timber kit has already been implemented as part of a number of growing spaces and an experienced delivery partner is in place to fabricate them.

IGO Space created outside the Queen Elizabeth Glasgow A+E Department

IGO Spaces

WHAT The design for the IGO Spaces is based on the erz modular timber kit that has been used to create community gardens all over Scotland. The modular kit is designed to fit into small sites, and to go on any surface. It could be used to create safe spaces for people to; wait, rest, relax or work. The modular kit is designed on a 2.2m grid and is therefore a perfect framework to encourage social distancing. IGO Spaces can be configured in complex combinations or be arranged as a simple shelter. They could be used; • • • • • • •

to form a sheltered queuing system in busy places such as for high street shops, supermarkets or at stadiums. as a waiting room/ garden for entry to a gallery, museum or other visitor attraction. as a rest and relaxation space for hospital/ medical centre staff or visitors. as an outdoor interview / meeting room for a local authority or housing association. to create outdoor seating areas to expand capacity in cafés or bars. to create ‘pop up’ parks or greenspaces in busy urban residential areas. to provide space adjacent to community centres for activities or workshops.

‘pop up’ park

sheltered meeting space

cafe / bar

outdoor shelter with waiting & queuing rooms

IGO Spaces - modular timber kit in various configurations

IGO Spaces

WHERE IGO Spaces can be created anywhere that is accessible. The examples opposite demonstrate the wide range of places around Glasgow where IGO Spaces could be created. Other examples include; • • • • • • • • •

Streets and pavements (with permission from the local authority) Courtyards (the kit comes flat packed and can be transported through buildings) Hospital grounds Car parks Parks and gardens Left over gap sites Incidental green spaces Play grounds Church yards

The IGO kit was designed to fit into small sites, and to go on any base. As the kit is self weighted with no foundations they can be temporarily installed in existing public spaces without the complication of damaging and then replacing existing surfaces. The lack of foundations also means that the IGO Spaces can be created anywhere there is an appropriate surface - without the need to carry out services scans or checks. In city centres the location of services would restrict the location for installing above ground features such as shelters.

Centre: Glasgow City Chambers, Glasgow RHS: Kelvingrove Art Gallery Glasgow, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh Bottom: Queen Elizabeth Hospital, A&E Department, Govan, Suchiehall Street, Glasgow City Centre, IGO Spaces

This project through the provision of a care and vocational rehabilitation environment connects people to the natural world, inspiring a deep insight into the value this brings to all aspects of living. The

In rehabilitating very oppressed or disavdvantaged groups back into mainstream society, individuals who would very possibly have lived very damaged lives in the long term, through landscape intervention creates a standard for our society. Importantly that no one is left behind and no one is beyond a good quality of life. This standard would translate and disseminate through communities and populations. Through their lives many people connect with the natural world in a deep and meaningful way. Providing this possibility at the end of life is not something that exists and may support novel structures and narratives that have the potential to change the way we live in many ways.

The horse project and site construction

Care environment- based on synergies and feedback Conversations - life transitions - ‘leave no one behind’ Metaphor - emergent model of health - creating contexts Landscape epidemiology Water based equilibrium and small hydro projects

Weissner - Gross A. D et al

Causal Entropic Forces Physical Review Letters PRL 110, 168702, 2013

Project objectives and overview :

Anderson S

Designing salutogenic contextual constraints: promoting the synthesis of emergent health states through integrated network interactions, complex adaptive systems and an exploration of natural geometries in the landscape MLA2 2019

The primary objective of this design project is to create a suitable outdoor work and care environment situated within the coastal promontory location of Reiff on the Coigach peninsula in Wester Ross. This intervention should provide an effective physical and functional context for honest and meaningful interactions and communication between individuals in need of truthful human connection during major stages of life transition.

Ashmore PJ

Neolithic and bronze age Scotland 1996 ISBN 9780713475302

While providing a location for late palliative and end of life care the site will also offer the setting for vocational rehabilitation and convalescence for younger individuals requiring purposeful respite such as those suffering with PTSD or other complex mental or physical illnesses, particularly where existing therapeutics have been of limited benefit. Other people or groups suffering with distress, loneliness or homelessness as a result of dysfunctional life circumstances or maladaptive mechanisms of coping or survival would be entirely appropriate candidates as long as there was the potential for sustained improvement to their quality of life.

Shannon C E

A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System Technical Journal. 27 doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb00917.x. hdl

As such the site does not meet the definition of any of the existing following terms - resort, retreat, sanctuary, sanitarium, refuge, haven or hospice. The location would support a dynamic social - ecological environment more akin to a grand, outdoor, natural theatre - a venue or locus where immanent and intrinsic features of the landscape and the natural environment interact and are employed for vital aspects of physical, mental or spiritual transcendence or healing. Where experiencing, acting and working in harmony with nature and the character of the land rather than against it encourages a fuller conscious engagement and advanced appreciation and coherence or synchronicity with it. This is a rich canvas for meaningful, positive connections with others.

Wolstein B

Countertransference : The psychoanalyst’s shared sxperience and inquiry with his patient. JAAP 3:77-89

fig 1 + 2 fig 4 fig 6

Leonardo Da Vinci ancicent wisdom - Shannon C E

Using recognised latin terms a Locus amoenus - pleasant or idealised place of safety or comfort, or Hortus conclusus a 'closed garden', in this case describing an area accessed almost exclusively by boat for only those who will benefit from the site are perhaps both appropriate designations. Considering human behaviour as an adaptive thermodynamic process, promoting or encouraging reciprocal causal entropic forces between people, the land and the living environment through design of the site is a primary goal. Incorporating shared objectives related to ongoing landform and reasoned ecological interventions and the production of electrical energy from natural water sources creates a fertile dynamic context for positive emergent phenomena occurring through the organisation of complex patterns and systems of social exchange. Neolithic cursus monuments in Scotland were believed to be sites of intergenerational gathering, ceremonial competitions, rite of passage rituals and ancestor veneration. The way in which the landscape is the focus of this type of human interaction and embodied transformational activity may be comparable to the purpose of the proposed site at Reiff.

Information exchange : Energy Entropy Equilibrium Empathy Entertainment Education

Music is central for providing connection at the site, several areas have the functionality for music production and performance and in many diffrent social contexts. From the transient removable stage on the island - based on a hypercube with subtle terracing constrcucted across the water around the whole bay to focus on the central act to more quiet areas next to the loch for folk music or interactive sessions including singing, instruments and any other forms of cohesive performative entertainment, often around a fire.

Horse project

The Reiff rock project

References :

Horse project

The landscape music project

Reciprocal environments

One of the primary functions of the site is to offer an outdoor end of life experience to terminally unwell individuals who are likely to benefit from the site conditions and connection with wild outdoor space during this stage as an alternative choice to conventional palliative methods. This is supported by younger volunteer residents who populate and are responsible for the construction and maintenance of the site under convalescent or respite arrangements to improve their own health while offering care and connection to others in a reciprocal care relationship during difficult or challenging life transitions. Water based narratives are central to this care dynamic.



Information exchange : Energy Entropy Equilibrium Empathy Education Entertainment

Reciprocal dynamics :


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Horse project

The end of life care and veneration project

Design Statement

Information exchange : Energy Entropy Equilibrium Education Economy Empathy

Boats arive from a departure port at Dundonnell to the pier off the North end of the main site. All boats operate with electicical energy produced at the site. Boats are also used for fishing, wildlife tours, sailing and ceremonies at sea. Rowing boats, kayaks and other forms of boat are made on the site from natural sustainable materials using traditional methods and craftsmanship. This encourages an apprenticeship type model to reintroduce the benefits of learning and attention to detail required to maintain saftey, quality and reliability at sea or other aquatic or marine environments


Reiff - Coigach Peninsula Wester Ross

Horse project

The boat yard and pier

Reciprocal dynamics :

A field large enough for at least 2 adult horses and stables is situated at the south end of the site. Humans and horses interact in a working and mutual care environment. Site construction involves the movement and working of large stones, the stones are sourced locally from the fringes of the site, primarily higher and drier stones would be used. The stones would be moved using the water near the bank of the Loch and the strength of the horses and younger residents. The context of varying human groups working with these animals for these activities is rich with useful narratives.

Site :


Information exchange : Energy Entropy Equilibrium Empathy Ecology

Reciprocal dynamics

Encouraging a connection and even a synchronicity with nature reasserts the importance of the protection and conservation of the natural world.

Themes :

Horse project


Information exchange : Energy Entropy Equilibrium Education Empathy Entertainment

Reciprocal dynamics :

Reciprocal dynamics

The famous geology of the North West highlands is the context for climbing tuition, masonry work / movement of stones and the narratives intrinsically embedded in the geological cycle. These activities improve confidence, exercising the Hypothalamic- Pituitary - Adrenal Axis in new and unexpected ways providing insight and broadening the experience of the body’s physical abilities and mental and physical limits. The land is largely shaped by the latent energy present in water, this provides limitless stories of how action and change reflected through the properties of water manifest in almost every our physical world and environment.

As a socio ecological project the site has to have a means of understanding and monitoring ecological balance, as a means of mediating the equilibrium that exists between the human factors, natural factors and landscape factors. This is particularly important if there is regional or national significance of the energy production from the site. This needs to be done in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way, an honest way of monitoring the quality of the environment. Fresh water pearl mussels, salmon and native oysters are to be reintroduced for this purpose.


Horse project

The fishing and aqua / mariculture project

Horse project

The indicator species project


Information exchange : Energy Entropy Equilibrium Education Ecology Economy

Horse project

The solar clock and fire beacon project

Information exchange : Energy Entropy Equilibrium Ecology Education Economy

Information exchange : Energy Entropy Equilibrium Education Economy Empathy

fig 4.

Focusing on the benefits of emergent synergies the site may be termed a Locus transitus, place for transition or locus remedium, relevium or transformatio, referring to remedy, relief or transformation respectively as the potential emergent phenomena arising out of the specific site conditions. Immanence in landscape vocabulary refers to inherent properties, the "actual, sentient and spiritual dimensions" of a place or landscape. Locus immanentia or Locus ortus may also be suitable labels. The site includes different water equilibrated processes or activities as a meaningful physical landscape but also a useful metaphorical or illustrative landscape or contextual medium for therapeutic narrative or entropic, energy or information exchanges. The project would be an initial speculative model for a larger scale regional approach to the moderation of tourist access to the Highlands through local energy production - named the Water Horse project. This is a reference to the latent energy present in water bodies. The sustainable energy produced while vitally protecting local flora and fauna would be used to supply the site and charge electric tourist vehicles. The total energy produced and vehicles charged would be directly associated with natural rhythms and cycles at the site - including the tide, sun, salinity and biological cycles, this would dictate and limit the tourist numbers to the peninsula. This trial process would then in turn be used to moderate and restrict tourist access to the north coast 500 circuit and would serve to protect the Highland landscape, infrastructure and economy.



To appreciate the design principles of the proposed site certain elementary concepts must be recognised : Epidemiological triad - geometry of causation, emergence and information

The Epidemiological Triad

The Fire Triangle

It is vital to understand how the constituent elements of geometric models of causation offer additional meaning when interpreted hermeneutically or in synthesis emphasising the innate significance of the geometry. fig 5.



Ignition energy

The glass ball lens is a physical materialisation of complex spherical geometry and water. Being static the lens constantly focuses the suns energy. The position of the focus constantly changes and can potentially ignite fire at very specific points at varying times of the year if required. The fire can be used to ignite a beacon which would communicate to surrounding beacons in a seperate but related social and economic project centred around intergenerational cohesion and sustainability. An observatory and analemmatic sundial constructed from standing stones on the loch is also part of connecting with the macro and cosmic scales.

Overfishing and unsustainable exploitation of our seas and oceans has lead to decline of fishstocks. As a vital and suitable source of food for human populations we have to learn how to live in ecological balance with fish and other aquatic / marine species. As consumers we also need to build a greater respect for all of our animal food sources with greater reverence and gratitude to animals, the land and our oceans. Appreciating the life cycle and death of any animal with respect through sustainable line fishing while reintroducing indicator species through work at the aqua / mariculture project is a good way of promoting awareness of this.

There is synergy in improving the quality of life for certain oppressed or disadvantaged groups while providing a choice or option that currently does not exist for individuals to improve their experience of dying, this unconditional and reciprocal care environment may be particularly beneficial for those who are likely to be alone in the last days of their life. It allows for those who would prefer to spend their last days in direct connection with the land over conventional palliative measures while providing a symbol for hope in the primacy of choice at the end of life in a system that understandably struggles to always provide this specific dimension of care.

When examined with the same logic as Actor Network Theory, symmetrical interactions and correlations within regular geometric forms, or instances where nodal components are in proportional or ecological balance can represent a context ready and organised for emergent events in these interpretive networks or models, the epidemiological triad or fire triangle are 2 simple examples of this.

Reciprocal dynamics

Reciprocal dynamics :


These intrinsically linked components are similar to Shannon's information theory which describes the communication of a symbol or sign through a contextual channel or space between a 'transmitter' and 'receiver' or any other form of entanglement, entropy exchange or transmissible / communicable information, in that all 3 components need to be present for an event to happen or occur. fig 6.

Psychoanalysis and symmetry in therapeutic relationships


Symmetry in psychoanalytical contexts describes when 2 co-participants treat transference and counter transference within a coequal frame of reference and within a shared field of experience and inquiry. Where relatedness is symmetrical rather than hierarchical. This condition if engaged in honestly has the potential to provide a positive therapeutic state space. In its most simple form this framework is centred on honest communication and empathic human connection, these attributes are not exclusively the realm of the medical profession, but are necessary for the effective function of the site and space. In this model the landscape would provide the 'coequal frame of reference' and 'field of experience'.

Horse project

The water energy projects fig 7.

The platonic solids - The Icosahedron and water


Information exchange : Energy Entropy Equilibrium Economy Education Ecology

Horse project

The water equilibium project

Information exchange : Energy Entropy Equilibrium Education Economy Ecology

The platonic solids are the most reducible symmetrical physical forms in nature, many cultures perceive these shapes as the building blocks of all physical reality. Understanding how the icosahedron's dimensional structure might demonstrate the elemental and emergent natures of water by demonstrating its equilibrating potential is also vital. The golden ratio is intimately related to the geometry of this regular polyhedron. As a logarithmic spiral the golden spiral could represent any regular, enduring circular or cyclical process through time. This might include biological life cycles, biogeochemical, geological, social, cultural, astronomical, climate, weather, tidal, agricultural, hermeneutic, narrative or economic cycles or the cyclical properties of light, electromagnetic or sound waves. The way in which actants in an ecological or social arrangement are directly influenced by cyclical processes through time holds relevance to the structure of the icosahedron and its many innate and proportional relationships with phi and the golden ratio or spiral. Crucially for landscape architecture these relationships explain and perhaps predict form and composition of actant relations and dynamics when examined in direct association with the cyclical processes that are fixed upon them. This in turn informs the design of these compositions, contexts and landscapes . There is limited understanding of water as a medium in the epidemiology of many disease processes. This is apparent in our very recent need to understand the movement of transmissible viruses through droplet spread and fomites. Exploring the less apparent properties of water as a mediator is at the centre of many topical epidemiological arguments.

fig 8.

E8 geometry and spheres By extrapolating the same rationale of symmetry and emergence and applying it to more complex symmetrical forms existing in higher dimensions more complex patterns might be useful. The E8 lie group drop of water or glass ball lens. On the site this spherical feature acts as a solar clock where the suns rays are focused on specific points when temporal and spatial circumstances align.

is the most complex of these shapes. One of the closest physical or tangible representations of lie group geometry is a spherical

Neuroanatomy and spatial composition

fig 9.

The layout of the Reiff site is directly related to human Neuroanatomical architecture and fractal tree patterns. Such configurations are ubiquitous in Landscape Architecture equilibrium to exist between hemispheres and different areas of the brain preventing stasis, this encourages many varied homeostatic feedback mechanisms of self regulation.

Reciprocal dynamics

Reciprocal dynamics

The project is relevant across all scales. The production of energy from water at the site though limited and not commercially relevant supplies the site and rechargable vehicles and boats visting the site. This provides the additional function of dictating and limiting tourist access to the peninsula while respecting the land and protecting local economies. There is also an insight of what work has to go in to get energy out in a collaborative effort to maximise efficient running of the site. This will have connations for human physiology and energy production and consumption in matters of health.

The Loch of Reiff is divided by the causeway. Controlling the tidal levels, salinity and flow is a complex process requiring input and outputs being monitored through measurement and feedback processes. These processes include reading the tides, monitoring reservoir loch levels and the control of sluice gates and penstock valves to create the conditions necessary for maximum energy production while maintaining the potential to sustainably create energy and not overly burdoning natural resources, basing these feedback mechanisms on natural indicators

with Villa d' Este, the Gardens of Versailles and the Royal Mile in Edinburgh being a few examples. This spatial composition allows for a functional and dynamic

Final design solution

Synergy and positive feedback found in common objectives - The 8 Es : Forms of Information exchange

Design Solution :


1. Energy 2. Entropy 3. Ecology 4. Economy 5. Empathy 6. Entertainment 7. Education 8. Equilibrium

fig 1.

Narratives of water balance including volume overload and depletion, pH, salt ion and temperature balance are integral to the site design. The balance of water based ecologies with energy production are also necessary elements illustrating homeostasis and feedback systems with shared goals using fresh water pearl mussels, salmon and native oysters as indicator species ensuring harmony with the natural world. The unifying concept of water across scales as an abstract continuum, observing apparent macro scale hydrological processes at the same time as acknowledging less apparent functions that manifestly reflect our unseen world is central to the design. fig 2.

Providing a site for terminally unwell individuals who choose to to spend their last days in connection with the natural environment and outdoor space, while providing opportunities for oppressed or disadvantaged groups through vocational rehabilitation on the site offers a rich context for improving the experience of illness for certain groups or benefiting the health and wellbeing of other groups who find themselves in extreme life circumstances. The value of the site as a template reflecting these benefits and the protection of local infrastructures and economies would disseminate from the site to other national communities. If how a society is measured by how it treats its elderly and most vulnerable citizens, this intervention proposes dimensions of care that do not currently exist - ensuring no one is ever ‘left behind’. This is an important premise in improving the health and wellbeing of communities.

Coincidentally this design hypothesis incorporates aspects of Leonardo da Vinci's interests and intellectual pursuits from the Renaissance. As a pinnacle of pre enlightenment thought his work is relevant at this post enlightenment point in time and may add certain credence to the proposition. He had a profound interest in nature and geometry, he studied horses, the behaviour and patterns of water, he understood the link between water and epidemiology in draining the Pontine marshes, an effort to eradicate malaria, he was interested in fractal anatomical structures and the crossover between mechanics and organic tissue, living systems and cyclical processes. He was also interested in what he called the 'senso commune' - a region found centrally in the human brain believed to be the meeting point of all the senses and his proposed 'location' for the soul. The purpose of this Reiff site could be considered similar to many of the homeostatic and regulatory functions of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland - the anatomical structures corresponding to the 'senso commune'. His recently identified painting of Salvator Mundi - Christ classically holding a glass ball is also a mystery or exposition of potential significance.

fig 3.

The aerosol and rainbow around the water wheel symbolises the inescapable mystery in emergent processes that will always exist. The closer we get the less we see or the more what we hope to find moves away from us - a unique, transient combination of light, water and observer position or perspective. Modern society and many individuals suffer unnecessarily as a result of our current reductionist scientific gaze, locked in a leprechaunian pursuit of answers and rewards to be found at the 'end of the rainbow' generally at the expense of observing and appreciating the interactivity and connection between all scales of reality. Like a rainbow we must acknowledge its beauty and know it exists, embrace uncertainty and the necessity of balancing reductionism with holism while having the space, time, permission and support to navigate this uncertainty safely within a cohesive and empathic social community. The site at Reiff is a material expression of this possibility.


Horse project

The RED and cymatics project fig 10.

Reciprocal dynamics As a measure of the control of the site conditions and the water profile and composition of the 2 halves of the Loch and productivity of the site a Reverse Electro- Dialysis Unit produces energy to activate a cymatic plate at the cross meeting on the causeway. When energy is produced by favourable salinity gradients a sound is produced by the cymatic plate and the patterns in the water over the plate reflects the relative salt concentations. This makes natural conditions that are generally imperceptible more apparent for feedback which in turn directs productivity at the site.


Information exchange : Energy Entropy Equilibrium Empathy Ecology Entertainment

Horse project

The tree nursery and reforestation project

Reciprocal dynamics The site aims to reforest the Coigach peninsula to encourge natural ecologies and provide local timber creating a sustainable, dependence on the land and a healthy, insightful, involved reverence for what it produces. Acidic soil needs balanced with alkaline potash from kelp kilns, a water mediated equilibrium process. As a relatively hostile environment for a tree nursery only the most resilient plants survive the extreme exposed weather. Ground conditions still have to be favourable to support any life. Ideological narratives of ‘resilience’ are often ignorant of the vital importance of providing viable ground conditions, this is a useful narrative.

Information exchange : Energy Entropy Equilibrium Empathy Ecology Education


How to Safely educate Children Outdoors

‘ E a r l y Ye a r s : O u t d o o r L e a r n i n g B u b b l e s ’ Facilitating safe outdoor learning during the Covid-19 outbreak Reflections



Re - i m a g i n i n g a n ew o u td o o rs : H ow



ed u ca te

c h i l d re n


1 . R E T U R N I N G T O T H E P L AY G R O U N D


The benefits of the playground extend far beyond flexible teaching. Outdoor learning and free form play are essential parts of early development, forming core social, motor, physical and creative skills.

It’s very difficult to keep children apart from their friends, and the need to develop social skills and confidence at this crucial age should not be sacrificed. The outdoor space allows much more flexibility to zone out the recommended 2m areas and mark them out with planters, chalk, bunting or changes within the landscape design.

The Nursery environment allows all children to receive the same opportunities to grow and learn, regardless of their background or home environment. A well used playground will ensure the children are engaged, entertained and more responsive to the new rules and restrictions they’ll have to learn and respect.

The ‘Bubbles’ concept is another tool becoming more and more common across different countries as Nurseries reopen. ‘Bubbles’ are small groups of children within the nursery who are allowed to play together and share toys. As such there is some allowance for social contact, while still limiting the children’s exposure and risk of infection. The ‘Bubbles’ can rotate throughout the playground in line with the day plan as shown on the diagram below:






‘Pedestrian Passing Points’ Accommodating green and active travel during the Covid-19 outbreak Reflections



Re - i m a g i n i n g a n ew o u td o o rs : H ow

Key issues faced in public spaces: • Standard paths are 1.2 - 1.8m wide, not leaving enough space to maintain Physical Distancing safely




movi ng




wo r k


a ro u n d




• The perception of 2m varies between people and is easily underestimated • Each person feels vulnerable to a different degree, resulting in some people avoiding the outdoors all together, worried they will find themselves somewhere they cannot maintain physical distancing ‘The Pedestrian Passing Points’ concept c re a te s a f fo rd a b l e , q u i c k , s i m p l e a n d easily u n d e rsta n d a b l e widened points a l o n g ped e st r i a n pa t h s . T h i s a l l ow s peo p l e to pa s s ea c h o t h e r s a fe l y , w h i l e a c t i n g a s a s u b t l e re m i n d e r o f s a fe p h y s i c a l d i sta n ce s . T h e co n ce p t b l e n d s s ea m l e s s l y i n to t h e l a n d s ca pe bo t h d u r i n g a n d a f te r the pandemic.’ Key benefits of Passing Points:

• 2.5m wide circle extended around the path

• 2.5m wide circle extended to the side of the path

• 2.5m wide circle marked out in the public space

• Subtle, attractive spacial aesthetic acts as a reminder of safe distances and replaces the need for signs which are more likely to be vandalised

• Whindust surfacing offers a hardstanding solution which can be lifted and reused after the pandemic

• Whindust / asphalt surface to ensure inclusive and accessible use

• Opportunity to engage local art community to design the passing point markings

• Passing point can shift to accommodate surrounding greenspace

• Space can be retained after the pandemic as a community pocket park / seating / future extension

• Markings can be temporary or permanent

• Biodegradable line marker used to mark out the passing point

• Biodegradable line marker used to mark out the passing point

• Temporary and cost effective solution • Where more permanent solution is needed, the space can be transformed into a space for seating / planting in the future • Opportunity to involve local artists for positive and uplifting interventions • Enabling peace of mind for those most vulnerable, ensuring they are always able to maintain physical distancing and helping reduce the worry of going outside

• Pedestrians remain safe from vehicular traffic


Group name: Group members:

Re-imagining the outdoors by re-framing social interactions in our urban spaces The challenges presented by the current global pandemic are immense. At this time of enforced separation, the importance of how we use our public spaces has never been greater. These spaces must be adaptable, resilient, flexible and allow us to communicate and interact safely with each other. This will be vital to wellbeing in an urban landscape that will be forever changed.



10m 0

George Street, Edinburgh




100m 60m


The Re-Frame Series aims to transform the typical streetscapes of Edinburgh into vibrant, malleable and opportunity-rich spaces that endow communities with a sense of shared ownership; of their landscape, through the design of tactical and interactive outdoor furniture. Through the use of our Re-Frame Series, we anticipate users to maintain social distancing measures whilst improving their access to the outdoors; creating a catalyst for more accessible, usable and safe public spaces.










The key concept behind our design considers how best to encourage members of the public to re-engage with the public realm in Edinburgh. From the outset our aim was to create a design intervention that would be adaptable for an inclusive variety of landscapes and social groups to give communities the agency to make better use of existing outdoor spaces. With statistics suggesting that those in low-income areas are the hardest hit by COVID-191 , our design concept represents a transferable scheme to alleviate public space issues in areas that would truly benefit from a reimagined urban space. By creating a variety of opportunities for people to interact with each other within the public realm, our design intervention is intended to enhance people’s physical and mental wellbeing.









WA -

The motif of the ‘frame’ provides a flexible structure for communities to build, play and interact in the ‘third place’ between work and home – a division increasingly blurred by remote working - a crucial space that is at present underused, under-valued and unaccommodating.





Design Concept

Haar Collective | MLA, ECA Andre Alexandre Closel Lucy Elderfield-Sheehy Benjamin Jones Steffan Gwynn Fiona Kelly Tsz Wai Anson Lai Laura Mazza Kate Saldanha Hana Shin Thomas Unter Jia Heng Andrea Wu Tsz Yin Alex Yung










MOBILE RAILING AREA 2 deathsoccurringbetween1marchand31may2020 1


PLANTING Edible Planting



A Closed Seating + Planter Walls

Planter Walls + Sculpting

Social Seating with Roll-out Sheet + Sculpting

Hexagonal Planters

Envisioned Short Term Flow

OBSERVING Social Distancing Planter Area Early stages of design implementation




The Re-Frame Series is designed for ease of construction and implementation in a variety of urban landscapes. This visual shows how our frames can be positioned in a variety of organic compositions dependent on observed social patterns in the assigned location. These compositions can be changed at will, due to their unique design on movable and lockable casters. This gives the frames a flexibility and unique resilience to changing environmental and social conditions.

GREEN WALL Mobile Kiosks and Events Area Weekend / Special Festivities




14 Fragaria ananassa

Daucus carota

15 Spinacia ocleracea


Achillea millefolium

16 Beta vulgaris


Salvia nemorosa ‘Caradonna’


Primula veris


Crocus chrysanthus


Centaurea scabiosa




Tufa 17 Adiantum aleuticum 18 Polypodium cambricum ‘Cambricum’


19 Helianthemum nummularium


20 Lewisia cotyledon

Thymus vulgaris

10 Mentha arvensis

21 Erinus alpinus

11 Allium schoenoprasum

22 Moss (Encouraged & Maintained)

1/ Concrete

2/ Glass

3/ Corten Steel

4/ Recycled Truck Canvas

5/ Wood

6/ Recycled

7/ Stainless Steel

8/ Cobble Stones

Our commitment to improving the social life of communities in response to Covid-19 is demonstrated here, showing how the Re-Frame Series can cater for outdoor events such as outdoor theatre, film screenings, outdoor food markets. This is all facilitated by their movability and their varying scales to provide seating, sheltered areas and open spaces – all at the changing needs of a community.

PLAYING West Entrance Social Succession for Long Term Vision

Long Term Plans


13 Artemisia dranuculus

Constructed of recycled and locally-sourced materials such as timber and metal, the Re-Frame Series will also include sections of edible green walls of fresh herbs and vegetables, coupled with green roofs sown with a variety of low-maintenance planting. A combination of native and ornamental planting will provide a much-needed colour boost to a historically sandstone and granite-clad streetscape.


Our future vision includes the vehicular decommissioning of George Street* using principles borrowed from Dutch ‘Autoluw’ and traffic calming strategies2. Many of the frames, particularly the larger units, will be switched from industrial caster-style wheels and replaced with a more permanent bearing-based rail-track solution. Permeable paving coupled with an increase in green/blue infrastructure and the creation of amenity grass areas will further encourage a more park-like atmosphere to a previously vehicle-dominated street. *(apart from access for local business and services within set hours).

Campanula glomerata



Envisioned Long Term Flow





Existing Human Flow


Storage Units for Flexible Seating

12 Origanum vulgare


Existing Traffic Flow

Sculpting + Glass topped + Planter Walls

Festuca ovina


Seating with Roll-out Sheets




Pollinator Friendly



17 18 19 20 21 22



Tufa Planting





Foliage Flower Harvest








Seating with Hanging Table

Social Distancing:









9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


Pollinator Friendly Planting


Viricidal hand-sanitisation stations and anti-bacterial surfaces on tables and chairs will be made available within the Re-Frame Series structures, demonstrating the potential it has to adapt to meet societal needs.


Safety will always be at the heart of this design. Locking plates akin to those used on industrial casters, as well as a rail system will ensure that each frame will remain secure and easy to control.


Colours of Edinburgh

Three different scales of frame have been considered. Larger units to accommodate independent pop-ups such as local coffee shops, grocers, bakeries and brewers to sell directly to consumers. Medium-sized units allowing for comfortable outdoor seating and meeting places. Smaller units that can be moved, built up and re-arranged informally by the public to allow for individually curated spaces, such as planters and stools.




COVID-19 has alerted us all to the importance of high quality and resilient landscapes. This visual illustrates how our Re-Frame Series can take on a more permanent position in the landscape. How they can be fixed in a more permanent rail system and how green infrastructure can spread outwards from the frames themselves onto the decommissioned road to create a green corridor and park system.


Heroes And Loved Ones


The HALO Project is a national public community art work. It celebrates social distancing, and uses it as powerful tool for remembrance. HALO circles are for all heroes and loved ones affected by Covid-19.

HALO Circles are simple green rings of planting; trees, shrubs or flowers, 2m apart, that set out safe spaces at social distance, whilst creating convivial pockets of space for contemplation or communication. HALO circles weave through our public landscape; parks, schools, city streets and fallow sites.

They quietly disrupt, create a juncture, and ask us to sit. They balance a place for society to reflect, with the need to foster community as we move forward.

HALO Uses: picnic circles _ storytelling circles _ remembrance + prayer _ yoga _ personal training _ date night _ family time _ exercise _ mediation _ drumming/ music circles _ drawing circles

Post Pandemic Legacy HALO circles which survive continue to suggest a hole, a gap in the urban fabric, into which one can retreat to remember, or escape, or grieve, or dream of the future.







variations of 2m. They sit at a minimum of 2m apart from each other to comply with social distancing guidelines. The circle formations differ to allow for solo use or multiple people/ cohabiting groups. The circle formations can be altered as social distance guidelines change.

HALO_WHERE? HALO circles can go anywhere that is accessible, and publicly owned or run. The circles fit into small or vast sites and can be temporary or SCHOOLS / COMMUNITY SOCIAL SPACES


Outdoor Classroom: HALO circles can be scaled up to fit 16 kids and a teacher. Bubbles of children can be kept together, while


social distancing.





Our cities are peppered with sites that are temporarily unused. In the interim period while these sites lay vacant there is an opportunity

PEDESTRIANISED STREETS / MAIN HIGH STREETS Stopping places within the urban realm. These can be used to sit and reflect against the hustle and bustle or wait while queuing.

to use them in the creation of urban meadows with HALO circles peppered throughout.


Divert Diffuse Harness

Re-imagining a new outdoors of social interactions PROJECT FOCUS 1. Designing with wind direction at centre 2. Using wind energy to enhance outdoor spaces- lighting, heating, WIFI 3. Adaptations to wind- rotating furniture 4. Combing art and wind

I have chosen to present my ideas in a well used but run down square surrounded by modern brutalist design. Its situated outside Linksview House (EH66DP) in Leith near the Banana Buildings. These relatively tall buildings contract the flow of wind which increases the velocity of it due to the venturi effect. These gushing winds funnel through the buildings not only making the square an uncomfortable place to sit but is also a hazard for cyclists passing by. As seen in the Google Maps photo above this square has the potential to be used and there is a lot of room for improvement.

Embracing art and Scotland’s natural elements we can entice people into more liveable spaces where social interactions are facilitated and enhanced by a wind design lead space. By diverting, diffusing and Harness wind energy we can help our society move towards a communal and social outdoor living.

This perspective shows my design in use. Henry Moore inspired seating allows for open and sociable seating as well and private areas. A 2m social distancing policy is also possible. See-through wind screens are on rails which through public interaction are able to be slowly moved according to the direction of the wind. This allows the seating to be used when wind is coming from different directions. Above I have shown examples of the kinetic wind sculptures and wind turbines. The wind sculptures are high up where wind acceleration and speed increases. They provide mesmerising eye catching features and bring our eyes away from our phones and towards the sky. It could also play as a conversation starter between individuals and strangers. The wind turbine fits this theme of movement at different levels in the square, but it also has the advantage of utilising the wind in a practical sense. These sturdy turbines produce light and heat energy making this seating have its own comfortable micro-climate even in harsh weather.

IDEA 1. Design with wind as a strong factor in seating. 2. Develop adaptive furniture which can be spun and have moveable screens to protect from wind. 3.Wind turbine’s will collect energy for heating and lighting of these spaces 4. Use works of art such as Anthony Howe’s sculptures to help us celebrate our climate and create attractions to spark a new sense of creativity and appreciation for our outdoor spaces.

Ideally there would be an interplay between the sculptures and turbines. Both harness and celebrate the wind energy to enhance the square.

FUTURE DESIGN By mapping wind movements we can learn to make the most of our resources and plan diligently with this in mind. In fact a further development could be to map the fluid dynamics within whole cities using computational fluid dynamic maps and accordingly develop and adapt outdoor social areas.

The plan above shows how the wind changes direction due to 20m+ buildings which create vortices at the inside corners. I have placed wind turbines in targeted areas with high wind speeds. These will be high up where wind acceleration is higher and will help diffuse wind to slow its speed.

Henry Moore Sculptures To me the organic rounded forms of Henry Moore’s sculptures almost seem to be eroded by the wind itself. Their rolling hilly forms remind me of the Pentlands a typical landscape of Scotland. Their bulk and curved form seem to me a naturally streamlined wind defence. This presents to us an opportunity to create functional and appropriate designs inspired by Artist around us. I have been inspired by these in my design to create streamlined seating with minimum resistance. These create sheltered zones which along with see-through shields divert and diffuse the wind creating comfortable seating areas. Anthony Howe- Kinetic Wind Sculptures Anthony Howe combines modern technology with traditional metal work to create mesmerising, almost utopian sculptures which move hypnotically in the wind. The bring a gust of fresh energy and imagination to an area. I think this is an opportunity to use art to enhance our outdoor, naturally windy spaces to create an area where we celebrate wind and which entices people outdoors. To me these sculptures are timeless and relaxing, it could automatically put people at ease and promote utilising wind energy at the same time. Icewind Storm Shelter This bus shelter in Reykjavik (Iceland) has customised electrical systems which use wind energy to provide: WIFI hotspots, electricity for remotely controlled adds and LED screens, mobile charging points, lighting and heating. Iceland regenerated their economy by developing their resources and investing in renewable energy. I think Scotland has this opportunity too. In my design this has been added to provide heat and light as well as a aesthetic cosmopolitan feature.

Designing with wind allows us to celebrate Scotland’s natural elements while moving forward towards an outdoor, green, interactive society. Diverting, diffusing and harnessing the wind is the start of a successful future.


By Tara Schwarze-Chintapatla

By reintegrating disadvantaged groups and communities into modern Scottish society through the design, provision and construction of a democratic space on the Radical Road for peaceful protest allowing oppressed voices to be heard and economic opportunities and training in craft and trade skills this would hopefully foster trust and connection between polarised social groups. Viewing the royal mile as a microcosm of Scotland and identifying imbalances in power and space the ideal location for this intervention is within the vicinty of Adam Smiths home, Panmure House, where he wrote the ‘Wealth of Nations’. This encourages accessible and intergenerational conversations about the economics of Capitalism and how Smith’s original vision was misapplied leading to neoliberalism and the social harms that resulted from free market fundamentalism. Only by confronting the past can we move on into a new and hopeful future. Themes : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Economics and the Inverse Care Law Reintegration of disadvanteged groups Space for speaking ‘Truth to Power’ Confronting painful histories ‘Lateralisation’ of modern society

Site : Lochend Close + Panmure Close Royal Mile - Edinburgh

Joseph Stiglitz - Nobel laureate “Adam Smith, the father of modern economics, is often cited as arguing for the "invisible hand" and free markets: firms, in the pursuit of profits, are led, as if by an invisible hand, to do what is best for the world. But unlike his followers, Adam Smith was aware of some of the limitations of free markets, and research since then has further clarified why free markets, by themselves, often do not lead to what is best... the reason that the invisible hand often seems invisible is that it is often not there”

Amartya Sen - Nobel laureate “Despite all Smith did to explain and defend the constructive role of the market, he was deeply concerned about the incidence of poverty, illiteracy and relative deprivation that might remain despite a well-functioning market economy. He wanted institutional diversity and motivational variety, not monolithic markets and singular dominance of the profit motive. Smith was not only a defender of the role of the state in doing things that the market might fail to do, such as universal education and poverty relief (he also wanted greater freedom for the state-supported indigent than the poor laws of his day provided); he argued, in general, for institutional choices to fit the problems that arise rather than anchoring institutions to some fixed formula, such as leaving things to the market.”

Design Solution :

Robert Burns tribute to Robert Fergusson Robert Fergusson a Scottish poet who died an early death in bedlam the City’s ‘madhouse’ at the age of twenty four was an inspiration to many of his contemporaries. Following a period of deteriorating health and diminishing fortunes likely related to alcoholism and a significant head injury he was buried in the Canongate Kirkyard in an unmarked paupers grave. Robert Burns called the poet his "elder brother in misfortune, by far my elder brother in the muse'. Fergusson's verse form was appropriated by Burns. As a gesture of his admiration and gratitude Burns designed and paid for his headstone and composed the epitaph :

This headstone is a modest and reserved but powerful and symbolic tribute to Fergusson who Burns identifies as the nations own poet, recognising him as an unassuming but important man of the people. strategy. :

In recent years our economic, social and political landscape has resulted in a reduction in cohesion, trust and interaction within our society, this has been to the detriment of many of our communities. Giving a space for everyone to have their own voice heard in a democratically significant space through a project reintegrating disadvantaged populations should serve to improve this situation and prevent future harms.

This site is an appropriate place for mourning or the expression of grief or despair resulting from premature or untimely deaths where individuals need somewhere to place their grief. Candles are lit in the direct site of parliament. There would also be a large eternal flame burning from the top of the memorial.

Ancient Orkney Coppersmith’s Anvil and Forge The hearth / forge and furnace is central to the redesign of Lochend close. The main purpose of the forge and furnace is to aid the production of tools for the craft and masonry work involved in constructing the Radical Road Project. As a metaphor it reflects an economic hub where difficult and committed labour of the workers are the main economic drivers for positive change. As a central point in the journey from Calton Hill and the Burns monument to the Radical Road and the Salisbury Crags / Arthur's seat the Panmure site serves as a metaphor for transition through meaningful labour within a social context. With time as the Radical Road project is completed the area would support social gatherings, a space for economic discussion and outdoor craft activities. In 2018 this stone anvil was found in the hearth of an Iron Age settlement on the Isle of Rousay. It is thought to be 1000 - 1500 years old . The ancient coppersmith's, visible hand signifies work through time and space. Adam Smith's reference to the ' invisible hand' has often been taken out of context to the benefit of powerful and influential groups driving market fundamentalism and an excuse for excess self interest and under recognition of the central role and vital importance of the work of the lower classes. As a response to this misinterpretation the sculpture displays a very 'visible hand' that of the workers who built our country. The anvil would be cast in copper with the recreation of the coppersmith's hand imprinted clearly on the surface, with a carved stone ball inside the cast copper. The carved stone ball deep in the metal signifies the importance of unseen human energy and effort. The cast copper anvil is placed between 2 large stones which have been carried to the site by groups of volunteers from Carnmore in Torridon, the most remote area of the British Isles. At Carnmore there is a natural a fault line between 2 types of stone - Lewisian Gneiss one of the the oldest existing stones on the planet and Torridonian Sandstone. This volunteer activity again involves and reflects significant combined human effort.

Sir Walter Scott the Radical war and Salisbury Crags In 1820 during a difficult economic period for Scotland an uprising known as the Radical War or Scottish insurrection culminated in a number of demands from disaffected workers for social and political reform. This protest included a number of strikes and marches in several different areas of the country. A march of radical artisan workers on Carron Iron Company to seize weapons was intercepted at Bonnymuir but it was believed that the general unrest would soon lead to more serious challenges to the government and upper classes. Many of the ringleaders of this movement were caught and jailed in Greenock. Of these main characters several were publicly executed and many more were transported to penal colonies in Australia or Tasmania. Subsequently Walter Scott arranged a visit of King George IV to Scotland to diffuse any escalating discontent, this was very effective and resulted in several successful interventions to provide work for unemployed groups and eventually prompted the creation of a reconstructed Scottish national identity. Out of work weavers from the West of Scotland were employed creating a new road around Salisbury Crags in Edinburgh still known to this day as the 'Radical Road' strategy. : The position of the Radical Road is of major national and democratic significance. By resurfacing or paving the Radical Road as an economic project to provide an accessible space for peaceful protest and democratic gatherings. A space for speaking truth to power. The project would aim to reintegrate disadvantaged local populations, particularly those compromised historically by global neoliberalism

D e s i g n

P r i n c i p l e s

C u r r e n t

C o n d i t i o n


Increase Biodiversity habitat in the City of Edinburgh

- by expanding the Union Canal network. - by linking isolated greenspaces into the canal network.


Increase the Active Transport Network in Edinburgh

- by making new canal paths next to the expanded canal.

R e s e a r c h

A c t i v e

T r a n s p o r t

c a n a l

1 2





1. Biodiversity hot- 2. Streets around spots (SSSI) isolat- parks very low biodiversity. ed in the city. 4. Union Canal Fountainbridge 500m area has no vegetation.

B i o d i v e r s i t y

U n i o n

3. Canal path ends & diverts cyclists onto road.

5. Heavy traffic, 6. Constant traffic causing high pollu- spoils atmosphere tion levels at Toll- in the Meadows. cross.

V i s u a l a t i o n s

Union Canal wildlife1

Biodiversity hotspots have over 300 plant species, and also support bats, amphibians and insects, birds and mammals. These 3 hotspots in Edinburgh are isolated by Urbanisation, which makes it difficult for wildlife to colonise new areas. The Union Canal is a crucial green corridor for wildlife to move along. This is because it is linear, and also because there are five habitats in this narrow corridor, and vegetation managment is considerate. Taking inspiration from the success of the canal, this project views the canal and SSSI areas as a refugia for wildlife. By increasing the connections between these sites, wildlife will be able to thrive and colonise new areas, making Edinburgh more biodiverse.

5 bat species 315 plant species 21 fish species invertebrates birds amphibians

The five habitats that make the Union Canal 1 1. Woodland/hedges 2. Grassland 3. Slow flowing water 4. Emergent Vegetation 5. Old buildings and bridges

P r o p o s e d

Active transport Active Transport happens everyday on the Union Canal; 19,000 pedestrians daily, 1,000 cyclists daily and 5 rowing clubs.2 Health and Environmental benefits. Active transport reduces car journeys and pollution. There are Mental and physical health benefits of excercise away from polluted streets, helping adults meet their 150 minutes of moderate excercise per week, and provding a safe place for children to excercise and explore nature.

D e s i g n

The proposed canal extension will be made watertight using a Bentotex clay liner. This is a environmentally friendly material5,6. In 1822 the Union Canal was lined with 90cm of clay 4.


Biodiversity Hotspots

C a n a l










D e s i g n

The design proposal centres around the Union Canal and two SSSI sites (Holyrood Park, Wester Craiglockhart Hill).

Cycling Scotland’s survey of attitudes towards cycling 3 identified that dedicated cycle lanes, traffic free routes, and a feeling of safety scored highly as key facilitators to encourage more people to cycle.

Greenlink streets are urban streets surrounding these three biodiversity hotspots. Greenlink streets will be managed for biodiversity e.g. long grass verges, hedges, tree avenues. Householders could be involved too, turning their garden into a wildlife haven.

Contour Canal The Union Canal is a contour canal, built along the 73m contour line in 18224 This means that the canal doesn’t change height, and doesn’t need lock gates, and has a curvy route. The 73m contour line extends into the heart of Edinburgh and is marked grey on the above maps. References

1. 3. 4. 5. 6.

R e f e r e n c e s

Active travel streets (traffic free ) will be ideal for outdoor markets, and cafes/bars, creating vibrant pedestrianised areas. Expanding the Union Canal will expand the number of connected habitats, and improve the active transport network.

Blue Greenways project design by Melissa Viguier (MLA student ECA)

Holding outdoor funerary ceremonies encourages simulatneous mourning and celebration of lives well lived. Connection during this time with others and the movement of the recently deceased’s remains from a physical dimension into another spatial dimension while creating the energy for entertainment and experience creates a meaningful interactive landscape. The juxtaposition of death and bringing the estuary back to life offers rich narrtives of transition, rebirth and renewal. This context brings an optimism to the otherwise sad or sorrowful event, while providing healing narratives. The natural rhythms and cycles of the tidal island and estuarine coast also provides an immanent nature to the landscape and multi-dimensionality that supports important ceremonial or traditional practices. Conversations about death and dying are relatively hidden in modern society and not comfortable topics, this intervention would serve to destigmatize this natural, transitional process, and would support otherwise difficult communication and connection between all aspects of our communities, this would be to the benefit of all society.

Site : Cramond + Cramond Island Edinburgh

Themes : 1. Transformation of matter and energy 2. Destigamitisation of death 3. Multidimensionality 4. Esturaine rehabilitation 5. Connection to the past

Design Solution : As our shared economies move towards models based more on the quality of lives of citizens, the value of our experience of life and our interpersonal relationships will necessarily matter more. There is nothing more important than celebrating the people in our lives that we respect and love. This landscape intervention provides this opprotunity, while simultaneously improving local ecological systems. This is a clear benefit to society and our living planet.

Edinburgh Royal Mile 1. Vehicular lane to be reduced and traffic limited to cyclists, public transport and shop services; 2. Kerbs to be removed; 3. Pavement with re-used cobbles to maintain Edinburgh character; 4. Crossfall and drainage to be resolved through urban SuDS; 5. Car-parking to be removed and lay-by introduced where appropriate

RE-imagining a NEW Outdoors – A Showcase of Design Ideas

With thanks to the following individuals and organisations who have contributed to the design ideas in this showcase. Their images are subject to copyright.

15 Rutland Square, Edinburgh EH1 2BE E: W:

Murray McKellar Jon Rowe Steven Anderson Wiktoria Szulik Stephen Bacon Ujwala Fernandes Tsz Yin Yung Patricia Farrelly Tara Schwarze-Chintapatla Ben Adams Steven Anderson Rachel Howlett Melissa Viguier Greg Meikle Steven Anderson Eugenio Da Rin Andre Alexandre Closel Laura Mazza Tsz Yin Alex Yung Lucy Elderfield-Sheehy Benjamin Jones Steffan Gwynn Harr Fiona Kelly Tsz Wai Anson Lai Kate Saldanha Thomas Unter Hana Shin Jia Heng Andrea Wu

erz studio Wardell Armstrong Atkins Global Atkins Global and Sustrans erz studio

LDA Design Harr Collective MLA ECA Harr Collective MLA ECA Harr Collective MLA ECA Harr Collective MLA ECA Harr Collective MLA ECA Harr Collective MLA ECA Harr Collective MLA ECA Harr Collective MLA ECA Harr Collective MLA ECA Harr Collective MLA ECA Harr Collective MLA ECA Harr Collective MLA ECA

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