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Negotiated Studies: Research LISA BURGE


By incorporating relative walks onto photos and an elevation, along with the plans, a better understanding of how the site tensions and political tensions work together can be discovered.

Cardboard sliding

Year 4: Negotiated Studies Far enough away and out of sight from

3XVK ZDUGV mark DOC

People follow mown grass around North Head: easiest routeout Views to walk

DOC to feel free, steep enough for good VSHHG UXQXS IURP Ă DW VSDFH 3DUHQWV RESEARCH QUESTION: HOW DO YOU DESIGN WITH TENSION? Mown grass People occupy open space and face relax and watch from comfortable open out towards views above to avoid the Rationale (Research Positioning) space Abstract Steep hill This project is an investigation designing with tension at North Head, Designers are commonly involved in !resolving" or preventing tension mysterious reminder of ofthe tunnels Rough grass Auckland. The dominant approaches to the problem of how to design through either spatially separating !competing" stakeholders desires or below.with stakeholder tension might be grouped together under the banner of accommodating more than one desire in one place in a way where differcreatively !resolving tension". Studies on my site revealed, instead, that ent desires are tolerated or are no longer antagonistic. In such situations 7HHQVYDQGDOV Children tension is not just something between stakeholders and is not just negastakeholder tensions can be highly productive for a design project, often Carpark tive. The interactions between stakeholders and sites were found to inforcing designers to work harder and be more creative to deal with such Archeologists: volve the interaction of forces that produce new forces, new abilities and tensions. Ecologists 'LUHFW DFFHVV 7KH Ă DW XVHV RI WKH ODQGVFDSH7KLV SURMHFW Ă€UVWO\ SURSRVHV WKDW VXFK DELOLWLHV 7XQQHOP\VWHULHV Tunnel are real and attempts to embrace them; and second, that these actions It is often the case that stakeholder tensions are !resolved" through one very popular as it offers can only be worked with through the very concrete relations between or more stakeholders being dominant and other interests are ignored. Or, outstakeand does not require stakeholders and sites. This discovery then suggested a concrete way effectively the same, there are situations where it is assumed that FACILITATING A “LIVING LANDSCAPEâ€? THROUGH THE VERY CONCRETENESS OF THE INTERACTIONS OF STAKEHOLDERS AND THE SITUATION: NORTH HEAD

2. Walk across:

Bumping against something by chance: hidden resistences

1. Walk towards:

Observer gazing at range of objects

By incorporating relative walks onto photos and an elevation, along with the plans, a better understanding of how the site tensions and political tensions work together can be discovered.

Steep,slippery slope People Space

to bypass the dominant western conservation approach that !sets aside" land to be protected, reducing the rich interaction of it with everyday lives. Such setting aside, managed by one dominant stakeholder via various legislations, controls and restricts how North Head operates. Recently emerging conservation conceptions and Maori thinking align to promote, instead, a !living landscape", one fully entwined in as many people"s lives as possible. This project then proposes that a design investigation of the concrete relations of multiple site-stakeholder relations to be the means to produce a !living landscape", as an alternative to the current and highly restricted stakeholder situation. This investigation included strategic design moves, suggestions for stakeholder interaction, the setting down of management principles and the ongoing involvement of landscape architects in the life of this amazing landscape. Design and management would be employed to maximise stakeholder involvement and investment at North Head and maximize and explore stakeholder interactions with each other and with the site.

Coastal vegetation

Cardboard sliding

People occupy open space and face out towards views above to avoid the mysterious reminder of the tunnels below.

holder desires are set and irreconcilable, resulting in the perpetuation of the status quo, which is often dominated by certain stakeholders. Designers can be guilty of this but it is much more prevalent if the abilities of designers to creatively resolve different interests is not brought into play. It is a kind of secret kept by designers that clever design can get past such Coastal vegetation impasses that non-designers assume. Of course, there is a history of projects where stakeholder tensions are outside of the abilities or scope of the design problem, or even just ignored by designers.

Far enough away and out of s DOC to feel free, steep enough VSHHG UXQXS IURP Ă DW VSDFH relax and watch from comforta space

7HHQVYDQGDOV

Ecologists

Children Archeologists: 7XQQHOP\VWHULHV Tunnel

DOC pushes you WHUULWRU\ \RX GRQŇ‹W SXVKHV\RXWRWKHH DZD\IURPWKHRIĂ€FL

Mostly locals: the lack of public transport to North Head and This project contendsthat that allmany of these tendencies, great tradition North Heads hidden locality means touristseven willtheopt that might be called creative resolution approaches, do not embrace the WRYLVLW0W9LFWRULDLQVWHDGPDNLQJWKLVSRSXODUVSDFHUHVLpositive nature of stakeholder tensions. dential and local-orientated. Signage and carparking on site My discovery also suggests that the southern side ofI have North head more between Through initial site studies discovered thathas the interactions

Steep,slipp slope People Space

Mostly locals: the lack of public transport Seclusion, narrow paths and darkness pushes North Heads hidden locality means that m \RX XSZDUGV WR WKH Ă DW VSRQJH\ RSHQ VSDFH WRYLVLW0W9LFWRULDLQVWHDGPDNLQJWKLV above. Seclusion and enclosed attracts van- dential and local-orientated. Signage and GDOV DQG WHHQV DOFRKRO UXEELVK DQG JUDIĂ€WL also suggests that the southern side of N 7KLV WHQGV WR RFFXU RQ WKH VHDVLGH RI 1RUWK to offer.: drawing tourists here. Head, far enough away from the residential Steep, slip properties and a decent walk away (people would have to make a lot of effort to stop them). Gentle Slope Historic Places Trust Coastal vegetation

Steep, slippery slope

Roading and residential surrounds c EXVLHUHQWUDQFHZD\VDQGLQFUHDVHG possibly a change in social spaces o

Seclusion, narrow paths and darkness pushes Department \RX XSZDUGV WR WKH à DW VSRQJH\ RSHQ VSDFH above. Seclusion and enclosed attracts vandals DQG WHHQV DOFRKRO UXEELVK DQG JUDIÀWL 7KLV stakeholders on a sites are themselves, or they produce, real, positive, tends to occur on the sea-side of North Head, newhere and concrete in the landscape. The to offer.: drawing tourists . potentials, actions and events Historic interaction of stakeholders with each other and with the site effectively Places Trust far enough away from the residential properties produces actions and abilities of the site. It could be said that the landSteep, slippery slope and a decent walk away (people would have to scape – as a combination of stakeholders and site produces or maybe even is such interactions. The creativity of resolving tension still seems to make a lot of effort to stop them). Historic Places Trust Gentleconsider Slope stakeholder desires as separate and their interaction negatively. Coastal vegetation

Steep, slippery slope

The everydayness of the examples found on site strongly suggest that such actions and abilities of landscapes has to have been engaged in past design projects, but there is no mention of it in the design literature or even anecdotally, suggesting that they exist !under the radar".

North Shore City Council Roading and residential surrounds controlled by Council, a change in restictions EXVLHUHQWUDQFHZD\VDQGLQFUHDVHGIRRWWUDIĂ€FRQ1RUWK+HDG7KLVPD\UHVXOWLQ possibly a change in social spaces on site: more secluded space may become p


KHG GRZQ WRZDUGV QRUWKHUQ Ă DW VSDFH RU EDFN WRV VRXWKHUQ Ă DW VSDFH DQG KLVWRULF WXQQHOV (GJH ked by arrow of space people tend to sit=away from C

Locals pushed further on to escape main tourist area and the controlling DOC territory: drawn down and DURXQGWRWKHQRUWKHUQĂ DWVSDFH

Archeologists: May climb fences to invesPropositiontigate closed tunnels: DOC could prosD ELW PRUH VSHFLĂ€FLW\ UHJDUGLQJ GHVLJQLQJ ZLWK WHQVLRQ To design with tension, in this project, has come to mean to discover de-ecute, .DKQ yet SURYLGHV restrictive fences are alluring

DOC buildings

3. Walk along: Walk with someone to obtain positive feedback

Walk about: Interaction of observer with system under observation

5. Walk out: 4. Walk into:

$JLWDWHSRWHQWLDOFRQĂ LFW7XUQVREVHUYDtion into experiment.

sign potential through the interactions of stakeholders and the physical site - where competing forces interacting can potentialise one another to create new forces, events and actions on site.

Recognise segments of fact in a system without contact with the system ´:ULWLQJDKLVWRU\LVDUKHWRULFDORSHUDWLRQZLWK a territorial ambition�

6. Walk through: Observer engages with system to connect segments of it through interaction

sight from h for good H 3DUHQWV able open

3XVKHG GRZQ WRZDUGV QRUWKHUQ Ă DW VSDFH RU EDFN WRZDUGV VRXWKHUQ Ă DW VSDFH DQG KLVWRULF WXQQHOV (GJH marked by arrow of space people tend to sit=away from DOC

Locals pushed further on to escape main tourist area and the controlling DOC territory: drawn down and DURXQGWRWKHQRUWKHUQĂ DWVSDFH

Mown grass

Steep hill

Rough grass

Archeologists: May climb fences to investigate closed tunnels: DOC could prosecute, yet restrictive fences are alluring

DOC buildings

Carpark

t to North Head and many tourists will opt SRSXODUVSDFHUHVLd carparking on site North head has more

ppery slope

Historic Places Trust

Positioning

Gentle slope down to military gun emplacement

DOC pushes you down and away through tense WHUULWRU\ \RX GRQŇ&#x2039;W IHHO ZHOFRPH KHUH 791= DOVR SXVKHV\RXWRWKHHGJHRIWKHĂ DWVSDFH<RXPRYH DZD\IURPWKHRIĂ&#x20AC;FLDOWHUULWRU\ Department of Conservation

not do justice to past thinking that might be relevant to this topic.

Ecologists

steep hillside

down and away through tense  IHHO ZHOFRPH KHUH 791= DOVR HGJHRIWKHĂ DWVSDFH<RXPRYH LDOWHUULWRU\

pery

'LUHFW DFFHVV 7KH Ă DW JUDVV\ VSDFH KHUH LV very popular as it offers many activities views out and does not require much walking effort.

2SHQĂ DWVSDFH

Gentle Slope Historic Places Trust Maori gardens

Similarly, the philosopher Bruno Latour indicates that there is more than MXVWYDOXHLQVWDNHKROGHUUHODWLRQVWRDVLWH<HWKHLGHQWLĂ&#x20AC;HVWKHSHUFHLYHG GLIĂ&#x20AC;FXOW\LQWKLV´5HSUHVHQWLQJLQWHQVLYHOLIHLQDSODFHLVQRWHDV\ÂľDV WKHUH LV QR ´SK\VLFDO VRFLRORJ\Âľ ´+RZ GR \RX UHSUHVHQW D ULYHU DV DQ DJHQW"Âľ %UXQR /DWRXU VXJJHVWV ZH PDS ´WKH SROLWLFDO ULYHU DVVHPEO\Âľ through controversy mapping to get at !Matters of Concern", rather than Ň&#x160;0DWWHUV RI )DFWŇ&#x2039; /DWRXU   +LV LGHQWLĂ&#x20AC;FDWLRQ RI D ODQGVFDSH HOHment as an agent runs against common sense. He also suggests that the QDWXUHRISUREOHPVKDYHVKLIWHG(IIHFWLYHO\ODQGVFDSHVDUHQRWSK\VLcal factual problems but are inseparable from the various unstated and stated interests in them, and that methods to engage with them must change.

2SHQĂ DWVSDFH

Dark Coastal edge

7XQQHOVDQGDUHVLGHQWLDOERXQGDU\DORQJZLWKHQFORVXUHLQWKH GDUN FRDVWDO YHJHWDWLRQ GUDZV \RX XS WR WKH VRFLDO Ă DW JUHHQ volcanic scoria cone Scoria is slippery, you watch your feet VSDFHDERYH7KH0\VWHU\DQGP\WKRORJ\RIFRPLQJRXWRIWKH when you could be looking out to views. vegetation and tunnels combined makes you search for escape URXWHVXSDQGDZD\<RXIHHOXQHDVHDWWKHPRXWKVRIWXQQHOV 5HOLHIDV\RXĂ&#x20AC;QGVDIHW\LQWKHRSHQVRFLDOVSDFH

&XOWXUDOWKHRULVW5LFKDUG6HQQHWW 6HQQHW LGHQWLĂ&#x20AC;HVDQKLVWRULFDO tendency toward the individual and away from the antagonism of interaction between people. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The more comfortable the human body became, the more also it withdrew sociallyâ&#x20AC;Ś! Land-use zoning and other factors have contributed to the separation of people and the fragmentation of societies.

Dark Coastal edg

7XQQHOVDQGDUHVLGHQWLDOERXQGDU\DORQJZLWKHQFORVXUHLQWKH GDUN FRDVWDO YHJHWDWLRQ GUDZV \RX XS WR WKH VRFLDO Ă DW JUHHQ volcanic scoria cone Scoria is Several slippery, you watch your feet VSDFHDERYH7KH0\VWHU\DQGP\WKRORJ\RIFRPLQJRXWRIWKH authors suggest that it is possible to move away from this fragpeopleto in the landscape,vegetation through design- and tunnels combined makes you search for escape when youmentation could and beseparation lookingof out views. Probably the most directly relevant precedent for this investigation is LQJDQGHQJDJLQJZLWKFRQĂ LFWWHQVLRQRQVLWHLQVWHDGRISUHGRPLQDQWO\ URXWHVXSDQGDZD\<RXIHHOXQHDVHDWWKHPRXWKVRIWXQQHOV 5DRXO %XQVFKRWHQV Ň&#x160; ZDONVŇ&#x2039;7KLV SURMHFW H[SOLFLWO\ GHYHORSV PHWKRGV designing in detached plan view. More than that Barcelonan urban defor working with stakeholder interactions with sites. Bunschotens ambiVLJQHUV %RKLJDV %HQDFK DQG )HUUDQGR SUHVHQW FRQĂ LFW DQG WHQVLRQ 5HOLHIDV\RXĂ&#x20AC;QGVDIHW\LQWKHRSHQVRFLDOVSDFH WLRQZDVWRFRQQHFWORFDODXWKRULWLHVWRWKHVLWHWKURXJKDŇ&#x160;IROGŇ&#x2039;´FROOLVLRQV as essential for exciting, interactive urban landscapes. For an enriching

Gentle Slope

Coastal vegetation

Ecologists

Department of Conservation North Shore City Council Navy controlled by Council, a change in restictions could result in apartment blocks, increased access to North Head, New Navy museum, possibility of more people using GIRRWWUDIĂ&#x20AC;FRQ1RUWK+HDG7KLVPD\UHVXOWLQHURVLRQLVVXHVRQVLWHLQFUHDVHGPDLQWHQDQFHRIKLVWRULFEXLOGLQJV dangerous coastal track entrance. Issues could arise with coastal ecology. Pressure on roading and parking? on site: more secluded space may become popular.

t of Conservation

Ecologists

7KLVSURMHFWĂ&#x20AC;UVWO\SURSRVHVWKDWVXFKDFWLRQVDUHUHDODQGDWWHPSWVWR steep hillside embrace them, and second, that these actions can only be worked with Gentle slopeanddown through the very concrete relations between stakeholders sites. to military gun emplacement It should be said that the dominant approaches sketched out above do

JUDVV\ VSDFH KHUH LV many activities views e much walking effort. People follow mown grass around North Head: easi9LHZVRXW est route to walk

6KH VSHFLĂ&#x20AC;FDOO\ KLJKOLJKWV VWDNHKROGHU WHQVLRQV VXJJHVWLQJ WKDW ´WKH physical and non-physical attributes of a site do not resolve into a single account, but they provide interrelated stories which provide raw material which can be plotted into urban narrativesâ&#x20AC;?. My approach, in contrast, directly attempts to embrace what Kahn seems to here see as separate. She does stress that as designers we should engage with the !artful conWUDGLFWLRQVŇ&#x2039;DQGŇ&#x160;WHQVLOHUHODWLRQVŇ&#x2039;RIDVLWHWRUHYHDO´VWUDQJHUSDWKVÂľDQG KLGGHQFKDUDFWHUV7KHVHQRWLRQVVHHPYHU\UHOHYDQWWRPH

environment in which people are able to interact with the site; as well as each other, "tension and chance!, as Bohigas suggests is required. Similar to Sennett, these authors criticise urbanisms that attempt to resolve WKHVHFRQĂ LFWVE\PHDQVRIIXQFWLRQDO]RQLQJVKRSSLQJFHQWUHVDQGXUban expressways (Bohigas, 2004).

Gentle Slope Historic Places Trust

$QGUHD.DKQLGHQWLĂ&#x20AC;HVZKDWVKHWHUPVŇ&#x160;DQWLXUEDQŇ&#x2039;VLWHVZKHUHWKHRSHQ FKDQJLQJDQGPHVV\LQWHUUHODWLRQVDQGĂ RZVRIWKHFLW\DUHGHQLHGUHplaced by attempts to control the identity and what happens on a site, VRDVWRŇ&#x160;GLVVROYHFRQĂ LFWDQGFRQWUDGLFWRU\FRQGLWLRQVGLVFRQWLQXLQJOLIH and vitality of place! (Kahn, 2005).

Maori gardens

between the walk (physical site) and the large dynamics of the cityâ&#x20AC;?. He LQGLFDWHVWKDW´WKHWHDVLQJRXWRIERWKWKHSK\VLFDODQGORFDODXWKRULWLHV QHHGVPHWKRGLFDOĂ&#x20AC;HOGZRUNWKDWLVEDVHGRQULJRXUSUHFRQFHLYHGLGHDV and intuition, because the !form" of local authorities is elusive and relates more to institutions than physical environments.

Gentle Slope

Coastal vegetation

Bunschoten still assumes that the physical and stakeholder desires are separate and evocatively suggests they need to be brought together through a !fold" (Bunschoten, 2001). His ambition remains a genral ambition only, as the physical and local authorities are mapped out separately. However, as already mentioned, I discovered that the site and stakeholders are not separate, but that their interactions are real productions of the landscape.

Ecologists

Department of Conservation

Navy s could result in apartment blocks, increased access to North Head, New Navy museum, possibility of more people using danQHURVLRQLVVXHVRQVLWHLQFUHDVHGPDLQWHQDQFHRIKLVWRULFEXLOGLQJV gerous coastal track entrance. Issues could arise with coastal ecology. Pressure on roading and parking? popular. Although Bohigas, Benach and Ferrando begin to see tension positively and suggest that it should be embraced by designers, they remain general about how this might be achieved and give no real life examples.


Positioning Continued WESTERN PLANNING/ CONSERVATION ETHICS

VS. MAORI CONSERVATION ETHICS

&RQVHUYDWLRQ(WKLFV0\Project Positioning

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Relatedly, this project is also about challenging the dominant western conservation approach, which aligns with the cultural tendencies of separating people and public space through legislation and zoning. western conservation preserves, conserves and !sets aside" landscape, effectively separating such landscape use from everyday life.

$UFKDHRORJLFDO6LWHV )RUWLĂ&#x20AC;FDWLRQ 0LOLWDU\  +LVWRULF  SDYROFDQLFKLOO  DQG 0LGGHQ 6KHOO)LVKERQH*ODVVDQG0HWDO  +LVWRULF $SSHQGL[% RIYROXPH

Local Maori landscape architect, Richard Mann, says that such setting aside is seen by Maori as producing !dead" landscapes. The maunga (mountains) that have survived the quarries" bulldozer, are invariably locked up in restrictive policy framework eg NZ Historic Places Act, District Plans and RMA etc. Collectively these planning instruments set to freeze these landscapes in time, allowing for little or no active engagement with these places.â&#x20AC;? )XUWKHUPRUH 0DQQ LQGLFDWHV WKDW WKLV FRQVHUYDWLRQ DSSURDFK FRQĂ LFWV with Maori world view, Maori conservation ethics and recent UN conservation and sustainability statements. Such views and statements are increasingly being invoked . Co-ownership of 11 of Auckland"s volcanic cones is forcing government agencies to pay attention. Maori conservation ethics oppose the !static nature" of western conservation and instead endorse a !Living Landscape" approach. This ties in with the way I have approached designing with tension: sitebased, ground-level discoveries of interactions between stakeholders and the situation (physical site and circumstance) and the way history FDQĂ&#x20AC;WLQWRHYHU\GD\ lives.

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0DRUL&RQVHUYDWLRQ(WKLFV Modern western conservationists tend to assume that Maori agree with western environmental ethics. But the western conservation movement actually does not serve indigenous peoples needs; or !empower indigenous conservation aspirations", which was guaranteed to them under the Treaty of Waitangi (Kirkwood et al, anon).

growing it in a temperate climate (Kirkwood et al, anon). Maori !environmental ethic" and management practice is one of conservation for human use. An interactive, reciprocal human use view of the environment is held by Maori, where the Maori conservation ethic is one of sustainable utilization of the environment, primarily for food.

Ignorance held by western conservationists concerning Maori conceptual world view, traditional beliefs and practices poses an issue for comanagement of landscapes, where some effort to understand Maori cosmogony and culture to understand their conservation ethic is required.

7KH1HZ=HDODQG&RQVHUYDWLRQ$FWHWKLFLVTXLWHDGLIIHUHQWDSSURDFK to Maori ethic. In this Act, the aim is the preservation and protection of natural and historic resources for the purpose of maintaining their intrinVLFYDOXHV7KLVZHVWHUQHWKLFSURYLGHVDGLFKRWRP\EHWZHHQPDQDQG QDWXUHZKHUHWKHVHWWLQJDVLGHRIODQGDQGSUHVHUYDWLRQ´RQO\VHUYHV to further alienate all humans, but particularly Maori from their land and kaitiaki responsibilities (Kirkwood et al, anon).

Maori Cosmogony beliefs: %RWKWKHQDWXUDODQGWKHVXSHUQDWXUDODUHSDUWRIDXQLĂ&#x20AC;HGZKROHWR0DRUL where â&#x20AC;&#x153;the bond created between humans and the rest of the physical world is both immutable and unseverableâ&#x20AC;?. ´,WLVWKHVSLULWXDOVLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQFHRIODQGZKLFKLVPRVWGHDUWR0DRULZKHUH whenua (land) also means placentaâ&#x20AC;?. According to Maori cosmogony, ODQGLVLGHQWLĂ&#x20AC;HGDVDVRXUFHRIKXPDQFUHDWLRQZKLFKQXUWXUHVLWVFKLOdren. Humans are seen as part of nature (Kirkwood et al, anon). This contradicts the nature of Christianity, where god planned the world IRUPDQVEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WDQGUXOHZKHUHKXPDQVZHUHSXWEHIRUHQDWXUH7KLV has allowed an attitude to exploit nature â&#x20AC;&#x153;in a mood of indifferenceâ&#x20AC;?, which, according to Roberts lies at the heart of the western conservation paradigm (Kirkwood et al, anon). 1RUWK +HDG KROGV VLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQFH WR D QXPEHU RI LZL WKURXJK DQ Ň&#x160;DKL NDŇ&#x2039; relationship. It is in the best interest of Maori to reoccupy the site and guard it, under the principals of kaitiakitanga in order to !keep the home Ă&#x20AC;UHV EXUQLQJŇ&#x2039; ,I DQ LQGLYLGXDO ZKDQDX KDSX RU LZL FRXOG GHPRQVWUDWH that land had been continuously occupied and protected by successive JHQHUDWLRQVGRZQWRSUHVHQWWKHDQFHVWUDOĂ DPHKDGEHHQNHSWDOLYHDQG WLWOHFRXOGEHFODLPHGWKURXJKŇ&#x160;DKLNDWRQXŇ&#x2039; SHUPDQHQWĂ&#x20AC;UHV RUŇ&#x160;DKLND URDŇ&#x2039; WKHORQJEXUQLQJĂ&#x20AC;UH  Kaitiakitanga is the act of guardianship, while kaitiaki is the doer, the action, the guardian. Kaitiaki must ensure that the !life force" of their taonga (treasures) is healthy and strong. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Kaitiaki must do all in their power to UHVWRUHPDXULRIWKHWDRQJDWRLWVRULJLQDOVWUHQJWK6LJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQWO\IRU1RUWK Head, kumara is principal for kaitiaki, where elaborate rituals concerning kumara were performed and great care and labour were undertaken in

7KLVGLUHFWO\WLHVLQWRP\LVVXHZLWKWKHGLVFLSOLQHZKHUHWKHLQWHUDFWLRQ of people and place has been seen as negative (preservation, setting aside, conserving), especially in western conservation ethics and zonebased design, which has aimed to separate functions out: separate people form space, avoiding tension. As reinforced in Maori conservation ethics, this preservation further alienates humans, but not only from their land, also from potential interactions with one another (Kirkwood et al, anon). A kin-centric world view exists as part of the Maori Conservation ethic, where humans and nature are not seen as separate entities, but reODWHGSDUWVRIDXQLĂ&#x20AC;HGZKROH Instead of conservation being seen as the altruistic management of bird species for their own good, management should allow this conserYDWLRQIRUWKHJRRGRIWKHVSHFLHVDQGWKHKDUYHVWHUV7KLVSDSHUSRLQWV out that co-operative, joint management conservation often doesn"t work because Western Conservationists tend to have little understanding of Maori cosmogony and culture, and fail to appreciate that Maori conservation ethic may convey a different perspective to their own. Maori conservation ethics support reciprocal utilitarianism, where utiliWDULDQLVPLVGHĂ&#x20AC;QHGDV´WKHHWKLFDOYLHZWKDWULJKWFRQGXFWLVGHWHUPLQHG by useful consequences, as it tends to promote the most good for the most people.â&#x20AC;?


Project Aim and Methodology: GOALS OF THIS RESEARCH DESIGN PROJECT/ RESEARCH AND DRAWING TECHNIQUES

Project

Method

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Through the process of initial site investigation I realised that I was working with both current stakeholder-site interactions as well as other relevant past, current and future stakeholder desires (imagined). These required different methods of investigation.

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A variety of !imagined" stakeholder desires were revealed through research. These were included in newspaper articles stating various unIXOĂ&#x20AC;OOHGGHVLUHVIRU1RUWK+HDGFRXQFLODQG+LVWRULF3ODFHV7UXVWOHJLVlation governing the use of the site, a new navy museum being built at the base of the hill, revealed on a site visit; and attracting an estimated 10,000 more visitors to the area per year. To allow me to work with the relevant !imagined" desires of stakeholders for North Head, I spatialised the relationships of these desires to the site. By speculating about how these desires would interact with WKHFXUUHQWVLWHVWDNHKROGHULQWHUDFWLRQVWKURXJKVSHFLĂ&#x20AC;FJURXQGOHYHO VLWHRULHQWHGDQDO\VLV,ZDVDEOHWRĂ&#x20AC;QGSRWHQWLDOIRUGHVLJQDQGPHHW my project aim of inviting and involving as many stakeholders with the site as possible. In investigating the potential of on-site interactions, some became VSHFLĂ&#x20AC;FGHVLJQPRYHVZKLOHRWKHUVDUHSUHVHQWHGDVVXJJHVWLRQVIRU stakeholder involvement with the site. Methods of management include maximising stakeholder involvement as well as promoting stakeholders to work together to achieve each other"s desires.

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My investigation involved site analysis at ground level to discover the VLWH VSHFLĂ&#x20AC;FV LQWHUDFWLRQV EHWZHHQ VWDNHKROGHUV DQG WKH VLWXDWLRQ (physical circumstances). I found working in section, and plan and constantly crossing over between the two a useful drawing method, as this allowed me to map spatial arrangement of interactions (plan) and the ZD\WKH\Ă&#x20AC;WLQZLWKWKHVSHFLĂ&#x20AC;FVRIWKHVLWHIRUPDQGWRSRJUDSK\ VHFtion). This method was used to discover potential in the way new site abilities, events, happenings and actions are produced at North Head through these interactions.

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Because Landscape Architects have an ability to discover and work with the potential found in stakeholder-site interactions I would suggest that they have a role in the ongoing maintenance of the site, where in particular any new desires arising for the site could be analysed by this Landscape Architect to potentialise and maximise possible new interactions, events, actions and site abilities.


Why North Head? Tension Mappings: DISCOVERING EVENTS AND SINGULARITIES Pushes and Pulls, stakeholder forces

Future Plans: Speculative pushes and pulls

Singularities: views open up, transitions, tensions

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The prominence of North Head on the end of an isolated peninsular, JXDUGLQJWKH:DLWHPDWD+DUERXUDQGLWVVLJQLÃ&#x20AC;FDQFHWRDYDULHW\RISHRple and stakeholders makes this pace particularly amazing. The cooky mix of uses and layers of history over time at this site have allowed for many unusual, intense spaces, some of which are tense and exhilarating to move through, and all of which involve bodily relation to the site. North Head has a wilder feel about it compared to other volcanic cones in Auckland as half of it borders the Waitemata Harbour, weeds are prominent across the hill and grass banks are left to grow long.

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I chose North Head as a site to investigate the potential of tension for design due to both the strong sense of tension of natural elements and existing man-made site manipulations created by different stakeholders over time, as well as the political tensions and competing concerns surrounding the site. These tensions are indivisible from north Head.

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Key Case Study: RAOUL BUNSCHOTEN: URBAN FLOTSAM HOW TO SEE PROTO-URBAN CONDITIONS: ALEXANDROV: !SEVEN WALKS"

3. Walk along: 2. Walk across: 1. Walk towards:

Walk with someone to obtain positive feedback

Bumping against something by chance: hidden resistences

Observer gazing at range of objects

Walk about: Interaction of observer with system under observation

5. Walk out: 4. Walk into:

$JLWDWHSRWHQWLDOFRQĂ LFW7XUQVREVHUYDWLRQLQWR experiment.

Recognise segments of fact in a system without contact with the system â&#x20AC;&#x153;Writing a history is a rhetorical operation with a territorial ambitionâ&#x20AC;?

6. Walk through: Observer engages with system to connect segments of it through interaction

2. Walk across:

Bumping against something by chance: hidden resistences

Key Findings

On closer inspection the !Walks" which Bunschoten created are quite factual and general about the stakeholder-physical relationships. The 7 walks being separate in terms of the physical drawings and the VWDNHKROGHULQWHUYLHZGRFXPHQWDWLRQPHDQVWKDWLWLVGLIĂ&#x20AC;FXOWWRVHHWKH !fold" between the two, which Bunschoten claims to be creating. The physical drawings for instance begin to look at stakeholder-physical relationships: tourists under a tree, dachas on the open space, foreign elements being brought in, urban sprawl into the reserve land. These relationships are still very general however, indicating !where" in the landscape, but not !how"; and do not get down to the affects of such stakeholder/political events. The last three walks (documentation of interviews) present the opposite: indicating the political tensions and the general causes and affects of these, yet it is impossible to tell where WKHVHDUHLQĂ XHQFLQJWKHSK\VLFDOODQGVFDSH ,Q WKLV VHQVH %XQVFKRWHQ KDV QRW IXOĂ&#x20AC;OOHG KLV DLP LQ FRQQHFWLQJ WKH VWDNHKROGHUSROLWLFDOG\QDPLFVRIWKHFLW\ZLWKWKHSK\VLFDOVLWHWRĂ&#x20AC;QG design potential. 7RPDNHWKLVLQYHVWLJDWLRQVW\OHPRUHHIĂ&#x20AC;FLHQW,ZLOODWWHPSWWROLQNWKH information provided in the seven walks together more effectively: the

relationship between each of the walks drawn out in direct communication with the landscape to allow for discoveries of expressions of life and interactions. In the next two drawings (following page), I have attempted to combine the more physical !walks" with the written document !walks" to JHWDPRUHURXQGHGSLFWXUHRI1RUWK+HDG7KLVKDVDOORZHGIRUWKH physicality of stakeholders/users to become spatially apparent at 1RUWK+HDG7KXVWDNLQJ%XQVFKRWHQVZRUNIXUWKHU By integrating several walks; a richer sense of stakeholders is seen spatially at North Head, as well as political connections and dynamics of the wider city system. I feel this has been very helpful in my investigation of tension as this study involves interactions and competing forces of the site (inĂ XHQFHG E\ WKH SK\VLFDO QDWXUH DQG SDVW DQG SUHVHQW VWDNHKROGHU manipulations of the site), as well as between stakeholders, and how the two come together to provide potential for design. Yet Bunschoten remains general, ending up separating the physical and the city dynamics (stakeholder forces) through his mapping.

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Improvements INVESTIGATING !THE RHETORIC OF WALKING" AT NORTH HEAD

By incorporating relative walks onto photos and an elevation, along with the plans, a better understanding of how the site tensions and political tensions work together can be discovered.

Cardboard sliding People occupy open space and face out towards views above to avoid the mysterious reminder of the tunnels below.

Far enough away and out of sight from DOC to feel free, steep enough for good VSHHG UXQXS IURP Ă DW VSDFH 3DUHQWV relax and watch from comfortable open space

7HHQVYDQGDOV Archeologists: 7XQQHOP\VWHULHV Tunnel

3. Walk along:

3XVKHG GRZQ WRZDUGV QRUWKHUQ Ă DW VSDFH RU EDFN WRZDUGV VRXWKHUQ Ă DW VSDFH DQG KLVWRULF WXQQHOV (GJH marked by arrow of space people tend to sit=away from DOC

Steep hill

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steep hillside

Ecologists Gentle slope down to military gun emplacement

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Seclusion, narrow paths and darkness pushes North Heads hidden locality means that many tourists will opt Department of Conservation \RX XSZDUGV WR WKH Ă DW VSRQJH\ RSHQ VSDFH WRYLVLW0W9LFWRULDLQVWHDGPDNLQJWKLVSRSXODUVSDFHUHVLabove. Seclusion and enclosed attracts vandals dential and local-orientated. Signage and carparking on site DQG WHHQV DOFRKRO UXEELVK DQG JUDIĂ&#x20AC;WL 7KLV also suggests that the southern side of North head has more tends to occur on the sea-side of North Head, to offer.: drawing tourists here. Historic Places Trust far enough away from the residential properties Steep, slippery slope and a decent walk away (people would have to make a lot of effort to stop them). Historic Places Trust Gentle Slope Steep, slippery slope

Archeologists: May climb fences to investigate closed tunnels: DOC could prosecute, yet restrictive fences are alluring

DOC buildings

Carpark

Steep,slippery slope Walk with someone to obtain positive feedback People Space Coastal vegetation Mostly locals: the lack of public transport to North Head and

Coastal vegetation

Locals pushed further on to escape main tourist area and the controlling DOC territory: drawn down and DURXQGWRWKHQRUWKHUQĂ DWVSDFH

Mown grass Rough grass

Children

Ecologists

People follow mown grass around North Head: easiest V i route ews to walk

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Dark Coastal edge

7XQQHOVDQGDUHVLGHQWLDOERXQGDU\DORQJZLWKHQFORVXUHLQWKH GDUN FRDVWDO YHJHWDWLRQ GUDZV \RX XS WR WKH VRFLDO Ă DW JUHHQ volcanic scoria cone Scoria is slippery, you watch your feet VSDFHDERYH7KH0\VWHU\DQGP\WKRORJ\RIFRPLQJRXWRIWKH when you could be looking out to views. vegetation and tunnels combined makes you search for escape routes, up and away. You feel unease at the mouths of tunnels. 5HOLHIDV\RXĂ&#x20AC;QGVDIHW\LQWKHRSHQVRFLDOVSDFH Gentle Slope Historic Places Trust Maori gardens

Gentle Slope

4. Walk into:

Coastal vegetation

Ecologists

Department of Conservation $JLWDWHSRWHQWLDOFRQĂ LFW7XUQVREVHUYDWLRQLQWRH[North Shore City Council Navy Roading and residential surrounds controlled by Council, a change in restictions could result in apartment blocks, increased access to North Head, New Navy museum, possibility of more people using danperiment. EXVLHUHQWUDQFHZD\VDQGLQFUHDVHGIRRWWUDIĂ&#x20AC;FRQ1RUWK+HDG7KLVPD\UHVXOWLQHURVLRQLVVXHVRQVLWHLQFUHDVHGPDLQWHQDQFHRIKLVWRULFEXLOGLQJV gerous coastal track entrance. Issues could arise with coastal ecology. Pressure on roading and parking? possibly a change in social spaces on site: more secluded space may become popular.

3. Walk along:


Stakeholder Desire Mappings ECOLOGISTS

MAORI/POLYNESIAN

ARCHAEOLOGISTS/ HISTORIANS

-Native vegetation

Maori:

Red:

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-Military Emplacements

-Create ecological links/permeable matrix -Purify storm-water -Encourage native fauna: create habitats -Educate community in sustainability

-Historic Buildings 5HSOHQLVKLQJ WKH DUHD Ă RUD DQG IDXQD WR EULQJ EDFN QDWLYH ELUGV DQG SODQWVWRSURYLGHIRRGVRXUFHVIRUORFDOFRPPXQLW\ $Ň&#x160;/LYLQJ/QDGVFDSHŇ&#x2039;ZKHUHWKHODQGVFDSHLVZRUNHGDQGVXVWDLQDEO\SURYLGHVUHVRXUFHVIRUSHRSOHDQGIDXQD QRWMXVWVHWDVLGHDQGFRQVHUYHG

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-Historic Torpedo Bay Wharf and boat sheds -Maori archaeology (garden structures, midden and terraces)

Blue: -Search for missing tunnels, aeroplanes and ammunition


DOC/COUNCIL

RESIDENTS

TOURISTS

Past desires:

Blue:

-Visitors Centre on the northern slopes

Yellow: -Existing use and connections

-More car parking along the residential boundary

Red: -Desired uses and connections

Recent Desires:

-Use of buildings at North Head

-New Navy Museum -Torpedo Bay Wharf reopened

-Walkway connection to Torpedo Bay -Walking connection to Mt. Victoria

-Existing tourist use, including international tourists as well as people visiting for the frst time from Auckland

Red: - New Navy Museum under construction at Torpedo Bay 1HZSDUNLQJIDFLOLW\DQGĂ&#x20AC;UVWVWRSRII before North Head - Use of Torpedo Bay Wharf


Part 1 Negotiated Studies: research