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Living Well April 27, 2014

Diabetes prevention and care

muskogeephoenix.com


Page 2 — Sunday, April 27, 2014

Muskogee Phoenix

Living Well

Some groups more prone to diabetes By Cathy Spaulding Phoenix Staff Writer

Whether through genetics or lifestyle, some groups are more prone to certain diseases than others. Researchers with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention listed Native Americans, African Americans and Hispanic/Latino Americans among ethnic groups especially prone to Type 2 diabetes. Type 2, the most common form of

diabetes, occurs when the body does not use insulin properly. Health officials with the Cherokee Nation see such a prevalence throughout northeast Oklahoma. Cherokee Nation Health Services treats more than 10,000 Native American patients for diabetes at W.W. Hastings Hospital and eight health centers. Cherokee Nation Diabetes Program Director Teresa Chaudoin said

FYI • For information on the Cherokee Nation Diabetes Prevention Program: (918) 453-5473.

genetics could play a part in such prevalence. “There is the theory of the ‘thrifty gene,’” she said. “In the history of a people, when food is plentiful, our bodies became good at storing food, so we could survive when food was scarce.” According to CDC literature, that “thrifty” gene could put some groups at higher risk of diabetes. However, lifestyle and diet also could be factors, Chaudoin said. She cited literature that says prevalence of diabetes grew when populations went from agrarian to industrial economies. “Diabetes wasn’t common among Cherokees until the 1940s,” Chaudoin said. “My grand-dad in the 1930s ran a road grader between Muskogee and Tahlequah, and it was pulled by a team of horses.” “And a lot is diet,” she said. “There are certain tribes in Mexico and Arizona, and the Mexicans in the tribe have a lower prevalence of diabetes.” CDC literature also cited poverty and lack of access to health care as other barriers minorities face in preventing or coping with diabetes. The Cherokee Nation’s Diabetes Program helps give patients information they need to control their diabetes. Chaudoin said the program works indi(See GROUPS, Page 3)

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Muskogee Phoenix

Testing Continued from Page 4

by the diabetes epidemic is increasing. In the U.S., 7 million people are undiagnosed, and 79 million people have prediabetes. As the epidemic increases, so does the importance of diagnosis. Physicians can test patients for diabetes by monitoring their blood glucose or blood sugar levels. Three lab tests are used to help diagnose and monitor diabetes. These tests are the hemoglobin A1C, fasting glucose, and twohour glucose challenge. “The hemoglobin A1C is becoming the more prevalent lab test for the diagnosis of diabetes and for the follow-up management of diabetes,” Beebe said. The hemoglobin A1C test

Sunday, April 27, 2014 — Page 7

provides information about a person’s average levels of blood glucose or blood sugar, over the past 90 days in a percentage. “We like to see that at less than a 7 percent or close to a 6.5 percent,” Beebe said. Certain symptoms can indicate a possible risk of diabetes or prediabetes. Those include increased symptoms of frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger with weight loss, and fatigue. Beebe said the symptoms can be subtle, but if they coincide with a family history, a mother, father or first relative with diabetes, that would be indication for doctors to screen for diabetes. The fasting glucose test would be an adequate test to run for someone without a family history and without symptoms. “The general rule is that

screening for diabetes is common and usually we start at the age of 35,” Beebe said. The fasting glucose and the two-hour glucose challenge test are not as popular as they once were. The hemoglobin A1C test is the primary test doctors use because of the test’s accuracy. “We have really come a long way with the start or the use of the hemoglobin A1C,” Beebe said. Being in a family practice and becoming close to patients in the community has made Beebe an advocate for early diagnosis. Making good choices and taking control is the key to success, “so that you control the diabetes, and the diabetes as a chronic disease does not take over you and control you,” Beebe said. Reach E.I. Hillin at (918) 684-2926 or ehillin @muskogeephoenix.com.


Page 6 — Sunday, April 27, 2014

Exercise Continued from Page 3

really the biggest risk in adults,” Harstine said. As the state’s obesity rate rises so does the prevalence of diabetes. More than 10 percent of Oklahoma adults from 2005 to 2010 had been told by a health professional that they had diabetes. During that same time period in Muskogee County, 12.1 percent of adults had diabetes, which is slightly more than the 11.8 percent of adults cited in the previous County Health Report. Before beginning an exercise regimen, a doctor’s visit is important. “First thing to do is check with a doctor,” said Kent Camp, fitness coordinator

Muskogee Phoenix

at Muskogee Swim and Fitness. The next thing Camp advises is to get with a trainer. He said many people go too hard on their own or expect quick results. “It isn’t quick, the weight didn’t happen overnight, and the results aren’t going to happen overnight,” he said. A trainer can set up a workout program and help keep you on the right track. For people who may not have access to a trainer there are other options for workouts. Camp suggests doing weight lifting repetitions, or sets. “One set of 12 or 15 at a really light weight,” he said. Start with something light. Camp suggests a three- to five-pound dumb-

Living Well

bell or even a can of vegetables. A complete body work out is also important. “The more muscle you have the more sugar you can burn off,” Camp said. If someone doesn’t have the access to a gym or trainer, another alternative is to walk. “If you don’t have any of those things, walking would be the next best thing,” Camps said. Muskogee offers it’s residents a variety of free places to walk. There are many paths at the local parks, and many people find walking in Arrowhead Mall beneficial. Camp said 30 to 45 minutes of walking a day or two to five trips to the gym a week can help keeping weight in check. Reach E.I. Hillin at (918) 684-2926 or ehillin @muskogeephoenix.com.

Living Well

Groups Continued from Page 2

vidually with patients, who are referred by primary care providers. The program offers classes on diet, physical activity, medications and other issues. According to the Cherokee Nation, more than 200 patients benefited from classes offered at W.W. Hastings Hospital in 2013. Patients attending all four classes in 2013 improved their blood sugar levels, lost weight and increased physical activity. The Cherokee Nation also offers 16-week programs in Muskogee, Cherokee, Sequoyah and other counties for patients with pre-diabetes. People still can enjoy Native foods while managing their diabetes, said Michelle Goss, clinical dietitian for Cherokee Nation Three Rivers Health Center.

Muskogee Phoenix “We teach a lot with portion control,” Goss said. That means people may still have their fry bread if they have smaller portions and “watch what you have with it,” Goss said. “And a lot of Native foods are heart-healthy, depending on how you prepare them,” Goss said. She listed wild onions, wild greens and poke salad as examples of healthy foods. The American Diabetes Association website cites other ethnic groups prone to diabetes: • African Americans are 1.8 times more likely to have diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. About 18.7 percent of African Americans 20 or older have diabetes. • Hispanic Americans are 1.7 times more likely to have diaStaff photo by Cathy Spaulding betes than non-Hispanic whites. Cherokee Nation Three Rivers Health Center Reach Cathy Spaulding at Dietitian Michelle Goss visits with a client at the (918) 684-2928 or cspaulding health center. Goss said Native American foods can be healthy if prepared properly. @muskogeephoenix.com.

Sunday, April 27, 2014 — Page 3

Exercise helps avoid diabetes By E.I. Hillin Phoenix Staff Writer

Muskogee County, at 36.2 percent. According to the Oklahoma State Health Department, one of the primary causes of adult deaths is obesity. Data from the health department from 2005 to 2010 estimates the rate of adult obesity to be 29.6 percent in Muskogee County. Obesity increases the risk of several chronic diseases such as heart disease and Type 2 diabetes. “Weight problem is

Doctors and diabetes experts agree the best way to avoid diabetes includes exercise. “You got to get active,” said Dr. Lillian Harstine, an endocrinologist. The 2014 County Health Report reveals that Muskogee County needs more exercise. While 30.4 percent of all Oklahoma adults from 2005 to 2010 were not engaging in any physical activity, the rate was higher in (See EXERCISE, Page 6)


Page 4 — Sunday, April 27, 2014

Muskogee Phoenix

Living Well

Increase in obesity, diabetes among kids By E.I. Hillin Phoenix Staff Writer

Since the early 2000s, the medical community has seen an alarming increase of childhood obesity. “It’s a trend. Our families are letting their kids stay home and play video games,” said Dr. David Whatley, a pediatrician at the Children’s Clinic. “Poor diets — we are passing them along to our kids.” According to the Center for Disease Control for 2011 to 2012, approximately 17 percent (or 12.5 million) of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years are obese in the United States. Coinciding with the increase of childhood obesity is the prevalence of children with Type 2 diabetes. “There’s been a definite increase in Type II,” Whatley said. “Used to never see it. Seems to be more common, especially in females.” By the year 2050, one in three people will have diabetes. Children from certain racial and ethnic groups are at higher risk, including African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian/

Pacific Islander and Native American children. In children diagnosed with diabetes, it was once assumed that they had Type 1, or juvenile-onset. In the past decade, Type 2, formerly known as adultonset, diabetes has been reported among youth. Type 2 diabetes is a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by either a lack of insulin or an inability to use insulin efficiently. It requires regular monitoring of blood glucose levels. Type 1 diabetes develops when the body’s immune system destroys pancreatic cells that make insulin to regulate blood sugar. It normally strikes children and young adults. People with Type 1 diabetes need insulin injections to survive. Type 2 can be prevented or delayed. Doctors encourage parents to help children eat the right foods and exercise. Parents need good diet plans for their children. Whatley said prevention starts with educating, eating right, having regular check-ups and checking blood levels. Healthy choices and

behaviors include, drinking water or limiting sugarsweetened drinks including, sodas, juices, sports drinks, and coffee drinks or choosing diet sodas or low-fat milk to drink. Another healthy behavior is to eat more fruits and vegetables. Make healthy snack foods for children. Limit how much “fast food” a child eats. Made a healthier choice by choosing salads with dressing on the side, choosing grilled or broiled foods. Choose healthier side options, baked chips or apples slices instead of French fries. An important preventative is to lose weight by being more active. The American Diabetes Association suggests limiting time in front of a screen to two hours per day. This includes TV, computer, phone and video games. Children and teens are encouraged to get 60 minutes of exercise per day. “We want to get them off the couch and out from playing video games,” Whatley said. Reach E.I. Hillin at (918) 684-2926 or ehillin@ muskogeephoenix.com.

Diabetes testing importance increases By E.I. Hillin Phoenix Staff Writer

Dr. James Beebe said he is witnessing an epidemic in the community. “Right now as we have seen by the statistics, is that the prevalence of diabetes is becoming increased and therefore I’ve seen a lot

more diabetics and I’ve diagnosed a lot more diabetics,” said Dr. James Beebe of Muskogee Medical Associates. The American Diabetes Association reports that 25.8 million children and adults in the United States (8.3 percent of the population) have diabetes.

Knowledge and testing is becoming increasingly important, Beebe said. “It’s important for our community to know,” he said. The ADA data report reveals that the number of people who will be affected (See TESTING, Page 7)

Living Well

Muskogee Phoenix

Sunday, April 27, 2014 — Page 5

Weight loss ‘No. 1’ thing for diabetes By E.I. Hillin Phoenix Staff Writer

When it comes to diabetes, “weight loss is the No. 1 thing,” said Dr. Frank Shaw, D.O. Reading food labels to decide how many servings of good fats, bad fats, fiber, carbohydrates, sugars, proteins, and added sugars that is needed for a healthy daily dose may be overwhelming. “I think we over flood our patients,” Shaw said. To maintain a good diet or to lose weight it’s beneficial to learn how to choose the best food for your body. While being food label savvy is important, Shaw said there are three main things to look at when choosing foods and drinks. The first thing is serving

size. Many times the serving size doesn’t equate to the entire package. The second area of focus is calories. “We work off of calories,” Shaw said. “Stay within the limit.” To find out what the appropriate daily limit is go to www.heart.org and use the American Heart Association’s “My Fats Translator.” The third point of interest is the total fat. All fats contain nine calories per gram, “good” or “bad.” The American Heart Association or AHA recommends the fats should total between 25 and 35 percent of the calories you eat that day and, for good health, the majority of those fats should be the “good” kind, monounsaturated and

polyunsaturated. The “bad” fats are saturated and trans fats. The AHA recommends limiting the amount of saturated fats you eat to less than 7 percent of total daily calories. Trans fats raise your bad (LDL) cholesterol levels and lower your good (HDL) cholesterol levels. Eating trans fats increases your risk of developing heart disease and stroke. It’s also associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Shaw said for diabetics or people at higher risk to become diabetics it’s important to keep an eye on two areas. “Primarily looking at calories and then carbohydrates,” Shaw said. “All of these are broken down into

Staff photo by E.I. Hillin

Dr. Frank Shaw, D.O., uses a food label chart to promote healthy choices for his patients. Shaw said the first place to look at on a food label is the serving size.

glucose.” at a faster rate. Carbohydrates provide Carbohydrates include energy and turn to sugar sweets, sugars, and starchy

foods Shaw said. “Cut back on sweets and starches, anything with sugar in it,” Shaw said. Breads, potatoes, pasta, and corn are considered “starchy” foods. Another ingredient to avoid is cornstarch or corn syrup, Shaw said. There are 4 calories per gram of sugar and 4 grams per teaspoon. The AHA recommends limiting intake of added sugar to 5 teaspoons for women and 9 teaspoons for men. Reading food labels is a part of making healthy food choices. For more information on choosing the right foods visit the AHA or American Diabetes Association websites. Reach E.I. Hillin at (918) 684-2926 or ehillin @muskogeephoenix.com.

Nutrient-dense foods best choice to build a healthy diet By Cathy Spaulding Phoenix Staff Writer

Healthy diets have taken on many shapes over the years — from four basic groups to food pyramids to dinner plates. What goes into these diets also changes. Are carbs good and fats bad? Do we drink milk or not drink milk? What’s the difference between good carbs and bad carbs? “I don’t like to do good or bad foods,” said Muskogee County Health Department nutritionist, Jennifer Roe. “I like to say good foods and better foods.” Those better foods are full of nutrients, she said. Using a dinner plate as

an example, Roe said half the plate should be made up of fruits and vegetables and one-fourth should be a protein item. “Grains make up the rest,” she said. “Whole wheat bread and brown rice are just some examples of the good grains.” People also should have dairy products such as milk, yogurt or “a single piece of cheese on the side,” she said. “Fruits and vegetables are full of vitamins and minerals and there is lots of fiber in them,” Roe said. “There are lots of nutrients for not a lot of calories. They are considered nutrientdense foods.” Good protein sources include meats, poultry, fish,

eggs, soy products, nuts and seeds, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s website choosemyplate.gov. Beans, peas and lentils also can be counted as proteins, even though they are vegetables, according to the website. Vegetables such as green beans and green peas are not considered proteins. Grains can provide fiber, reduce the risk of heart disease and help manage weight, but they have to be the right grains. Roe recommended whole grains such as brown rice and whole wheat. Oatmeal is another example. Most vegetables and whole grains are considered complex carbohydrates because they are rich in

fiber. “Carbohydrates are energy sources for the body,” Roe said. “Complex carbohydrates come naturally from plants. Simple carbohydrates are refined into a simpler form.” She said that with refined foods such as white breads or white rice, “you are taking out the outside part that has fiber and nutrients.” Roe said she would put potatoes “somewhere in the middle” of the healthy carb spectrum. Potatoes with the skin are full of nutrients, she said. Even fats have their place in a healthy diet. According to material from the U.S. Department of Health and Human

Services, fats provide energy and can help carry such nutrients as vitamins A, D, E and K. However, they also must be the “right kinds,” Roe said. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services advises against saturated fats, which have been linked to heart disease. “Saturated fats tend to be solid at room temperature,” Roe said. Other fats, such as polyunsaturated and monounsaturated, tend to be liquid at room temperature, she said. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats come from fish, nuts and veg-

etable oils. How you cook also is important, educators say. “I try to teach other options than fried foods,” said Alma Cunningham, Muskogee High School family and consumer science teacher. “We do boiling and baking and stuff like that. If the students eat healthy now while they are young, it will deter some of the health issues later.” Indian Capital Technology Center culinary arts instructor Georgiann Belton said she has encouraged school cooks to do more baking and steaming. Reach Cathy Spaulding at (918) 684-2928 or cspaulding@muskogee phoenix.com.


Page 4 — Sunday, April 27, 2014

Muskogee Phoenix

Living Well

Increase in obesity, diabetes among kids By E.I. Hillin Phoenix Staff Writer

Since the early 2000s, the medical community has seen an alarming increase of childhood obesity. “It’s a trend. Our families are letting their kids stay home and play video games,” said Dr. David Whatley, a pediatrician at the Children’s Clinic. “Poor diets — we are passing them along to our kids.” According to the Center for Disease Control for 2011 to 2012, approximately 17 percent (or 12.5 million) of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years are obese in the United States. Coinciding with the increase of childhood obesity is the prevalence of children with Type 2 diabetes. “There’s been a definite increase in Type II,” Whatley said. “Used to never see it. Seems to be more common, especially in females.” By the year 2050, one in three people will have diabetes. Children from certain racial and ethnic groups are at higher risk, including African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian/

Pacific Islander and Native American children. In children diagnosed with diabetes, it was once assumed that they had Type 1, or juvenile-onset. In the past decade, Type 2, formerly known as adultonset, diabetes has been reported among youth. Type 2 diabetes is a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by either a lack of insulin or an inability to use insulin efficiently. It requires regular monitoring of blood glucose levels. Type 1 diabetes develops when the body’s immune system destroys pancreatic cells that make insulin to regulate blood sugar. It normally strikes children and young adults. People with Type 1 diabetes need insulin injections to survive. Type 2 can be prevented or delayed. Doctors encourage parents to help children eat the right foods and exercise. Parents need good diet plans for their children. Whatley said prevention starts with educating, eating right, having regular check-ups and checking blood levels. Healthy choices and

behaviors include, drinking water or limiting sugarsweetened drinks including, sodas, juices, sports drinks, and coffee drinks or choosing diet sodas or low-fat milk to drink. Another healthy behavior is to eat more fruits and vegetables. Make healthy snack foods for children. Limit how much “fast food” a child eats. Made a healthier choice by choosing salads with dressing on the side, choosing grilled or broiled foods. Choose healthier side options, baked chips or apples slices instead of French fries. An important preventative is to lose weight by being more active. The American Diabetes Association suggests limiting time in front of a screen to two hours per day. This includes TV, computer, phone and video games. Children and teens are encouraged to get 60 minutes of exercise per day. “We want to get them off the couch and out from playing video games,” Whatley said. Reach E.I. Hillin at (918) 684-2926 or ehillin@ muskogeephoenix.com.

Diabetes testing importance increases By E.I. Hillin Phoenix Staff Writer

Dr. James Beebe said he is witnessing an epidemic in the community. “Right now as we have seen by the statistics, is that the prevalence of diabetes is becoming increased and therefore I’ve seen a lot

more diabetics and I’ve diagnosed a lot more diabetics,” said Dr. James Beebe of Muskogee Medical Associates. The American Diabetes Association reports that 25.8 million children and adults in the United States (8.3 percent of the population) have diabetes.

Knowledge and testing is becoming increasingly important, Beebe said. “It’s important for our community to know,” he said. The ADA data report reveals that the number of people who will be affected (See TESTING, Page 7)

Living Well

Muskogee Phoenix

Sunday, April 27, 2014 — Page 5

Weight loss ‘No. 1’ thing for diabetes By E.I. Hillin Phoenix Staff Writer

When it comes to diabetes, “weight loss is the No. 1 thing,” said Dr. Frank Shaw, D.O. Reading food labels to decide how many servings of good fats, bad fats, fiber, carbohydrates, sugars, proteins, and added sugars that is needed for a healthy daily dose may be overwhelming. “I think we over flood our patients,” Shaw said. To maintain a good diet or to lose weight it’s beneficial to learn how to choose the best food for your body. While being food label savvy is important, Shaw said there are three main things to look at when choosing foods and drinks. The first thing is serving

size. Many times the serving size doesn’t equate to the entire package. The second area of focus is calories. “We work off of calories,” Shaw said. “Stay within the limit.” To find out what the appropriate daily limit is go to www.heart.org and use the American Heart Association’s “My Fats Translator.” The third point of interest is the total fat. All fats contain nine calories per gram, “good” or “bad.” The American Heart Association or AHA recommends the fats should total between 25 and 35 percent of the calories you eat that day and, for good health, the majority of those fats should be the “good” kind, monounsaturated and

polyunsaturated. The “bad” fats are saturated and trans fats. The AHA recommends limiting the amount of saturated fats you eat to less than 7 percent of total daily calories. Trans fats raise your bad (LDL) cholesterol levels and lower your good (HDL) cholesterol levels. Eating trans fats increases your risk of developing heart disease and stroke. It’s also associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Shaw said for diabetics or people at higher risk to become diabetics it’s important to keep an eye on two areas. “Primarily looking at calories and then carbohydrates,” Shaw said. “All of these are broken down into

Staff photo by E.I. Hillin

Dr. Frank Shaw, D.O., uses a food label chart to promote healthy choices for his patients. Shaw said the first place to look at on a food label is the serving size.

glucose.” at a faster rate. Carbohydrates provide Carbohydrates include energy and turn to sugar sweets, sugars, and starchy

foods Shaw said. “Cut back on sweets and starches, anything with sugar in it,” Shaw said. Breads, potatoes, pasta, and corn are considered “starchy” foods. Another ingredient to avoid is cornstarch or corn syrup, Shaw said. There are 4 calories per gram of sugar and 4 grams per teaspoon. The AHA recommends limiting intake of added sugar to 5 teaspoons for women and 9 teaspoons for men. Reading food labels is a part of making healthy food choices. For more information on choosing the right foods visit the AHA or American Diabetes Association websites. Reach E.I. Hillin at (918) 684-2926 or ehillin @muskogeephoenix.com.

Nutrient-dense foods best choice to build a healthy diet By Cathy Spaulding Phoenix Staff Writer

Healthy diets have taken on many shapes over the years — from four basic groups to food pyramids to dinner plates. What goes into these diets also changes. Are carbs good and fats bad? Do we drink milk or not drink milk? What’s the difference between good carbs and bad carbs? “I don’t like to do good or bad foods,” said Muskogee County Health Department nutritionist, Jennifer Roe. “I like to say good foods and better foods.” Those better foods are full of nutrients, she said. Using a dinner plate as

an example, Roe said half the plate should be made up of fruits and vegetables and one-fourth should be a protein item. “Grains make up the rest,” she said. “Whole wheat bread and brown rice are just some examples of the good grains.” People also should have dairy products such as milk, yogurt or “a single piece of cheese on the side,” she said. “Fruits and vegetables are full of vitamins and minerals and there is lots of fiber in them,” Roe said. “There are lots of nutrients for not a lot of calories. They are considered nutrientdense foods.” Good protein sources include meats, poultry, fish,

eggs, soy products, nuts and seeds, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s website choosemyplate.gov. Beans, peas and lentils also can be counted as proteins, even though they are vegetables, according to the website. Vegetables such as green beans and green peas are not considered proteins. Grains can provide fiber, reduce the risk of heart disease and help manage weight, but they have to be the right grains. Roe recommended whole grains such as brown rice and whole wheat. Oatmeal is another example. Most vegetables and whole grains are considered complex carbohydrates because they are rich in

fiber. “Carbohydrates are energy sources for the body,” Roe said. “Complex carbohydrates come naturally from plants. Simple carbohydrates are refined into a simpler form.” She said that with refined foods such as white breads or white rice, “you are taking out the outside part that has fiber and nutrients.” Roe said she would put potatoes “somewhere in the middle” of the healthy carb spectrum. Potatoes with the skin are full of nutrients, she said. Even fats have their place in a healthy diet. According to material from the U.S. Department of Health and Human

Services, fats provide energy and can help carry such nutrients as vitamins A, D, E and K. However, they also must be the “right kinds,” Roe said. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services advises against saturated fats, which have been linked to heart disease. “Saturated fats tend to be solid at room temperature,” Roe said. Other fats, such as polyunsaturated and monounsaturated, tend to be liquid at room temperature, she said. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats come from fish, nuts and veg-

etable oils. How you cook also is important, educators say. “I try to teach other options than fried foods,” said Alma Cunningham, Muskogee High School family and consumer science teacher. “We do boiling and baking and stuff like that. If the students eat healthy now while they are young, it will deter some of the health issues later.” Indian Capital Technology Center culinary arts instructor Georgiann Belton said she has encouraged school cooks to do more baking and steaming. Reach Cathy Spaulding at (918) 684-2928 or cspaulding@muskogee phoenix.com.


Page 6 — Sunday, April 27, 2014

Exercise Continued from Page 3

really the biggest risk in adults,” Harstine said. As the state’s obesity rate rises so does the prevalence of diabetes. More than 10 percent of Oklahoma adults from 2005 to 2010 had been told by a health professional that they had diabetes. During that same time period in Muskogee County, 12.1 percent of adults had diabetes, which is slightly more than the 11.8 percent of adults cited in the previous County Health Report. Before beginning an exercise regimen, a doctor’s visit is important. “First thing to do is check with a doctor,” said Kent Camp, fitness coordinator

Muskogee Phoenix

at Muskogee Swim and Fitness. The next thing Camp advises is to get with a trainer. He said many people go too hard on their own or expect quick results. “It isn’t quick, the weight didn’t happen overnight, and the results aren’t going to happen overnight,” he said. A trainer can set up a workout program and help keep you on the right track. For people who may not have access to a trainer there are other options for workouts. Camp suggests doing weight lifting repetitions, or sets. “One set of 12 or 15 at a really light weight,” he said. Start with something light. Camp suggests a three- to five-pound dumb-

Living Well

bell or even a can of vegetables. A complete body work out is also important. “The more muscle you have the more sugar you can burn off,” Camp said. If someone doesn’t have the access to a gym or trainer, another alternative is to walk. “If you don’t have any of those things, walking would be the next best thing,” Camps said. Muskogee offers it’s residents a variety of free places to walk. There are many paths at the local parks, and many people find walking in Arrowhead Mall beneficial. Camp said 30 to 45 minutes of walking a day or two to five trips to the gym a week can help keeping weight in check. Reach E.I. Hillin at (918) 684-2926 or ehillin @muskogeephoenix.com.

Living Well

Groups Continued from Page 2

vidually with patients, who are referred by primary care providers. The program offers classes on diet, physical activity, medications and other issues. According to the Cherokee Nation, more than 200 patients benefited from classes offered at W.W. Hastings Hospital in 2013. Patients attending all four classes in 2013 improved their blood sugar levels, lost weight and increased physical activity. The Cherokee Nation also offers 16-week programs in Muskogee, Cherokee, Sequoyah and other counties for patients with pre-diabetes. People still can enjoy Native foods while managing their diabetes, said Michelle Goss, clinical dietitian for Cherokee Nation Three Rivers Health Center.

Muskogee Phoenix “We teach a lot with portion control,” Goss said. That means people may still have their fry bread if they have smaller portions and “watch what you have with it,” Goss said. “And a lot of Native foods are heart-healthy, depending on how you prepare them,” Goss said. She listed wild onions, wild greens and poke salad as examples of healthy foods. The American Diabetes Association website cites other ethnic groups prone to diabetes: • African Americans are 1.8 times more likely to have diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. About 18.7 percent of African Americans 20 or older have diabetes. • Hispanic Americans are 1.7 times more likely to have diaStaff photo by Cathy Spaulding betes than non-Hispanic whites. Cherokee Nation Three Rivers Health Center Reach Cathy Spaulding at Dietitian Michelle Goss visits with a client at the (918) 684-2928 or cspaulding health center. Goss said Native American foods can be healthy if prepared properly. @muskogeephoenix.com.

Sunday, April 27, 2014 — Page 3

Exercise helps avoid diabetes By E.I. Hillin Phoenix Staff Writer

Muskogee County, at 36.2 percent. According to the Oklahoma State Health Department, one of the primary causes of adult deaths is obesity. Data from the health department from 2005 to 2010 estimates the rate of adult obesity to be 29.6 percent in Muskogee County. Obesity increases the risk of several chronic diseases such as heart disease and Type 2 diabetes. “Weight problem is

Doctors and diabetes experts agree the best way to avoid diabetes includes exercise. “You got to get active,” said Dr. Lillian Harstine, an endocrinologist. The 2014 County Health Report reveals that Muskogee County needs more exercise. While 30.4 percent of all Oklahoma adults from 2005 to 2010 were not engaging in any physical activity, the rate was higher in (See EXERCISE, Page 6)


Page 2 — Sunday, April 27, 2014

Muskogee Phoenix

Living Well

Some groups more prone to diabetes By Cathy Spaulding Phoenix Staff Writer

Whether through genetics or lifestyle, some groups are more prone to certain diseases than others. Researchers with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention listed Native Americans, African Americans and Hispanic/Latino Americans among ethnic groups especially prone to Type 2 diabetes. Type 2, the most common form of

diabetes, occurs when the body does not use insulin properly. Health officials with the Cherokee Nation see such a prevalence throughout northeast Oklahoma. Cherokee Nation Health Services treats more than 10,000 Native American patients for diabetes at W.W. Hastings Hospital and eight health centers. Cherokee Nation Diabetes Program Director Teresa Chaudoin said

FYI • For information on the Cherokee Nation Diabetes Prevention Program: (918) 453-5473.

genetics could play a part in such prevalence. “There is the theory of the ‘thrifty gene,’” she said. “In the history of a people, when food is plentiful, our bodies became good at storing food, so we could survive when food was scarce.” According to CDC literature, that “thrifty” gene could put some groups at higher risk of diabetes. However, lifestyle and diet also could be factors, Chaudoin said. She cited literature that says prevalence of diabetes grew when populations went from agrarian to industrial economies. “Diabetes wasn’t common among Cherokees until the 1940s,” Chaudoin said. “My grand-dad in the 1930s ran a road grader between Muskogee and Tahlequah, and it was pulled by a team of horses.” “And a lot is diet,” she said. “There are certain tribes in Mexico and Arizona, and the Mexicans in the tribe have a lower prevalence of diabetes.” CDC literature also cited poverty and lack of access to health care as other barriers minorities face in preventing or coping with diabetes. The Cherokee Nation’s Diabetes Program helps give patients information they need to control their diabetes. Chaudoin said the program works indi(See GROUPS, Page 3)

Living Well

Muskogee Phoenix

Testing Continued from Page 4

by the diabetes epidemic is increasing. In the U.S., 7 million people are undiagnosed, and 79 million people have prediabetes. As the epidemic increases, so does the importance of diagnosis. Physicians can test patients for diabetes by monitoring their blood glucose or blood sugar levels. Three lab tests are used to help diagnose and monitor diabetes. These tests are the hemoglobin A1C, fasting glucose, and twohour glucose challenge. “The hemoglobin A1C is becoming the more prevalent lab test for the diagnosis of diabetes and for the follow-up management of diabetes,” Beebe said. The hemoglobin A1C test

Sunday, April 27, 2014 — Page 7

provides information about a person’s average levels of blood glucose or blood sugar, over the past 90 days in a percentage. “We like to see that at less than a 7 percent or close to a 6.5 percent,” Beebe said. Certain symptoms can indicate a possible risk of diabetes or prediabetes. Those include increased symptoms of frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger with weight loss, and fatigue. Beebe said the symptoms can be subtle, but if they coincide with a family history, a mother, father or first relative with diabetes, that would be indication for doctors to screen for diabetes. The fasting glucose test would be an adequate test to run for someone without a family history and without symptoms. “The general rule is that

screening for diabetes is common and usually we start at the age of 35,” Beebe said. The fasting glucose and the two-hour glucose challenge test are not as popular as they once were. The hemoglobin A1C test is the primary test doctors use because of the test’s accuracy. “We have really come a long way with the start or the use of the hemoglobin A1C,” Beebe said. Being in a family practice and becoming close to patients in the community has made Beebe an advocate for early diagnosis. Making good choices and taking control is the key to success, “so that you control the diabetes, and the diabetes as a chronic disease does not take over you and control you,” Beebe said. Reach E.I. Hillin at (918) 684-2926 or ehillin @muskogeephoenix.com.


Living Well April 27, 2014

Diabetes prevention and care

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Living Wells Spring 2014