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Lichtbericht 90

Neues Museum, Berlin An exchange of glances ­bridging three millennia. The Egyptian Queen Nefertiti looks surprisingly up-to-date and modern beneath her new lighting. The ancient bust has returned to the long-neglected but now intricately restored building on Berlin’s Museum Island.

For researching and preserving, presenting and scenically displaying, museums are the cultural archive of humanity. Inside, light serves as an indispensable medium for interpreting both architecture and exhibits alike.

Published in April 2010

About this issue




About this issue




Bright prospects

Light & Technology




Monumentally consistent: the Neues Museum, Berlin After lying in ruins for decades, the Neues Museum has now been res­ urrected and is resplendent in the best light.


Quintessence Recessed luminaires


Quintessence recessed luminaires for vertical illuminance


Quintessence recessed luminaires with LEDs


Focus White LEDs: producing light


Double focus White LEDs and RGBW colour mixing in practice

Eye to eye with Nefertiti An interview with the lighting designer of the Neues Museum, Gabriele von Kardorff (Kardorff Ingenieure, Berlin).


Tim Henrik Maack



Punta della Dogana Centre for Contemporary Art A design approach for lighting cultural buildings


Efficient visual comfort in the museum Exhibiting and conveying – ­collecting, preserving and studying: lighting concepts with efficient visual comfort sustainably and economically support the tasks of museums.


Punta della Dogana, Venice Tadao Ando has transformed Venice’s old customs building into a museum for contemporary art, making it fit for the future thanks to sustainable lighting technology.


Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels The recently renovated Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences offers visitors, small and large, not only dinosaurs, but also contemporary discoveries and insights, all presented in stunning detail.



A report by Cinzia Ferrara and Pietro ­Palladino, Milan

ERCO Lichtbericht Imprint Publisher: Tim H. Maack Editor in Chief: Martin Krautter Design/Layout: Simone Heinze, Christoph Steinke Printing: Mohn Media Mohndruck GmbH, Gütersloh 1028744000 © 2010 ERCO

Nefertiti has found her place. After an extensive renovation by architect David Chipperfield involving a good ten-year planning and construction period, the Neues Museum in Berlin has now reopened its doors. During this period, the lighting design was under the supervision of Gabriele von Kardorff from Kardoff Ingenieure in Berlin. The result is a highly modern museum of great clarity that also takes its own past and transforms it into an architectural experience. For Berlin and Berlin’s Museum Island, this museum is a cultural enrichment and, after over 3,000 years, it is certainly an appropriate place for Nefertiti. Over 40 years of experience in ceiling­integrated lighting have been channelled into our new recessed luminaire product range, Quintessence. This is the first downlight series to be designed throughout to meet the criteria of efficient visual comfort. Central to the product range are efficient, future-proof light sources, as can be seen just by the high number of 350 Quintessence articles fitted with LEDs. Spherolit lenses and collimating lenses provide the requisite lighting technology, while optoelectronics, taking a holistic approach to lens system, electronics and information technology, creates the innovative environment for being at the cutting edge of LED-based products. In addition, Quintessence’s Light System DALI connectivity allows the power potential of this product range to be fully exploited in lighting installations. LED technology is also gaining ground in situations were high demands are placed on the quality of lighting design, such as in museums. An impressive example of this can be found on page 24 in the form of the Museum Kunst Palast art gallery in Düsseldorf, where, for conservational and energy-saving reasons, a graphics exhibition was illuminated with Optec LED spotlights. Here, the advantages of dimmability, long service life and high energyefficiency, combined with UV-free and IR-free light are well received by conservationists.

Tadao Ando has transformed Venice’s former port customs office into a museum for contemporary art, where the art collection of François Pinault can be seen. From the outside, you can hardly tell the building has been renovated, but from the inside the building is resplendent with the familiar minimalistic precision of Tadao Ando and as such, it provides a spacious framework for the collection. With the uniformly floodlit bare concrete surfaces and the brick walls of the original building, it provides prime example of vertical illuminance. Combined with a DALI control and the intelligent incorporation of daylight, the result is a highly energyefficient building concept. LEDs will also be central to our innovations presented at the Light+Building trade fair in Frankfurt – you can find us at stand A11 in Hall 3.0. We look forward to seeing you there!

Photographs (Page): Andreu Adrover Esquena (3), Xu Bing (3), Jan Bitter (2), Ulf Büschleb (3), Julia Holtkötter (1), Aksel Karcher (16, 23), David Kuntzsch (U3), Thomas Mayer (2, 3, 4–5, 24, 25, 26–29) Rudi Meisel (U1, 6–11, 25, U3), Rogerio Reis (25), Alexander Ring (2, 17–18, 20-21, 26, U3), Dirk Vogel (2, 25, 26, 30–31), Michael Wolf (U4). Translation: Lanzillotta Translations, Düsseldorf

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Piacenza The old abattoir with its attractive industrial architecture and natural history collection now accommo­ dates the university of this Italian provincial capital. In addition to spotlight track systems, Parscoop ceiling washlights provide indirect ambient lighting.

Hagen Emil Schumacher (1912–1999), pioneer of abstract painting in ­Germany, has been given his own museum. Situated in the direct neighbourhood of the Karl Ernst Osthaus Museum, the new building accommodates, over three levels, the extensive collection and special exhibitions. Emil Schumacher Museum, Hagen Architect: Lindemann Architekten, Mannheim Lighting design: Licht Kunst Licht, Bonn/Berlin

Ruhr Museum, Essen Architect: OMA, Rem Koolhaas, ­Rotterdam; Böll & Krabel, Essen Lighting design: Licht Kunst Licht, Bonn/ Berlin Exhibition design: HG Merz, Stuttgart

Museo di Storia Naturale, Piacenza

Madrid On its campus-like headquarters in Boadilla del Monte near Madrid, Spain’s largest bank maintains an art gallery dedicated to the exten­ sive collection of the bank’s own cultural foundation. Vertical illu­ minance with Optec wallwashers brings out the best of the exhibits such as the splendid tapestries from the 17th century. Fundación Banco Santander Architecture and lighting design: Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates, Dublin Museology: Juan Ariño, Madrid

Zurich Definitely not conservative! The national museum’s permanent exhibition was given a radical makeover in the course of the ren­ ovation work, which also included Optec spotlights on Hi-trac track systems. National Museum, Zurich Architect: Christ & Gantenbein, Zurich Exhibition design and scenography: Holzer Kobler Architekturen, Zurich Lighting design: d'lite, Zurich

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Essen To mark the beginning of “RUHR.2010”, Essen’s year as the European Capital of Culture, the Ruhr Museum was opened in the Zollverein Colliery World Heritage Site – a must visit for friends of industrial culture.

Ulm For his extraordinary collection of contemporary art, factory owner Dr. Friedrich E. Rentschler has set up his own gallery in an industrial loft. The high-quality technical furnishings and fittings include Cantax spotlights mounted on Hi-trac track systems, conveniently controlled by Light System DALI. FER Collection, Stadtregal, Ulm Architect: PEG Projektentwicklungs­ gesellschaft Ulm mbH; Ott Ingenieure Langenau

Barcelona The Casa Garriga Nogués, a city palace in the Barcelonan district of ­Eixample, was built by Catalan architect Enric Sagnier between 1899 and 1905. It has recently become home to the Fundación Francisco Godia. This ­foundation administrates the estate of Fran­ cisco Godia (1921–1990), an enig­ Beijing The art museum of the China Cen­ matic entrepreneur who enjoyed success both as a racing driver and tral Academy of Fine Art (abbrevi­ as an art collector with exquisite ated as CAFA) has developed from taste. The newly designed gallery the study gallery of the CAFA art academy, which was founded back presents Godia’s collection and in 1958. Its extensive collection not offers an attractive setting for tour­ only contains historical and ­current ing exhibitions or events. ­Cantax spotlights mounted on Hi-trac pro­ works of Chinese artists, but also vide flexible lighting. The terrace includes European paintings. For permanent and special exhibitions, in the inner courtyard, featuring a walk-round sculpture by artist Japanese architect Arata Isozaki Cristina Iglesias, is illuminated by has now created a new building with 4,150m² of exhibition area. The Kubus floor washlights. building’s overall sculptured shape Fundación Francisco Godia, Barcelona is clad with grey natural stone on Architect and lighting design: the outside, while inside visitors are Jordi Garcés, Barcelona presented with new spatial experi­ ences and perspectives at every turn. To suit the usage, the diffuse lighting through luminous ceiling elements can be combined as nec­ essary with accentuating lighting from track-mounted Stella, Optec and Parscan spotlights. CAFA Art Museum, Beijing Architect: Arata Isozaki & Associates, Tokyo Lighting design: Fisher Marantz Stone Partners, New York

Hamburg The conversion of the Zollmuseum in Hamburg’s docklands has put the German Customs Authority back on the map. The history of the German customs is now presented in a mod­ ern setting with over 1,000 exhib­ its, graphic artworks and items of media. The flexible lighting system is from ERCO, incorporating Hi-trac Toronto track systems with Quinta and Magnificent homecoming! In his ­Pollux spotlights. native city of Toronto, Frank O. Gehry was given the opportunity Deutsches Zollmuseum, Hamburg to extend and redesign one of Exhibition design and lighting design: ­Canada’s most important art insti­ Triad, Berlin tutions, the Art Gallery of Ontario. ERCO lighting tools scenically ­illuminate the exhibits in the out­ door and indoor areas. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto Architect: Gehry Partners, LLP, Los Angeles Lighting design: L'Observatoire Interna­ tional, New York

Granada Known as an abstract expressionist painter, José Guerrero (1914–1991) has now been honoured by his native city of Granada with a cen­ tre for contemporary art dedicated to him. The centre’s clear, modern architecture makes an attractive contrast to the surrounding old town with its Moorish influences. The lighting concept is based on the use of vertical illuminance. Centro José Guerrero, Granada Architecture and lighting design: Antonio Jiménez Torrecillas, Granada

Rome The “Palazzo Massimo alle Terme” is part of the “Museo Nazionale Romano.” One of the many exhib­ its presented in the ground floor’s Augustus Hall is the ancient Altar of Ostia, scenically illuminated by a clever contrast of the warm-white accent light of Parscan spotlights and cool indirect lighting. Palazzo Massimo, Rome Lighting design: Francesca Storaro, Castel Gandolfo (Rome)

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Bright prospects

Church of San Giovanni Evangelista, Parma Dome fresco “Visione di San Giovanni” by Correggio, circa 1520 Lighting design: Francesca Storaro, Castel Gandolfo (Rome) Photographer: Thomas Mayer, Neuss

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Monumentally consistent: the Neues Museum, Berlin With five buildings and world-famous collections, Berlin’s Museum Island has achieved UNESCO World Heritage status. After lying in ruins for decades, the Neues Museum has now been resurrected. As a radical statement on building preservation it polarises opinion, yet barely anyone is immune to the fascination of this building.

In the Staircase Hall: wallwashers enhance the natural sidelight provided by the large windows in the end walls. With the aid of light simulations, the designers determined the type of reflector and the arrangement of lumi-

naires required to ensure optimum uniformity. The wallwashers with longlasting, neutral-white metal halide lamps are mounted 25m above the ground on a flat framework in the roof structure.

Architect: David Chipperfield, London/Berlin Lighting design: Kardorff Ingenieure, Berlin Preservation management: Julian Harrap ­Architects, London Construction management: Lubic & Woehrlin, Berlin Restoration design: Pro Denkmal GmbH, ­Bamberg Photos: Rudi Meisel, Berlin

When the Berlin Wall fell a good 20 years ago, the Neues Museum, built by Friedrich August Stüler between 1841 and 1855, seemed like a lost cause. Bombed and burned out, the magnificent building had been in ruins since the end of the war, standing as a darkly beautiful memorial. For many years, both the will and the means were lacking in the then GDR to restore it. Grass and trees sprung up in the ravaged Staircase Hall. It was only in 1985 when safety work was undertaken on the foundations that the groundwork was laid for restoration. This job was put out to tender in 1993/94 and the British architect David Chipperfield submitted his bid to transform the ruin into a modern, functional museum, promising to take the greatest care in working with the original fabric of the building. Having been awarded the contract in 1997, Chipperfield, working with the preservation expert Julian Harrap, kept his promise with unparalleled consistency, simultaneously creating an intellectual challenge for all those who think that preservation primarily means retaining a cosy ambience and any bull’seye glasswork. The museum mainly focuses on prehistory, early history and ancient Egypt. In this spirit, Chipperfield practised architectural archaeol­ogy. A painstaking inventory and preservation of the existing building took up a large portion of the ten-year planning and construction period. Chipperfield integrated the preserved fragments of Stüler’s technical and highly complex architectural design into a framework of structural enhancements which exude an almost Prussian austerity. Instead of speculating on achieving the maximum contrast between old and new, Copperfield preferred to develop Stüler’s concepts further in an abstract manner. The result is a structure that does not deny its history but presents it demonstratively; a building that is not afraid of complexity, but makes it tangible to our senses. Many superb specialist designers accompanied this mammoth project over the years, including lighting designer Gabriele von Kardorff from Kardorff Ingenieure in Berlin (interview on pages 10–11). On concluding the commission, despite the enormously elaborate process involved, Chipperfield succeeded in undercutting the forecast construction costs by several million euros, assisting the financing of further projects on Museum Island. MK

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Eye to eye with Nefertiti An interview with the lighting designer of the Neues Museum, Gabriele von Kardorff, speaking to Martin Krautter, editor-in-chief of Lichtbericht.

The exhibits, ranging from large sculptures to the tiniest of gold objects, are mainly lit by ambient light with hardly any additional lighting from the showcase spotlights. The Parscan spotlights are fitted with low-voltage halogen lamps.

The Niobid Hall is a perfect example of the harmony between artificial light and daylight. Special window drapes afford a view outside while allowing carefully regulated daylight in, so that the exhibits are still adequately protected. The accent lighting with spotlights lends texture to the exhibits.

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The installation units in the Staircase Hall are mounted at a height of 25m and can be lowered on wire ropes for servicing.

Martin Krautter (MK): Ms. von Kardorff, the Neues Museum in Berlin is an architectural and lighting project of extraordinary magnitude and impact, but the designers also needed a great deal of stamina. How long did you spend on this project overall? Gabriele von Kardorff (GvK): Ten years – going through all the project phases to lighting the exhibits on the day before the official opening. MK: What was actually known about the museum’s original lighting, and what role did it play in your design? GvK: In the mid-19th century August Stüler designed the building for daytime use, in other words, with large windows and additional light coming from inner courtyards. So for us, the particular challenge lay in developing a concept for a historic building that originally had no artificial lighting. We therefore started our lighting design with an intensive analysis of the quality of daylight in the building. On the basis of our 3D model, we then also produced a simulation film which moved through the museum and allowed us to see exactly where the sunlight entered the building at any given time of the day or year. We decided to preserve the basic concept of using daylight. Naturally, it is easier and usual to exclude all effects of natural light on the exhibits and only permit fixed, controllable lighting conditions. However, this would have been out of keeping with the building itself. We were also of the opinion that the exhibits in the three collections would benefit from a changing atmosphere of light. We also wanted to demonstrate that daylight and artificial light can be wonderfully combined in a museum. However, this could only succeed if, during every phase of the project, the artificial lighting design took the daylight aspects into account and vice versa. We therefore also needed a smart solar protection and anti-glare concept. This would allow adequate daylight and views looking outside, while ensuring that the exhibits were still protected and the artificial lighting components could still define the contours and accents. The route through the building now offers a variety of naturally lit harmonious room atmospheres. Artificial light is also a major element of the building’s lighting, used for optimally presenting the exhibits and allowing the building to be used independently of daylight. We started working on our lighting concept in 2000 without any real idea of how the rooms would work once they were completed. Many parts of the building were still in ruins. The difference in surfaces, the coexistence of historic and new elements and the future solar protection and anti-glare protection in front

of the windows would lend the building a new character. MK: The Neues Museum represents an extremely consistent approach to dealing with historic fabric. What effect did the preservation objectives have on your design work? GvK: The artificial lighting concept required very careful and customised detailed solutions, drawn up in conjunction with the architect. No one historic room is like another. The preserved and restored elements were largely taboo for installations, so that many compromises had to be sought with regard to the positioning of modern luminaires and lighting effects. Because of the great spatial diversity and the restrictions imposed by the preservation order, more than one hundred individual lamp types had to be developed, all of which, however, still formed part of an overall concept. MK: The monumental Staircase Hall is surely a key room for the entire museum. What criteria did you apply here for the various lighting elements and, in particular, for the vertical lighting of the wall surfaces? GvK: The 6-metre-high windows at both ends provide the Staircase Hall with intensive daylight. This impressive room, which now contains a new staircase designed by David Chipperfield, has a highly representative character. At the same time, it displays the ravages of the past, laying its wounds bare in the retained historic brick walls. Because the Staircase Hall is shown to best effect in daylight, we therefore saw the task of the artificial light as being to enhance the daylight. All the artificial light comes from the 25-metre-high roof construction. There are no wall installations. We wanted to bathe the staircase and the walls in a uniform light, without shadows or beams of light. As a daylight enhancer, this solution has the most natural effect and underlines the room’s spacious dimensions. To match this solution, we chose metal halide lamps with neutral white light. MK: What were your guiding principles in lighting the various galleries and what lighting elements are used? GvK: All the exhibition rooms contain the two elements of object lighting and general lighting. Security and guard lights are integrated into the general lighting, enabling us to dispense with additional luminaires. Since the luminaires serve a technical and functional purpose, their design is kept deliberately discreet. The special ­luminaires in the historic rooms for example, have a clear, box-shaped form in bronze. In all the new ceilings the luminaires are integrated into the precast ceiling slabs. In many cases technical equipment such as a loudspeaker is also built into the housing slabs for the lumi-

naires. The exhibits, ranging from large sculpthis is not the case, as with the papyri for examtures to the tiniest gold objects, are mainly lit ple, illuminance is restricted to below 50 lux. by the ambient lighting with hardly any addiMK: Ms. von Kardorff, many thanks for taking tional lighting from the showcase spotlights. the time to answer our questions. The result is a generous lighting atmosphere that blends in harmoniously with the changing daylight conditions. MK: The star of the museum is, without doubt, Nefertiti. How did you approach this lighting challenge, and how would you describe the result? GvK: Nefertiti is indeed the crowning ­glory of the Egyptian collection. First we had to estab­lish how sensitively her beauty reacted to light. F­ortunately, we were able to study the bust close up over an extensive period of time in several different locations and we also benefited from the experience of the then museum director, Professor Wildung. We discovered for example, that we could influence Nefertiti’s age through the direction and intensity of light alone. In previous locations she had been placed in a flatter light, thus appearing more youthful. Today,

The lighting of the Nefertiti bust was calculated using computer simulations which defined the most favourable places for mounting the Parscan spotlights. (Images: Kardorff Ingenieure)

Kardorff Ingenieure Lichtplanung Kardorff Ingenieure is an internationally active firm with outstanding references in all areas of artificial and daylight lighting design. “First understand, then illuminate” is the firm’s guiding philosophy, leading to an intensive engagement with the environment, the architecture and the respective use. Founded in 1997, Kardorff Ingenieure Lichtplanung is run by Gabriele and Volker von Kardorff. Their experienced team is made up of 16 architects and engineers from a variety of disciplines and from eight different countries. The firm is represented in Berlin, Dubai and Jeddah.

the steeper lighting shows that she is a mature woman whose wrinkles and life experience are clearly visible, with a lively gaze that only becomes apparent when the reflection in her pupil is lit. MK: Against the background of cultural and preservation considerations, what role did energy saving play? How did you make allowance for it? GvK: If you consider that our planning started 10 years ago, our maximum energy consumption of 20W/m2 for operating the museum is very good. We mainly achieved this through the consistent optimisation of the lamps used. As such, the ambient lighting is almost entirely produced by energy efficient metal halide and fluorescent lamps. In the Staircase Hall and the two great courtyards, for example, energy consumption is 10W/m2. All the lamps are in the best energy class for their type. The intensive use of natural daylight also contributes to a more efficient use of energy. Luckily, many of the exhibits are not sensitive to daylight. Where ERCO Lichtbericht 90   


Punta della Dogana Centre for Contemporary Art

The architect’s vision: a freehand sketch of the Punta della Dogana museum by Tadao Ando.

A design approach for lighting cultural buildings by Cinzia Ferrara and Pietro Palladino

The project to convert the old ware­houses of Venice’s customs building into the largest exhibition centre of the Pinault foundation is just one part of a long-­established cooperation between the building ­owner and the design team which began in 2005 with the restoration of the Palazzo Grassi. This relationship has made it possible to ­develop a particularly effective modus operandi for defining and attaining project objectives within the shortest of timeframes. This has now been adopted as standard practice by the Ferrara Palladino e Associati design studio for all work on cultural buildings. The method is based on a long, introductory dialogue between the main players of any ­given project, i.e. the architect, the artist and the building owner. Harmony with the architect’s ­ideas is reached when the complex yet equally ­fundamental investigations have overcome the technical obstacles and a clear idea is obtained of how the light will fit in with the

architecture and be integrated into the entire building technology. The ­lighting ­designer often has to act both as a reliable aid for technical issues and as an advisor on moods and impressions. The main aim of architect Tadao Ando was to bring out the original character of the premises using clear incursions into the architecture, which can always be reversed later, and to place the artworks at such locations. This runs contrary to the “white box” concept that tends to homogenise all exhibition galleries for contemporary art as neutral containers with subdued hues. Although the Punta della Dogana borrows the use of diffuse ambient lighting from such museums, it then directs this light onto ­unplastered brickwork and wooden beams and, where possible, also makes use of natural light. The preference of both ­building owner and architect for natural light gave the lighting designer a big incentive to design an installation for the flexible artificial lighting that harmonised both with skylights and with

large windows while also being able to satisfy the curators’ requirements for different exhibitions. Flexible lighting installations Flexibility is actually the one ­property that artists, curators and technicians in the museum field tend to demand most. ­Every artist creates his or her work under a certain light and has a clear vision of the moment of presentation, it is then the curator of the exhibition who takes this vision into account and the lighting designer who decides on how expedient the vision is. The design approach for lighting a contemporary aluminium sculpture may be the same as for a painting by Rothko, but the priorities of the individual steps are completely different. With exhibitions for contemporary art, it is not infrequent for the artists themselves to propose the general lighting ambience.

The cross section through the Punta della Dogana museum clearly shows how the building is made up of several former warehouses arranged in parallel with timber framed roof structures. The skylights are shown in blue; the

added elements relating to building services and lighting technology are green. Clearly recognisable in the centre of the building is the inserted concrete cube following Tadao Ando’s signature Tatami grid-pattern.

Museums for contemporary art that ­regularly put on rotating exhibitions require ­flexible lighting installations that support different lighting tools and offer a variety of mounting locations. At the Punta della ­Dogana the ­subject of flexibility was broached both from the mounting location point of view and from the perspective of the ­different light ­distributions of the luminaires. As already mentioned, the concept for the artificial lighting is based on natural light with its two main constituent components: sunlight (direct and targeted) and normal daylight (softer and diffuse). By varying the ratio of the two com­ponents direct and diffuse, an infinite number of graduations in the mood can be produced. These may range from dramatic with highlights on the artworks to a wide, spacious impression using soft light for the entire ambience, all conveniently controlled with electronic lighting management. Digital lighting control is a subject particularly close to the building owner’s heart, especially since he is also responsible for the management of the exhibition galleries. Because, apart from offering flexibility for the lighting installation and a simpler ­power supply, digitalisation also makes it possible to integrate technical systems. The scope of the project often goes beyond pure lighting technology and includes not just the lighting tools but increasingly also involves electroacoustics, video surveillance or smoke detectors. The new technologies offer numerous advantages from the building management perspective. This primarily includes greater security and control of the galleries, energy saving by opting to integrate natural light, constant monitoring of the installation with positive effects for the maintenance work or, quite simply, shorter dismantling and set-up times between exhibitions. In the Punta della Dogana, the long preparatory phase between the architect, building sponsor, curators and lighting ­designer has allowed the on-site implementation to be tackled within a very short timeframe, with decisions having already been taken collectively. Energy is even saved in the museum The decision-making phase when the technical engineers and the curators responsible for the Pinault collection jointly set the objectives led to interesting results. In fact, some of these results related to energy saving, which had previously only been of secondary importance for the technical equipment of a museum. This led to the proposal to use metal

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halide lamps with good colour rendition and a colour temperature of about 4,200K throughout the entire exhibition centre since these can augment the colour of natural light for a large part of the day. It is interesting to note that during the product sampling in an appropriately equipped test gallery, the building owner and the entire design team were virtually unanimous in tending towards the new light sources. This resulted in considerably lower energy consumption than is usual for museums. For illuminances of up to 300lx, a connected load of 25W/m2 can be taken as the norm, but at the inaugural exhibition the load never exceeded 10W/m2. The entire exhibition area measured 3,000 square metres. Another factor that contributed to attaining this target is the use of a DALI lighting control linked to the building management system. Coloured light and the use of metal ­halide lamps Museum galleries and exhibits are illumi­ nated using techniques that have been handed down over decades and success­fully exported all around the world. The parameters that laid down the basic constraints for museum lighting were based on the conviction that every artwork should be pre­sented for viewing in the best possible way. Consequently, both a good overall view of the exhibit and the ability to study details must be ensured. The lighting must also offer the greatest possible protection of the materials from which the artwork is made, provide optimum rendition of the colours and restrict direct or indirect glare. Regardless of its architectural character and geometry, every museum location dictates its own profile of requirements, which is why different museums have different ­lighting typologies. Yet even though the type and method of lighting varies from one museum to the next, especially for permanent exhibitions, the most common type of light source to date still remains the incandescent lamp. These lamps have set the tone for the lighting of artworks, especially the Old ­Masters, for such a long time now that we have become used to seeing them in dignified surroundings, in atmospheres that evoke feelings of intimacy. These are characterised by a pleasant, elegant ambiance with a warm light typical for interiors and offering optimal colour rendition. However, with modern art and in particular with contemporary art everything is different, from the visual, sensual expeERCO Lichtbericht 90  


rience that this type of art offers. The difference to the Old Masters is massive. Contemporary artists express with great clarity a new way of life whereby the clear separation from the surroundings and between the inside and outside is simply cast aside; the artwork becomes an integral part of the sur­ roundings. Now in vogue is a preference for spacious, non-partitioned exhibition galleries in constant connection with the outside world. Diffuse, natural light floods into the galleries and brings out the entire volume of the room, without emphasising certain individual details. Applying these concepts to artificial lighting, we soon arrive at the new, cautious types of approach that have lead us to implement diffuse light and subtle atmosphere in museums; using light sources with colour temperatures equivalent to daylight. The result is a departure from the contemplative, individ­ual viewing of each artwork from the great Old Masters, towards a kind of job sharing alongside the contemporary artists, who do not want their works put on a pedestal (which is not even possible with many contemporary pieces due to their size) but instead expect an interaction with the artwork or an involvement in the actual creative activity. The room and the walls surrounding the contemporary artwork no longer have the often ­highly saturated colours they had in the past, but exchange their livery for the rawness of neutral hues (if not total white) that are reproduced by a cold, harsh daylight.

To calculate the illuminance and simulate the interplay of daylight and artificial light, the designers used computer programs for lighting simulation. Suitable photometric data in various formats is available on the Internet for all the lighting tools in the ERCO product range.

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The Punta della Dogana museum takes these principles and makes them its own. It is from this point of departure that the project and its implementation were tackled. Only fluo­ rescent lamps and metal halide lamps are used in this museum today.

Whether one lighting type dominates or what combination of the two is used will depend on the requirements placed on the presentation of the individual artwork, which is why the lighting installation is designed as a system that can be reconfigured and ­expanded at any time. The flexibility of the installaThe construction of the lighting system tion is based on two different concepts which The system is designed and built according to relate to the components of light and their the BUS principle, whereby the ­power supply respective lighting tools. The targeted lightis separate from the control or data line. Every ing using spotlights with 3-circuit ­adapters luminaire is connected directly or indirectly to owes its flexibility to the fact that a spota central control unit which, for its part, can light and therefore its lighting effect, can be be reconfigured and ­expanded. DALI (­Digital physically added to or removed from, a lightAddressable Lighting ­Interface) is the name ing scene. With the diffuse lighting using given to the interface for the electronic con- recessed luminaires, the flexibility is given trol gear and switching actuators. The DALI by the ability to switch each individual light control gear has an ­internal memory for stor- source on or off or, if the light source pering light scene data and group allocations. mits, to dim it. When a light scene is recalled, all the participating control gear will receive the same dim- Controlling the lighting system mer setting at the same moment. Once positioned, the luminaires are con­ The lighting installation in the Punta ­ trolled by the user via a digital system. The della Dogana principally follows the same central control unit is located in the control system in all the galleries, both in terms of room in the first gallery, but data network its physical construction and regarding the access ports in every gallery facilitate con­lighting control. This means that the param- nection with the control unit to illuminate eters for one gallery can be transferred to the artworks. The software ­programming ­another where, assuming compatibility with is performed either in the control room or the lighting equipment, they can produce an in the exhibition galleries using a ­portable analogous lighting effect. Every exhibition ­terminal. Using terminal and software, the gallery features two components of light: lighting tools can be controlled either indidirect, diffuse light and direct, targeted light. vidually or in groups. In the ­transitional phases setting up for new exhibitions, the lighting system can be reconfigured to meet the photometric requirements of the new artworks. The spotlights are fitted with the highly efficient, though not dimmable, metal halide lamps. They feature a standard ­adapter for track and are mounted on singlets to connect to the power supply. The DALI interfaces are not integral to the luminaires but are implemented using switching ­actuators permanently installed in the room. This enables a central digital control for the ­system and also ensures flexibility when ­selecting the lighting tools for the 3-circuit track. The actual spotlights do not therefore have any DALI control gear and, when rearranging the exhibitions, can therefore be moved from one gallery to another without ­having to be readdressed. Each switching actuator has two 16-amp outputs that control up to 12 metres of track or groups of about 15 singlets. The maximum number of lumi­naires per circuit is dictated by the maximum ­power rating of the switching actuator. Each switching actuator is represented in the DALI system by its own address, using which the software can control the switching actuator’s circuit and all connected devices. The switching actuator can switch its circuit on or off. The spotlights are connected without the use of tools – apart from the ladders and scaffolds needed to get up to the mounting height, which in the exhibition galleries with double room height is about 7-metres high.

Departure from the “white cube”: the historic premises of the Punta della Dogana boldly hold their own against the highly expressive contemporary artwork of the Pinault collection. Daylight and artificial light are harmoniously balanced. Using modern lighting simulation software, the effect of both direct and diffuse natural light over the course of

Construction team Building owner: Palazzo Grassi s.p.a. Design team Architect (conversion – restoration): Tadao Ando Planning coordination: Eugenio Tranquilli Eng. – Equilibri, Mestre Execution planning: Luigi Cocco Eng. – ­Tecnobrevetti Building services: Lagrecacolonna Installation: P.I. Sergio Rigato Lighting design: Ferrara Palladino e Associati Project team: Paolo Spotti and Cesare Coppedè Suppliers Main contractor: Dottor Group Electrical systems: Fiel Luminaires: ERCO Building management systems: Siemens

Clockwise from top left: Cinzia Ferrara, Pietro Palladino, Paolo Spotti, Cesare Coppedè

the day and year can be precisely investigated in advance and visualised in a 3D model, providing a big gain in terms of design safety.

Ferrara Palladino e Associati Ferrara Palladino e Associati studios have been active in the field of lighting design for over twenty years now, during which time their design work has covered a wide range of application areas. Right from the ­outset, architect Cinzia Ferrara and engineer ­Pietro Palladino decided to take a comprehensive, all-embracing approach to the subject of light. Their complementary skills such as creativity, technical expertise and attention to detail all converge to produce innovative solutions and unique designs. As partners, Cesare Coppedè and Paolo ­Spotti support the two founding members in managing the studio and, by bringing addi­tional skills to the table in the areas of ­industrial design and dynamic light, they further expand the team’s capabilities. The usual design and planning activities are augmented by an unwavering and dedicated commitment to spreading the culture of light. As a result, the Milan studio is not just a workshop where concepts, products and systems for the lighting are developed, but it has also become a training centre and point of reference for those who want to deepen their understanding in the field of light.

ERCO Lichtbericht 90  


Quintessence recessed luminaires System design for ­lighting tasks both general and specific: the differentiated toolbox of Quintessence enables convincing lighting solutions providing efficient visual comfort to both user and ­operator alike.

With high-quality design and perfect lighting technology, Quintessence sets new standards for recessed luminaires. Whether round or square or fitted with a special mounting detail, Quintessence suits all situations which relate to ceiling mounting details.

1000 new lighting tools for ­efficient visual comfort The philosophers of the ancient world referred to the omnipresent energy of life as the fifth element or “quinta essentia”. Today, the term “quintessence” is understood as the synopsis of the essential, the end result. ERCO’s new Quintessence product range is literally the quintessence of 40 years of experience in ceiling-inte­grated lighting; yet, at the same time, it also looks forward, ­formulating a future-proof system ­framework for the further development of recessed luminaires. The ­vigorous requirements of the architecture of tomorrow were a primary factor in determining the development of Quintessence, the first recessed luminaire product range to be uncompromisingly designed 16   ERCO Lichtbericht 90

around the aspect of efficient ­visual comfort. The result is that Quintessence includes a particularly large variety of differentiated tools for vertical illuminance, the crucial factor for the impression of brightness in a room. The emphasis of this product range is placed on efficient, future-proof light ­sources. This is also apparent from the high proportion of articles with LEDs – around 300 in total. Innovative lighting engineering elements developed by ERCO such as Spherolit lenses and reflectors direct the luminous flux of the modern light sources ­effectively to the target surface. Thermally ­optimised components help ensure that well-established and ­newly developed light sources all work to their optimum – for maximum ­efficiency and functional life. Elec-

tronic control gear c­ontribute to energy-efficiency and allow for other digital interfaces. This option enables Quintessence luminaires to be connected, via plug and play, to intelligent control systems, ­providing additional potential for even greater efficiency. Ceiling-­ integrated lighting concepts, in which the light sources are simply inconspicuous details in the ceiling, are the epitome of ERCO’s philosophy of “Light, not luminaires”. The Quintessence product range is able to cover all the essential subtasks of a lighting concept – from vertical illuminance and ambient lighting to highlighting and sceno­graphic effects. The consistent system design and the logical structure of the product range simplify planning and designing with Quintessence. ­Consequently,

installation and maintenance of the luminaires are easier and more logical than ever before.

Design and inherent quality Consistent system design is a characteristic feature of Quintessence. Modular design allows many different variations to be made with identical mounting details. Similarly, accessories such as lenses and filters are common and ­digitally controllable Light Clients can be connected to Light System DALI. All Quintessence recessed luminaires use the same design principle for mounting rings, meaning that the different lamp types and characteristics are not only easy to combine but also to interchange.

ERCO Lichtbericht 90  


Quintessence recessed luminaires for vertical ­illuminance

Efficient visual comfort ERCO developed the Quintessence recessed luminaires especially for efficient visual comfort. As a result, this product range features a particularly wide selection of articles for vertical illuminance. The false colour diagram depicts the uniformity of vertical lighting. The efficiency and quality of uniformity depend on the design of the

the wall beginning just beneath the ceiling. In contrast to standard washlights, double washlights have two Spherolit wallwasher segments positioned opposite each other. This enables parallel walls in corridors to be illuminated uniformly and efficiently.

Through Quintessence, ERCO offers a versatile range of luminaires for vertical illuminance. The spectrum extends from luminaires for highly homogenous wallwashing as required for museums or exhibitions, through functional washlights to washlighting with a focal emphasis. The latter is used to provide an additional accent for applications such as retail displays. Vertical illuminance is far more important for the subjective impression of brightness than light on horizontal surfaces. For this reason ERCO offers a wide range of lighting solutions for wall illumination, all of which are designed to save energy. Washlights and double ­washlights Quintessence washlights combine horizontal and vertical illuminance for the peripheral area of rooms. The lighting tech­nology is based on three components: the Spherolit upper reflector, the ­diffuser and the darklight reflec18   ERCO Lichtbericht 90

tor with Spherolit wallwasher segment. The Spherolit-technology upper reflector efficiently directs the light towards the diffuser. The diffuser and the darklight technology ensure good visual ­comfort. To enable the full power of a lamp emitting light in all directions to be utilised, mirror-finish spherolites in the upper reflector redirect the light down towards the ­diffuser. To enhance the visual comfort, translucent diffusers reduce the high luminance of the lamp distributing it over the entire surface of the diffuser. The darklight reflector beneath the diffuser prevents the observer from experiencing glare as long as the diffuser is shielded by the reflector. This optical system results in a wide rotationally symmetrical light intensity distribution ideal for ambient lighting in rooms. To achieve uniform brightness on the vertical plane as required for wallwashing, one segment of the darklight reflector has spherolites. This patented reflector technology guides the beam so that it strikes

Lens wallwashers Lens wallwashers provide exclu­ sively vertical illuminance. The combination of two different Spherolit reflectors and the wallwasher lens has enabled the development of two efficient lighting tools for vertical illuminance: a lens wall­washer for the uniform illumination of walls and, as an alternative, a lens wallwasher for a focal emphasis. The mirror-finish Spherolit reflector, which directs the beam exclusively towards the wall, creates an asymmetric light intensity distribution. Depending on the distribution and curvature of the spherolites, it is possible to obtain a very homogenous wallwashing, e.g. for lighting pictures in museums. The alternative is to produce focal emphasis on the upper third of the wall, as with lens wallwashers. This would be used, for instance, to illuminate displays above shelves in retail outlets. The specially designed wallwasher lens spreads the beam so that a high uniformity is visible over the breadth of the wall from lens wallwashers arranged in a row. The darklight reflector beneath the wallwasher lens inhibits glare ­provided the lens is not ­visible through the reflector aperture. This detail makes an important ­contribution to visual comfort. ERCO’s lighting engineers have calcu­lated the Spherolit reflector so that the upper part of the beam meets the wall just beneath the ceiling and the beam extends all the way down to the floor. For optimum light distribution on the vertical surface, it is ­recommended that the distance between the wall and the luminaire is set at one third of the room height. This distance can generally also be used for the spacing between the individual Quintessence lens wallwashers.

wallwashers, their offset from the wall and their spacing.

Spherolit upper reflector Diffuser Spherolit wallwasher segment

Spherolit wallwasher reflector Lens

Darklight reflector Darklight reflector







50 100 E (%) With washlights and double washlights, Spherolit technology is applied twice, once in the upper reflector and once in the wallwasher segment of the darklight reflector. The diffuser that usually covers the upper reflector for greater visual com­ fort has been removed in the upper photo for the purposes of better illustration.

Washlight Washlights combine horizontal and vertical illuminance for the peripheral area of rooms. Looking into the room, a classic downlight effect can be seen, while the wall itself is given a uniform light distribution extending up to the ceiling.

Double washlight In double washlights there are two opposing Spherolit reflector segments to produce uni­form light on the walls of corridors.

Lens wallwashers With its uniform brightness gradients, the lens wallwasher achieves a very high degree of uniformity on the vertical plane. This makes it ideal for applications where the wall is to be presented as an entity, e.g. in entrance areas, or where good homogeneity is ­demanded, e.g. for pictures in an exhibition.

50 100 E (%) Focal lens wallwashers In contrast to the lens wallwashers with their continuous ­brightness gradient, the lens wallwashers with focal emphasis produce a ­highlight in the upper third. This focal ­highlight can be used very effectively to emphasise dis­ plays above shelves in retail outlets for instance – this is a valuable detail of vertical illuminance.

ERCO Lichtbericht 90  


Quintessence recessed ­luminaires with LEDs

The Quintessence product range naturally includes both conventional lamps and LEDs thus offering the latter’s specific benefits such as extremely long functional life, ­maximum luminous efficacy, and flexibility through dimmability. The high-performance optoelectronic systems of LED modules, lenses and reflectors are exclusive ERCO inhouse developments for efficient visual comfort. The Quintessence LED product range comprises both round and square luminaires with varying light charac­teristics from lens wallwashers, washlights, double washlights, downlights and directional luminaires to recessed spotlights. All other features such as the diverse variants of luminaire edging and the mounting details, the availability of Light Client with factory-encoded DALI ­control gear,






Colour temperature and colour rendition Quintessence recessed luminaires are available in daylight white and warm white and also as 4-channel varychrome with RGBW colour mixing technology. The warm white version produces a higher colour rendition quality than the daylight white model.

700 nm

20   ERCO Lichtbericht 90

700 nm

LED light mixer For the different downlight characteristics and the lens wallwashers, the light is directed by an 8-segment, mirror-finish reflector. The interreflections within the light mixer, especially in the RGBW LED modules, result in the best possible colour mixing beginning directly beneath the luminaire.

Lens ­wallwasher

Directional luminaire

Light mixer



Double washlight

or the ­rational and ­simple mounting all correspond with the prevailing standard of the Quintessence product range as a whole. In this way the future-proof LED lamp fits seamlessly into ERCO system design.




Characteristics The spectrum of light distributions for Quintessence recessed ­luminaires with LED includes downlights, washlights, double washlights, lens wallwashers and directional luminaires. Furthermore the LED-fitted Quintessence recessed spotlights are also part of the Quintessence system.

Spherolit lenses and collimating lenses Lighting technology is one of ERCO’s key com­ petences which include LED light sources. The Quintessence directional luminaires and recessed luminaires with LEDs feature lens systems designed and built by ERCO. The collimating lens creates a parallel beam, while a Spherolit lens produces the precise beam angle required.

Heat management Good heat management in the luminaire is crucial for con­tinuous operation, allowing the lamps to emit their full power ­throughout their entire life. It is the design, construction and material of the housing that all contribute to ­optimal heat management. Extensive simulations and tests during the development phase ensure the success of all the products in the range.


Light mixer

Spherolit wallwasher segment


Darklight reflector

Darklight reflector

Two aspects make a major contribution to the performance of Quintessence LED luminaires: the contact surfaces between the LED’s printed circuit board and the housing ensure good heat dissipation. The cooling fins on the housing further dissipate the heat to achieve optimum conditions for continuous operation.

ERCO Lichtbericht 90  



White LEDs: producing light There are two prerequisites for the use of LEDs for ambient lighting. Firstly, the availability of white, high-power LEDs with sufficiently high luminous flux and secondly, the improvement of colour rendition. LEDs can produce white light in different ways: by RGB colour mixing, by luminescence conver­sion or even by a combination of both these processes in the form of RGBW mixing. With RGB colour mixing, three light emitting diodes in the colours red, green and blue (RGB) produce a wide range of saturated colours of light but, if required can also produce white light. This is done by driving the brightness of the individual coloured LEDs to the required level with the control electronics. The price for this high variability, however, is a white light with poor colour rendition, due to the very small spectra of each of the three colour components. This method of producing white light is therefore unsuitable for applications where high demands are placed on colour rendition. With luminescence conversion, the light of a single-colour LED is converted wholly or partially into other spectral ranges by fluorescent coatings so that the resulting spectrum will achieve better luminous efficacy and a better colour rendition than with RGB-LEDs. The combination of blue LEDs with yellow phosphors is standard today; more seldom, because more complicated to manufacture, are UV-LEDs with RGB phosphors. This process is inherently fixed at a constant colour of light, such as warm white with approx. 3200K or daylight white with approx. 5500K. Warm white LEDs currently produce better colour rendition (about Ra85) than daylight white LEDs (Ra70), although the luminous efficacy of the latter is slightly higher. One possibility for uniting the advantages of both these processes for producing white light with LEDs is to use RGBW colour mixing systems that combine white LEDs of a constant light colour with digitally 22   ERCO Lichtbericht 90

Double focus

controllable LEDs in red, green and blue. Such systems retain the high colour rendition index of Ra85 in the white range while simultaneously allowing an infinite variation of colour temperature and if needed, also coloured accents for scenographic lighting.

CIE-triangle showing the colour locations of white LEDs with luminescence conversion.

527 530

0.8 0.7

510 555

0.6 0.5



y 0.4 warm white



600 622 780

daylight white

0.2 0.1 465 380

0.0 0.0

ClE-triangle with the colour locations for RGBWLED modules. Within the CIE chromaticity diagram, the Planckian locus shows the white hues of different colour temperatures that can be produced by colour mixing – from bluish, cold white to reddish warm white.


0.4 x







555 0.6 0.5



y 0.4 600

White 0.3



622 780

0.2 480



465 380

0.0 0.0

Relative spectral distri­ bution: warm white LEDs with luminescence conversion in combination with the relative brightness sensitivity of the cone cells in the eye.


527 530

0.8 0.7





0.4 x





100 % 80 60

V (λ)

40 20 0 300 Relative spectral distribution: RGB-LED. The white light mixture obtained from red, green and blue LEDs produces insuffi­ cient colour rendition quality for lighting tasks where colour qualities are important.





800 nm

100 % 80 60

V (λ)

40 20 0 300





800 nm

White LEDs and RGBW colour mixing in practice In architectural lighting practice LEDs are increasingly taking over coloured scenic lighting and also replacing conventional lamps in general lighting. White high-power LEDs based on luminescence conversion combine advantages such as the ability to dim and the availability of different colour temperatures with extremely long life. In addition, their light is restricted to the visible spectrum without ultraviolet and infrared radiation, which is especially important for avoiding damage to exhibits in museums for instance. Their optimised colour rendition also makes such white LEDs suitable for other lighting situations where high demands are placed on colour quality, such as in restaurants, offices, conference rooms or in the retail trade. With luminous flux values of 1740lm (warm white) or 2160lm (daylight white), the current 28W LED modules are ideal for similar applications to 100W low-voltage halogen lamps or 20W metal halide lamps, ranging from wall washing in rooms with ceiling heights of up to 4m and general ambient lighting to accent lighting over medium distances. The combination of luminescence conversion and RGB mixing with RGBW-LED modules opens up additional design ­possibilities. Correctly controlled, such a luminaire can produce both white light with infinitely variable colour temperature with good colour rendition and also highly saturated coloured light. The full potential of RGBW luminaires for lighting design is released when combined with the appropriate lighting control systems and control gear or with PC software such as ERCO Light Studio. This software includes various control panels such as the RGB colour circle or a slider control for adjusting the colour temperature along the Planckian locus. All designed to allow quick and simple integration of the luminaire's functions into light scenes. Application scenarios for RGBW luminaires include multi­

Today's white high-power LED modules produce sufficient luminous flux for architectural lighting, whether for vertical illuminance, for horizontal, ambient lighting or for accent lighting.

functional rooms, galleries, conference halls or foyers. Depending on the room usage, light scenes can be set up so that a wall surface or a spatial zone can be lit in white and with good rendition to present an object or alternatively, can be styled with coloured light for an atmospheric effect. Thomas Schielke The special optoelectronic modules ensure the LED luminaires attain maximum efficiency and consequently, high luminous efficacy.

With luminaires based on RGBW colour mixing, the colour temperature can be adjusted over a wide range using the 4-­channel varychrome attribute in the lighting control software.

Operating devices allow the user to set and recall light scenes with different colour temperatures quickly and simply.

ERCO Lichtbericht 90 


Efficient visual comfort in the museum Exhibiting and communicating on the one hand, collecting, preserving and exploring on the other: these are the tasks of a ­museum. Lighting concepts with efficient visual comfort support a museum in these tasks both effectively and economically.

Optimal tools for convenient, efficient and correct lighting to protect the exhibits in a graphic arts exhibition: Optec spotlights with LED, mounted on ERCO track. (Museum Kunst Palast, Düsseldorf)

Vertical illuminance Efficiently creating the impression of a pleasant level of brightness and providing ideal conditions for perception to present the paintings (Saatchi Gallery, London).

While issue 89 of the Lichtbericht looked at the concept of efficient visual comfort relating to the retail sector, this article will highlight how the five factors of efficient visual comfort, namely vertical illuminance, qualitative lighting design, effective lighting technology, intelli­gent lighting control and efficient lamps, can be applied just as effectively to the broad field of museum lighting. Each individual factor holds potentials that help save resources and ­lower costs; but it is only in their combination that they develop additional synergy effects and reinforce each other. Criteria for museum lighting The diversity of the museum landscape makes it difficult to specify uniform characteristics for its lighting: museums deal with a vast range of different themes, from archaeology to con­ temporary art, from literature to technology. Their dimensions vary from a few square metres all the way to huge cultural and museum complexes. Irrespective of this, however, most of these institutions see it as their task not only to collect, preserve and explore their respective subjects, but also to communicate and present their themes. In places where objects of great cultural value are kept and exhibited, museum architecture plays an especially representative role. In these museums, whether with such long traditions as the Louvre in Paris or as recent as the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, architects, lighting and exhibition designers and conservators are usually in a position to implement the highest standards of quality even in regard to 24   ERCO Lichtbericht 90

lighting. It is because of this that the concept of light in “museum quality“ now has the overtone of a standard that applies also to ­other genres of architecture. Criteria for museum lighting depend both on the needs of the visitors and on the requirements of the ­exhibits. Visitors primarily expect high visual comfort, optimal perceptibility of the exhibits and clear, safe orientation within the building. This is added by increasing expectations of an effective presentation of the rooms and objects using light, determined by the changing ­visual requirements for events, films, concerts and suchlike.

lower level, which not only protects the exhib­its, but also reduces the operating costs. In many types of museum, such as typical picture galleries, vertical illuminance is already a factor simply because the visual task involves observing objects on walls. Using ­wallwashing instead of, or to supplement, zenithal ­lighting, where museums feature luminous ceilings, ­uniform illuminances on vertical ­presentation surfaces can be achieved with low levels of energy. Foyers and passages are further examples of wallwashing as the right means to efficiently produce the impression of pleasant ­levels of brightness.

Careful treatment of exhibits, comfort and convenience for visitors Within the museum as an institution, ­interests also differ in regard to lighting. While conservators place emphasis on the preservation of the exhibits and their protection from harmful amounts of light and glare, curators prefer flexible lighting systems with as wide a scope for effective presentations as possible. From an economical point of view, the cost of investment and operation are primary factors. Efficient visual comfort provides approaches and technologies that combine what initially seem to be incompatible requests in a ­synergetic manner. An example: where maximum ­visual comfort and excellent glare protection are key aspects in the choice of lighting tools, visitors are provided with optimum conditions for perception; their eyes can easily adapt to different lighting situations. Illuminances can ­generally be kept at a

Advance of LED technology When working out a lighting concept for a museum based on qualitative aspects, ­Kelly's principles of perception-oriented lighting design prove helpful: once lighting situations are structured into ambient luminescence, focal glow and play of brilliants, the hierarchies of perception often arise automatically. This answers the question as to which areas actually need a high level of lighting. Manufacturers such as ERCO, which draw on many years of experience in museum lighting, are faced with the responsibility of providing the right tools to enable such qualitative, perception-­oriented design. LED technology is of particular ­interest here among museum lighting designers as it combines the qualities of the already widely used low-voltage halogen lamps, such as dimmability and excellent colour rendition, with an energy efficiency previously only known from

Qualitative lighting design Museums generally ­provide a wide range of approaches to work with hierarchies of per­ ception. Contrasting lighting levels enhance the dramatic effect of a circular gallery (Punta della Dogana, Venice).

Effective lighting ­technology Powerful reflectors and lens systems effectively transport the light onto the target surface. Specialised, differentiated lighting tools ensure ­optimum efficiency for the appropriate application (Optec spotlights with LEDs in the Museum of Ethnology, BerlinDahlem).

Intelligent lighting control Lighting control systems such as Light System DALI are used for scenographic purposes and to save energy, e.g. by linking light scenes to motion sensors or using daylightdependent controls (Museo Emilio Caraffa, Córdoba, Argentina)

Efficient lamps The choice of lamp directly affects the energy consumption. LEDs are the perfect option, as are fluorescent lamps and metal halide lamps, which are suited for specific applications (Optec spotlights with LEDs in the Brothers Grimm House, Steinau an der Strasse).

fluorescent lamps or high-pressure lamps. But it also outperforms these in terms of life and caters to the conservators’ wishes of UV and IRfree light. ERCO’s standards applied to lighting tools such as spotlights or recessed ceiling luminaires with LEDs are high as their system design must make the planning and use of the new technologies as easy as possible, while also ensuring additional efficiency through proprietary lighting technology. Many museums today are faced with a cut in public funding and need to budget ­rather cost-effectively. Within the context of energy improvements, a one-off investment in lighting ensuring efficient visual comfort makes it possible to reduce operating costs in the long run. This creates additional scope to concentrate on the actual tasks of the museum: to preserve and communicate the store of knowledge of a culture.

ERCO Lichtbericht 90   


Punta della Dogana, Venice

Architect: Tadao Ando, Tokyo Lighting design: Ferrara Palladino e Associati, Milan Photos: Thomas Mayer, Neuss

For centuries, the warehouses at the Canal Grande have stored dutiable goods. Past, present and future: Tadao Ando has transformed the historic building into a museum for contemporary art, making it fit for tomorrow thanks to sustainable lighting technology.

Acqua alta, high water – in winter this is all but daily news for residents and visitors in Venice. Every year, the city on stilts built on a lagoon sinks several millimetres deeper into the water, while climate changes threaten a rise in sea levels. The Venetians anyway agree: high water days are increasingly frequent. Anyone keen to build in this city is bound to face the issue of high water protection, not only for foundation and sealing, but also in a global sense with regard to sustainability and energy efficiency of the building and its technical equipment. Exposed at the tip of the spit of land right opposite San Marco, the Punta della Dogana, the former port customs authority of Venice, is situated right next to the church Santa Maria della Salute. Originally built in 1677 by Giuseppe Benoni, the customs authority underwent several transformations until it eventually lost its function during the course of the 20th century and consequently sunk into oblivion. For over 30 years the building was closed to the public until, during a search for a second site for his art 26   ERCO Lichtbericht 90

foundation, the art collector François ­Pinault joined with the Mayor of Venice, ­Massimo ­Cacciari and devised plans to use the early industrial architecture for a different purpose this time. At the first site of the François Pinault Foundation in Venice, the Palazzo Grassi, Tadao Ando had realised a remarkable museum architec­ture as early as 2005 through interventions that proved as precise as they were unobtrusive. On the outside, the Punta della Dogana barely shows any trace of structural alterations. Inside, Ando accentuated the original structure of the building with its division into five halls. Marked by history, their rough brick walls and imposing trusses made of larch wood were carefully preserved. Right in the centre of the building, where parts of the hall’s partition walls had already been replaced by pillars in earlier alter­ ations, Ando implanted a concrete cube in a manner typical of him: minimalist, clear lines and polished surfaces, structured by the pattern of the formwork panels in the format of the

What a site! The new museum on a spit of land at the Canal Grande consolidates the reputation of Venice as a centre for both modern and contemporary art. This reputation has been gained primarily by the biannual art festival, the Peggy Guggenheim Collection and not least, the Palazzo Grassi, the sister site of the François ­Pinault Foundation.

Unmistakably Tadao Ando: it is only after entering the building that the identity of the designer becomes clear. A concrete cube with the typical pattern of the formwork panels positioned in the centre of the old warehouses and a spacious room is filled with daylight as the most efficient light source of all. The work of art is discreetly emphasised by accent lighting (Rudolf Stingel, “Untitled“, 2008).

ERCO Lichtbericht 90   


Punta della Dogana, Venice

Japanese tatamis. This “building in a building“ is connected to paths, galleries and stairs which provide access and structure to two levels of exhibition space. The lighting concept ensures efficiency and visual comfort on several levels: it comprises the components daylight, artificial ambient ­lighting and accent lighting. Automated shading curtains dose the daylight coming through the skylights and the side windows. A DALI system controls downlights and wallwashers with fluorescent lamps. Spotlights with highly efficient metal halide lamps accentuate individual exhibits. They are included in the control system by means of DALI actuators. The lighting and air conditioning technology, integrated by Ando within dark-painted, square-section installation ducts, are all blended discreetly into the historic trusses.

Ando combined airconditioning technology, lighting and other installations in dark-painted metal ducts that integrate inconspicuously into the larch wood roof structure.

Plenty of space for art of great presence: Rather than providing a neutral background à la “white cube“, the halls of the Punta della Dogana promote a strong environment of ample proportions in which the items from the Pinault collection can unfold their full effect.

The colour of the artificial light provided by the Lightcast downlights with compact fluorescent lamps for ambient lighting and the Parscan ­spotlights with metal halide lamps for accent lighting matches the daylight. A DALI control system dims the downlights and switches the spotlights as groups using DALI ­switching actuators.

Along with the halls where the original ceiling height was kept, Ando also created additional exhibition space on a second level in the wider part of the museum. This enables the curators to use ­galleries with a more intimate character.

Architecture as an exhibit: opting for Quadra wallwashers, the lighting designers used uniform vertical illuminance to emphasise the uniformity and aesthetics of the wall surface as a structural element.

28   ERCO Lichtbericht 90

ERCO Lichtbericht 90   


Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels Dinosaurs are always a big attraction for taking kids on a museum visit as an alternative to computer games. The recently renovated Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences offers visitors, small and large, not only dinosaurs, but also contemporary discoveries and insights, all presented in stunning detail.

The daylight situation in the Gallery of Evolution: diffuse natural light streams in through the glass sections in the roof, while track-mounted

Optec spotlights accentuate the exhibits. Parscoop ceiling washlights can be switched on to provide supplementary lighting.

Back in the 90’s, following the release of ­Spielberg’s blockbuster movie, “Jurassic Park”, the dinosaur craze swept through both media and children’s bedrooms alike. Natural science museums, often only dignified by the dust and dryness of the decades, found themselves in the public limelight once again. This time, however, they are confronted with the changed requirements and viewing habits of a new generation of visitors. Which is good if a museum happens to have a collection of significant and spectacular artefacts, as is the case with the "Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences”. Founded in 1846 and showing spectacular 19th century finds such as its iguanodons of Bernissart, this Belgian museum also has the added attraction of striking historic architecture, for too long hidden away behind disjointed extensions and concealing facades. After years of renovation work, this architecture now provides a fitting backdrop for presentations that, in terms of their scientific content and media technology, have well and truly arrived in the 21st century.

Parscoop ceiling washlights for metal halide lamps are ideally suited to providing uniform, wide and efficient illumination for the vaulted hall ceiling. As the night falls, their glare-free light supplements and then replaces the natural lighting entering through the glass roof panels.

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The lure of colour: Optec spotlights fitted with the appropriate filters make it possible to change from the neutral lighting of the reconstructed dinosaur skeleton to dramatic scenic lighting.

Architect (renovation) and lighting design: SumProject, Brussels Gallery of Evolution – Scenography: Atelier de l'lle, Paris. Exhibition lighting: Cosil, Paris Photos: Dirk Vogel, Dortmund

Using light distributions from narrow spot to wide flood as well as extremely efficient metal halide lamps or dimmable lowvoltage halogen lamps, the Optec range of spotlights provides a superior solution to the tasks presented by scenic lighting as here in the museum. Spherolit reflectors ensure that the lighting quality is always optimum. Unique fossilised dino­ saur skeletons as exhibits, presented in a gallery within an Early Industrial Age steel-skeleton construction: a highlight for ­dinosaur fans and architecture lovers alike.

The conversion of the Janlet Wing, named after its builder Charles-Émile Janlet (1839–1919), was delivered in two phases, culminating respectively in the opening of the new dinosaur gallery in 2007 and the “Gallery of Evolution” in 2009. The architects of the Brussels-based design offices SumProject re-established the building’s opulent dimensions and completely re-organised layout and visitor routing, laying bare the technological details of the attractive, yet previously concealed, steelwork. The result is that the historic character of the new rooms makes an interesting contrast to the emphatically progressive design of the furnishings, fittings, exhibits and glass display cabinets now complete with upgraded media. Consequently, no-one feels short-changed, neither kids of the Playstation generation nor their parents who appreciate the aesthetics of the Early Industrial Age.

It is the hope of the exhibition designers that the aesthetics of the presentation will increase public sensitivity towards the fragile, endangered beauty of our ecosystems. Parscoop ceiling washlights with highly efficient metal halide lamps play their part in conserving resources.

When science is fun! Striking a pose in front of the stuffed grizzly bear stands a young Asian visitor – possibly from Korea, where bears are seen as man’s mythological ancestors.

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Consultant training with new products In 2010 ERCO launched the biggest product offensive in its corporate history, with over 1,600 new products including around 1,200 new Quintessence recessed luminaires and recessed spotlights. In light of this broad spectrum of products, to ensure that all existing and potential clients can be provided with the best possible customer care, lighting consultants from across ERCO’s worldwide sales network completed intensive product training at the beginning of the year. The ERCO lighting experts now look forward to sharing their knowledge with you. You will find your regional ERCO contact at:

Pictograms find application in almost every area of life. These pictorial symbols are the perfect communication media especially in the area of sport and leisure and also when it comes to healthcare, transport, service and safety.

Aicher Pictograms For the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, designer Otl Aicher (1922–1991) created a pictogram system that revolutionised visual communication. His pictograms became design classics and icons of everyday culture. Aicher’s graphic symbols accompany our mobile society and facilitate international understanding thus fitting perfectly into our modern, globally­oriented world. Following on from many years of cooperation with Aicher, ERCO has taken on the job of licensing and developing his pictogram system. A new brochure showing the latest state of play is out now. Details of how to order and other information are available online at:

International Furnishing Show, Cologne 19 – 24 January 2010 The imm cologne successfully launched a new presentation format this year with Pure Village in Hall 3.2. As part of an integrated architectural concept, illustrious brands from the furniture, textile, lighting and bathroom ­branches pre­sented both individual exclusive designer objects and complete creative furnishing concepts. ERCO was there too, both on a presentation surface for scenographic effects with ­highly efficient lighting tools and as the deco­ rator of the special area, “The Stage”, where visitors were able to participate in an interesting lecture programme.

Development Because the pictogram design is based on a syn­ tactic system, the pictogram programme can be continually expanded. An ERCO team of experienced and creative experts is developing new pictograms precisely in accordance with the original specifications.

Direction systems Graphical signpost systems in public ­buildings such as airports or trade fair halls are the ­typical application area for pictogram systems. Aicher’s directional and transportation pictograms are readily understood on sight and correctly interpreted without specific knowledge of the local culture or language. Inter-

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national guests get their bearings without difficulty (Stuttgart Trade Fair, direction system by Büro Uebele design studio).

System design, ease of assembly, superior lighting effect and efficiency: ­consultants from the global ERCO lighting network were able to see the benefits of the new products for themselves at the main factory in Lüdenscheid.

Memorabilia and ­merchandising On textiles, accessories and fan memorabilia from the sport and lei­sure branch, Aicher pictograms serve as a striking, eye-catching feature. Documents and medals are given a prestigious appearance with the sports symbols.

Exhibition: Bauhaus. A Conceptual Model Martin-Gro­pius-Bau, Berlin 22 July – 4 October 2009 A series of exhibitions and events were held in 2009 to mark the foundation of the Bauhaus in Weimar 90 years before. During the 14 years of its existence, the Bauhaus became one of the most important schools of the Modern movement. Today, it is internationally considered to be Germany’s most successful contribution to Modern art and culture in the early 20th century. The exhibition, “Bauhaus. A Conceptual Model” focused on the huge influence of the Bauhaus on the development and internationalisation of the Modern movement. Working from this basis, the exhibition also thematically explored the global and lasting effect of Bauhaus on architecture and design.

Light System DALI makes it possible: easily programmed light scenes at the ERCO stand (above) and in “The Stage” lecture room at Pure Village. The ERCO motto “tune the light” was the launch pad for numerous conversations about efficient visual comfort.

The Bauhaus as role ­model: the fascination of this interdisciplinary school of architecture, design, fine and visual arts, which moved to Dessau in 1925, retains its hold throughout the world more than 75 years after it was closed in Berlin.

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Shenzhen Museum of History Architect: Li Mingyi, Shenzhen Photo: Michael Wolf, Hong Kong

As a special economic area near to Hong Kong, the Southern ­Chinese city of Shenzhen has enjoyed enormous growth in recent years. On a floor area of 12,500m2, the city’s new history museum presents 6,000 years of regional history. The lighting tools used include Optec spotlights, with Quinta wallwashers providing vertical illumination on the dioramas that are so popular in

Chinese museums. Seen here is a display showing Party Leader Deng Xiaoping (1904–1997) planting a tree, symbolic of his policy of reform and openness, the foundation of Shenzhen’s economic boom.


ERCO GmbH Postfach 2460 58505 Lüdenscheid Germany Tel.: +49 2351 551 0 Fax: +49 2351 551 300


Lichtbericht 90 Neues Museum, Berlin An exchange of glances bridging three millennia. The Egyptian Queen Nefertiti looks surprisingly up-to-...