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New professional standards for teachers, tutors and trainers in the lifelong learning sector in Wales Application of the professional standards for teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh) in the lifelong learning sector in Wales


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Contents Introduction

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Section 1: Elements

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Section 2: Elements and guidance on extent

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Lifelong Learning UK

Introduction The “New overarching professional standards for teachers, tutors and trainers in the lifelong learning sector in Wales”1 describes consistent performance for all teachers, in terms of knowledge, understanding and professional practice. This document applies those generic standards and describes consistent performance of teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh) in particular, in terms of knowledge, understanding and professional practice. In addition to this application document, LLUK has produced other application documents for: • teachers of English for Speakers of Other Languages

(ESOL) • teachers of Welsh for Adults • teachers who develop skills in numeracy/number • teachers who teach bilingually or through the medium

of Welsh. The development of new professional standards for teachers, tutors and trainers in the lifelong learning sector in Wales In March 2007, the Welsh Assembly Government tasked Lifelong Learning UK (LLUK) to review the Standards for Teaching and Supporting Learning for Wales and England2. Whilst mindful of the need for cross border transferability, the review for Wales has presented the opportunity to develop standards for teachers to reflect the uniqueness of the context in Wales. The standards reflect the distinct needs of the sector in Wales and support the vision of “The Learning Country”3. The standards include ones relating specifically to bilingualism, cultural diversity and sustainable development and global citizenship. This enables the standards to meet the needs of Wales but also allows for articulation with the professional standards for teachers in England.

The definitive professional standards for teachers, tutors and trainers in the lifelong learning sector in Wales describe, in generic terms, the values, knowledge, understanding and professional practice required of those who perform the wide variety of teaching and training roles undertaken within the sector with learners and employers. The standards: • are context free and level free, in order to represent

all areas of work4 and new teachers, experienced teachers and teacher educators • represent the teaching and learning cycle, with which

all teachers engage: initial assessment, planning and preparation, teaching, assessment, evaluation and quality improvement through responding to evaluation. The development of application of the professional standards for teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh) in the lifelong learning sector in Wales In February 2008, the Welsh Assembly Government tasked Lifelong Learning UK (LLUK) to develop an application of the professional standards for teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh) in Wales. This application document has been developed to describe the consistent performance of these teachers, in terms of knowledge, understanding and professional practice. As with the generic standards for teachers, this application of the standards for teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh) is context free and level free. It is for use in all areas of work and for new teachers, experienced teachers and teacher educators. It can be used for the whole range of purposes that standards are used for, including recruitment and selection, self assessment, and of course, all types of professional development. The document will be of value to teachers and managers, including those with responsibility for staff development and human resources. It will be of particular value for teacher educators in underpinning professional development opportunities. The knowledge, understanding and professional practice detailed in this document can inform the development of a wide range of accredited and unaccredited programmes for teachers of ESOL.

Lifelong Learning UK 2008 Further Education National Training Organisation 1999 The Learning Country: Vision into Action (2001) Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) 4 Including community learning and development, further education, higher education, libraries, archives and information services, and work based learning across the UK 1 2 3

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Lifelong Learning UK

Introduction Personal skills in English and/or Welsh

Organisation of the document

The application of the professional standards for teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh) details the knowledge, understanding and professional practice of these teachers. It does not detail required personal skills in English and/or Welsh. Teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh) should have the appropriate level of personal skills in English and/or Welsh to teach effectively.

The new overarching professional standards for teachers, tutors and trainers in the lifelong learning sector in Wales detail the values, knowledge, understanding and professional practice expected of all teachers in the lifelong learning sector in Wales. This information is detailed in domains. The domains reflect the functions of the role. There are six domains:

Domain A: Professional values and practice Domain B: Learning and teaching

Use of terminology – literacy/communication This document details the knowledge, understanding and professional practice of all teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication. This document is of particular value to teachers of Literacy (Basic Skills) and Communication (Key Skills). The standards for Basic Skills and Key Skills are to be converged but the term to describe the converged standards is undecided at the time of writing (April 2008). In recognition of the important audience of this document, teachers of Basic and Key Skills, the term ‘literacy/communication’ has been used throughout the document. It is intended that when converged standards are named the title of this document will be reviewed.

Developing learners’ bilingual skills The application guide is written with the needs of the bilingual (Welsh/English) teaching context firmly in mind. The guide supports the aim of developing learners with balanced bilingual skills. This consideration underpins every element, so that rather than an either/or choice between Welsh or English, the phrase “and/or” is used consistently.

Domain C: Specialist learning and teaching Domain D: Planning for learning Domain E: Assessment for learning Domain F: Access and progression The application of the standards This document details the knowledge, understanding and professional practice required of teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh) against the domains of the professional standards. An approach for developing the content of domains B and C had to be considered. In the generic standards, Domain B details teaching and learning in relation to all teachers. Domain C is concerned with a teacher’s area of specialism, whatever that may be. Developing an application of the professional standards for particular specialist teaching and learning, in this instance teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh), questioned the content of the two domains and how it would differ. After looking at the detail of the standards in domains B and C, the following approach was adopted: • professional practice, learning and teaching of teachers

who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh) to be detailed in Domain B • theory and knowledge related to developing learners’

skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh) to be detailed in Domain C.

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Lifelong Learning UK

These two domains should not be seen as sequential. Indeed, appropriate professional development programmes for teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh) would be expected to deal with these aspects of knowledge, understanding and professional practice in a holistic fashion. Within the domains, specific statements relating to knowledge or practice for teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh) have been detailed against the value and commitment statements (what teachers value and what they are committed to). It was considered unnecessary and unhelpful to try to detail the application of every value and commitment statement for teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh). Some value and commitment statements are generic in every sense and little could usefully be added to make them subject specific. The commitment statements are coded by the letter of the domain and S for scope, for example, FS 2. All the value and commitment statements from the standards are included in this document. Where it was considered there was nothing specialist to add, this is made clear with the statement ‘Informed by professional standards only.’

A suffix, Lit, denotes an element in the application document. Elements have been written as areas of knowledge and practice for teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh). They detail the specific application for any value and commitment statement. The majority of commitment statements have one associated element, a few have a significant number of elements and some have none. Extent is provided as guidance on the associated content of each element. This extent is detailed in section two. The use of the terms element and extent has been supported through consultation. Those developing and delivering teacher education programmes will find it useful to consider this extent guidance when making any decision to include more or less than that detailed for any particular cohort of trainee teachers.

Statements relating to knowledge or practice are detailed throughout this document as elements. A comprehensive list of these can be found in section one of this document. They are coded with the domain letter and then in number sequence.

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Lifelong Learning UK

Here is an example from Domain D Standard DS1

Element D1.1 Lit

Planning to promote equality, support diversity and to meet the aims and learning needs of learners

Apply knowledge of literacy and communication curriculum development to the planning process

(This is a commitment statement from the professional standards)

(This is an element –this relates to knowledge or practice) Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • theories and models of literacy/communication curriculum development and how to apply them • how to analyse the literacy/communication elements of a range of education programmes • how to plan, alone, or with colleagues, programmes which embed literacy/communication • how to plan effective programmes which incorporate opportunities to learn, practise, develop and accredit a range of appropriate transferable skills. (This is guidance on extent)

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Lifelong Learning UK

Section 1: Elements

Teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy in the lifelong learning sector in Wales value:

Domain A: Professional values and practice

Standard AS1

Element A1.1 Lit

Learners, their progress and development, their learning goals and aspirations and the experience they bring to their learning

Take account of the backgrounds, experience, goals and aspirations of learners of literacy/communication

Standard AS2

Element A2.1 Lit

Learning, its potential to benefit people emotionally, intellectually, socially and economically, and its contribution to sustainable development in a community and global context

Make links between literacy and language development and other areas of development

Standard AS3

Element A3.1 Lit

Equality, diversity, inclusion and bilingualism in relation to learners, the workforce, and the community

Address particular issues in relation to diversity, inclusion and learners of literacy/communication

Standard AS4

Element A4.1 Lit

Reflection and evaluation of their own practice and their continuing professional development as teachers

Engage in professional development relating to international, national and local research into literacy/communication

Standard AS5

Element A5.1 Lit

Collaboration with other individuals, groups and/or organisations with a legitimate interest in the progress and development of learners

Collaborate with others to develop learners’ literacy/communication in a range of contexts

Teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh) in the lifelong learning sector in Wales are committed to:

Standard AS6 The application of the agreed codes of practice and the maintenance of a safe environment

Informed by professional standards only

Standard AS7

Element A7.1 Lit

Improving the quality of their practice

Use approaches which develop the quality of literacy/communication learning and teaching across an organisation

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Lifelong Learning UK

Section 1: Elements

Teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication in the lifelong learning sector in Wales are committed to:

Domain B: Learning and teaching

Standard BS1

Element B1.1 Lit

Maintaining an inclusive, equitable, motivating and, where appropriate, bilingual learning environment

Maintain a learning environment where learners’ first/other languages are valued and the Welsh-English context is acknowledged

Standard BS2

Element B2.1 Lit

Applying and developing own professional skills to enable learners to achieve their goals

Use learning activities and resources which relate to learners’ life goals, their uses of literacy and language and equip learners to use their literacy and language skills to effect desired change

Element B2.2 Lit Use approaches to teaching literacy/communication which take into account the range of learner backgrounds, histories, learning goals and preferences and cognitive styles

Element B2.3 Lit Apply appropriate approaches to working with learners who have dyslexia and other cognitive, physical or sensory abilities or disabilities

Element B2.4 Lit Use knowledge of language systems to develop learners’ awareness of how language works

Element B2.5 Lit Use knowledge of language systems to work systematically and holistically with learners in developing their use of language

Element B2.6 Lit Enable learners to develop critical listening skills within authentic communicative situations in English and/or Welsh

Element B2.7 Lit Enable learners to develop critical reading skills within authentic communicative situations in English and/or Welsh

Element B2.8 Lit Enable learners to develop spoken English and/or Welsh within authentic communicative situations

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Lifelong Learning UK

Element B2.9 Lit Enable learners to develop written English and/or Welsh within authentic communicative situations

Standard BS3

Element B3.1 Lit

Communicating effectively and appropriately with learners to enhance learning

Understand English and/or Welsh as both a learning goal and a medium of learning

Element B3.2 Lit Facilitate learner-teacher and learner-learner interaction to support literacy/communication and language learning

Standard BS4

Element B4.1 Lit

Collaborating with colleagues to support the needs of learners

Provide literacy/communication and language support for individuals and groups in the context of other learning

Standard BS5

Element B5.1 Lit

Using a range of learning resources to support learners

Use specialist knowledge and awareness of learner needs and goals to select, develop and use appropriate resources for literacy/communication learning, including new and emerging technologies where appropriate

Teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy in the lifelong learning sector in Wales are committed to:

Domain C: Specialist learning and teaching

Standard CS1

Element C1.1 Lit

Own specialist area including current development

Analyse learners’ uses of literacy and language

Element C1.2 Lit Understand the relationship between language and social, cultural, political and religious identity

Element C1.3 Lit Understand the role language plays in the formation, maintenance and transformation of power relations

Element C1.4 Lit Understand how language varies and changes and how this influences literacy and language use

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Section 1: Elements

Element C1.5 Lit Understand the social, cognitive and affective factors which may influence literacy/communication and language development

Element C1.6 Lit Understand the different ways in which language can be described and analysed

Element C1.7 Lit Analyse communication at discourse/text level

Element C1.8 Lit Analyse communication at sentence and phrase level

Element C1.9 Lit Analyse communication at word level

Element C1.10 Lit Analyse the phonological features of language

Element C1.11 Lit Know current theories and principles of literacy/communication and language learning and development

Element C1.12 Lit Know a range of teaching and learning approaches associated with theories and principles of literacy/communication and language learning and development

Element C1.13 Lit Know current theories and principles relating to language acquisition and bilingualism

Element C1.14 Lit Know a range of teaching and learning approaches associated with theories and principles of language acquisition and bilingualism

Element C1.15 Lit Understand the interdependence of the four skills of listening, reading, speaking and writing

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Element C1.16 Lit Understand the implications of the interdependence of the four skills for planning, teaching and assessment

Element C1.17 Lit Analyse the processes involved in listening

Element C1.18 Lit Analyse the processes involved in reading

Element C1.19 Lit Analyse the processes involved in speaking

Element C1.20 Lit Analyse the processes involved in writing

Element C1.21 Lit Know a range of learning and teaching approaches associated with listening, reading, speaking and writing processes

Standard CS2

Element C2.1 Lit

Enthusing and motivating learners in own specialist area

Understand perceptions of literacy/communication and consider their impact on learner motivation

Element C2.2 Lit Demonstrate specialist knowledge of strategies that engage and enthuse learners of literacy/communication.

Standard CS3 Fulfilling the statutory responsibilities associated with own specialist area of teaching

Informed by professional standards only.

Standard CS4

Element C4.1 Lit

Developing good practice in teaching own specialist area

Develop and maintain best practice in working with learners of literacy/communication in a range of contexts and environments

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Lifelong Learning UK

Section 1: Elements

Teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy in the lifelong learning sector in Wales are committed to:

Domain D: Planning for learning

Standard DS1

Element D1.1 Lit

Planning to promote equality, support diversity and to meet the aims and learning needs of learners

Apply knowledge of literacy/communication curriculum development to the planning process

Element D1.2 Lit Apply theoretical and practical knowledge of literacy/communication to the planning of learning and teaching

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Standard DS2

Element D2.1 Lit

Learner participation in the planning of learning

Apply knowledge of the learners to the planning process

Standard DS3

Element D3.1 Lit

Evaluation of own effectiveness in planning learning

Employ strategies to evaluate literacy/communication learning and teaching

Teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy in the lifelong learning sector in Wales are committed to:

Domain E: Assessment for learning

Standard ES1

Element E1.1 Lit

Designing and using assessment as a tool for learning and progression

Apply specialist principles and approaches to assessment for literacy/communication and language learning

Standard ES2

Element E2.1 Lit

Assessing the work of learners in a fair and equitable manner

Assess the work of learners of literacy/communication in an equitable and inclusive manner

Standard ES3

Element E3.1 Lit

Learner involvement and shared responsibility in the assessment process

Facilitate learner involvement and shared responsibility in the literacy/communication assessment process

Standard ES4

Element E4.1 Lit

Using feedback as a tool for learning and progression

Apply specialist knowledge in dialogue with learners as part of assessment

Standard ES5

Element E5.1 Lit

Working with the systems and quality requirements of the organisation in relation to assessment and monitoring of learner progress

Record relevant information about the literacy/communication or language skills, knowledge and understanding of learners


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Teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy in the lifelong learning sector in Wales are committed to:

Domain F: Access and progression

Standard FS1

Element F1.1 Lit

Encouraging learners to seek initial and further learning opportunities and to use services within the organisation

Signpost learners of literacy/communication to subject specialist support services, learning and progression opportunities

Standard FS2

Element F2.1 Lit

Providing support for learners within the boundaries of the teacher role

Identify the boundaries between their own specialist areas and those of other specialists

Standard FS3

Element F3.1 Lit

Maintaining own professional knowledge in order to provide information on opportunities for progression in own specialist area

Maintain professional knowledge in relation to progression opportunities for learners of literacy/communication

Standard FS4

Element F4.1 Lit

A multi-agency approach to supporting development and progression opportunities for learners

Develop relationships with a range of specialist services, agencies and professionals for learners of literacy/communication

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Section 2: Elements and guidance on extent

Teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication in the lifelong learning sector in Wales value:

Domain A: Professional values and practice

Standard AS1

Element A1.1 Lit

Learners, their progress and development, their learning goals and aspirations and the experience they bring to their learning

Take account of the backgrounds, experience, goals and aspirations of learners of literacy/communication Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • the nature of adult literacy/communication learning and the need to support learners’ own ability to work independently • how to identify the range of skills, experiences, expertise, goals and other subject areas which interest and motivate learners. Teachers of literacy/communication: • apply their understanding of the backgrounds, experiences, achievements, goals and aspirations of learners of literacy/communication to support their development and progression.

Standard AS2

Element A2.1.Lit

Learning, its potential to benefit people emotionally, intellectually, socially and economically, and its contribution to sustainable development in a community and global context

Make links between literacy and language development and other areas of development Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand : • how to support learners of literacy/communication in making links between the development of their literacy and language skills and other areas of importance to them • how to encourage learners to reflect on ways literacy and communication development can empower them as individuals and enable them to improve personal attainment, influence community activities, advance in the workplace and, where appropriate, communicate in a bilingual society.

Standard AS3

Element A3.1.Lit

Equality, diversity, inclusion and bilingualism in relation to learners, the workforce, and the community

Address particular issues in relation to diversity, inclusion and learners of literacy/communication Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • the range and diversity of learners’ literacy and language practices in English and/or Welsh and how to help learners develop these • how to address the personal, social, economic, religious, cultural and political factors which may affect the learning, development and progression of learners • the potential impact and implications of physical disabilities, sensory impairment and mental health issues for learners • current definitions of dyslexia, dyscalculia and related conditions, and strategies for supporting learners with these conditions in literacy/communication settings.

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Standard AS4

Element A4.1 Lit

Reflection and evaluation of their own practice and their continuing professional development as teachers

Engage in professional development relating to international, national and local research into literacy /communication Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • how research into literacy/communication and language, together with teachers’ and learners’ own insights, can inform learning and teaching and their own practice • the relationships between literacy/communication and language policies and initiatives, learning and teaching, and their own practice. Teachers of literacy/communication: • reflect on research and literacy/communication and language theories and how they relate to teaching and the dissemination of good practice.

Standard AS5

Element A5.1 Lit

Collaboration with other individuals, groups and/or organisations with a legitimate interest in the progress and development of learners

Collaborate with others to develop learners’ literacy /communication and language in a range of contexts Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • how organisational policies can support and influence literacy/communication and language practices • how to evaluate their own contribution to the development of the organisation’s policies and practices relating to literacy/communication and language. Teachers of literacy/communication:

Teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication (English and/or Welsh) in the lifelong learning sector in Wales are committed to:

• collaborate with colleagues and/or others to support cross-disciplinary approaches to literacy/communication and language development • apply their literacy/communication and language specialist knowledge to collaboration with colleagues and other professionals within or outside the organisation.

Standard AS6 The application of the agreed codes of practice and the maintenance of a safe environment

Informed by professional standards only.

Standard AS7

Element A7.1 Lit

Improving the quality of their practice

Use approaches which develop the quality of literacy/ communication learning and teaching across an organisation Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • how literacy practices are situated within organisational policy, planning and implementation processes and practice. Teachers of literacy/communication: • evaluate their own contribution to the development of the organisation’s policies and processes relating to literacy practices • maintain and develop their own personal literacy skills to meet professional standards.

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Section 2: Elements and guidance on extent

Teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy/communication in the lifelong learning sector in Wales are committed to:

Domain B: Learning and teaching

Standard BS1

Element B1.1 Lit

Maintaining an inclusive, equitable, motivating and, where appropriate, bilingual learning environment

Maintain a learning environment where learners’ first/other languages are valued and the Welsh-English context is acknowledged Teachers of literacy/communication: • value learners use of language, both as a tool for learning, and as an important part of learner identity • support the development and understanding of the place of spoken and written English and/or Welsh in authentic and relevant contexts • use approaches which help learners to participate in Welsh-English bilingual environments.

Standard BS2

Element B2.1 Lit

Applying and developing own professional skills to enable learners to achieve their goals

Use learning activities and resources which relate to learners’ life goals, their uses of literacy and language and equip learners to use their literacy and language skills to effect desired change Teachers of literacy/communication: • support the development of spoken and written language in authentic and relevant contexts • use approaches which validate and make use of learners’ existing uses of language(s) and literacy • use approaches which promote autonomy and collaboration in language learning • make curriculum and methodology explicit and negotiable • help learners to use their developing knowledge of literacy and language to effect desired change, gain access to powerful literacies and prestigious forms, develop critical awareness and make informed choices.

Element B2.2 Lit Use approaches to teaching literacy/communication which take into account the range of learner backgrounds, histories, learning goals and preferences and cognitive styles Teachers of literacy/communication: • use a range of strategies that support differentiated learning and teaching, taking into account the range of learner linguistic backgrounds • use a range of classroom management approaches and techniques that foster innovative and collaborative literacy/communication teaching and learning • use a range of teaching styles that take account of different learning styles to enhance the literacy and language skills of learners • use approaches which encourage bilingual learners to develop literacy and language skills in English and/or Welsh according to their needs.

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Element B2.3 Lit Apply appropriate approaches to working with learners who have dyslexia and other cognitive, physical or sensory abilities or disabilities Teachers of literacy/communication: • take account of the impact of different cognitive, physical and sensory abilities and disabilities on literacy and communication learning • use multi-sensory activities and resources that build on learners’ strengths • enable learners to use specialist assistive technology for literacy and communication learning.

Element B2.4 Lit Use knowledge of language systems to develop learners’ awareness of how language works Teachers of literacy/communication: • use a variety of appropriate techniques and terminology to help learners develop their understanding of how oral and written language works • use approaches which help learners recognise the diverse and changing nature of literacy and language e.g. Standard English and/or Welsh and varieties of those languages • use approaches which enable learners to recognise language varieties in different contexts.

Element B2.5 Lit Use knowledge of language systems to work systematically and holistically with learners in developing their use of language Teachers of literacy/communication: • analyse language for learning and teaching purposes. • use appropriate terminology relating to discourse, grammar, lexis and phonology • integrate the development of listening, reading, speaking and writing skills at text, sentence and word level • use approaches which enable learners to understand the importance of purpose, audience and social context • use approaches which foster creativity and self-expression and enable learners to use language in relevant contexts • use approaches which enable learners to make informed choices about their own literacy and language use • use approaches which enable learners to understand how literacy and language use relates to social structures, power and identity.

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Section 2: Elements and guidance on extent

Element B2.6 Lit Use knowledge of the interdependence of the four skills for planning, teaching and assessment ESOL teachers: • apply their understanding of the interdependence of the four skills to planning, teaching, and assessment • apply their understanding of the interdependence of the four skills in accessing multimodal media successfully to planning, teaching and assessment.

Element B2.7 Lit Enable learners to develop spoken English and/or Welsh within authentic communicative situations Teachers of literacy/communication: • use approaches, texts and materials to help learners develop their ability to communicate effectively with a range of audiences for different purposes at text (discourse), sentence and word level appropriate to their interests, contexts and goals • enable learners to develop strategies which build on their existing knowledge and skills in English and/or Welsh and, where appropriate, other languages • use approaches which enable learners to deal with linguistic, cultural and other challenges to expressing themselves orally • use a range of approaches to develop spoken English and/or Welsh based on research and theory.

Element B2.8 Lit Enable learners to develop critical listening skills within authentic communicative situations in English and/or Welsh Teachers of literacy/communication: • use a range of authentic resources and approaches based on research to help learners develop critical listening skills appropriate to their interests and goals • enable learners to improve their ability to understand, interpret and respond to spoken texts • support learners to develop listening strategies which build on their existing skills in English and/or Welsh • enable learners to deal with potential linguistic, cultural and other challenges to understanding and interpreting spoken texts.

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Element B2.9 Lit Enable learners to develop critical reading skills within authentic communicative situations in English and/or Welsh Teachers of literacy/communication: • use a range of authentic resources and approaches based on research to help learners develop critical reading skills • use a range of texts and approaches to develop learners’ reading skills for different purposes • enable learners to improve their ability to understand, interpret and respond to written texts • enable learners to develop reading strategies which build on their existing knowledge and skills in English and /or Welsh • use approaches which enable learners to deal with potential linguistic, cultural and other challenges to understanding and interpreting written texts.

Element B2.10 Lit Enable learners to develop written English and/or Welsh within authentic communicative situations Teachers of literacy/communication: • use approaches, texts and materials to help learners develop their ability to communicate effectively in writing for a range of audiences for different purposes at text (discourse), sentence and word (lexis) level appropriate to their interests, contexts and goals • enable learners to develop strategies which build on their existing knowledge and skills in English and/or Welsh and, where appropriate, other languages • use approaches which enable learners to deal with linguistic, cultural and other challenges to writing in a variety of contexts • use a range of approaches to writing development based on research and theory.

Standard BS3

Element B3.1 Lit

Communicating effectively and appropriately with learners to enhance learning

Understand English and/or Welsh as both a learning goal and a medium of learning Teachers of literacy/communication: • analyse the English and/or Welsh language(s) as a medium of learning and a learning goal • give learners the opportunity to use and critically review the use of language in English and/or Welsh • provide learners with the opportunity and vocabulary (meta-language) to discuss the mechanics of language use in English and/or Welsh.

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Section 2: Elements and guidance on extent

Element B3.2 Lit Facilitate learner-teacher and learner-learner interaction to support literacy/communication and language learning. Teachers of literacy/communication: • demonstrate awareness of the variety of opportunities for interaction in literacy/communication and language development • ensure that the spoken and written language they use is accessible to learners and appropriate for the purpose and audience.

Standard BS4

Element B4.1 Lit

Collaborating with colleagues to support the needs of learners

Provide literacy/communication and language support for individuals and groups in the context of other learning. Teachers of literacy/communication: • develop and support learners’ literacy/communication and language skills in the context of other curriculum areas • work with learning support practitioners, interpreters, volunteers and others to support literacy/communication and language learning in a range of contexts and curriculum areas • analyse the literacy/communication and language content of other curriculum areas to support planning of learning and teaching • communicate effectively with relevant staff in other curriculum areas using appropriate lay or specialist language • participate in mentoring or coaching arrangements to support embedded learning and teaching as appropriate.

Standard BS5

Element B5.1 Lit

Using a range of learning resources to support learners

Use specialist knowledge and awareness of learner needs and goals to select, develop and use appropriate resources for literacy/communication learning, including new and emerging technologies where appropriate Teachers of literacy/communication: • design, adapt or select resources from an appropriate range that develop conceptual understanding and enable practice of English and/or Welsh literacy/communication skills • use new and emerging technologies to create resources for literacy/communication, recognising the issues related to communicating about language through these technologies • select and use appropriate specialist equipment and realia for literacy/communication learning and teaching • adapt the linguistic content of teaching and learning resources as appropriate for particular groups or individuals, for example, by simplification, extension or re-organisation • use new and emerging technologies and interactive e-learning resources that link appropriately to literacy/communication and language learning outcomes and promote learner engagement with tasks and activities.

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Teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy in the lifelong learning sector in Wales are committed to:

Domain C: Specialist learning and teaching

Standard CS1

Element C1.1 Lit

Own specialist area including current development

Analyse learners’ uses of literacy and language Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand that: • the way each person uses spoken and written language is determined by their social, cultural and linguistic background • the use of English in Wales incorporates syntactical and semantic forms that derive from the Welsh language • the use of the Welsh language can be influenced by English syntax and vocabulary • the context in which language is used affects the choices made by the speaker/writer and the expectations of the listener/reader • learners aspire to use a range of appropriate literacy and language practices to achieve their goals.

Element C1.2 Lit Understand the relationship between language and social, cultural, political and religious identity Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand that: • each person has their own form of language that reflects their personal identity (an idiolect) • in speaking and writing, individuals choose varieties of language, registers and styles according to a range of cultural and social factors • the confidence of Welsh speakers to use the language is influenced by contact with other Welsh speakers • the importance of using language in ways that are socially inclusive.

Element C1.3 Lit Understand the role language plays in the formation, maintenance and transformation of power relations Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • that there is a relationship between literacy and language use and power • that language can be used to maintain existing social relations • that language can be used to change social relations • the importance and standard of Welsh/English bilingual skills needed in certain settings and specialist areas within the community and the workplace.

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Element C1.4 Lit Understand how language varies and changes and how this influences literacy and language use Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand that: • languages, including English and Welsh, are dynamic and constantly evolving • there are many varieties and dialects of English, both international and intra-national, each with its own spoken and, often, written form • there are several varieties of Welsh, both regional and in terms of register • there are particular pressures on Welsh language speakers because of the ubiquitous nature of the English language • the Welsh language has had a significant impact on the way English is spoken in many areas of Wales and vice versa • English in its many forms is a global language, widely used in technology, commerce and other fields • the nature of literacy is changing in many ways, including the move from page to screen and the development of multimedia texts.

Element C1.5 Lit Understand the social, cognitive and affective factors which may influence literacy/communication and language learning Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • how social, cultural, economic, linguistic and personal factors influence literacy and language learning • that cognitive and affective factors also have an impact on literacy and language development.

Element C1.6 Lit Understand the different ways in which language can be described and analysed Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • how language can be described in a range of ways including, semantic, morphological, grammatical, written or spoken features.

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Element C1.7 Lit Analyse communication at discourse/text level Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • how genre, register and style are related to purpose, audience, context and the mode of discourse – written or spoken • the features that make a text coherent and cohesive • key aspects of pragmatics (the study of intended and inferred meaning in context) • the main differences between spoken and written discourse • how to enable learners of literacy/communication to use language, format and conventions appropriate to genre and context • how to enable learners to recognise and use the organisational, grammatical, lexical, phonological and punctuation features which make discourse effective • how to enable learners to use interpersonal and non-linguistic features in spoken discourse.

Element C1.8 Lit Analyse communication at sentence and phrase level Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand • the rules and conventions relating to the syntax of English and/or Welsh • different ways of describing grammar, for example, prescriptive or descriptive grammar • the grammatical features of spoken language • the grammatical features of written language, including sentence types, clause and phrase types, tenses, punctuation and others • the relationship between syntax and semantics at sentence and phrase level • how to compare written and spoken forms.

Element C1.9 Lit Analyse communication at word level Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • what is meant by lexis and its relationship to vocabulary • how to use lexis with an understanding of the constraints of register, collocation, purpose and context • semantic relationships in communication • the significance of chunks and lexical phrases in the acquisition and storage of language, especially spoken language • the morphology of the English and/or Welsh languages • the main features of the English and/or Welsh spelling systems.

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Element C1.10 Lit Analyse the phonological features of language Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • the role of stress, rhythm and intonation in conveying meaning in English and/or Welsh • the phonology of English and/or Welsh • the influence of the learners’ other language(s) and dialect(s) on their pronunciation of English and/or Welsh • the importance of phonics in the teaching of reading and spelling.

Element C1.11 Lit Know current theories and principles of literacy learning and development Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • theories and principles of literacy/communication learning and development.

Element C1.12 Lit Know a range of teaching and learning approaches associated with theories and principles of literacy development Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • how to draw on theories and principles of literacy/communication learning and development for teaching and assessment of learners of literacy/communication • there are different theoretical models of reading, writing, speaking and listening which underpin different teaching and learning approaches.

Element C1.13 Lit Know current theories and principles relating to language acquisition and bilingualism Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • the main theories of language acquisition • the main theories of bilingualism and multilingualism • the main theories of bilingual teaching methodologies • the main theories and principles of child language acquisition and development, including visual-spatial languages (sign languages), and how these must be adjusted for use with adults.

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Element C1.14 Lit Know a range of teaching and learning approaches associated with theories and principles of language acquisition and bilingualism Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • how to draw on theories of language acquisition and bilingualism in teaching and assessment of language learners.

Element C1.15 Lit Understand the interdependence of the four skills of listening, reading, speaking and writing Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • that speaking and listening, reading and writing are all closely inter-related and can take a range of forms depending on medium, purpose and context • the relevance of the concept of genre to spoken and written language.

Element C1.16 Lit Understand the implications of the interdependence of the four skills for planning, teaching and assessment Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand • how to apply their understanding of the interdependence of the four skills to planning, teaching and assessment • how to assist learners to gain confidence in using new media for communication and to acquire transferable competencies in using them in English and/or Welsh and/or bilingual settings according to learners’ needs.

Element C1.17 Lit Analyse the processes involved in listening Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • the key cognitive and socio-cultural factors that apply in understanding spoken discourse • how approaches to listening vary according to context and purpose • the skills required for effective listening.

Element C1.18 Lit Analyse the processes involved in reading Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • the key cognitive and socio-cultural factors that apply in understanding written text • how approaches to reading vary according to context and purpose • the sub-skills of reading • the factors that enhance or inhibit effective reading and understanding.

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Element C1.19 Lit Analyse the processes involved in speaking Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • the key cognitive and socio-cultural factors that apply in spoken communication • how approaches to speaking vary according to context and purpose • the skills required for effective oral communication • the factors that enhance or inhibit effective speaking.

Element C1.20 Lit Analyse the processes involved in writing Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • the key cognitive and socio-cultural factors that apply in the planning and production of written texts • how approaches to writing vary according to context and purpose • the sub-skills of writing • the factors that enhance or inhibit effective writing.

Element C1.21 Lit Know a range of learning and teaching approaches associated with listening, reading, speaking and writing processes Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • how to apply their awareness of the processes involved in reading, writing, speaking and listening to their planning, teaching and assessment of learners • how to use their knowledge of the processes involved in speaking and writing to support learners and to develop their fluency and accuracy • how to plan programmes and sessions which take account of process as well as product • how to support the development of beginner readers and writers • how to bring to the classroom a range of written and spoken discourses which reflect diversity of purpose, audience, form and function.

Standard CS2

Element C2.1 Lit

Enthusing and motivating learners in own specialist area

Understand perceptions of literacy/communication and consider their impact on learner motivation Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • that learners may have different motivations for improving their literacy • that these motivations need to be seen in the broader framework of popular, national and international views of literacy and language.

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Element C2.2 Lit Demonstrate specialist knowledge of strategies that engage and enthuse learners of literacy/communication Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • the importance of treating all learners with respect, valuing the prior learning and experience that each one brings to the classroom • how to encourage learners to use the Welsh language as appropriate • how to develop learner enthusiasm for the use of bilingual skills • how to break tasks down into appropriate steps to enable learners to make progress and succeed • how to demonstrate a range of strategies for overcoming a lack of confidence on the part of the learner • how to instil confidence in their learners through their own confidence, enthusiasm and specialist knowledge

Standard CS3 Fulfilling the statutory responsibilities associated with own specialist area of teaching

Informed by professional standards only

Standard CS4

Element C.4.1 Lit

Developing good practice in teaching own specialist area

Develop and maintain best practice in working with learners of literacy/communication in a range of contexts and environments Teachers of literacy/communication know how to: • plan literacy/communication sessions with clearly identified objectives which relate to both group and individual needs • write Individual Learning Plans that are appropriate to the needs of the learners of literacy/communication • use literacy resources in English and/or Welsh which take account of the needs of the learners as appropriate • develop appropriate English and/or Welsh literacy/communication resources themselves • use clear and straightforward language that their learners can understand • encourage learners to produce their own texts • use a range of teaching and learning techniques specific to literacy/communication such as discussion, paired and small group work, games and kinaesthetic activities • use a range of literacy/communication teaching and learning techniques such as language experience, DARTs and modelled or group reading • give learners of literacy/communication supportive and constructive feedback on their work • encourage learner autonomy in the context of literacy/communication learning.

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Section 2: Elements and guidance on extent

Teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy in the lifelong learning sector in Wales are committed to:

Domain D: Planning for learning

Standard DS1

Element D1.1 Lit

Planning to promote equality, support diversity and to meet the aims and learning needs of learners

Apply knowledge of literacy/communication curriculum development to the planning process Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • theories and models of literacy/communication curriculum development and how to apply them • how to analyse the literacy/communication elements of a range of education programmes • how to plan, individually, or with colleagues, programmes which embed literacy/communication • how to plan effective programmes which incorporate opportunities to learn, practise, develop and accredit a range of appropriate transferable skills.

Element D1.2 Lit Apply theoretical and practical knowledge of literacy/communication to the planning of learning and teaching Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • the importance of having an overview of a range of relevant factors (for example, age and experience of the learners, disabilities, specific learning needs, prior achievements, literacy or language needs) when planning a programme of learning • how to plan coherent programmes of learning which incorporate and balance a range of elements, including: development of literacy/communication, study and other transferable skills; relevant curricula and standards, awards and assessment requirements • how to use learner interests, appropriate language preferences, contexts and experiences and other programmes of learning, to inform the planning of literacy/communication learning and teaching.

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Standard DS2

Element D2.1 Lit

Learner participation in the planning of learning

Apply knowledge of the learners to the planning process. Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • the importance of dialogue with learners during the planning of learning and teaching, which involves: –

Using accessible language to discuss and negotiate learning programmes

Understanding that previous educational experiences might affect learners’ expectations of how much input and control they can have in a learning programme

Agreeing relevant learning goals with learners based on personal aims, assessment results and curriculum requirements

Taking account of the learners’ use of Welsh and English as appropriate

• how to develop participatory and inclusive approaches to learning and select appropriate strategies for supporting a range of needs within a group.

Standard DS3

Element D3.1 Lit

Evaluation of own effectiveness in planning learning

Employ strategies to evaluate literacy/communication learning and teaching Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • how to evaluate and analyse literacy/communication activities from theoretical and practical perspectives, using a range of methods, in terms of what was learned, using the outcomes of assessment, using learner feedback, using feedback from colleagues • how to evaluate and analyse literacy/communication activities with reference to appropriate general and literacy-related learning theories • use the evaluation and analysis of literacy/communication activities to inform the planning of further teaching, learning and assessment activities.

Teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy in the lifelong learning sector in Wales are committed to:

Domain E: Assessment for learning

Standard ES1

Element E1.1 Lit

Designing and using assessment as a tool for learning and progression

Apply specialist principles and approaches to assessment for literacy/communication and language learning Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • that assessment tools and procedures need to reflect learners’ real life literacy and language use • different types of literacy/communication assessment and terminology • how to select different forms of literacy/communication assessment (initial, diagnostic, formative, summative) appropriate to context and purpose • that initial and, where appropriate, diagnostic assessments in English and/or Welsh are needed at the beginning of programmes to profile learners’ literacy and language needs.

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Standard ES2

Element E2.1 Lit

Assessing the work of learners in a fair and equitable manner

Assess the work of learners of literacy/communication in an equitable and inclusive manner Teachers of literacy/communication: • demonstrate awareness of learners’ differing linguistic and cultural backgrounds and the implications of these for equitable and inclusive assessment • demonstrate awareness of other factors affecting learners who are dyslexic or have other learning difficulties or disabilities and the implications of these for equitable and inclusive assessment • demonstrate awareness that literacy assessment results may not reveal underlying challenges faced by learners with learning difficulties or disabilities • conduct assessment at every level in a fair and inclusive manner within the context of ensuring that their assessment practices are valid and reliable.

Standard ES3

Element E3.1 Lit

Learner involvement and shared responsibility in the assessment process

Facilitate learner involvement and shared responsibility in the literacy and language assessment process Teachers of literacy/communication: • demonstrate awareness that learners’ previous experiences of assessment (both negative and positive) may affect their current attitudes to it • encourage learners to participate in assessing their needs and progress • develop tools to enable learners to assess their own needs and progress.

Standard ES4

Element E4.1 Lit

Using feedback as a tool for learning and progression

Apply specialist knowledge in dialogue with learners as part of assessment Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • the importance of giving clear and constructive written and spoken feedback to learners of literacy/communication.

Standard ES5

Element E5.1 Lit

Working with the systems and quality requirements of the organisation in relation to assessment and monitoring of learner progress

Record relevant information about the literacy or language skills, knowledge and understanding of learners Teachers of literacy/communication: • demonstrate awareness of the importance of recording appropriately both the outcomes of initial and diagnostic assessment and learners’ progress in literacy/communication in Welsh and/or English • develop, as necessary, systems for recording learner progress in literacy/ communication in order to inform the learner, the teacher and the institution • keep detailed records of learner progress as required.

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Teachers who develop learners’ skills in literacy in the lifelong learning sector in Wales are committed to:

Domain F: Access and progression

Standard FS1

Element F1.1 Lit

Encouraging learners to seek initial and further learning opportunities and to use services within the organisation

Signpost learners of literacy/communication to subject specialist support services, learning and progression opportunities Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • how to identify, use and refer learners to sources of specialist information, support, advice and guidance relating to literacy/communication • how to help learners develop the literacy/communication and language skills needed to research and use the organisation’s services, and also those outside the organisation • how to identify statutory entitlements to learning and personal support for learners along with the procedures in place to access them • how to act appropriately as advocates for learners of literacy/communication.

Standard FS2

Element F2.1 Lit

Providing support for learners within the boundaries of the teacher role

Identify the boundaries between their own specialist areas and those of other specialists Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • the boundaries between their own specialist area and those of other specialists (e.g. specialists in learning disabilities, Welsh for Adults, ESOL, numeracy, educational psychologists or other specialists) • developments within the literacy teaching profession, and related fields.

Standard FS3

Element F3.1 Lit

Maintaining own professional knowledge in order to provide information on opportunities for progression in own specialist area

Maintain professional knowledge in relation to progression opportunities for learners of literacy/communication Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • how to provide accurate and current information to learners on the place of literacy in potential progression routes for education, training and/or career.

Standard FS4

Element F4.1 Lit

A multi-agency approach to supporting development and progression opportunities for learners

Develop relationships with a range of specialist services, agencies and professionals for learners of literacy/communication Teachers of literacy/communication know and understand: • how to access the wide range of national, regional and local support services available to learners of literacy/communication to support development and progression • how to access support from other specialists for their learners • how to work collaboratively with specialists from other areas, both within and outside the organisation, to support their learners.

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A glossary of terms used within this document and other Wales publications can be found on the LLUK website at www.lluk.org/2819.htm

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Application of standards for teachers of literacy communication in ll sector in Wales