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ADVANCE/DELIVER CRAZY EIGHTS SIX THINKING HATS FEASIBILITY MATRIX MORPHOLOGICAL SYNTHESIS THE PITCH REFERENCES INDEX


Š 2016 SCAD Collaborative Learning Center All work that was not created by the SCAD Collaborative Learning Center is attributed to the creator.


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ADVANCE/DELIVER

Advance

Deliver

Guide 4 | 30 % Suggested Project Time

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Crazy Eights

2 -8

People

Min

30 mins

Max

1.5 hours

Flash Drive

Markers

Timer

WHAT IS CRAZY EIGHTS? Also known as the Design Sprint, Crazy Eights is your tool for concept development. Crazy Eights is a divergent method of exploring new solutions. Individual participants explore ideas and produce concepts in rapid succession. WHERE DOES IT COME FROM? Crazy Eights derives from the 6-8-5 Exercise by Brynn Evans and Design Sprint by Jake Knapp. WHY WE USE IT: Many designers stick with the first “inspired” idea that comes to mind. Crazy Eights teaches you to avoid that.

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1 3 2 4

5 7 6 8

HOW TO : 1. Participants fold a sheet of paper (8.5 x 11in) into eight, rectangular drawing spaces. 2. The designated timekeeper sets a four-minute timer, announces a “How might we…” statement, calls switch every 30 seconds and repeats the process until the time is up. 3. It’s important that every topic is phrased as a “How Might We...” statement. 4. Participants sketch one idea inside one rectangle, until they’re told to switch. 5. When the time runs out, participants take turns discussing which ideas the group liked best and saves them for future reference. 6. The group creates as many ideas as possible in a short amount of time.

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Case Study: Crazy Eights

RAPID CONCEPTING When ideas are restricted by time, the limitations of scale and feasibility tend to disappear. This process led the UX design team to what seemed to be impossible concepts; however, discussion revealed important elements within these ideas.

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Six Thinking Hats

2 -6

People

Min

30 mins

Max

1.5 hours

Post-it Notes

Markers

WHAT IS SIX THINKING HATS? This method allows thinkers to focus and explore one concept in detail. It separates emotions from logic and creativity from information. WHERE DOES IT COME FROM? Six Thinking Hats is a system designed in 1985 by Edward de Bono as a tool for group discussion and individual thinking. WHY WE USE IT: There are two reasons to employ the Six Thinking Hats method: to provoke a change in thinking. to focus on one idea at a time—isolating thought.

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Craz

Six Thinking Hats

HOW TO:

1. In this activity, participants take on specific roles. The six people will each choose a hat to represent. Create a sequence of the following colored hats: Dark Blue, White, Black, Red, Yellow, Green, and Light Blue. Each hat represents a different role. Dark Blue begins by setting the stage for the discussion and writes the topic(s) on a Postit® note : why you’re there, what you’re thinking about, what you want to achieve, write on a Post-it® note. 2. White Hat - objectively deal with facts and figures, Black Hat - thinks cautiously, Red Hat - views things emotionally, Yellow Hat - thinks optimistically and speaks positively, Green Hat - thinks creatively, Light Blue - Draws connections between the different hats and roles. 3. Start by reading the first Blue Hat. 4. Set a timer for one minute. 5. Come up with ideas. 6. Set the ideas in a visible place for everyone to see. 7. Select one of these ideas.

Outside Experts 8. For 40 seconds, everyone involved in the activity provides their opinion according to the hat that they are wearing. 9. Repeat for each Post-it® note idea. L i b r a r y U s e r E x p e r i e n c e D e s i g n To o l k i t

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Fea


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Case Study: Six Thinking Hats

MOVING TOWARDS THE END The team employed the Thinking Hats system to optimize decision-making. Thinking Hats encourages the participants to concentrate on developing the process, rather than discussing more topics. The previous stages stressed various lateral thinking systems; this activity clarifies the end-goal.

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Feasibility Matrix

2 -6

People

Min

15 Mins

Max

30 mins

Post-it Notes

Markers

WHAT IS A FEASIBILITY MATRIX? A feasibility Matrix shows the practicality of things. Typically, feasibility is considered within four criteria: operational, technical, schedule, and economic. WHERE DOES IT COME FROM? The Feasibility Matrix comes from Systems Analysis and Design Methods by Jeffrey L. Whitten. WHY WE USE IT: Feasibility is important. How practical it would be to develop a service, based on an idea? This method uncovers strengths and weaknesses.

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asibility Matrix

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Library User Experience Design Too

Feasibility Low cost or barriers to realization HIGH

HIGH

LOW

Desirability

Solves problems for the users or fulfills vision

LOW Min

15 mins

2-6 People

HOW TO:

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1. Draw two perpendicular axes to create a 2x2 block matrix. 2. Label the vertical axis “Feasibility” and the horizontal axis “Desirability.” 3. Select, discuss, and plot concept ideas on the matrix to correspond with the criteria.

HOW TO: Max 30 mins

1. v

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Case Study: Feasibility Matrix

RANKING IT ALL The Six Thinking Hats expanded concepts created during the teams ideation sessions; the Feasibility Matrix helped organize the concepts by feasibility. The Matrix simplified ideas and helped show the team visually which ideas could potentially be turned into solutions.

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Morphological Synthesis

12

2 -6

People

Min

15 Mins

Max

30 mins

Posters

Markers

WHAT IS MORPHOLOGICAL SYNTHESIS? Morphological Synthesis emphasizes “organized invention.� It analyzes current and future factors within a problem area and identifies gaps within that structure. This process creates the invention of new alternatives to fill these gaps and meet new necessities. WHERE DOES IT COME FROM? Morphological Synthesis was developed in 1967 by Swiss Astrophysicist, Fritz Zwicky. This tool explores possible outcomes for complex problems. WHY WE USE IT: This method structures information, uncovers needs and creates solutions. When designers have a lot of great ideas, this tool is used to combine them.

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Library User Experience Design To Library User Experience Design To

phological Synthesis

Concepts

Evaluation

Solution

HOW TO: Min HOW TO: 1. Determine suitable problem characteristics. The individual problem solver or a facilitated group brainstorms to deďŹ ne the 15 mins

2-6 People

problem characteristics, also referred to as parameters. 2. Make all the suggestions visible to everyone and group them in various ways until consensus is reached regarding the groupings. 3. Label the groups to reduce them to a manageable number. Rather than reaching for a recommended number, consider the capabilities of the group and the time available. Consider also that there are computer applications and other tools that can assist the process. 4. The next step is to ďŹ ll a grid or grids with lists of parameters arranged along the axes. Now combinations can be identiďŹ ed within the grid. Depending on the number of items in play, great numbers of combinations may be available. 5. Eliminate those combinations that are impossible or undesirable to execute; put aside those that you do not want to eliminate but do not want to execute, and develop as many of the rest as possible.

1. Brainstorm and define the problem characteristics (parameters). Max

30 mins

2. Makes suggestions and group them accordingly.

3. Label the groups and reduce them to a manageable number. Computer applications and other tools can assist the process. 4. Fill a grid (or grids); arrange lists of parameters along the axes. Now, combinations can be created and identified within the grid. 5. Eliminate combinations that are impossible or undesirable to execute; put aside those that you do not want to eliminate, but do not want to execute, and develop as many of the rest as possible.

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Case Study: Morphological Synthesis

MERGING IT ALL TOGETHER The UX team used the ideas and concepts that ranked the highest from the Feasibility Matrix to merge together to create system solutions. The Morphological Synthesis combined positive qualities from a few ideas and produced solutions for the library to implement.

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The Pitch

13

1 -2

People

Min

30 Mins

Max

1.5 hours

Poster

Markers

Post-it Notes

WHAT IS THE PITCH? Presenting is somewhat of a journey. You need to know your ups and downs. The pitch should communicate ideas that inspire action—start with this goal in mind and all the pieces will fall into place. When you start with the end in mind, the audience understands why you are saying what you are saying. People are more responsive when they understand this approach. WHERE DOES IT COME FROM? There are many ways to create a pitch. The UX team referenced Kim Erwin’s book, “Communicating the New,” as well as Bernadette Jiwa’s book, “Meaningful,” as the basis for the Jen Library pitch. WHY WE USE IT: Presentations can be unnerving. This framework creates a story that will be emotionally accessible and effective. The personal connection that you make when delivering a proper story teaches the audience exactly what you want to convey.

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itch

D

YL AIL

PAI N

IFE 2

PO

INT

S

RC

Y

EP

NIT

TIO

U RT

NC

PO

HA

3

OP

NG

E

1

PE

8

STORY STRATEGY BLUEPRINT

4

PR

N

Rational

D LVE

7 5

INT AN

Min

15 mins

SO

SO

LU

LEM

Emotional

TIO

OB

6 People

Library User Experience Design

GIB

LE

BE

6

NE

FIT

S

TAN

GIB

L

E EB

NE

FIT

S

1

HOW TO: 1. Start by thinking about your user beyond their basic demographic information by filling out the daily life.

HOW TO:the pain points they encounter while they use your services as they exist today. 2. Identify Max

3. Clarify the opportunity for improvement creation of new services in section 3. 4. Introduce your solution.

5. Delineate the tangible your solution 1. Fill out the benefits Daily Lifeprovides. section and make sure to think beyond your user’s basic demographic information.

60 mins

6. Define the intangible benefits your solution provides. 7. Clarify how the solution solves the problem for your user.

8. Summarize the change by filling out the perception section. Framed fromwhile the user’s using your services. 2. Identify the realized pain points theychange encounter point of view, predict how their life might be different once your solution is introduced.

3. Clarify the opportunity for improvement and the creation of new services in section 3. 4. Present your solution. 5. Define the tangible benefits of your solution. 6. Clarify how the solution solves your user’s problems. 7. Summarize your discovery in the perception change section. Predict how the user’s life may change once your solution is introduced.

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Case Study: The Pitch

COMMUNICATION In order to pitch the toolkit, the UX team had to cover many touch points—how the team approached the project; how the team discovered their findings; how the team shared their findings; how-and-why certain concepts were developed—as well as provide suggestions for improvement. Thankfully, a simple metaphor was used. A metaphor that moved the pitch from point to point: The Honeycomb. The Honeycomb represented the Jen Library’s entire system—relationships, behaviors, roles, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

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Assessment Raise Which factors could you improve on to create more value for your users?

New Information:

Eliminate

Old Information:

Which factors could be completely removed from your service oering?

Where do you see opportunties to create more value for your users?

New viewpoint:

Old viewpoint:

Reduce Which factors create unwanted experiences for your users?

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Create


WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED? Look at the entire project at a macro-scale. Think about everything you have accomplished. What ah-ha moments did you have in the beginning? Did they continue? As you complete this final assessment, be mindful of the previous assessments. How do they compare? (A small affinitizing-session might clarify).

Raise - Which factors could you improve to create more value for your users? During your idea generation, which ideas can be prototyped (low fidelity or high fidelity). Create- Where do you see opportunities to create more value for your users? Reduce - Which factors create unwanted experiences for your users. Eliminate- Which factors could be completely removed from your service offering? New/Old- Reflect on this guide and the assessment itself. What surprised you? What biases did you have before? Did they hold true after running the methods and collecting the data? What will your team move forward with?

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Raise:

Create:

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Reduce:

Eliminate:

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References

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User experience design. (2004). Retrieved March 08, 2016, from http://semanticstudios.com/user_experience_design/ Stickdorn, M., & Schneider, J. (n.d.). This is service design thinking: Basics, Tools, Cases. Guilford, J. P. (1988). Some Changes in the Structure-of-Intellect Model. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48(1), 1-4. Man, J. (2002). The Gutenberg revolution: The story of a genius and an invention that changed the world. London: Review. History of the Web. (n.d.). Retrieved March 01, 2016, from http://webfoundation.org/about/vision/historyof-the-web/ Miksa, F. (1996). The Cultural Legacy of the “Modern Library� for the Future. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 37(2), 100. Writing. (n.d.). Retrieved February 16, 2016, from http://www.ancient.eu/writing/

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User Observation Database Kumar, V. (2013). 101 design methods: A structured approach for driving innovation in your organization. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. database. (n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2016, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/ SEARCH Introduction Kolko, J. (2010). Exposing the magic of design: A practitioners guide to the methods and theory of synthesis. Oxford University Press. Project Framing Sibbet, D. (2010). Visual meetings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Project Management tools O’reilly, T. (2007). What is Web 2.0: Design patterns and business models for the next generation of software. Communications & strategies, (1), 17. Gantt Chart Wilson, J. M. (2003). Gantt charts: A centenary appreciation. European journal of operational research, 149(2), 430-437. Expert Interviews Gubrium, J. F., & Holstein, J. A. (2002). Handbook of interview research: Context & method. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Fly-on-the-wall Kumar, V. (2013). 101 design methods: A structured approach for driving innovation in your organization. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Shadowing Martin, B., & Hanington, B. M. (2012). Universal methods of design: 100 ways to research complex problems, develop innovative ideas, and design effective solutions. Beverly, MA: Rockport. Cultural Probes Gaver, W., Dunne, A., & Pacenti, E. (1999). Cultural Probes. Interactions 6, no (1). 21-29. Contextual Interviews Whiteside, J., Bennett, J., & Holzblatt, K. (1998). Usability engineering: our experience and evolution. New York, NY: North Holland. Surveys A brief history of survey research. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pra.ca/resources/pages/files/ technotes/history_e.pdf

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References

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Stakeholder Map Seeing Who’s there - A Brief History of Stakeholder Mapping & Visualisation. (n.d.). Retrieved March 08, 2016, from http://www.mosaicprojects.com.au/Resources_Papers_073.html Service Blueprint A key to service innovation: Services blueprinting. (2008). Retrieved March 08, 2016, from http://research. wpcarey.asu.edu/marketing/a-key-to-service-innovation-services-blueprinting/ Service Design Package Polaine, A., Løvlie, L., & Reason, B. (n.d.). Service design: From insight to implementation. Grönroos, C. (2000). Service management and marketing: A customer relationship management approach. Chichester: Wiley. Visualization of Grönroos Service Package developed by SCAD Service Design Program. Research in progress. Barriers & Bridges Synectics as a creative problem-solving technique. (n.d.). Retrieved February 09, 2016, from http:// synecticsworld.com/synectics-as-a-creative-problem-solving-technique/# Affinity Mapping Tassoul, M., & Buijs, J. (2007). Clustering: An Essential Step from Diverging to Converging. Creativity and Innovation Management Creativity & Inn Man, 16(1), 16-26. Personas Jenkinson, A. (1994). Beyond segmentation. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis of Marketing, 1. The Personal Side of Persona Marketing | JPL. (2012). Retrieved February 28, 2016, from https://www. jplcreative.com/blog/the-personal-side-of-persona-marketing/ Stickdorn, M., & Schneider, J. (n.d.). This is service design thinking: Basics, Tools, Cases.

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Six Thinking Hats Six Thinking Hats. (n.d.). Retrieved March 08, 2016, from http://www.debonogroup.com/six_thinking_hats. php Crazy Eights 6-8-5. (n.d.). Retrieved March 08, 2016, from http://gamestorming.com/games-for-fresh-thinking-andideas/6-8-5s/ Feasibility Matrix Jack Baskin School of Engineering https://users.soe.ucsc.edu/~yiz/ism58/projectscases/templates/ feasibility_matrix.doc Morphological Synthesis Kumar, V. (2013). 101 design methods: A structured approach for driving innovation in your organization. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. The Pitch Swedish Morphological Society. (n.d.). Retrieved March 08, 2016, from http://www.swemorph.com/ ma.html Erwin, K. (2013). Communicating The New: Methods to Shape and Accelerate Innovation. John Wiley & Sons. Jiwa, B. (n.d.). Meaningful: The story of ideas that fly.

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References Design Thinking for Libraries. (n.d.). Retrieved March 08, 2016, from http://designthinkingforlibraries.com/ Bruno Latour (1994). On technical mediation application. In Common Knowledge Vol.3, n°2 p.29–64. Cees de Bont, Elke den Ouden, Rick Schifferstein, Frido Smulders, and Mascha van der Voort (2013). Advanced design methods for successful innovation. Delft, Netherlands: Design United. Retrieved from https://www.3tu.nl/du/en/ downloads/ADM-2013-Book-screen-version.pdf?whs-download=ADM-2013-Book-screen-version.pdf Francis Miksa (2007). The cultural legacy of the ‘modern library’ for the future. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). School of Information, The University of Texas at Austin. Important library services according to U.S. online learners 2014 Statistic. (n.d.). Retrieved March 08, 2016, from http:// www.statista.com/statistics/334604/important-library-services-us-online-learners/ Library service and website usage of U.S. online learners 2014 | Statistic. (n.d.). Retrieved March 08, 2016, from http:// www.statista.com/statistics/334493/us-online-learners-using-library-services-on-library-wesites/ Frequency of visiting public libraries in the U.S. 2014 | Statistic. (n.d.). Retrieved March 08, 2016, from http://www. statista.com/statistics/324866/frequency-visiting-public-libraries-usa/ David Howes. (2005). HYPERESTHESIA, or, The sensual logic of late capitalism. In Empire of the senses: The sensual culture reader. Oxford: Berg. Retrieved from http://www.david-howes.com/senses/Hyperesthesia.pdf IDEO’s Methodology Cards - portiaplante.com. (n.d.). Retrieved March 08, 2016, from http://portiaplante.com/ android2/lectures/pdf/ideomethodcards.pdf

The Field guide to human-centered design. (2015). S.l.: Design Kit.

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IMLS annual report (2014). Washington, DC: Institute of Museum and Library Service. Retrieved from https://www.imls. gov/assets/1/AssetManager/2014AnnualReport.pdf IMLS Focus Summary Report (2015). Compiled and edited by Ricky Erway, Chrystie Hill, Sharon Streams, and Steph Harmon. Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library: District of Columbia Public Library: Washington, D.C. Retrieved from https://www.imls.gov/sites/default/files/publications/documents/2015imlsfocusndpreport.pdf Peer Insight | Home. (n.d.). Retrieved March 08, 2016, from http://www.peerinsight.com/. Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. Shiffrin, R., Lee, M., Kim, W., & Wagenmakers, E. (2008). A Survey of Model Evaluation Approaches With a Tutorial on Hierarchical Bayesian Methods. Cognitive Sc.: A Multidisciplinary J. Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal HCOG, 32(8), 1248-1284. Savannah College of Art and Design (2014). The SCAD Student Survey. For additional information contract surveys@ scad.edu. Savannah College of Art and Design (2015). SCAD fact book. Retrieved from http://www.scad.edu/sites/default/ files/media/PDF/2014_Fact_Book.pdf Statista (2015). Libraries - Statista Dossier. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/ Spath, D., & Fähnrich, K. P. (2007). Advances in services innovations. Berlin: Springer.

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Notes

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Notes

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Advance /Deliver Guide 4