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Littleton Fire Rescue

Ice Diver Manual Water Rescue Team

Ice Diver Training Manual

Water Rescue Team, Page 1


Ice Diver Training Manual

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Foreward It is the mission of the Littleton Fire/Rescue Dive Team to provide swift, efficient and safe Water Rescue Response to the community we serve. As a rapid response team, we understand that the success of our mission is equal to the amount of dedication each team member makes to prepare in a manner consistent with the industry standards. For this reason the LFR Dive Team has adopted the disciplines covered within this manual in order to standardize equipment, training, response and readiness of the team as a whole and also each individual.

Ice Diver Training Manual

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Ice Diver Table of Contents 1. Overview 2. Pre-Requisites 3. Qualification Standards 4. Equipment 5. Pre Dive Operations 6. Ice Dive Operations 7. Post Dive Briefing 8. Ice Dive Training 9. Skills 10. Dive Log

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Ice Diver Littleton Fire Rescue Dive Team Ice Diver Qualification Manual

1. Overview Objective: To educate and maintain Ice Divers which meet a minimum standard that is set specifically by the Littleton Fire Rescue Dive Team. Introduction: Under ice rescue emergencies present dramatic challenges to every member of a rescue team. Under these dynamic and challenging conditions it is critical to the success of the operation for all Ice Divers to perform in an identical manner. Defining team standards for each of the roles of a ice dive operation allow all team members to train specifically for future operations. This type of training provides predictable performance which spans all members with identical qualifications.

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2. Pre-Requisites • Current LFR Rescue Diver Qualified

3. Qualification Standards In order to be a LFR qualified Ice Diver, the following standards must be met. • Completion of the formal LFR ICe Diver Qualification Course which includes • Successful completion of the LFR Ice Diver Instruction Course. • Successful completion of the LFR Ice Diver qualification written test. • Participation in two Practical Ice Dive Evolutions (through the ice & shore based) as both a Primary and Safety Diver.

4. Equipment It is the LFR standard that all Ice Divers dress in an identical manner with the identical equipment in order to create a predictable operation for both divers and diver tenders. All divers will dress with: Dive Underwear Dry booties Dry suit

Ice Diver Training Manual

Hood Glove liners (ice) Rubber gloves (3 finger)

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In addition to their BCD, all divers will be additionally equipped with: A dive knife strapped to their leg A set of fins A set of fin keepers A DUI weight harness with the appropriate amount of weight A rescue harness with an attachment for the tagline with a carabineer (all under ice dives which will utilize a locking carabineer. Closed system)

5. Pre Dive Operations Prior to Ice Dive operations the dive site needs to be prepared, safety backups in place and there needs to be a Pre Dive Briefing. A. Ice Diver Pre Dive Briefing: Prior to every dive the diver will review the operational objective which will include all details regarding the target to be located, the type of pattern to be used, the expected handling of the target. In addition the standard safety procedures will be reviewed which include, backup line signals and the rule of thirds.

1. Target Details: • Type of object – person or vehicle (watercraft or otherwise) • Specifics – clothing and color or type and color • The type of activity the person was doing prior to them becoming lost. • Any attempts to locate or assist the person prior to or immediately following their submersion 2. Target Handling: Ice Diver Training Manual

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• Bring to the surface for immediate medical attention • Locate for recovery with BRS • Locate for salvage operation 3. Backup Line Signals:

4.

# of Tugs

Tender to Diver

Diver to Tender

1

Are you ok?

I’m ok

2

Change Direction

Give me Slack

3

Come to the surface

Found the target

4

Danger on the surface

Help

Rule of Thirds: • Surface at 1000 psi

6. Ice Dive Operations: Ice Divers shall not be placed in the water until all preparation has been complete for the dive site, and the Supervisor are ready for divers to enter the water. This allows for protection of the divers and their equipment from the cold weather conditions. After Ice divers have completed the pre dive briefing they will be placed into their operating position by their Communications Specialist. (CS) A. Through the Ice Operations A. Verifying the LSP • Ice provides a fairly clear last seen point for victims. • Be sure to collect any evidence and interview witnesses • If necessary the Dive Boat can be used as a platform on unstable ice. B. Diver Placement • Primary Diver • When ready, the Primary diver will be placed into the water at the entry site. • The primary diver should be checked for any equipment malfunctions such as leaks. This may present a no-dive situation.

Ice Diver Training Manual

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• Safety Diver • The Safety diver will be placed as near to the entry hole as possible while being kept warm and protected from the elements. • 90% Diver • The 90% diver should be kept in a protected area such as the Dive Van, but also be kept within the communications loop so they are in tune with the operation and are alert in case they are needed. C. Active Dive • Once the diver has been placed in the water and checked for equipment problems, the diver will begin an assisted descent. • The diver will visualize the area during descent in an effort to locate the target before visibility is disturbed. • After their descent, the diver will attempt to gain neutral buoyancy just off the bottom. • The Diver will give depth and pressure report to CS prior to beginning the determined pattern. • The diver will utilize the LFR Order Model of “Receive, Acknowledge and Repeat” with all directions given by the CS. • The diver will begin a search pattern at the direction of the CS. (Right or Left) • The diver will change direction by order from the CS and will keep constant tension on their tag line. The Team will setup as near to the LSP as possible D.Target Located •When the diver locates the target they will notify the CS. •The Diver will briefly investigate the surrounding area and the target. •If the target is to be brought to the surface by the diver the diver will secure the target and request to be assisted to the surface. • The diver will maintain a safe ascent speed with the target.

Ice Diver Training Manual

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B. Shore Based Operation 1. Verifying the LSP • Again, Ice provides a fairly clear last seen point for victims. • Be sure to collect any evidence and interview witnesses • Dressed in either a Dry suit or Mustang Surface Ice Rescue Suit. A 90 % diver or shore support person shall attempt to measure the distance to the LSP using the communication rope for the primary diver. • The Team will setup as near to the LSP as possible • If necessary the Dive Boat can be used as a platform on unstable ice. 2. Diver Placement • Primary Diver • When ready, the Primary diver will be placed into the water at the entry site.

• The primary diver should be checked for any equipment malfunctions such as leaks. This may present a no-dive situation. • Divers will swim towards the last seen point under the ice shelf with the communications rope in their right hand, while being directed by the Communications Specialist. • The diver will have their BCD inflated enough to swim under the surface of the ice. • When the diver reaches the LSP he will surface to confirm visualization with the Communications Specialist. • Safety Diver • The Safety diver will be placed as near to the entry point as possible while being kept warm and protected from the elements. • 90% Diver

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• The 90% diver should be kept in a protected area such as the Dive Van, but also

be kept within the communications loop so they are in tune with the operation and are alert in case they are needed. 3. Active Dive • Once the divers position at the LSP has been verified, the diver will begin a controlled descent. • The diver will visualize the area during descent in an effort to locate the target before visibility is disturbed. • After their descent, the diver will attempt to gain neutral buoyancy just off the bottom. • The Diver will give depth and pressure report to CS prior to beginning the determined pattern. • The diver will utilize the LFR Order Model of “Receive, Acknowledge and Repeat” with all directions given by the CS. • The diver will begin a search pattern at the direction of the CS. (Right or Left) 4. Target Located • When the diver locates the target they will notify the CS. • The Diver will briefly investigate the surrounding area and the target. • The target is to be brought to the shore by the diver the diver with the assistance of the Communication Specialist. • The diver will maintain a safe ascent speed with the target. C. Diver Emergencies Emergencies under the ice are rare, but need to be anticipated. Some of these emergencies are: • Breathing system malfunction - the system is designed to fail in a position of free flow air to the diver. Although uncomfortable, the diver will have the ability to return to the safety of the surface and discontinue the dive. Ice Diver Training Manual

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• •

Suit or BC inflator malfunction - this can result in an uncontrolled ascent to the underside of the ice shelf. Entanglement

D. Distressed Diver: Water operations are inherently dangerous and pose special hazards to Dive Team members. Both the Tender and the Safety Diver will continuously monitor the status of

the Primary Diver for signs of distress. If there is any indication of distress, the tender will attempt to assist the Primary Diver in troubleshooting and problem solving prior to dispatching the Safety Diver.. In the event the Safety Diver is dispatched to assist a distressed diver, the following procedures will be followed.: • • • •

An additional Rescue Unit will be requested to care for the Diver. The 90% Diver will be placed into the position of the Safety Diver. Notification will be made to the Dive Team Leader through Dispatch. An additional Dive Rescue Team response should be considered.

1. FACTORS: Many factors play into the highly stressful job the Public Safety Diver encounters with the anytime/anywhere response. Divers can go through psychological factors such as increased situational stress, diver near misses, hypothermia and difficult or loss of verbal communication. Dangerous environmental condition can also be contributing factors with cold, currents, entanglement or entrapment, limited air supply, equipment malfunctions, black water (zero or limited visibility) and contaminated water.

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2. DECISIONS: Public Safety Divers have the obligation and choice to make a nodive decision at any time with no criticism or punitive judgment. Diver safety is imperative 3. RECOGNITION: In order to recognize a distressed diver situation two things must take place. The chain of events leading to it must be noticed, and the signs of a distressed diver must be dealt with immediately. The recognition of the signs identifiable by the diver, back-up diver, as well as the communication specialist and I.C. can decrease the likelihood of a diver fatality. Detection of events may begin even prior to entry into the water with signs of diver uncertainty, difficulty with gear and confusion regarding the mission. Once in the water, detection is even more difficult, relying on the communication specialist, back-up diver and primary diver to recognize these and other signs or events. 4. SIGNS: Signs of a distressed diver include but are not limited to diver appears uncomfortable, difficulty with gear pre or post immersion, rapid breathing, poor or erratic search pattern performance, voice inflection changes with communications, excessive air bubbles noted on the surface and diver complaining of any physical situations i.e. bubble head, entanglement, mission execution, cold, pain or fatigue. 5. Actions: When a distressed diver situation occurs (and it will) the primary diver must immediately stop, think, relax and control their breathing. If any of these conditions or others are present pre or post immersion that event must be controlled without delay up to deployment of the back up diver and including aborting the mission. Priority is always diver, team and then victims. In the event of entrapment or fouled comm. line the diver should attempt to resolve the issue independently, often times deploying the back-up diver in blackwater/zero-visability only complicates the situation. The diver must inform topside of the situation and remedy attempt, the comm. specialist must inform the I.C.. In the event of a fouled line the diver should fallow the line to the entanglement being careful of not to get tangled in the line, once free a solution to address the entanglement must be instituted ie. elevate Ice Diver Training Manual

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line, remove object or place diver at object keeping in mind this may alter the search corridor and should be documented. In the event the back-up diver is deployed the situation should be understood and action plan developed with proper equipment in tow ie. lift bag, RIT bottle or extrication tools. In the event communication is lost line signals will be utilized with the diver holding the line with a fist to indicate low or no air situation and the OK signal to indicate entrapment. With deployment of the back-up diver the 90% diver will be made ready to splash; as with any diver deployment risk/benefit analysis must be considered as well as resource availability in the event of further deterioration of the situation. 6. Diver assessment: All divers including distressed divers must undergo a pre dive vital sign assessment and post dive Rapid Field Neurological evaluation including a second vital sign assessment with consideration of 02 administration. E. Lost Diver considerations are as follows: It is highly unlikely for there to be a lost diver situation due to the 100% closed system that is used in all ice dives. Although this is the case the team must be prepared to react to a lost diver scenario. 1. Dive Supervisor Responsibilities • Place Safety diver into operation. • Consider activation of the nearest Water Rescue Team. 2. Lost Diver Responsibilities • Stop and Relax • If the communications line is not in sight, make a controlled ascent to the surface • Add air to become positively bouyant. • Stay in one location, remain vertical • When the safety diver’s line comes in contact with the lost diver, 3 pulls are given in each direction from the lost diver to signal the safety diver and communications specialist. • The comm. specialist will then pull the safety diver to the lost diver.

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• Then both will be pulled together to the entry hole.

3. Communications Specialist Responsibilities • Notify the Dive Supervisor • Note the distance from the hole and the direction of the lost diver. • Deploy the safety diver 30 degrees to the left and 30 feet beyond the last known point. • Start a clockwise (right hand) circular search pattern just underneath the ice ceiling. • If not found concentrate on a search of the bottom. 4. 90% Diver Responsibilities • Finish dressing and move to Safety Diver Position in the incident structure.

7. Post Dive Briefing All dives will conclude with a briefing which will identify operational strengths and weaknesses. This will be accomplished in the following manner. A. Short "Tailgate" briefing: • Informal to discuss response, equipment and personnel issues which need to be resolved prior to returning to service. B. Completion of an After Action Report (AAR) • Should include photos • Lessons learned • Recommendations for future operations.

8. Ice Dive Training Successful training of Ice Divers takes considerable preparation and coordination. Considering this type of dive is one of the most hazardous dives this team can expect to do, it is crucial that the training of these divers is safe and successful.

Ice Diver Training Manual

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A. Incident Responsibilities. • Dive Group Supervisor • Primary Diver • Safety Diver • 90% Diver • Communications Specialist • Support Personnel B. Site Selection • Controlled and Accessible • Clear of bottom debris • Safe Ice Conditions (P=50T2) (P - Bearing Capacity of the ice in pounds) (50 is constant) (T - Thickness in inches)

C. Training Site Prep • Lost diver Diagram Clear an area 20’ around the entry hole and then clear 2 circles at 50 feet and 100 feet

Ice Diver Training Manual

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with arrows that point towards the center of the entry hole.

• Attach an Ice screw to the area that will become the ice block to be removed prior to cutting the hole. This will provide the stability needed to place the ice screw. If the ice screw is attempted to be placed after the triangle has been cut, it will be difficult due to the floating ice. • Entry hole 10’ x 10’ triangle is the desired entry hole. When cutting the hole be sure to angle one of the sides back under the ice to make for easy movement of the ice block under the ice and out of the way. • Once the triangle has been cut, attach a carabineer and rope to the ice block and to an

ice screw to the ice shelf itself to keep track of the ice block so that it can be replaced after training is complete.

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D. Diver Communication Lines • The bitter end of the divers communications line needs to be attached to the same Ice Screw that was used to secure the other end of the ice block tag line. This will make sure that the line is not mistakenly dropped or released into the ice hole.

E. Equipment and Safety Diver Staging area • This area should be close to the entry hole and kept warm. • Consider placing the safety diver with his back to the sun to prevent glare.

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8. Task Book Skills:

Skill

Date

Pass

Fail

Pre-Dive Pre Dive Briefing Pre Dive Medical (Vitals) Equipment Donning Pre Dive Check Line Signal Review Dive Diver Placement Diver Descent & Initial Search Sweep Patterns Safety Diver Position Primary Diver Position Lost Diver Drill Post Dive Decon Post Dive Medical (Vitals, Rapid Field Neuros) Post Dive Briefing

9. Dive Log Ice Diver Training Manual

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Date

Div e#

Position

Descriptio n

Ice Diver Training Manual

Depth

Vis.

Sport

Training

Dive Call

Total Time

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ICE DIVER POWERPOINT PRESENTATION

LFR Dive Team

Ice Dive 2011

Sunday, November 27, 11

Ice Dive 2011

Format Presentation: 1. Overview

Sunday, November 27, 11

1

1

Format Presentation: 1. Overview 2. Ice Rescue Practices - Why we do it? 2. Ice

Rescue

Hypothermia and Physiology Probability Need (dog Practices - of Why we doparks it? and ice fishing)

Hypothermia Physiology 3. Preparing forand the Ice Rescue Season Probability of Need (dog parks and ice fishing) Training

Equipment

forResponse Guidelines 3. Preparing the Ice Rescue Season Training 4. Training for Ice Rescue Equipment Equipment Location Selection Response Guidelines

Site Preparation Training Guidelines

4. Training for Ice Rescue Equipment 5. Ice Dive Response Witness Interview Location Selection Preparation LSP Site Medical Considerations Training Guidelines Media and Other Agencies 5. Ice Dive Response Witness Interview LSP Medical Considerations Media and Other Agencies

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Course Content 1. Training a. Situational Awareness b. Operational Assignments c. Equipment d. Operational Tasks e. Thru the Hole Based Operations 2. Shore Based Under Ice Approach Operations 3. Lost Diver Drill

Sunday, November 27, 11

2

1. This powerpoint address both training and operational information

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TRAINING • • • •

SITUATIONAL AWARENESS EQUIPMENT OPERATIONAL ASSIGNMENTS OPERATIONAL TASKS

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3

1. Although this portion speaks to some of the tasks as they relate directly to training for ice operations, lessons learned here directly influence the success of emergency operations.

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SITUATIONAL AWARENESS

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•  Review Lost Diver Operations •  Hazardous Ice Conditions –  Seasonal change –  Re-occurring thaw and freezing of ice –  Known high traffic areas –  Dog Parks –  Ice Fishing Spots

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5

1. This operation is one of the more hazardous dives we perform. 2. Take time prior to the operation to establish safe practices. 3. Be prepared to respond to high probability areas. 1.dog parks, north boat ramp. constantly monitor conditions.

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Ice Diver Training Manual

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EQUIPMENT

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•  Operational

•  Personal –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 

PFD’s Wooly Bears Dry Suit Thermal Hood Mustang Exposure Suit Sunglasses Hat Sun Screen Yak Trax Towels/Blankets

–  Chainsaw –  Ice Screws –  Ropes –  Axe –  Pike Pole –  Sled/Wagon/Boat –  Comm. –  Shovel –  Blankets –  Chairs

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1. Prepare equipment here prior to getting to training area. 2. Remember cold weather mittens. We don’t need dexterity. 3. We have warm packs! Try them today for divers!

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OPERATIONAL ASSIGNMENTS

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•Dive Supervisor •Divers ‣Primary ‣Safety ‣90% •Tender/Comms •Support •Medical

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1. Again prepare this prior to leaving the station. 2. Expect to get the 90% diver into the water. 3. Remember Divers in this type of dive must not do a thing and must be made comfortable.

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OPERATIONAL TASKS

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•  Check Ice Conditions

•  Make Diagram for Lost Diver in surface ice

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1. Understand that ice conditions are not uniform. 2. Snow on ice, water on ice, constant weather fluctuations all play a role in ice strength. 3. Shore ice is weaker due to temps and also deeper areas take longer to freeze. 4. This needs to be considered when setting up the op and also when preparing the lost diver drill 5. Make sure everyone is not only protected but accounted for. 6. Everyone works but the divers!

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Lost Diver Shovel Pattern

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Anchor Ice Screws

1 for safety 1 to hold cut away ice

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1. 2. 3. 4.

13

Assign a team to prep the area. Use a list of tasks to complete. Use sled Use Auger for holes

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Improve or Cut Hole

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1. 2 person minimum.

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•  Remove Ice

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1. Angle the edges to facilitate moving the ice under the shelf.

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THRU THE HOLE OPERATIONS

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1. This is typically only used during training. (Joel)

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Stage Divers Near Op Site

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1. One chair behind the other to support the bottle. 2. Cover the diver with towels and blankets. 3. Use warmers

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No Suit Inflator

Staging Area 100% Locked into Comm Rope Sunday, November 27, 11

18

•Make sure you set up a staging area close to operations with redundancies in comm, and other equipment. •Don’t hook up the suit inflator to avoid accidental accent. •100% locked into the comm line. Be sure to chase the line.

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Diver Management Minimize the Diver Workload

Sand for Diver Safety

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•Keep your divers warm and rested. •Ice Diving is extremely taxing and stressful •Reduce their workload and increase their safety

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Safety Diver • Out of Water • Dry - Warm

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•Keep your backup diver out of the water and warm. •Keep their head covered. •Use handwarmers for their hands and put a towel under their feet. •They should be on comm.

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1. No side conversations. Everyone is tuned into what is going on!

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•  Ready Divers & Place Primary Diver In Water & Check For Air Leaks

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1. Assist divers...check for leaks

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SHORE BASED OPERATION

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1. This will more than likely be the type of dive we do. 2. Again set up staging. 3. Use the list to help those non divers

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Last Seen Point • Use 90% Diver or Shore Rescuer to Measure Accurate Distance to LSP

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•Use the 90% diver dressed in a dry suit or a firefighter in a surface ice suit •Be sure to take a good look around the entry point for evidence or someone hung up on the ice.

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Search Pattern

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•Be quick to make good sound decisions and communicate them to all involved

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Direct Diver to LSP

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1. Use the length of the line and the divers bubbles to guide the diver to the hole.

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Locate Victims

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1. Keep tight controlled sweep pattern. 2. Pay close attention and keep rope tight.

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LOST DIVER OP’s •  The “Lost Diver Tender” will mark the line when he/she no longer feels the diver on line and leave the line in place. This identifies an approximate distance out. •  A marker will be placed at the location the tender is standing and at the location on the opposite side of the hole in the direction the lost diver was traveling. •  The Incident Commander will be notified and the safety diver deployed.

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1. No one disconnects from the line!

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LOST DIVER OP’s •  Deploy the safety diver 30 degrees to the left and 30 feet past the lost divers last known position. •  The safety diver swims in a circular search pattern against the underside of the ice.

•  When the safety diver is deployed the 90% diver moves into the backup position. •   The safety diver holds the search line in his/her right hand and ensures good tension on the line by swimming away from the line.

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•If the diver become disconnect from the line.. immediately surface slowly. Remain vertical •Tender should dispatch the Safety Diver.. 30 degrees left of the last known point of the primary diver and 30 feet past. •Safety diver should begin right hand search at the surface of the water for the lost diver •Move 90% diver to Safety diver and request additional Dive Team

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LOST DIVER OP’s •  The “Lost Diver” will stop, look, wait for one minute and begin a safe ascent to the surface. •  Look up for the underside of the ice and look for light from ice entry hole or spokes. •  Be vertical and keep one hand on the underside of the ice and wait for the safety diver or safety diver’s line. •  Be alert for sight or feel of the safety diver’s line.

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***Safety items***

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LFR Ice diver manual