Carl Jung's "Cornwall Seminar" presented in 1923

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[Human relationships in relation to the process of individuation] "Cornwall Seminar" given by Carl Gustav Jung, July 1923 Polzeath, Cornwall, England

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Unauthorized, long-hand notes. taken by M. Esther Harding and Kristine Mann for their own use at the seminars themselves.

... CONTENTS Tea M. Esther Harding, Notes Kristine Mann, Notes

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SEMINAR - JULY 1923 by C. G. Jung Held at Polzeath, Cornwall, England The following are unauthorized notes taken in long hand by M. Esther Harding for her personal use only. In making them available to a larger public she will take no responsibility for any errors they may contain. They may be read by members of the A.A.P.; the A.P.C.; and students of theC. G. Jung Institute. These notes are of particular historical value, inadequate as they are, because they establish the stage of development of Dr. Jung's thought in 1923 when few of his books were as yet written. The ideas• they contain will be found in fuller development as they appear in the pages of the collected works. The seminar was gotten up by Godwin Baynes, president of thy. London Society of Analytical Psychology, and M. Esther Harding, secretary; and with considerable help in the arrangments by Dr. Rankin. M. Esther Harding.


SEMINAR JULY 1923 by C. G. Jung Held at Polzeath, Cornwall, England

The following are unauthorized notes taken in long hand by Kristine Mann for her personal use only. In making them available to a larger public, she will take no responsibility for any errors they may contain. They may be read by members of the A. A. P., the A. P. C., and students of the C. G. Jung Institute. These notes are of particular historical value, inadequate as they are, because they establish the stage of development of Dr. Jung's thought in 1923, when few of his books were as yet written. The ideas they contain will be found in fuller development as they appear in the pages of the Collected Works. The seminar was gotten up by Godwin Baynes, President of the London Society of Analytical Psychology, and M. Esther Harding, Secretary, and with considerable help in the arrangements by Dr. Hankin. Kristine Mann


CORNWALL SEMINAR - July, 1923. C. G. JUNG Unauthorized Notes a by X. Esther Harding These notes are for your personal perusal only and must not be loaned or quoted. M.E.H. Technique of Analysis 1. starting from the neurosis, discussing the symptoms, their origin, manifestation and symbolism. 2. starting from the phantasy material, or from the dream content. 3. free association, which gives the material in a fundamental instinctual route or trend: (a) sexual; (b) power - according to what may be constellated between the analyst and the patient. All dreamscann be thus reductively analysed to either sexual or power roots. Freud's censor is necessary to explain why this material should be disguised into the dream form. But these basic instinctual phantasies can also be reached by free association from any starting point whatever. The problem of the patient, however, is often not one of simple repression of the instincts; the problem is rather what to do about it. This brings us to the question of why the dream chooses particular symbols. The dream should be treated as an incomplete hoiroglyphie inscription; then the patient must be kept olose to the imagery of the dream; thus the associations are limited to a circle centering round the dream, and the image of the dream is enriched. The associations around the symbol will be of acertainn type, oge. intellectual, aesthetic, etc., thus the basin instinct no longer prevails, but rather the particular instinct governing that particular psychology. Thus you get at what the dream image is like in the dreamer's mind. When this is done the compensatory function of the dream appears. The dream is compensatory to consciousness; all those things excluded by the choice of one conscious lino will turn up in the dream. Here the art of the analyst Domes in in helping the activity and the understanding of the patient, for the material may be inaccessible to him. For the unconscious works as the primitive mind does and not as the civilized mind. Thus knowledge of anthropology, mythology and so forth are needed, egs. totem psychology and so forth may turn up. Technique of treatment. Things must not be left in a primitive oondition. The primitive even animal part of the psyche is awakened by analysis - this causes great conMot, whioh might even be disastrous; a state of revolution ocours between the primitive and the civilized man in the patient. The purpose of analysis ^ is to fit these two sides together. The synthesis must take into consideration the claims of the primitive as well as of the civilized half. For example' the murderous instincts of

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the primitive man in us cannot be satisfied with our moral conscience, thus a symbolic satisfaction must be found. Again we seek for the way via the dream. The meaning of the dream must be fitted into the conscious attitude, thus acting as a ferment in the oonscious attitude and out of that a new attitude is made, day by day. This irrational thinking is customary in the East, egs. China. There followed further discussion of the meaning of the Chinese Middle Way, and our own reconciling symboliam...the tension between the East and the West. Discovery of the thought of the East came as an enormous revitalizing of the West. Buddhism leads to complete non-existence - quietism is equivalent to our Christianity or Pagan religion; but the ancient idea was to go into an introversion and nothingness in order to come to rebirth and the way. Two methods of compensation appear in dreams which can be likened to the methods of the puberty initiations (a) by intellectual prohibition; (b) by mimetic instruction with prohibition. Overvaluation and undervaluation may both appear in the dream as warning or taboo. Thus it may be necessary to go the wrong way until the wrongness appears.

Transference The phenomenon of transference was first described by the Nancy School as Rapport. It was further defined by Freud who found that the patient who handed out his material clung to the analyst and transferred something to him. This is equivalent to the idea of the medicine man who takes over the siokness of the patient and by his health disperses or cures it. Or he • transfers the illness to an animal, ege. the scapegoat. The patient carries over to the analyst not only his material but also the value of affects connected with it at the same time. Compare the binding' value of a secret held in common. Persons with many secrets are necessarily, isolated; the imparting of such secrets causes a linking or binding proportionate to the value or importance of the secret imparted. The dependence upon the receiver of the secret is proportionate to the dependence on the value of the secret, for the patient is still dependent on the secret, but the secret is now in the other person. If you hand out your material in t wrong place you will suffer from "Loss of soul." Thus far transference is a conscious phenomenon. There is also unconscious transference which is in a far less manageable form, for you are helpless because of your ignorance. This is projection, which is a transference of unconscious products into the object. The analyst is partly a conscious and partly an unconscious phenomenon, for Thus he consists of supra- and aub-liminal impressions and conclusions. there are reaotions on both planes. When we use the term transference in analysis we generally mean the unconscious transference which is a projection and this is unknown. When you become aware of a projection it ceases to be a projection.

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-3The transference can be either negative or positive, or both or neither, with yet a certain dependence. The quality of the transference depends on the unconscious material actually constellated by the intercourse with the object.

Neurotic transference is more than dependence on the person who helps. It is really a substitute for the neurosis. The patient projects onto the analyst all the material, the phantasy and other morbid materiel, that is, all the basis of his neurosis; thus the doctor becomes, na it were, his neurosis, the patient therefore suffers from transference neurosis. A Neurosis is an illness which is defined as inferior adaptation. neurosis or other psychological illness is a wrong psychological attitude. S,.In the neurotic state the patient is related but only via his neurosis. When this way of relating is dissolved through analysis the patient becomes more and more isolated and adrift, and so naturally clings more and more to the analyst, where the transference takes the place of a life-belt. Such a transference is absolutely vital; to out such a transference is fatal. It can only be out when the patient has a sufficient reality function, that is, sufficient reality in the sense of sufficient relationship elsewhere. Reasons for the Transference The causalistic theory does not explain entirely. Teleological reasons must be sought. The sex transference was next investigated. Sexual transference is particularly strong in those oases where there is a great distance between analyst and analysant, a great lack of understanding. Such a sexual urge disappears when the distance is reduced to the right amount i.e. the abnormal sexuality oen be dissolved so. This will explain only urgent sex-transference. In other types of transference this theory does not hold. Here the transference aims at acquiring a function or value that the patient does not possess. This can also be observed in everyday life in mutual attraction between people who would never be expected to like each other, as a means of acquiring a particular function. This is usually unconscious. They attract each other in order to form a symbiosis.

Treatment of the Transference. 1. It is most important that the patient should accept the transference. That is, there is need for submission to things as they are. For the image of the object always has the gaps filled with subjective data which are projections. Such acceptance is the beginning of the dissolution of the transference, but the patient will be eternally bound until he submite to things as they are, till then he is still a slave of the unconsci • This act of submission may have to be repeated again and again. 2. The next problem is how to live under these accepted conditions. No formula can be taught, an individual way must be found in order to make life possible under such conditions. No conscious way can be found; we are in a cul-de-sac. The cunning of the unconscious must be enlisted, for it possesses all the wisdom of the ages. By dream analysis we find that in the transference there is an impersonal factor as well as the personal one. This touches the problem of how far our psyche is individual and how far collective. For much of the transference is collective, not individual. Thus any object is able to replace the collective factor in the transference.


The first appearance of the transference is intensely personal, because the individual and collective factors in the patient are not differentiated. That amount which is found to be individual is the germ of individual relationship, the remnant is collective and can be carried by practically anybody. In the transference the undeveloned functions and values are projected. For the unconscious appears First in the object. For example, if thinking is repressed the power of thinking in others may either repel or attract, for repressed things are despised, often dirty! they are primitive and to be mistrusted; or on the other hand this power may be depreciated in order to protect the ego. When the patient is still only in love with his projected values he Is living only in his own magic circle and the love is auto-erotiom. ehen real love appears the analyst feels the spark, before that he feels nothing. The typical difference between the extrovert and introvert appears at the next stage; the stage of reaction where the extrovert advances and the introvert withdraws. The basic phenomena are the same for both types; and in the unconscious the types react in reversed style.

question re pro j ection. Does the recipient of a projection necessarily have a hook on which it is hung? For example, a patient with a morbid love of truth compels the analyst sooner or later to lie; he mistrusts everybody beoause nobody can come up to his standard. Thus he becomes isolated and finally comes to the analyst who is "the perfect man." Answer. When the analyst lies it is either as a compensation for the patient's exaggerated attitude; or because he is undermined by the patient's unconscious. Then the analyst must look into himself, to see whether he has lied on his own account or for the patient. So shall the passionate lover of truth come to know that he is no small liar. The analyst has to come down to the level of the morbid material so as to give a hand to the patient's inferiority. The analyst must not be a complete individual but must to a great extent mirror the patient, act as his compensatory function. So at times he must even lie or be insincere. As example, Jung told the story of how in talking to a very idealistic patient he once declared that Plato WAS a materialist and did not discover it till he was alone, and then could not Or imagine what could hove made him make such a statement, which however mirrored the repressed aspect of the patient. Projections are like a sand storm in which you are sitting, and en intuitive person feels the impact whether it is expressed or not. Transference is composed of projections and is the alpha and omega of analysis; it is a fire between patient and analyst. The same mechanism takes place in daily life, when you lie towards ell sorts of people. It is not always something in the analyst which causes the projection;


-5but it is also important that something of the sort happens in tha relationÂť ship. For example, the projection of lying. The analyst may have lying in him as an individual or in his collective role; it may be personal or impersonal. It is immaterial which it is, what matters is that the analyst should be proof against the lowering influence of auoh projections. He must be able to stand such a shock without falling down. He must bo able to withstand the inferiority aroused. If the analyst is upset by a projection he must assume that he was unconscious of the hook. Question. How can a transference occuring to someone outside of the analysis Erased in the analysis? the problem of the counterpole. Answer. A counterpole is often assumed to prevent getting too much under-En-influence of the analyst; it is due to fear. This relationship is kept dark. But it is really fear of the Self, not of the analyst, fear of being carried away. However, a genuine love object may really exist. Those relationships the analyst must be careful not to upset. For the actual relationships of the patient may be really valuable, furthermore morbid relationships may be successfully analysed without breaking them and then they too are really valuable. Where the patient is entirely in the family, completely upset. If a relation is maintained as the analyst this has to he cut down. But all the considered, so as not to upset economic and other necessarily.

the relations have to be equal to the relation to circumstances must be similar conditions un-

Relationships must be fostered as far as poseiblo and maintained, and thus a morbid transference can be avoided.

Contents of Transference 1. personal end impersonal. (see above) IL. Memory Images, clsssified as (a) sex; and (b) power. For example; erotic memory images - husband, lovers, or on an infantile level brothers, father, etc., are progressively projected to the analyst. Then all previous doctors or teachers will be projected, and one has to work through all such images; then to work through all images of former lovers, then the brothers. These projections are generally introduced by drenma in which the enaly:t nppenrs in the image of the projected figure. Where a man is in analysis with a man, the transference is one of power, for example, the father or brother with a note of competition; this also is introduced by dreams. Cr a homosexual element may play a role where the analyst or the pntient tnkee the role of a woman. Dr. Jung becomes Mother Jung; cr the pntient appears as a woman in his own dream. Between two women also power is constellated.

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-6When such transferences are recognized it was formerly expeoted that the transference should collapse, but this does not always happen. If the transference has meantime been traneforrod to an outside object, it looks as if the transference collapses, but this is only an appearance. What is the motive power or urge that makes such a transference continue? Where the analyst persists as the "Father" we are getting out of the personal into the impersonal image, Representation collective. Compare the dream recorded in Two Essays where Dr. Jung turned up as a wind god swinging the patient over the corn field in rhythm with the wind waves. Such dreams do not show a desire to bo dependent on the analyst as upon a father, but rather to be dependent on a superior power. They may be dreamed by particularly independent persons. These images and desires lead to images of gods or principles. What is needed is something superpersonal, older and younger than man. Our rational refusal of metaphysical things is due to their having been forced upon us by the parson. If we had been left alone such things would grow out of ua first in dreams and later in the conscious. Such things are impersonal images.

Theory of Transference. Question. What attitude should the analyst take towards the patient in regard to the transference? When should he show his own personality? Should he react to the morbid material directly, and if so when? Answer. If the analyst wears a mask entirely, the patient is thrown into a state of confusion, losing all orientation. The analyst must not keep himself out of the thing, if he does so he loses grip. He must be involved, though keeping disidentified. He must react naturally from the very first thus bringing a natural element into the morbid reactions of the patient. This gives a landmark by which the patient can begin to orient himself. By his Criticism he uses the knife. He should also reset on the emotional plane. The attitude of the analyst acts as a mirror. He must not shield himself behind an intellectual mask. If the analyst hides, an equivalent amount remains unconscious in the patient. The analyst must show that he does not play professional tricks. If he does he keeps the patient unconscious and this will have to be dealt with later, or in any case he will have terrible resistances, as in a Freudian analysis. ;eren in a case of counter-transference, sincere and square dealing is the only course open to the analyst. Thus it is less the method than the individual character of the analyst which works. The problem of suggestion comes in here, and all you can do is to see that your suggestion is "clean", that is, that your attitude is right so that every gesture is absolutely sincere.

Question. light not the analyst's reaction to morbid material disturb the transference and undermine confidence? Answer. It is true that this may happen, but if the transference is so delicate it is better that it should be done. Sooner or later one's personal reactions will out, and an indirect unconscious reaction is far more injurious than a direct depreciatory remark. The only exception is


$ -7perhaps in very bad oases where the typical action of the medicine man is expected, and ma be wise or necessary for a time. In giving negative reactions it is necessary to differentiate very carefully between the personality of the patient and the devils which may be operating in the situation. Question. Are the reactions of patients susceptible of generalization? Answer. Each transference is unique, individual. In so far as it is genoral it is not very interesting. If it is handled within the framework of a generalization it is not vital. If the patient does not feel its uniqueness he has not reached to the depths of his transference. This uniqueness is its essence. But from the standpoint of the analyst we can speak of generalization, of sequence and therefore of prognosis. Transference being the focus of your unconscious projections is the starting point of individuation, for here you begin to differentiate what is your own and what is the other person's. Transference begins within a frame of archetypal personal relationship, egs. father, mother, etc., but when the collective images begin to come in, this mould begins to break up the father-mother (family) mode. This is equivalent to the puberty rites whose object is to depersonalize the relationships of the initiate. Patients who are identified with the family will try to establish new family relationships with the doctor and will not want to get away from him. This new relation is better than such a relation to the blood relations, but it is only a stepping stone. The family stage of transference must be passed through. But this family business with the doctor is still morbid, and when it becomes too narrow for the growing individuality of the patient the unconscious produces (301'active images, a tribe or church and so forth, and many people who are strangers to the patient come into the dreams. The tribe history is repeated. For example, the bull-roarer ceremonies; or those of death and rebirth.

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question. Does the transference vary in character with the function of the patient?

Answer. The aspect of the transference varies, for it has an aim, also it—is-a seeking of values. A thinking type projects to someone with a feeling hook. Such a t/ ransference will show problems of feeling, etc. That of a feeling type ? will show traces of ideational problems, which contain the real heat, while they are disguised as feeling waves, which however are only surface ripples. The thinking type will show ideation on the surface but the hidden feeling will be the real problem and in it will be the real urge and necessity. The sensation type is apparently satisfied with actually being with the analyst but is really concerned with phantasies or possibilities. The intuitive type is not really concerned with exploring the outskirts of the analyst's mind, he is really concerned with sensation and aotuality.


Introvert and Extrovert. The introvert discovers the possibility of being extroverted in the tranafernce. The extrovert draws back on himself, he will become aware of the possibility of experienin,e himself. The introvert discovers himself by learning the possibility of pouring himself out to the analyst. It is a discovery of his unconscious. Question. Do different problems arise if the patient and the analyst are of the same sex or of opposite sex? Answer. If they are of the same sex a homosexual archetype is constellated. The same sex becomes heaped up. So if a woman has been in analysis with a man analyst, she needs a woman analyst to constellate the woman in herself. When a woman patient is in analysis with a woman analyst, the maleness heaps up in the unconscious, that is animus. They become possessed with animus which only becomes visible when a man comes into the picture. It is as if when the two women are together, such a heaping of the animus occurs that suddenly a man is brought forth. This may be an ..actual man. This aspect of the animus problem must be handled by a man. But in another stage the animus problem must be again handled by a woman so es to increase the weight of femininity; for in a heterosexual situation a too collective position is constellated. When in the analysis with a womann, a female patient lies down like a child, then a man should interfere and then sex comes in and at onoo she is adult. But she is collective, not individual. Question. In ordinary daily life one often receives projections from unanalysedpeople. How is one to determine in that case what is and what is not projection? Answer. To the person who projects, the projection appears as a fact or a p enomenon, it does not come as a judgment. He observes the thing he _; projects, he oan elmost touch it. It is therefore very difficult to deal ` j,' with such a situation where there is no insight. 9 The first step Is n willingness to accept the possibility that the observed fact may be an illusion or an assumption. The second step is how to find out whether it is an assumption or not. Go up to the object and ascertain what his view of it is. If his view and \ ) yours disagree, then both parties must assume the possibility of error. Perhaps something will happen which will decide the point. Or if that does not happen, it is sometimes possible to submit the situation to an impartial judge. In many cases it is unnecessary to decide how much is projection. main point is to be willing to accept the possibility of error.

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Question. In regard to the question of a counterpole and its relation to the ear of oneself or of being wholly under another human being. Answer. Provided that the dominant person is not assumed to be untrustwoorfey, the ground of the patient's suspicion will be projected to the analyst, and so can be detected.


-9In cases of massive projection to an unanalysed person, however, such a. fear is justified, because of the unconscious factor. To have full confidence in oneself means that you overlook something of importance in yourself which might carry one over you know not where. There was a patient who had dreamed repeatedly the same dream, but he could not catch the Content. Then at last he caught it. He was going down a slope to the bottom of a valley. At the bottom was a pond of still water. In the former dreams he had hesitated to approach, but he could not remember chat the danger was. Now he decided to approach; again with the feeling that he had made up his mind before. When he came near to the water, a hush went over the water and then the water rippled. And he fled. This associated to the pool of Bethesda. But he could not risk himsel_f. The next dream showed that he could not trust Dr. Jung because he projected his own unreliability to the analyst. When the unreliability is in you and you are not afraid, then other people are afraid of you, and you become inaccessible to the feelings of other people. There is plenty of reason why one should normally be afraid of oneself. For we are all a part of nature, and all the cruelty of all nature is potentially in us. If one is attacked by a murderer one defends oneself by using the same murderous instincts as he.

Contents of the Transference. The problems of a patient may be personal or they may belong to a whole group, egs. a political problem, which can rouse a personal problem for an individual, yet the problem is a collective one. Thus certain collective movements happen outside of us, yet they are also happening 4) inside us too, even if we do not know of the movement.

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For example, in the first Christian century only the poor knew of Christianity, yet all the civilized world was prepared in its mentality to accept the psychology that came up in the teaching. This mentality was a symptom of the time. And today there is a similar generalization of problems, even if we do not know it. Some are conscious of it, but the majority are unconscious. In the Rome of the Christian epoch, many denied the old gods and thought themselves above the mob. But whether we believe or deny or ignore is all one. We have not moved on until we have something to put in the place of the old, and this those Romans had not, because Christianity had not come and when it did come, they rejected it. At a certain stage of analysis or of transference, dreams show the importance of the impersonal content. We tend to try to keep the transference within the personal frame. We love the analyst because of a collective problem, even if it is not conscious, because the analyst stands for that particular problem which is the great concern of our time (see Chapter on Herman where the love for Rhoda is impersonal, for she changed almost too easily into love of Mater Ecolesie). ,

Collective ideas come in then instead of personal considerations. Mr. X becomes a personal representation of an idee force". Such a man


-10who stands in the way for such an idea will be the object of a personal transference so long as the "ldbe force" remains unconscious. When this ideu is made conscious the transference falls. Egs. the primitive who thinks via the dance of the dancing-man. For primitive man does not think inside himself but outside himself. For example, in the Congo are sacred groves and rivers; certain fruits and animals belong to such places, and these things are brought as offerings to the gods, but also certain ideas belong there, such as the idea of independence. Thus they have spread their ideas over the country. A chief on his election made a speech to the people, which consisted entirely of a naming of curtain rivers, groves and hills, with their location and grouping. By this he meant to express that the ideas connected with these natural objects were related similarly; perhaps that wisdom end enterprise and freedom were met together. So long as an idea is still within the head it remains an idea in our sense of the word, but if one becomes fanatical about it it becomes more primitive, to some extent it replaces reality and is then outside the head of the thinker, just es the primitives think all over the country. Ega. there is a story in Talbot's "Shadow ofuah" where the ootton tree called to a small boy. Primitive ideas in dreams are already modified by an archaic civilization. They are not intellectual ideas, but occur rather in dramatic, archaic form. The idea is represented in the symbol; egg. the dream of the clergyman who dreamed of Dionysiac ideas under the symbols of moon and wine; a primitive idea may be geographically expressed in objects. The same thing appears in the dreams of Peter Blobs. The things we discover in the process of transference are (a) personal history (b) history of the race, an embryonic part of our mentality. The further the symbolism gets from the personal sphere, the more impressive does it become. For the family, etc., is of comparatively small importance, if we stayed there we should remain small, but by reaching out we touch the life of nations over millions of years. If you remain in the family, you will develop neither great vice nor greet virtue. But if you out an idea into a man's head, he will become a hero, that is, you will liberate The >collective streams. The coming up of representations collectives widens pp ' the horizon from the family to the great places. The wall and ceilings l\ fall and you find yourself not in your own back yard but in cosmic nature. Phe thing that comes in is primitive magic mentality, which is always there but we forget it, for we ooneentrate on each thing we develop to the ex-4C elusion of everything else. Through the development of transference we become aware of undertones. Through primitive mentality our relation to objects becomes transformed. .Our view of the world is based on conscious conviction and knowledge, but ,this is very transitory and narrow because it is based on our own experince, neglecting all primitive experience. I can experience life in as Tear as I can experience the world and as far as my friends, my parents, etc., told me of it. But in as far as the whole series of my ancestors is /e\, have living in me, I can experience life also in as far as I am conscious of it. A_• By the coming of collective images, I can also experience life as the ancestors did. This gives a new orientation to life both within and without. This is not only the experience of life as the ancestors experienced it,^ but it is like that plus our personal experience. This gives an inp tensity to the experience, and a sense of extent and far-reaehingness. The Germanic races easily get this, but the Jew, on the contrary, is far from `


the primitive in himself, for he is made up of all the more conservative and more ancient elements which did not follow Christianity. The Germanic races came into contact with Christianity in the Romans, not at the end of a long period of development from the primitive polytheism to a philosophic monotheism. The Germanic tree-spirit age was out down and Christianity was grafted onto the stump. Thus when such a man develops transference, he brings up the lost primitive within him. Then when he gets en idea he thinks that he can jump into it with both feet, then he feels he is there, but really he is not there, just as his ancestors jumped into Christianity. Not so the Jew. When you take the lid off a Jew, you find the antique man. From this you oan sometimes diagnose a Jew, even though the Jewish blood may have been forgotten.

Examples. 1. An old man from a Catholic university had the following dreams It was the only one he had kept. Re dreamed he was up in the Alps, and there he found a balustrade of Greek marble and on it was a naked woman eth the feet of a chamois. In the dream he stood admiring her. Dr. Jung said to him, "This is a Jewish dream." He was angry, but confessed to Jewish parentage. Here is the Jew in the unconscious as compensation for an exaggerated modern consciousness. It leads to the surmise that this man was feeling critical of Western civilization. 2. There was a pedagogue in an old German family who fell into a psychogenic state which had started with a dream in which he was walking on a hillside. There were rabbit holes and debris thrown about. In this debris he discovered black pottery and implements. He dug further end found a layer of implements and vases, and so forth. This drenn is Germanic. He digs and finds primitive man, while the Jew finds antique civilization. The Jew does not possess the intensity cf the primitive, because it is already dissolved into the antique world. There Freud is right. To the Jew it is necessary to discover his sexuality; chile people of Germanic stock are already aware of it and wont to know rather what to do with it. To the primitive, Mr. X is not only Mr. X. He has charm or mane or influence. Thus the object is not only real but magic as well, or as we would say, it is also symbolic. Through analysis we find out why things work or have influence. It is always because of certain unconscious contents which become animated. When a man can get hold of the unconscious uoontents he can break the spell of the object.

The Unconscious Contents of the Transference Through the coming up of the primitive we experience objects in a \ \new way. For the way in which we experience objects is due to the standards in which we live, so that, for instance, we experience objects under the symbol of Gentleman and Lady. These ideas possess a potent magic which keeps the object within the bounds of the Idea. When a woman has no experience of certain feelings, it is because a Lady does not feel such things. C\We damage ourselves against these formulae. The ideals of lady and gentlef\ /\man are the real gods of our time. Anelysis necessarily breaks this god of form. You should not think you are a perfect lady, but only that you are able to behave as if you were a perfect lady, while knowing that you

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-12are not that. So that when anyone oomes who is able to see behind the screen you should be able to smile, even to wink. The characteristic of the gentleman psychology is independence never to depend on the object; for example, in the case of emotion: you must always overcome emotion and never show weakness or dependence, because you must overcome emotion or passion. But when the primitive man comes to the surface, you will get up passions, and the gentleman will become upset through transference. This is necessary because when the gentleman is perfect he is already dead and living only in a story, for he is nothing but good form. After this has been analysed, the relationship to the object will show far greeter dependence on the object. This is the greatest reproach levelled at analysis and the transference that it causes a greet dependence. (One should ask the patient, Do you li'se this dependence, or not?) The primitive is dependent on the object, for example, he depends on the place in which he lives, for his life and mind are in the object. This kind of dependence has a greet compensation, for power is called forth by it, namely a spiritual power. This is in marked contrast to the kind of dependence which existed prior to the development of the transference, for that was a chthonic condition while the spirituality is dependence on the inner images of the collective unconscious. When those things come up in analysis, the results will be modified by the modern consciousness. You can only experience the balancing powers within by risking yourself via the transference. Thus only can you have a real spiritual experience which is always linked up with a real experience on the chthonic side. question. Is it not better to send the patient back to life to got his relationships there, rather than to continue analysis thus arousing the great dependence of the transference? Answer. The patient should go back to life as soon as possible; he ‘" should relationships outside of analysis es soon ss possible. A patient who cannot do this is called a severe or difficult ease, for it threatens s 'to be long, and it may be a long time before the patient can form relation. a ships outside; thus he will be dependent on the analyst for a long time. V The analyst is only too thankful to get rid of such cases, so that it canIT: not be said that the analyst stresses dependence as part of the trans' ference. Such dependence is something that happens, so that you cannot speak of It as something that au-ht to be, rather you should say, "It could not be Evoided." It is much nicer not to experience transference, just as it is nicer not to experience life. If you want to go to heaven, your feet will grow into hell. If it is at all possible, it is better not to take the patient out of his ordinary life and work. But in as far as the relations in life are morbid, they must be sacrificed for the analytical process. :mere the relations to the family and so on are unconscious, they must be sacrificed, for this is the inherited sin. It is more probable that the relations to the world may have to fall away in the one of the extrovert than in the case of the introvert where the relations are much scarcer. But such generalisations must not be taken as law.


-13The Nature of the Value of Objects. 1. evident or real; 2. unconscious or magical value. What is this megieal value? The primitives say it Is mans, value, prestige soul-power. They only realize the dynamic side, not the ideal side. All energy must have form, egs. heat or electricity, etc. So too mental energy must have form, this takes the form of idea or image. When you perceive psychic energy, you perceive an image; glee, all images have energy. Represeed energy comes up in the form of phnntasy and through the realization of such phantaeiee energy is released. The primitive thinks of such energy as "soul". For example, the eoraere hove cages hanging nn the trees to catch the souls in bird form, enticed to the herd of the man by rice grains. When we Buffer from lack of psychic energy, we say we have a depression or an inhibition, not realising that part of our mental heirarchy has one away beyond our control, that we have, in fact, lost our soul. ?1 Our psychic system is a careful synthesis and from this parts may fall `l out and become autonomous. Such parts may come into opposition with the remainder. The primitive would say this condition was due to loos of soul. Thus images are energy or libido. This is why the magician makes images, for such things are energy - magic energy. In as much as such a figure makes an impression on you, 5t releases energy. An object that can do that is indeed magic. For example, the Mona Liza attracts peotle, it is energy. Such a picture is mane., fetish, etc. The magic value of the object exists in certain images. The magical value of the object consists in projection of the anima or animus. (This is looked et from within, the intuitive approach.) But if we want to describe the structure of the psyche looked at from without, In the scientific way, we have to speak of the psyche as a system of adaptations. Then followed e discussion of the functions.

The trensference Problem, Continued. As we have seen, transference is a problem of the projection of certain contents of the unconscious. First it is a personal problem due to the projection of personal contents or memory images. Anelyeis has as its object to dissolve such projections through making them conscious. Their hold must ;j ,' be disintevreted, wrioh eannot happen so long as they nre unconscious. In nconscious they are merely buried axed so preserved, while in the concious they are exposed to light and air, and so undergo change. Such a isintegration may be sufficient to liberate the patient from the analyst, egs. this is the Freudian standpoint. That is: it leads to the solution of 1r the problems of the personal unconscious. At this point the patient may be practically cured but he may not have a sense of really being throe . 4 Many intelligent patients are quite swore of stch projections as one of father, mother and so forth, but they may still have a transference whose intensity is by no means lowered by the dissolution of such perEonal memory images. These images become constellated so long as the reality adaptation

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-14is infantile. For es long as the father le alive in you, you are still the child. The image appears as compensation, to give a balance. You need someone too old. If these resolutions have been made and yet transference still remains satin, it means that the conscious attitude may be adult but it is insufficient, or it is lacking in some point. Your personal attitude maybe adapted but yet in your impersonal or collective dealings you may be insufficient, unadapted. Such a case needs strong compensation through impersonal images. These are not acquired, so that in the personal memory there is nothing that could be constellated for compensation. Thus the collective unconscious is called upon. On the other hand, a man with a good adaptation to impersonal problems, a learned man, perhaps, but with a bad personal adaptation, will get personal images from the unconscious, the father, mother, uncles. The less one is aware of those things called impersonal, the less developed will one's attitude be. One will not even be aware of the great question marks above our heads; impersonal dangers or necessities will not even be conceived of. For example, the families living in the year one A.D., did not dream that their sons would die in the arena, just as we do not dream that such R thing could happen to us. Yet it may. That would be such an impersonal danger, but it needs an idea to set it off. For example, the teaching of Mehemet changed the attitude of certain Bedouin tribes till they swarmed over the Mediterranean area. Previously they had only a little personal or tribal attitude and were therefore ready to accept a new impersonal idea or attitude which released an enormous amount of energy. This is like a man who has much energy which is only applied to personal ends. If he gets a new impersonal idea he becomes very important. Note for instance the way in which Christ handled fishermen, by saying "I will make you fishers of men." Thereby he released their powers. In a tribe where the general impersonal attitude is wrong or inadequate, worn out, or stale, the powers of men are not released but are all applied in mean occupations. Then, perhaps, the collective unconscious becomes activated, and those images which release impersonal forces come into operation. These images are world wide in their impersonality, are animal in their co-equalnesa with nature. Our impersonal attitude today is far too smell; it is national only, e# or it is represented by creeds which are very limited. In such a ease it becomes fanatical, which is an overcompensation for fear. Our impersonal attitude is insufficient because we have no representations collectives that can take us beyond nationalism. Family and tribal ideals are not up to our actual situation on this earth. The increased facilities in our physical communications mean that we need a world-wide consciousness, while Our impersonal attitude is simply not up to it. In the middle ages they had a form of world consciousness which extended over the whole of the known world - there was one style, one language, one religion, one ideal. A similar condition existed in the time of the Roman Empire. But today nothing of the sort exists. In our impersonal attitude we are infantile. Since the world war, the collective unconscious has been constellated as it has not been since the beginning of our era when the world was in a similar state of flux. At that time Gnosticism arose. This came directly from the unconscious; and Christianity was one of the products of Gnosticism. The psychological condition of that time shows remarkable parallelism with our own times. The Roman power was world-wide, but it did not go very deep; the nations were not welded together. The army and the influence of Roman civilization could


-15not give cohesion enough or sufficient impersonal relationship. Then came Christianity which reacted with explosive force, for the need was tremendous. Far distant peoples were brought together under one ideal. (The Roman Church still has one language The impersonal attitude is ruled by certain leading principles; or such principles express or mould the line of the impersonal attitude. It is necessary to know not only a manes character but also his view of the world, his woltanschauung, which is not merely his philosophy, but must also include his attitude. A very universal view of the world is always unconditioned, it is the ultimate truth of what you have to believe. For example, in intellectual matters you are bound to apply the hypothesis which seems most valid. It ie immoral merely to take a position of negation. The universal view of the world is a relt-ion. To most people modern religion is a historical sentimentality rather han a view of the world, for this we rather go to philosophy or science. A religion should be an ultimate view of the world; it should be unconditioned and absolute. When religion becomes relative and conditional it is no longer valid, it will no longer release the unconditioned forces within you and your impersonal attitude must have behind it an absolute and unconditioned principle which must be accepted in its totality. If the channels are too narrow, the stream will overflow and become destructive. This happened at the time of the reformation. Then the channel became too narrow, after the Gothic period. As a result of the Reformation life flowed once again, but it left the ecclesiastical channel and a world science began. At the Reformation two things ha - ned which upset the absolute attitude of that day: (a) Crucifixes were found in Mexico, which undermined the belief in the uniqueness of the Christian religion where the crucifixion was the central teaching, (b) The rediscovery of Gnosticism, the Dionysian myth and so forth, which showed that teachings similar to Christianity had been prevalent before the birth of Christ. The Church met this problem by going back to the authority of the Fathers, instead of seeking for new ways to meet the new truth. She dust dismissed the new truth. The Germanic peoples, especially, split off from the Catholic Church. This branch kept on dividing. Protestantism is a negation of medieval Christianity, and is on the way to differentiation. The Catholic Church bases itself on the mediation of the Church; Protestantism denies that this is necessary, and so the Church is already undermined. Protestantism claims that man has direct access to God, which opens the way to differences of revelation, that is, to schisms. This means that man is individual, which for the Church is the work of the devil. Thus the impersonal view represented by the Church became dissolved, and with it our impersonal attitude. Now we have none. We have no image for an impersonal dynanis. The "Creed" was energy because it released energy. It was energy that became visible, it appeared in flesh. So we are suffering from an imperfect impersonal attitude. Certain oases of neurosis are due to an insufficient Impersonal attitude, rather than to a faulty personal attitude. Such a mal-adaptation interferes, of course, with the personal attitude. A good personal attitude will suddenly be inhibited by certain archaisms, which appear suddenly in place of the missing impersonal attitude. For our general attitude is contained in the unconscious in the form of archaic ideas and symbols, which may produce an impossible situation, because these archaic symbols are not at all acceptable


-16Of the archaic symbole which may arise to take the place of the missing impersonal attitude, Totemic Ideas are perhaps the most frequent and the most important. 1. Mithraic totemism, which produces a re-identification with the Bull of Mithras; this will manifest itself in bull-like shouting. 2. Christian totemiem. This gives identification with the Little Lamb, when one becomes very meek, and adopts a martyr-like attitude. This is archaic; it is indecent, something to be ashamed of. When one has lived through these things, then, as an individual, to go back to it is dirty, obscene. When one is far from it one can look back at it and be interested scientifically in it. But if you get such a regression with archaic symbols, you will get a recrudescence of symptoms, because you are going back to the original slime. This happens when you ere too intellectual in the conscious. When we get a step beyond Ecclesiastical Christianity, we are in a position where our formulated impersonal attitude is defective. We are in a new situation and there is a lack of new attitude in the conscious, and already an old collective attitude has been ccnstellated in the unconscious. (If a very personal problem becomes unconscious, it is probably because it was moulded on an archetype which has sucked it down.) The impersonal attitude is linked up with the pure manifestation of the basic principles: the masculine logos, and the feminine ores. When you are capable of a pure manifestation of a pure Logos or Eros, you will have a pure impersonal attitude. Christ was incarnate Logos or order, end also incarnate Eros or Love of God. The mystic movement of the worship of the Saored Heart came up re Christ and also re the worship of the Virgin, e sword piercing her heart, but later deveTรถpment transferred the heart into Christ. Christ contains all projections. Men projected head and called him the Logos, and women projected heart and called him Love. An unconditioned attitude demands sacrifice; so that sacrifice Is correlated to such an unconditioned attitude. But beware of equating it to the Christian idea of self-denial end so forth, which to many people is easy, while the opposite is the real sacrifice, and is equivalent to the unconditioned attitude. Materials Constellated in the Unconscious Through Eeeleaiastioal Christianity. It is necessary to differentiate carefully between Ecclesiastical Christianity and the Real Christianity of Christ's teaching. Ecclesiastical Christianity does not work; do not confuse this with the real religious attitude which works naturally, but which is not necessarily Christian. Those things which are repressed by the specific attitude of Christianity are to be found in the unconscious. Whet are these? It is not easy to say by only looking into your own life, but it can be more easily discerned by a historical survey. There are four categories of repression to be seen throughout history: 1. The exclusion of nature - world, earth, flesh. Compare St. Augustine who said that people admired nature and forgot their own souls.


This attitude led to a neglect of nature. This is shown by the art of the period. The line of the drawings bore no resemblance to nature, neither did the Dolor used, egs. the hair might be painted green and the trees red; or by writing town instead of drawing it. This lasted till the preRaphaelites. In this came period the ideals were anti-natural. For example, saints tried to be as dirty as possible. Saints did not wash, they lived in filth and vermin which they praised as the smells of heavenly roses. Fakir practices also occurred in Christianity. These people were psychological examples of the fact that the spirit can rule the flesh. This state of affairs had to go on till the spirit actually became stronger than the flesh, then when it had become overdue, then it began to decay. The overcoming of the world, of carnal wishes, as in the monasteries, was a tremendous reality in those days, it really mattered.

2. The exclusion of the animal world. Animals were really excluded. There was no artistic appreciation of the animal till the ox and the ass came in at the margin of the picture perhaps. In the gospels there is no appreciation of the animal as a living being equivalent to the Rindoo attitude. For example, there is no cathedral where monuments of the horses who had fallen in carrying the stone were set up. In medieval times the animal was grotesque, half devil. In the very early Church there are exceptions, a sacred leopard, ass, etc. St. Francis of Assisi was an exception, but he was a heretic end only by the cleverness of the Pope was his revolution undone and he was swept into the lap of the Church. This exclusion shows a tendency to repress the parallelism of the human and the animal. These exclusions mean that humanity becomes very isolated. When this happens you feel that you have fallen from grace, for you cannot drink from the wells of nature and than you must seek for grace elsewhere. Indeed, the Church has brought this condition of affairs about for this very purpose.

3. Exclusion of the Inferior Man, the week or incapable one in us. The Old Adam, the inferior and inert being in us, was recognized everywhere but was burdened with curses; he almost was the inherited sin. He is destined for hell. Any form of indulgence 'I채 cloaely linked with the Old Adam, ego]. sexuality. In se much as the Old Adam was repressed by the Church, sexuality was also repressed, except for the purposes of propagation. To produce as many children as possible, to make as many souls as possible for Cod's flock was meritorious. In South America the Church bell rang to remind the men to heed the need for propagation. It is rather sexuality as erotic expression that was repressed. Sexuality has two faces, (a) propagation which is more carnal sexuality; (b) erotic expression. This is little Down because the Church says it is all of the devil and belongs to the inferior man. There are political reasons why this should he. When the erotic side is allowed to a man, he can recognize his dignity. He can live satisfactorily to himself. The Church has to repress this or non feels that his life has a meaning and is important to himself, and then he will not need the Church.


-184. Repression of creative phantasy, end of its freedom. Creative phantasy is allowed tor propagation and for church windows. But whore it is free it is forbidden, that is, where it does not follow the traditional form. Wherever a man feels himself the brother of the gods, he is selfsufficient. Then he remember째 his divinity. The Church is most of all against this. This is why Galileo was persecuted, because his invention was creative and subversive to the teachings of Aristotle. Such men were persecuted for having creative phantasy. The Church murders the germ of things, and this is the murder of God for the germs of things are divine. Thus does the Church become the devil incarnate. But no Church has been able to kill the divine in man. So at the Renaissance the Divine freed itself from the Church and lived elsewhere, and this in spite of the saying, "Outside the Church is no salvation." That is eternal death. It is a terrible mutilation when man is compelled to live only by a truth two thousand years old and thereby eacrifioe his aotual life to a mummy. But outside of the Church there is no impersonal formulation. At first we enjoy our liberation from the bondage of the Church. For instance, you find it in the music of Baoh or Handel, where there is the joy of the Protestant for the liberation from Papacy. But in s couple of hundred years, the joy sank out of sight and everything became like old leather, because Protestantism is only a protest, not a real life. But this joy was of the eighteenth century and we cannot go back to it, that would be regression and regression is sin. In the apocryphal sayings of Jesus we find the followings The disciples asked: "Who will draw us up to heaven, and Jesus spake unto them The fowls in the air and the fishes in the sea and the beasts on the earth shall draw you to heaven." And agains "Where there are two I am there, and where one is alone I am there also. Break the rock, cleave the wood, I am there." In the sermon on the Mount, when it is read subjectively in the Gnostic form one reads: "If thou bringest thy gift to the altar and there findest that thy brother hath aught sgainst thee, go and be reconciled to thy brother..Thy brother is thyself, therefore be reconciled to thyself.." ^ j' Question. In taking an unconditional attitude about anything is there not a risk that one may fall into fanaticism? Answer. Fanaticism is due to an unconscious doubt threatening the eonso30 ? ttitude. For example, dogmatism is merely to protect a creed against an unrecognized doubt. True conviction needs nothing of the sort. Fanaticism is due to a threatened conviction.

Question. About the effect of e collective expression of the unconditioned attitude. Answer. When an sex unconditioned attitude is expressed collectively as a relr:eron, it must necesserily be formulated; this means that it must be given a form, which in turn means the establishment of an institution. As soon as this happens, the spirit goes because the Church is a form, that is


-19a body; the spirit becomes flesh. But it can be a living body, yet this is no longer the spiritual life of the origins. From the time of Constantine the Crest, the Church swallowed the spirit. Thus when the Church appeared it was the second death of Christ, not the birth of the Church. Throughout the ages in many individuals the spirit was born again, but they were heretics and mystics. The real thing was carried on in them but always in opposition to the Church. The psychological life that hed given birth to the Church was in opposition to the ruling power of the state. The power came from the invasion of the unconscious. Christ was a flame and kindled the fire in the dry wood, until the greater part of the world was aflame. Then came the Church which took on a form and became an institution and the Church was no longer a fire. The first centuries were characterized by many dissentions, heresies, etc., within the frame of the Church. This was the motive for the Shepherd of Hermes. The power of this book was due to the fact that the unconscious of the people was seeking a form. The religious spirit is actually flame, compare the Flames of Fire at Pentecost. In the actual world this means destruction. As soon as the spirit causes a clinging together of those who have experienced it, they form an institution and the spirit dies. The flame dies out. The body, or institution, is alive too but it is no longer the fire of the original religious phenomenon. People very very much in their relation to these problems; some prefer the settled thing, while others, the revolutionaries, prefer the fire. But to the Old Man in us it is painful to walk into the fire. He seeks an institution because of its regularity and safety. The revolutionaries will find a sword not peace. They must go out and fight; they are on fire; but they repel, even each other. This explosive form is shown in early Christianity. It will also happen in analysis. It is sad; but it works, for the members are scattered and so the now spirit is disseminated abroad. This is necessary for the beginning of any kind of movement. In the beginning of the Christian movement, the Community Meal played a very important part. It was around this economic necessity that the institution began to be formed. The community meal arose from the Insurance Brotherhoods of Rome. These were cooperative societies for eating. They had a clerk-cook, and they were under patron Berea -, of which probably Christ was one. The clerk-cook bees= Priest and still had charge of preparing the Host and Wine and the care of the cooperative money. The Catacombs. Many rich women went, it became a sort of fashion to join in this mystery cult. The mysteries were celebrated under ground because of their nature, rather than on account of the persecution. Fashion moulded many things in the early Church, for example, the form of the robes; the Church hood was worn to denote that we ere all one, of the same standing. When the new revelation has lost its life, it means that the fire has devoured all the old wood of the past, then there still remains the Institution or Church (Eeelesia means Society). Thus what we call Church may have the form of any Society, egs. for cmuce ent, etc. Roclesia means a gathering of people for any common purpose.


-20When the fire has burnt all that should be burnt, the balanced people of common sense naturally settle down and control the fiery ones because they are a nuisance. Yet the fire remains alive in certain people, egs. Meister Eckhart whose teaching ay dormant for six hundred years. Around Eckhart grew up a group of Brethren of the Free Spirit who lived licentiously. The problem we face is: "Is analytical psychology in the same boat?" "Are the second generation like the Brethren of the Free Spirit?" If so, it is the open way to Hell, and analytical psychology has come too soon and it will have to wait for a century or two. The ideas of Christ, for example, the animal community, were rightly abolished by the Church, for the antique man could only have taken such sayings as ooneretely Dionysian, as a real identity with the animal. That would mean making a regression to the animal. But now perhaps the age is ripe to go back to this while still keeping hold of the Spirit; that much has been gained. There is need of a form to hold the fire and so to dam it up for a more effective explosion. The historical forms were too weak for the new religion, all the mystery forma were tried from Passover upwards. If a form can be found, it will be filled and will explode. Or if a form can be found which can really contain the spirit that means that the existing form is still strong and living enough for this spirit; that is, this revolt of analysis is premature, anachronistic, against the time. The only possible extinction of such a fire is in a form. If the old Christianity can assimilate the new powers from the unconscious which analysis has made available, it will go on, having gained a fresh understanding of the teachings and renewed power. The Jesuit spirit may well take over analytic methods, and in the future the Church may become the greatest exponent of analysis. The first form that can deal with the fire is a personal relationship. As the fire spreads we begin to take hands, a relationship of mutual dependence, knowledge, etc. Out of this form possibly something grows. For we are not satisfied with one friend, we need the power of numbers. Such attempts are most useful, although they are for the most part vain. We must go on trying, even if again and again the organization is destroyed. The fire spreads and spreads and perhaps we shall come to the time of Hermes, who sought for relationship. Collective relationships must be based on individual relationships, for an individual cannot exist without relatedness, for we are each cells in an organism. When we make individual relationships we lay the foundations for an invisible church. Note the Gothic cathedral, how its form is essentially four, cruciform, with orientation in space, it is built East and West. The old Roman or Norman architecture dhows the nature of stone. It is heavy and little of the animal or plant-like appears. The ornamentations show the fight between man and monsters or animals, or between animals. It is ornamentation put there with abstract purpose, showing the fight between the pagan animal and coming man. In the Gothic, the situation is quite different. There the ornamentation grows out of the style, the plant growing from the column. The stone is made to show forth the growing spirit. The stone is hysterical. In these statues, for instance in Michael Angelic's work, the stone becomes alive. In the ancient Egyptian sculpture and architecture,


-21the stone is still stone, but the Church had to drive the natural spirit out of the stone and imbue it with a new spirit foreign to ita nature. For example, in the making of Holy Water, the spirit of the water is exorcised. It must be sea water, so salt is put in and the elementary spirit of salt is driven out and denaturalized. The Church used only denaturalized nature. Gothic architecture is denaturalized stone. When this is done, then nature comes out from within and the stone becomes unnaturally natural, by giving forth the animal and the plant. In the Roman art you show forth your conflict. In Gothic art you do not show your conflict but the stone shows its conflict and brings forth the animal and the plant. The Consequences of the Four Exclusions of Christianity. 1. The Church denaturalized nature. Then nature as herself, her principle, falls into the unconscious. What the Christian man then calls nature is an abstraction, denaturalized, exorcised. Thus, instead of worshipping in a greet forest, you worship in a Gothic cathedral, which is a denaturalized forest with leaves and animals and flowers. So long as this denaturalized nature lived in the Gothic cathedrals, that is, so long as nature was active in the unconscious, people could live in it. But after it had been expressed, people could no longer live there; so there followed the regression of the renaissance, a regression to nature herself, an attempt of nature to come into consciousness again. Even to this day nature has not come back fully into consoiousness; so nature is still working out of our unconsciousness and is seeking expression. In the nineteenth century natural science arose. In this century we sought for the first time the real miracles of nature. In the last century the curiosities of nature were what were sought (for example, in the last century the unusual thing was sought; sixty years ago everyone went to see the Falls of the Rhine, now we seek nature as it is in the usual everyday happening.) Thus there is now a tendency of man to get into touch with nature.

2. The Animals. We appreciate them much more. We think of the psychology of animals. In the 19th century they made laws for their protection, and bogen to treat them more decently, but it is only in recent years that we begin to think of a few animals as our brothers. 3. Primitives. Only in the last century has anything been done for them, before that they were enslaved and exploited. But in the 19th century slavery has been abolished, and attempts have been made to organize their lives and respect their rights. But only recently have we begun to study their customs, etc., with the idea that we might learn something from them; before that ethnology was the study of a curiosity. Thus the inferior man in ourselves was also quite depreciated until quite recently when a science of Duman weaknesses has arisen; compare the change in our ideas of punishment in the education of children and of oriminal8; our care of mental illness and of crima; and our attitude to emotion. 4. Exclusion of creative hantasy. (a) Science has been liberated from the yoke of Church and state . It is now rare that certain things are not allowed to be taught. Yet even in this respect the liberation of thought is not very far advanced. We have only to mention the opposition to Freudte teachings. (b) Also the liberation of art is far greater than it was fifty years ego.


-22The reason for the general change in attitude is due to an inner urge, a push from the unconscious.

How do the things excluded by Christianity live in the unconscious? There is only an indirect method of approach to this problem, for something that is unconscious cannot be directly observed. 1. The Melusion of Nature. (a) Nature when it is in the unconscious shows itself in the form of certain peculiar relationships of a primitive character with perhaps a magic significance. For example, certain people feel themselves under the necessity to risk their lives in climbing certain mountains. The mountain seems to have a peculiar mane, it is almost a divine personage worthy to have a human sacrifice, and a particular grace is obtained by risking one's life there. This can never be explained rationally. In Switzerland, the mountains are replacing the Churoh as the object which calls forth a non-personal spirit and devotion. The mountain-tops are particular churches which call forth emotions which the climbers cannot understand, but which may be really transforming. Thia is a sort of nature cult. Here you may expect the working of nature demons. When a primitive says Tree, he means the Noumen of the tree. When primitive nature ie in an unconscious state, one may expect these things to be alive. So we should expect nature demons in our lifetime. In the last fifty years, such demons have boon manifested in spiritistic sceanoas with its table turning, and with objects talking to each other. These are manifestations of nature demons. The more the immediate relation to nature is repressed the more do such things appear. Egs. Christian Science really works by the magic of immediate relationships. Here the natural demons are not personified, they are non-personal nature spirits. (b) At a later state we get nature gods. This is particularly important because it was at this stage that the religious development of the Germanic peoples was cut down. Christianity cut down the old trees and innooulated the new faith. Here is a sore spot, a trauma. If we make a regression, it is likely to be to this phase where each man has his own kabir or his own god. In the war each nation had its own god; it is only one stage further to a point where each man says, "My god says:" This is one of the risks of individuation, where each person has his own god. True we must have an individual experience of god, and it will begin on a very low level. It will be a sort of individual polydeemonism. (c) The emphasis on the nature of our own body. This produces the hygenic and eugenic attitude to ii3e. _i s is a ado a god. Also the emphasis falls on everything physical. The attention is concentrated on the value of the personal, i.e., on money which becomes a god. In so far as you give up money for an idea is the idea more god than money. The strongest value in man is his god, and we serve him with conviction and with fear and trembling. The service of the body is no great that we must say that there is a lot of god in the physical body, perhaps greater than in spirit. In all the strongest value, the greatest psychological value or fact that is god. The thing you cannot sacrifice is stronger than you; that is god. If that is


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so, you must acknowledge it, for that makes all the difference between a morel and an immoral attitude to life. question. Would not an individual attitude neutralize the disrupting affect which the emotions (projections) have on relationship in collectivity? Answer. In collectivity, despite rational precautions, such as the deple on of the ego by analysis, explosions will occur because of the irrationality of the collective, as for example when we speak of unforseen accidents, etc. Certain unconscious powers which we feel to be outside ourselves come up and disrupt. Even if we accept the possibility of projection on one aide or the other, even then tho individuals may feel themselves forced into a situation which is absolutely intolerable. The nearest way of handling the situation is just to part, but oven that may be impossible, perhaps you oannot just part. Such a situation requires very superior persons if it is to be solved. But when we are in a hole, we arc forced into our inferior functions. We are in a panic and subject to our emotions. Whenever an important unconscious factor is constel].ated, we are helpless, especially when a god begins to work, then man is hopelessly inferior and helpless. God does not always work in such a situation, but occasionally he does. And so long as such a thing can happen, we must continue to speak of God. "We are put through a process; we go into a tunnel; we do not know what happens to us but when we come out at the other end everything is different." The occlusion of the Animal World. The animal is replaced in the same way as is nature, see above. As a brother of man the animal is a function of man. We are so built that we have a certain amount of libido for relationship with animals. If this is not used it is repressed into the unconscious. The modern cult of pet animals is established to fill the need of satisfying this libido for natural relationship with animals. This libido is not properly developed or guaranteed among us, and so much of it is repressed and animates the animal in us, ego. the monkey in ue. It also animates the herd instinct unnaturally, which becomes an obsession. Such people, if they live in cities, become liable to mob instincts and also tend to herd together. Consequently the morality of such groat organizations tends to be low. A similar effect is seen in a crowd. Each man in a crowd is liable to be much lower morally as a part of the crowd, and will act from a lower level than his individual morality. In crowds where the animal libido is not properly developed, it heaps up into herd psychology and animates national movements, and a catastrophe is imminent, for example, the war which went on and on because there were no leaders nor could be, because there was none who could stand against the avalanche of herd feeling. Thin will go on until such a disintegration is reached that will allow of individual opinions. A great organization is an animal that wants to destroy. And two such animals will fight. To form such an organization makes a prehistoric beast that no one can stop. 2.

The getting away from the respect for brother animal begets in us the animal. A man is only human when he is accompanied by brother animal. He is only individual in relationship to other individuals.


-24The primitives say the real scale of values begins with the elephant, lion, eagle, perhaps cobra, then man and monkey. They recognize the fact that man is one of the animals. To say that man is on top is megalomanic. The repressed libido for animal relationship is living in the unconscious. It appears in dreams either as animals; or we appear as having animal reactions, for example, the panic fear of animals; or we have inhibited movements due to being in water, a racial memory; also many flying dreams are really swimming. This libido in the unconscious also animates divine images of a historical nature in dreams, when the dream speaks of animal it does so instead of saying divine; for example, the Egyptian animal gods; the Greek and Christian figures with animal attributes; the bird man who is an angel; the evangelists as lion, eagle, etc. 3. The repression of the inferior man. The inferior man in us is primitive, weaker, less intelligent, less patient, less moral. He causes endless trouble and is often repressed. It is as though we had a village of primitives in our unconscious which we occasionally visit. The primitive man in us is seeking nature, as for instance in camping, sport, etc. The discovery of the actual primitive man gave rise to modern psychology. Analytical psychology is a consideration of the inferior man; and of those things which are not allowed to live; such as unforseen reactions, phantasy, and those things which happen to us, apart from our own wish or act. 4. Repression of creative phantasy. Phantasy cannot be entirely repressed. But our belief in the importance of creative phantasy is weak; we do not believe in its absolute validity. We look outside ourselves for the really creative factor, for example, for the symbol of the new religion, while it is really within you. We depreciate it; we do not believe that our creative phantasy will create the true thing. One cannot accept or believe what is given unless it is really within. You cannot see beauty unless it is within you. If you can grasp or understand a thing, you already have it in you. But it is not formulated, the other person has only formulated it for you. You may think that you can create in a moment of megalomania, then you come down from that height and feel yourself empty. This is because it is the hereditary sin. People are still under the spell of the belief that the symbol is somewhere outside themselves, naturally in the Church. When the creative phantasy is not acknowledged, it lives in the unconscious where it works out that archetype which we need. It produces a new symbol. The Way These Things Appear in the Unconscious. What is the connection between these compensating symbols and the animus or animal In trying to elucidate this problem, we cannot proceed scientifically. All that science can say is "compensating images i'. But our intuition realizes that those archetypes that are animated appear in the figure of the animus or anima. It is as though there were a spirit figure close to a man who can, under certain conditions, speak all those things that she knows all about.

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-25The anima has supernatural knowledge, and some women make a sport of appearing to have mush knowledge in order to catch men. This effect of her supernatural wisdom comes partly from her attitude and partly from the man's phantasy. This aspect is shown in the dream of the Black Magician, described elsewhere. The grave of the king is to be in the Virgin's grave. The Virgin is one untouched by man; that is, she has never touched the dreamer and the virgin is the immortal SHE, the anima. She is dead from time immemorial. She is legendary, that is to say, the anima-fact is unknown, the anima is that part of the soul which is unknown to our age. In fact till the last generation "soul" was only a metaphysical or religious concept, a thing given by the grace of God, guaranteed by baptism, etc. But the real anima of a man is shown by psychological experience to be like the primitive idea of soul; something between earth and heaven, as black as it is white; ghostlike; ill defined. Such a concept has disappeared since the time of antiquity or of primitive times. So the dream says she is dead, and untouched by man. So long as this figure is projected to a human being, it means that we just have not yet discovered the anima. in the young man's dream the projection even has been forgotten. The old king is about to die, the leading principle of an epoch is about to die. This needs a large and impressive monument, so that it shall not come again, and the soul shall be held inside. Or perhaps the king's soul is conducted to the invisible ship by the medicine man, as in the Melanesian myth. The beautiful monument means that it is an important thing that is to be buried; and it must be a safe burial. The anima is already in the unconscious and now the ruling principle is also to go into the unconscious. When the Romans became Christian, the old pagan world went down into the unconscious, into oblivion. There, there were already the old nature spirits. Then the old gods go down into the depths of the mountains. Wotan, for example, who moves in storms at night. The recognized gods of the day go down into the night. There they civilize the unconscious; they will gradually domesticate the unconscious. These attempts at individuation are sending missionaries to the unconscious, to baptize the heathen world of the unconscious. We do this same job on ourselves. This Christianizing of the unconscious is observable through analysis. The unconscious becomes more manageable. In time we shall have the whole Christian church in our unconscious. When the king is buried there in the unconscious, then the anima or her energy will be aroused. The corpse of the virgin rises as a black horse, a demonic animal of bad omen. It suggests something dangerous and uncanny. The horse runs away, outside the kingdom of the old king, beyond the desert. It seeks something new, in a place where we expect nothing but desert. This evil power goes on until it finds a new place for the world. Because it is thought of as something evil, because the new things from the unconscious are the repressed and refused things, thus it is only the black magician who is wise enough to follow the horse. The magician is always the superior men, for the superior man produces great effect, he has mans.. The black magician dares to trust himself even to something apparently evil. (He will obey the law, but when the time comes


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-26he will lay it aside, for he is above the law.) Perhaps he will follow his libido in en unlawful way. Then he finds the keys to paradise, which is the perfect state, a place of achievement. There is a Talmudic legend that Paradise was locked up after the Fall and removed into the future. Paradise, here, means the new impersonal attitude that is needed. The white magician cannot find the keys, because the way that seemed to be the wrong way led into the right way; for they needed the completion of things. In analysis we need such wrong things. All those things which have been neglected and rejected, even immoral things, even evil is needed for virtue cannot exist without evil, as light cannot exist without darkness. What we call good gives no path, no way. It is a cul-de-sac. fie cannot be good, and get better and better. Without the shadow we should begin to look at things immoral and evil with a different eye, as a way, a bridge, a transition, a way we may have to go through. This dream was dreamed by a young divinity student who felt the religious problem deeply, although he was not completely conscious of the problem. He was neurotic. This dream shows the function of the anima. She is the power that leads the way. She is also the driving force. She goes even wrong ways in order to find the way where the key is to be found. The animus has the same function, namely leading and pushing. So anima and animus sre functions of relationship between conscious and unconscious, in particular, the collective unconscious. The collective unconscious must be thought of as a world of images equivalent to the outer world which,ie the world of real objects. This formulation must be limited, however, by the recognition that both worlds are psychological functions only, that is, they are subjective. The collective unconscious is also defined as the unknown side of objective reality. Anima and animus are as it were messengers from the sorld of unknown images to our consciousness (op. persons). We can never enter the collective unconscious but we can send the anima or animus to bring us information. By making things with your hands without conscious intent you find a vision of the things of the unconscious. The inspiration working through your hands is animus or anima. This function is personified, and we consider it as intelligent. So we should talk to our animus or anima. To do this requires a certain dissociation, allowing the side associations to come up, and from these you can conclude the character of the ruler of these side associations. In difficult situations you talk to yourself, intuitively knowing that you are yourself and also that other. So you listen to the inner mentor, you develop the inner ear; or you write automatically, and a word is formed by your hand, or your mouth speaks that which you have not thought. Where one is identified with the collective unconscious, there is no recognition of the things which come from the unconscious, they cannot be distinguished from those of the self. Such a condition is a possession by the anima or animus. Possession by the animus or anima creates a certain psychological hermaphroditism. The principle of individuation demands a dissociation or differentiation of the male and the female in ourselvea. Wo must dissociate our self from the unconscious.


_2q_ In states of exoitoment we speak to ourselves as though to an excited animus the anima. crannotsbesnailed down anima. isrmultiform so When you can establish a communication between yourself and your tion other Then the c side, youdiyou certain hasncertaini qualit esbehind d,,you and can learn of her power. You can learn about the contents of properly, e or , and y ol a fu Then the animao i the collectivecomesco. hebee n, but onlyywhen the collect ve eunconsscious comes a function, n, she when the constellated problems or images have been realized; flcation, is exhausted, when you have already obtained an impersonal attitude. The result is, that brought about by communion with the anima results in individuation. By this objectivation you are detached from those things to which you were identified. Formerly the emotion had you, but by this objectivation you learn what you really are, you cut yourself out of the historical icaprocess;ss, product you fit yourself to be no longer just the ce l he histortpro f t c o you become the maker of the now day; you do this, we aro merely the result of the past. But, by achieving this connection with the soul figure, you become the ruler of your own fate.