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Air 2012 Lewei Jiang 265252


A Parametric Design Project Architecture Design Studio: Air University of Melbourne



2 Content

Part 0: PREFACE 0.1 about me 0.2 me and my architecture Part I: CASE FOR INNOVATION W.1 Architecture as a Discourse W.2 Computation in Architecture W.3 Parametric Architecture Part II: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST 2.1 Wyndham Project 2.2 Precedent 2.3 CUT Case Study 2.4 Matrix 2.5 Feedbacks & Reflection Part III: FINAL PROPOSAL 3.1 Design Concept 3.2 Site Analysis 3.3 Technique Exploration 3.4 Design Drawing 3.5 Final Design - Model 3.6 Feedback and Reflection



Part 0: PREFACE 0.1 About Me

You may ask why I am here? “Because NOW is 2012�

TICK (LEWEI) JIANG First year into Architecture, currently doing 2nd Semester of my Graduate Diploma in Planning and Design. I started my career as a marketer three years ago after graduating with Honours from Melbourne University. I have worked for an US engineering firm as Marketing Manager in Shanghai for two years, and now I am the Marketing Director of KGF Architecture and Design Inc.

Aided Drafting.

4 About Me

Architecture can express who I am and what I am better than a film or novel. Although a novel, a film or an architecture all can create an expeirience for people, the experience that created by architecture is more concrete and defined. I cannot deny that I want to express myself more than others and not verbally but in other ways. I wrote a 150,000 words novel when I was 16, and hundreds of poems over my teenage years. After that, I studied media communications, marketing in the university, hoping to find a way to express myself better, but still not feeling satisfied. So I participated in the Chinese Theatre Group and edited the scrip and directed its 15th Drama - Thunderstorm in 2009. After graduation I worked in Shanghai, and had been get involved in branding and marketing management, where I found opportunities made the <2012> corporate film. It interesting that I want to be able to express myself in Architecture, and learning the communication and techniques is why I am here.


My approach to design is mostly based on my previous experience with a team of international architects. I have been traveling around the world to research the design of hotels and resorts for the past five years. I am doing architecture now is because I want to design hotels and resorts, or to become an consultant for hospitality design. I do not have a degree in Architecture, I cannot draw and have little experience in Computer-

I directored a short film called <2012> for my previous company at the beginning of this year. During the process of making this film, I applied the architectural course here, because I love 2012, and I really want to spend this year like the last year of my life. Taking Air Studio could be one of the great challenge for me as a person that never good at drawings nor knowing much about architectural design.

0.2 Me and My Architects Family

I am born and raised in an Architect’s family. What I love is that every house we moved in were designed by my dad, and now I stay in the hotels he designed. It seems to be lucky to know and care about architecture as I grew up, and unluckily have to go to other industries as I was afraid I would never exceed him. But I was wrong, the only reason he did not want me to become an architect is because he worried that I would not become anything else. Until today, I realised that the only career I want is to be an architect. My favourate architect, is the man that raised me and loved me most - my dad. He believes in architectural functionalism, his design always achieves optimal performance in operations. He also cares about the regional culture of architecture, he was one of the pioneer the “New Chinese Style” architecture, has been successfully designed more than 800 projects.

Hong Xing Jiang 1st Class National Registered Architect 1st Class National Registered Engineer, Executive Vice Chairman of the Civil Engineering Committee of Yunnan Senior Member of China Architectural Association, Founding Member of Global Chinese Architectural Association, Executive Committee of National Real Estate Commerce & Design Association Executive member of the Southeast Asia Design Association.

Kunming Expo TAJ Hotel 2010-2012

What I learnt from him is that: we design for the people, and the architecture ultimately is to service the people.

Nine Dragon Grand Hotel 2009


Dali Banyan Tree

“If you want something new, you have to stop doing something old”


- Peter F. Drucker


W.1. Architecture As a Discourse The unprecendent evolution and revolution of architecture in today’s world urge us to think again: what architecture is all about? How digital Architecture create opportunities and problems for us today? Williams (2005) raised the term “discourse” to discribe architecture, which make architects to extend their views of architecture, towards a boarder perspective philosophicially, socially, professionally and as visual culture.

“Parametric Order—21st Century Architectural Order”

When architectures are defined as art, architects are expected to become the same kind as a partner or sculptor or author, to create unique discrete design that have their own integrity regardless of site. Digital architecture, especially the programming in architecture enabled architects today to create unique pieces of design more easily. The leader of this parametric and generative architecture paradiagm, UN Studio and Zaha Hadid, have created many revolutionary unseen project around the world, that expressed their time, chanllenged existing assumptions and definitions about architecture. Their projects illustrated what Williams (2005) suggested that when architecture is considered as an art should be. In other words, digital architecture provides a mean to make architecture art. The problems associated with digital architecture on the other hand, could also limits architecture to become art. Despite of the success of Zaha and UN Studio, the random and chaotic nature of digital architecture often take the control out of architects’s hand, become inaesthetic and obsolete.

Ben van Berkel / UNStudio’s design for The Scotts Tower unveiled in Singapore UNStudio’s design for The Scotts Tower in Singapore will be the first development to be unveiled today under the Far East Organisation’s new SOHO brand. Designed to conserve space whilst maximizing live/work/play areas, The Scotts Tower presents a new dimension of functional and flexible vertical space.

Digital architecture therefore should be practise in the consideration of the disourse of architecture, to create and innovate at the frontier of its controversial nature without losing the essential beauty of it. That is to execute projects that create a better life and a better world.


Realistically, what an architecture signify depend on the nature and context of it. The urban experience and art that architecture comprises, are limited to the requirement of the client, the debates among the stakeholders; are subject to the development of technology, materials, available resources etc.

Dubai Atlantis (complete in 2008), is one of my favourite architecture. The challenge of designning this hotel is to create a destination type of resort that capture the customers that want to stay in a hotel in Dubai as well as the visitor of Dubai. The design was based on the myth of Atlantis and maintains the iconic design elements of the Paradise Island property, while incorporating traditional Arabic design themes. Half of the site was used to build the 60-acre water theme park, which enable visitors in Dubai that are not staying in this hotel to come visit. My visit to Atlantis Hotel in 2011 is a trully unforgetable experience. The extraordinary experience within the hotel, reinforced the myth of Atlantis, and a dream to the paradise. I felt completely immersed in the dream in Atlantis. Thinking about Architecture today, even a hotel like this, needs a more complex definition. Both Emotional design and experiential design was studied for architects to implement. Emotional design is a design approach that emphasizes the importance of eliciting users’ positive emotional responses. With this approach, design research and practice are extended beyond function, form and usability, to emotional dimensions that enrich user experience (Kathy 2007). In the 2011 International Hotel Investment Forum, architects from Woods Bagot (Australia) talked about how to design for the guest experience. That made me realised that Architecture could means more than what the building is. As people who lives in the architecture have more and more expectations, there is a needs to consider how people’s five senses were stimulated by the architecture - the visual, the sound, the atmosphere, or the smell? The ultimate goal for architects is to translate the insights into design outcomes that help users achieve optimal experiences though a holistic design approach(Kathy 2007). So when we start to design today, as architects our job is to create an effect, but what effects to be created and can be created seems to be more complicated than before.

I think this project is a good demonstration of today’s architecture, and how the concept and discourse of Architecture has been evolved over time. The W group’s has always been my favourate hotel of all times. The first time I know about the W hotel is through the speaker of starwood hotel group last year at the Asian Hotel Investment Forum, the interesting design concept of W hotels has been amaze me since. After the conference I went to stay in a number of W hotels around US, what intriguing is its unique identity for each of the W hotels. This newly-opened illuminated W hotel in London (built in 2010) is one of the newly opened W hotel around the world. Such W London-Leicester Square designed by Jestico + Whiles and developed by McAleer & Rushe is a mixed-use building wrapped in a frameless glazing facades. Potentially a monster to heat during UK’s brutal winters, the 18,580 square meters building features a tri-generation system that gives this luxury facility a sustainable edge. What attractive about this design is the façade of the building to function like a vast pixellated screen – the first of its kind in the UK – capable of projecting dynamic light installations in an exciting new collaboration between contemporary architecture and art. In other words, it demonstrate architecture can be seen as a visual art. This striking visual effect is achieved by a sophisticated ceramic frit applied to the optically corrected glass of building’s outer skin, allowing it to ‘hold’ and project the light, without obstructing views outwards from the guestroom windows. The façade of the hotel has been wrapped in a second skin of frameless glazing, which shows the latest ideology that function can be different from the facades.


12 Part I: Case for Innovation/Week 1 Discourse in Architecture

CASE 1.1.2 W Lodon Hotel

CASE 1.1.1 Atlantis Hotel, the Palm

Pros The changing design ideology for the new architects. From computerization drafting to computation. This results in a new way of architectural design appraoch and methods. Rather than restricting forms as normal geometry, there is an unprecendent opportunity to explore architecture in more complex gemotry forms. Kinetic architecture and responsive architecture now can be designed through parametric design. Performative design can also be applied to optimize the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s functinality, which is difficult to achieve by architect alone.

The disadvantage of computation modeling or design is that: to fabricate or manufacture of the form is difficult, and often associated with high cost. To create something that was not able to be created does not mean it is functional, aethetic or applicable.

Different panelization options are generated via the code for the geometry with the assigned curve function: F= sin (v)+cos (u). The script (ParaMaterial 2011) performed at RhinoScript platform. Because planar quadrilateral panels obtain advantage of having a lower node complexity and are feasible for manufacturing, planar quadrilateral panels are operated for the geometry. The code enables that the architectural designer can identify if the geometry contains have any specific properties. Then architects just have to defined these shapes. The algorithm runs with the following procedural steps which the user needs to identify during the execution of the code: such as Selecting the NURBS surface. Defining the U and V values of the surface etcs.

Other than the coolness of computation design, what is really great about computation? The majority of people still think that computation modeling is superficial and not applicable, there must be some reason for it. We cannot deny the problem associated with computation modeling. And the ability to fabricate digital models into real life become a challenge. I feel this is like creating an invention, if architects cannot commercialise their digital/computational design, then the project is not viable. However, as we are pioneering this trend, sacrifice must be made, and experiments are neccessary. We are here to explore the possibility of computational design, and the goal is to learn to control it.

14 Part I: CASE FOR INNOVATION/Computation in Architecture

Generating Geometry using Grasshopper in Rhino 3D

To my understanding, the key is then to have a clear logic of what geometry we want, how are we going to manipulated it (in terms of a specific point, a suface, an edge or a solid), and how are we going to find the specific properties that we want to manipulate through the available tools we have: Maths? It seems to me that after computation in architecture has been introduced, it changed the way I usually approaching design - which through just drawing. Now there is more problems to be solved, and instead of drawing, we have making the rules of how geometries work, in other words, this is a higher level of thinking - using the essences of things to make it work. This makes design even more challenging in the way that we have to become the maters of thoes softwares.


Computer modeling also enables to generate realistic contect and situation for architects, so that when the architecture is built, we have more confident it will work as intended. i.e. Performative architecture, where architects can use software to test the optimized design or system design. EnergyPlus is one of the tools that US government sponsored for testing the energy consumption for the building, and optimized system can be achieved through testing.


How Scripting Works?

W.2 Computation in Architecture

I was fascinated by an new stream of Architecture Computation researched by Bao An Nguyen Phuoc, Arie-willem De Jongh, and Mingy Seol from TU Delft. They explores the generation of programmatic, structural and spatial order through a multi-agent based design methodology which operates in a high pressure environment. The intention was to achieve highly varied heterogeneous spatial formations, catering to a wide variety of human activities and programmatic demands. The strategy of the project was to explore the possibilities of connecting exclusive programmatic and hard threshold zones through a continuous and gradient experience of the multifunctional voids and green areas.

CASE 1.2.1 Multi-agent Modeling

Although it is creative in the way that let the “agent” design the optimized solution of the architecture. When we ask the architect: how do you decide on which sitimulation of the modeling to choose? The answer I got is often: the one that looks the best to me. Such answer just make me wonder: where is the control? why do we need architects if every agent is going to design a building on its own. If I am not wrong, to design the rules for the “agent” is like writing a legal contract, there is always a risk in not covering all the rules, as we have limitations as humans. Therefore, the design could be worse than if we just do the design ourselves, as we are the architects. Computation to me is more of a optimising tool than a designer.


16 Part I:CASE FOR INNOVATION/Week 2 Computation in Architecture

Parametricism, according to Patrik Schumacher (2008) The style is rooted in digital animation techniques. Its latest refinements are based on advanced parametric design systems and scripting techniques, which I disscussed in the previous section. It is fascinating that this style has been developed over the last 15 years and is now claiming hegemony within avant-garde architecture. Today as we can see that parametric architecture succeeds modernism as a new long wave of systematic innovation. Patrik also mentioned that Parametricism is the great new style after modernism. I agree that Parametricism is very successful today in terms of generating innovative architectures. He further mentioned that “The new style claims relevance on all scales from architecture and interior design to large scale urban design. The larger the scale of the project the more pronounced is parametricism’s superior capacity to articulate programmatic complexity. The urbanist potential of parametricism has been explored in a three year research agenda at the AADRL - Parametric Urbanism – and demonstrated by a series of competition winning masterplans by Zaha Hadid Architects.” In other words, Zaha Hadid is the leader for parametric design. I love Zaha’s work as I learnt about that her style is more than what it looks like. I will further discuss this in the case study.

CASE 1.2.2 Guang Zhou Opera House Guang Zhou Opera house is a architecture that linked to a large number of complex architectural concepts and ideas, it is a very good example of how Parametric Architecture is developed, built and experienced.

W.3 Parametric in Architecture

The architecture is aother Zaha’s latest project, located down stream of Pearl River, the Guangzhou Opera House, as the media suggested “The world’s most spectacular opera house”. Again, Hadid beat competition from the Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas and the Austrian collective Coop Himmelb(l)au to win the project in 2002 with her design that evokes the smoothing of rocks in the nearby Pearl River and houses both a 1,800-seat auditorium and a smaller 400-seat hall. The most exciting aspect of this project is its strong influence to fashion. When you see this architecture, you probably would think its form is identically parametric. But in addition to that, this project is beautiful, and has many exquisite aspects. Maybe because seeing from a woman’s perspective, I feel this project is trendy and fashionable.

Pros & Cons of Parametric Architecture The ability to create a “WOW” project is not hard for parametric design, however, to make the project to satisfy the real life constructionability is difficult. Parametric design extend the possibility of creativity, it generates surprising design that is in free form. The hardest part of any parametric design is fabrication and construction. Any parametric form should be able to be constructed - that is to have a feasible structure and materials that can fabricate the form.


18 Part I: CASE FOR INNOVATION/Week 3 Parametric Architecture

Guangzhou Opera House, Guangzhou Zaha Hadid Architects Estimated cost: 1 billion RMB ($152 million)

CASE 1.3.1 Guang Zhou Opera House Fashion, what we are following today, followed Zaha. The Architecture was cited by the fashion designer Vivienne Tam as the source of inspiration for her Autumn collection in 2010.Indeed, Zaha did drew inspirations from the Fashion Icon - Vivian Tam’s 2011 Fall Collection. Finally, we see a synthesis between fashion and architecture. Although in the past, architecture was more lay back compare to Art and Science, the Guanzhou Opera House surprisingly had a influence on fashion.

Guangzhou Opera House, Guangzhou Zaha Hadid Architects

Technology and local landscape are also important in this design. The 1,800-seat auditorium of the Opera House houses the very latest acoustic technology, and the smaller 400-seat multifunction hall is designed for performance art, opera and concerts in the round.The Guangzhou Opera House design has been particularly influenced by river valleys – and the way in which they are transformed by erosion. Fold lines in this landscape define territories and zones within the Opera House, cutting dramatic interior and exterior canyons for circulation, lobbies and cafes, and allowing natural light to penetrate deep into the building. Smooth transitions between disparate elements and different levels continue this landscape analogy.

This is an unprecendent example of how architecture today could potentially has a strong impact on our lives, including arts, fashion and entertainment.

Theatre Guangzhou Opera House, Guangzhou Zaha Hadid Architects

20 Part I: CASE FOR INNOVATION/Week 3 Parametric Architecture VIVIAN TAM’S DESIGN 2012



CONSTRUCTION The construction of architecture could potentially be the most difficult stage when the design is to be reslised and built. It is no doubt that it would become the key problem of Parametric Architectures - easy to create on the computer but often not

CASE 1.3.2 Guang Zhou Opera House

in real life. Difficult geometrical shapes largely increases the complexity in structure and fabrication. Many of those parametric facades are almost impossible to achieve using traditional building materials. Luckily the technologies have advanced to the stage where we could customise smart materials easily, and can utilise roborts in prefabrications to achieve precision and complex construction tasks. For the Granzhou Opera House, a new material - custom moulded glass-fibre reinforced gypsum (GFRC) units have been used for the interior of the auditorium to continue the architectural language of fluidity and seamlessness. It is easy to notice that the scaffold system for such project is rather complicated.


22 Part I: CASE FOR INNOVATION/Week 3 Parametric Architecture


Case 1.3.3: Kinetic Sculpture What I found most intersting is the Kinetic Architecture. One particularly stunning highlight from the 125 exhibits packed into the newlyrenovated BMW Welt in Munich is a mechatronic installation by ART+COM, the

Berlin-based interactive media company. The project uses 714 metal balls that

are individually suspended one barely visible strings, creating an seemingly

weightless, amorphous mass. Each ball lowers and retracts independently, which allows them to approximate almost any form.

The installation moves through a cycle of classic and contemporary BMW car

shapes from throughout the company’s 90-year history. In between cars, it goes through some impressive routines, showing the creation’s versatility.

The inspiration of this project is the “INVISIBLE” forces. If we could provides

a project that is driven by invisible forces, it could create some amazing experience for the viewers.


24 Part I: CASE FOR INNOVATION/Week 4 Kinetic Case Study


American airtst Ned Kahn has been the king of Kinetic installations that is driven by the natural elements: wind, fog, fire, water and sand etc.

Case 1.3.4: Brinsbane Airport

Fabrication and Installation of ‘Turbulent Line’, the Brisbane Domestic Terminal car park’s kinetic façade is well underway with many panels on the 5,000 square metre artwork already installed on the Western side of the car park. The fluid, rippling effect of Kahn’s artwork can already be seen from the Domestic terminals, Virgin Australia lounge and the Airtrain’s platform when the slightest breeze shifts across the panels. As I discussed earlier regarding the construction of parametric designs, the Installing the façade has been made much faster and simpler thanks to a piece of robotic machinery designed by UAP and Troy Montgomery Construction. Based on a modified two tonne excavator, the robotic machinery utilises custom designed compressed air clamps and trolleys which allow the project team to install each portion of the façade from the interior of the car park, removing the need for exterior scaffolding, cranes and other devices. The robot is being put forward for a Queensland Safe Work Award in 2012. Apart from the installation, is that possible to maintain the kinetic panels by another robotic machinery? I guess it would be painful for anyone to clean those panels too. ADS Air/LEWEI JIANG 265252

26 Part I: CASE FOR INNOVATION/Week 3 Computation in Architecture

ARTIST Ned Kahn ARTWORK TITLE Turbulent Line PROJECT Brisbane Domestic Terminal Car Park CLIENT Brisbane Airport Corporation LOCATION Brisbane, QLD, Australia ARCHITECT Hassell Sydney DOCUMENTATION Bureau^ Proberts Architects CURATORIAL UAP, Natasha Davies DESIGN UAP Studio, Daniel Clifford

“The term ‘Total Architecture’ implies that all relevant design decisions havebeen considered together and have been integrated into a whole by a well organised team empowered to fix priorities”

Part II: Expression Of Interest

Ove Arup, 1970


28 Part II: Expression of Interest

The Wyndham City Gateway Project Our design was focused on kinetic sulptures.


2.1 Wyndham Project The Whole trip on the site took only 45 seconds. In other to create an experience that has enough impact on the passenger, we want to use kinetic panels that installed along the site to generate an spontaneous movement of objects on the panels that is visible. To get the kinetic working, I studied Ned Kahn’s projects in order to understand how kinetic can work and which way is the best. SPATIAL EXPERIENCE Kinetic Wind Rain Sound Ideas Scale (Geometry and panel) resolution Invisibility and porosity of structure Doppler effect – Electromagnetic wave




Lightness and movement



Ned Kahn’s Articulated Clouds was the first of large scale wind-kinetic architecture facades. It creates extraordinary visual effects from the wind. The tuberlance that created by the wind ultimately generated a exciting experience both visually and acoustically.

Museum in which the artist Ned Kahn cooperated with architects Koning/Eizenberg, the museum’s staff, contractors, and a plastics manufactorer. The whole party was there and because it was no longer just one party’s brainchild, something truly wonderful

2.2 CUT Case Study: Articulated Clouds

Articulated Cloud is a facade covering for the Pittsburg Children’s

resulted. The wall is composed of thousands of white plastic square which move with the wind. Just as a cloud traces the paths of airflow as they cut through the sky, these flaps move in chorus and flow to create the impression that the entire building is enveloped in an abstract cloud. Ned Kahn replicates the forms and forces of nature. Studying systems that happen naturally, and what effect even the smallest influence that man can have on that system, Kahn’s work is both performance art of choreographed natural phenomena, and controlled simulation for understanding elemental forces.




the earth’s


ASSOCIATION: Attractor Points


2.2 CUT Case Study: Articulated Clouds

ASSOCIATION: Image Sampler

ASSOCIATION: Image Sampler & Attractor Points

Effects of turning the panels that affects the apperance of the image












CUT Case Study: Kinetic Pavillion Thematic Pavilion EXPO 2012 in Yeosu, South-Korea by soma designed using Rhino As a major and permanent facility the Thematic Pavilion embodies the Expo’s theme “The Living Ocean and Coast” in manifold ways. We experience the Ocean mainly in two ways, as an endless surface and in an immersed perspective as depth. This plain/profound duality of the Ocean motivates the building’s spatial and organisational concept. Continuous surfaces twist from vertical to horizontal orientation and define all significant interior spaces. The vertical cones induce the visitor to immerse into the Thematic Exhibition. They evolve into horizontal levels that cover the foyer and become a flexible stage for the „Best Practice Area“. This is now can be easily achieved in Grasshopper, which was not possible a few years back.



Architect: soma Name of Project: Thematic Pavilion EXPO 2012 Location: Yeosu, South-Korea Start of construction: 2010 (completion 2012)Client: The Organizing Committee for EXPO Yeosu 2012

EOI CASE 2.3: Adaptive Frittingâ&#x201E;˘

2.3 PRECEDENT DOPPLER EFFECT The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift), is the change in frequency of a wave (or

Hoberman created a dynamic installation for Harvard Graduate School of Design based

other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source The received

on Adaptive Building Initiative's shading technology. As with standard fritted glass, this

frequency is higher (compared to the emitted frequency) during the approach, it

technology utilizes a graphic pattern in order to control heat gain and modulate light, while

is identical at the instant of passing by, and it is lower during the recession. The

allowing sufficient transparency for viewing. This inspires us on the manipulation of views

total Doppler effect may therefore result from motion of the source, motion of the

through porosity.

observer, or motion of the medium.


The installation at Gund Hall consists of six motorized panels comprising a 24-foot by 4-foot window, housed within a curved wall. These panels are programmed to form a dynamic field where light transmission, views, and enclosure continuously adapt and change. As the panels transform, the visual effect is of sparse dots blossoming into an opaque surface.

Although there is no previous kinetic project adopts doppler effect, we think we can utilized it as the input of the grasshopper, to programming a porosity change based on the frequence change. Since the driving experience on the highway is highly related to the doppler effect, and when drivers approach the gateway, the doppler effect could be applied to the sculpture that enhances the experiences, also to provides a grounding for the design.



The porosity is experiemented through the overlapping in grasshopper.

1. LAYERS Although the increase in the numbers of the layers could potentially decrease the porosity of the surface, that is reduce the visibility behind the object. 2. DIRECTION The directions of overlapping has a greater impact on the reduction in the porosity of the surface. The move of 0.5 on either direction would create the lowest porosity to the surfaces for the same number of layers. 3. CLEARITY The overlapping for different directions can result in the change of clearity of the original image or pattern. That is to moving all layers towards only vertical or only horinzontal directions would result in distortion of image towards that direction. That is to result increase in porosity of rows (horizontal) or colum (vertical).


Y - Vertical

Y - Vertical

X - Number of layers








X - Factor of circular surface

Z - Horizontal







The porosity is the lowerest among all images when there is the largest number of layers overlapping, and at the direction factor of (0.5,0.5), moving on both vertically and horizontally.



ASSOCIATIONS IMAGE SAMPLER Pros: Best way of manipulating the surface porosity. It is fexible, and can create

STREAMING TEXT Pros: Easy to create certain linear porosity on surface. Easy to manipulate the size of the object. It is possible to create low porosity through systematic overlapping. Cons: Not flexible with curved images. The patterns could be very boring.




Cons: Relatively difficult to create high porosity or zero porosity with imaged patterns.



Z - Horizontal


55,1,1 ADS Air/LEWEI JIANG 265252

4. FACTOR OF OBJECTS The increase in the factor of object, that is an increase in the total number of obejcts, will definitely reduce the porosity of the surface. When the factor of object is relatively small, the movements either vertically or horizontally will both reduces the porosity of the surface significantly. On the other hand, when the factor of object is relatively large, due the a low porosity is achieved, the impact of directionally overlapping therefore is limited.





The SCALE is experiement with the changing of inputs and out puts in grasshopper.


Doppler Effect is analysized through the changing of wave patterns within the grasshopper.

Size of the objects Manipulate the size of the object is the most effectively to create the intended pattern.


Low Frequency


High Frequency

Large Wave

Number of the objects Increase the number of the object would enhance the contrast between the void and solid.



Combo Wave



Small Wave

Light Wave

Strong Wave

The final Model we made applied image sampler for the different height of the straw. In other words, each straw is distinctive in heights.




Panels were separates into three parts with different number of holes and different distance between holes. This is to illustrate the that driving from Melbourne is like reducing in density, which feels like getting away from the city. On the other hand, when they driving from the lower density will feel like going into the city. This is how the doppler effect work for this Gateway project.

Attractor A :Directions



Attractor A :Directions


THE FIRST GLANCE Creating an exciting and eye catching effect


AFTER THE FIRST GLANCE Make people think about, impressed Because they had a great experience. ARCHITECTURE AS VISUAL ART The effect created by Kinetic Art is never the same Because the world we live in, is always unexpected. MODEL The model was made with grasshopper and laser cut panels.

The straws are fitted by the fish lines, so that they can move by winds or other forces.



The straws were also cut based on the grasshopper generated lengths, to ensure the dynamic surfaces are created.

2.5 MODELING Front View

Side Views


Kinetic Movement was created by hundreds strings of straws that fixed between two panels. To illustrate the Doppler Effect, the distance between, numbers and lengths of straws were determined by grasshopper definitions. The key parametric part of this design is its ability to control every single variables.




THE FEEDBACKS @OUR PRESENTATION FAILED TO EXPLAIN OUR PROJECT. @MODELLING Our project was suggested that could extend the use of grasshopper in modelling, as the present physical model seems could all be done in the Rhino 3D without grasshopper. More parametric variables should be used in the grasshopper modeling, including: improve the transition of the density of patterns, more dynamic generation of line positions, better expression of volumes of the straws. @CHALLENGES The key challenge of this project is to make the model kinetic, which means it has to move in certain ways. The kinetic forces that can be utlized onsite would be wind and rain. Although our original idea is the make the cylinders moving along the strings that driven by wind. However, in terms of contruction and structure, the system seems to be not to work as what we imagined. That is the movement that created by this cylinder system can be not so obvious, and thus not generating the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Architectural Effectsâ&#x20AC;? as we expected. The other chanllege is come up with the best kinetic system for the intended site. As Alison suggested, wind directions and weather profiles of the site should all be taken into considerations.

The relationship between density and the Doppler Effect can be used as the base to create optical illusions, which can be linked to movement, which was our original idea for the design.

Density Kinetic

Doppler Effect Movement


Optical Illusion Compression


Speeding Up

Slowing Down



Porosity and the Doppler Effect was one of the focus for the project, however, it is difficult to combine those two ideas together. Instead of using porosity, the Dopper Effect could be explored with Density.

Part III: Final Proposal


52 Part III: Final Proposal

3.1 Design Concept


Concept Parametric Basis

The Wyndham City Gateway, is about creating the “effect” and “experience” that we are able to see, feel, connect, and love about, today and tomorrow. Because it send the message about our future in a positive way and it does something for the sustainability of our future. All of those were enabled by digital design, and the style of Parametricism, which makes more things more possible.




Doppler Effect



Land Form



Visual Illusion

Seasonal changes

Love Story

For Passager

Speed Reduction

Nature appriciation

Feeling Touched

For All of Us

Dramatic Experience

Stormwater Management

Sustainable Future



DOPPLER EFFECT IS A PHYSICAL term that was observed 170 years ago. It is used to measure a lot of things: Astronomy, temperature, radar etc. It applied in area: ROAD - (Speed Camera), Wind (Doppler Wind Radar Observation),

Doppler Effect

3.1 Design Concept 1

We used that because this affects the driver - speed, temperature of the city metro area (Melbourne) and country, it is about a motion - driving from a to b, and it relevant to the radar - wind- visualiation

Wind (Radar) Movement Doppler Effect

Speed Camera Wave Length Temperature

Doppler Effect is a strong concept in our design. Our idea is to utilize doppler effect for: (1) the base of our design (its formular in generating the geometry in Grasshopper, and its Wave Shape for the geometry).

(3) to communicate the message from the Wyndham City Council, which here we use it to create optical illusions that slowing down drivers. We decided to do this because doppler effect were also used by speed cameras. This concept also have a strong linked to the weather station, which is used for wind radar - known as the doppler wind. This can help us further determine where and how to use it. I will expand on this further on site analysis.


(2) for creating an visual experience and impact on the people.

3.1 Design Concept 2 Optical Illusion

Case 3.1.1: Hitchcock Hallway AVPD Hitchcock Hallway YEAR : 2010 EXHIBITION: Hitchcock Hallway, IKON Eastside, IKON Gallery, Birmingham, UK MEASURES : 2500 x 120 x 240 cm MATERIALS : Fire proof plaster boards, wooden laths, doors, door fixtures, door closers, carpet, paint, neon tubes, fixtures, perspex, skirtings, paint.

Hitchcock Hallway is a series of 11 consecutive rooms. The rooms are connected by doors and they all look alike. One room leads to the next similar looking room which leads to the next similar room and so forth. The rooms are not alike. When moving into the rooms from the lobby all dimensions of the rooms slightly decreases, this makes the first room 13,21 m3 and the last room 5,26 m3. The change from one room to the next is unrecognizably subtle, but over several rooms it’s distinct.


Part III: Final Proposal


The title makes reference to director Alfred Hitchcock, whose use of architectural motifs in his films typically enhances the psychological intensity of the narrative. This work has no narrative. It creates a spatial situation where the perceptual judgment between similarity and difference is challenged and the subject’s position in time and space is questioned.

This is similar to what we want for the project, that is to create an optical effect through the increase the density of objects based on the rule of the Doppler Effects, which is to increase the number of objects, and reduce the distance between objects. By doing that, when drivers driving from the the objects that are less densed, optical illusion would create a feeling of “speeding up”. Oppositely, the driver would feel “slowing down”.

In terms of landscape design, I love Maya Lin’s work. I have also looked at many other similar landscapes. The beatifulness about all these landscape is its natural flow of form. I think this is also linked to Zaha’s work about natural movement and forms.

“Bilabaŋ Bilabaŋ which means “a watercourse that runs only after rain”

We are all very familar with Billabong, as it is a important part of Austrlia, and not to mention that it is also a famous surfing brand.

Concept 2: The Tale of Billabong Billabong would be the best landform that we can related to, and utilizing its hilly form to create a doppler effect out of it. The doppler effect from a billabong landform would be so much greater than just from man-made panels or other high way sculptures you can see everywhere else. I believe the Billabong concept gives our project a strong culture ground, and also make our sculpture unique and distictive.

As I research through, there are quite a lot of stories about billabong and aborigional peoples that lives here. Even ABC kids Channel have interactive stories about billabongs and how people lives there. Below right is an drawing called “one mile billabong” from the aborigional artist Badger Bates. It tells an interesting story about how people’s lives were closely connected to the billabong.

how we caught our yabbie” -Badger



“The billabong was important to get yabbies and shrimps, and a good place to get mussels. We was allowed to go there when we was kids because it was safe to have a swim, but we was never allowed to swim in the river on our own. We never had yabby nets, but sometimes we’d make shrimp cans which we put bait into to catch shrimps and yabbies. A shrimp can is a large tin can with lots of holes punched in it, and rope or wire tied to it to pull it out of the water with. At times we’d go up onto the red sand hill near the One Mile Billabong, and get a lot of roly poly grubs to eat, and then we’d get the roly poly bush and put it in the billabong and it acts like a yabby net. Its best to carry the bushes along on a stick because it’s got burrs on it. Sometimes the wind would blow some bushes in and then if we wanted yabbies all these roly polys were already set, and the yabbies would get in em. we’d throw the bushes out and that’s

Concept 2: The Tale of Billabong “As the sun crests the dark line of land, I wake and step from the river, and that in itself is what called magic. We have always lived here. We have been here since the lakes began. We have brought the rivers to the oceans since the world was cold.” - River’s Wife


Melbourne Area. Therefore, to illustrate the effect of Doppler waves, the higher freqrencies occurs on the North East side of the Site.

Doppler Effect


The urban density increases as we moving towards

Ur H ba igh n De er ns ity

3.2 Site Analysis - Urban Density

3.2 Site Analysis - The River and The Billabong River is one of the key features around site. Especially Werribee River, which runs across the Prince Fwy towards the ocean. The billabong around the river then became our inspiration for the design. Original Inhabitants around the site area was: Jurung Jang Balluk. They are living around the Kororoit Ck to Werribee River. Their story about the Werribee river and their lives their is fascinating. To learn about them, and their lives with the river, the billabongs, I researched a bit more.


The most of the site were used for our landscape sculture to create the maximized effect. We wil use the site edge as our base of our design, and those landscape sculptures are placed in order to maximize the impact on the viewers.

Summary & Mission Together with the natural landscape, I also analysed the architecture, the science (doppler effect and optical illusions), the culture, and came up with the love story of the billabong which summarize our concepts.

3.2 Site Analysis

Our design will convey the message of the billabong, through the careful thinking behind. We design for the people, the community and the Earth we live on. We design to control the Parametric techniques, not control by it. The effect we create will be complex, dramatic, and positive on all of us. It will become a part of the land, which will get more and more beautiful over time.


3.3 Concept Development - Technique Exploration

â&#x20AC;&#x153; (Architecture today) insdead requires architects to carefully examine the whole area with new interventions and programmatic typologiesâ&#x20AC;? -Zaha Hadid


In order to archieve the billabong landscape, I tried many techniques in grasshopper that might help with our design. I found that using curves, and manipulate the points on the curves (i.e. control points) is the best way to achieve the land form we wanted. Because Curve is easy and flexible.

3.3 Concept Development - Technique Exploration

In addition, curves can be used for representation of the site, so that we can easily place our design on the site. The key of the technique is that: we have to control the site, we have to have the control of the points or curves we wanted. The last problem then is to creating the doppler waves on the landform. 4 further technique studies were done before we actually get the final results. It seems that be able to realize the concept, is just the beginning of parametric design.


To explore the doppler effect, a water drop effect was used to create the rings of waves, and I tried to manipulate the waves. The advantage of this definition is that the use of graph is easy to control the frequencies and the lengths of the waves. I remained this function for further development.

3.3 Technique 1- Doppler waves However, using this methode, the wave created are not exactly doppler curves as the curves are not closer on the one side than the other. Moreover, the waves are not controlled the way I wanted. For further development, I am thinking to use the points on those circles to generate curves according based on the reference points. To create doppler effects, the distance of the points can set as increasing - like doppler effects.


Wave Length

Circle Size

No. Wave

3.3 Technique 2 - Doppler Wave Matrix

> Circles are used to represent the Doppler Effect > Associations (Graph Mapper) are used to control: - Number of Waves - Circle Size - Wave length Multiple Doppler Waves can be achieve by the same definition. Surface can be created from the curves from both sides or beside each other.

Curve Side Lofting


Circle lofting

--> The best result is the one that lofting the curves besides each other.


Creating Surface Loft From Site Edge


Final Definition

3.3 Final Technique - Doppler Wave Matrix on Site

Definition for each Reference Curve - Site Edge




Graph Mapper Manipulation

3.3 Final Technique - Doppler Wave Matrix on Site



Wave Length - Decreasing




Frequencies - Decreasing

1. Adjusting for Final Heights

The tallest hills will be 8 meters, and the side wall on road will be 2 meters. The distance between hills will be at least 3 meters wide for construction.

2. Deciding on fabrication methods

When the surface created, we found that the road surfaces are missing, and it is difficult to create a model, because in our current Rhino 3D model, we do not have the existing ground as a base. So we need to either creating a surface for the road and connecting all the loss pieces of surface in order to get ready for laser cut.

Fabrication Fabrication for our model was difficult, as it is a very complex land form surface.

Final Technique - Fabrication

(1) 3D Print. At the beginning we were thinking about 3D Printing, as it would give the highes precision on our design. However, as we wanted to create a 1:1000 model, we need at least 4 3D Print pieces, but we do not want the model to be separated. (2) Laser Cut. Finally we decided to use laser cut. By using contour in Grasshopper we are able to generate contour lines for laser cut, however, due to the expense of the materials, and the thickness of the materials, the model would not be as precious as 3D print.


Because many contour lines were not single lines. We have to manually check every single line to make sure the waves are optimized for laser cut. That took us at least 3 hours each person.

3.4 Design Drawings - Plan The site is considered to be three separate sites. The largest site will be 110m long and 25m wide. The choice of the site location is based on the traffic directions for the doppler effect to occur.


3.4 Design Drawings - Section


The new land form is basically formed from the existing earth and a pre-casted concrete structure.

3.4 Design Drawings Construction Process

GPS is used for the concrete jointing and construction to ensure the precision.


3.4 Design Drawings Construction Process The structure of the landform will be constructed with a waffle structure. this structure will enable the landform to be maintained in long term. Pre-casted concrete will be used for the waffle structure to be assembled on site.


3.4 Design Drawings - Construction Process Details



3.4 Design Drawings Water Treatment


3.4 Design Drawings - Retaining Wall

“Architecture begins where engineering ends” - Walter Gropius


3.5 Final Design - Physical Model


3.5 Final Physical Model


3.5 Final Design-Seasonal Change Spring






The feedback for our presentation is generally positive, as we progressed a lot since midsemester. The highlight of our presentation is that we all extended our limits, and went beyond what is required, just thinking about this project as a real project, and put everything I could into the project. The main issue with the presentation is that the font were terrible and the layout was not clear. I think communication is difficult when we trying to presenting the design while presenting like a art work (i.e. in rendering or beautifully designed layout).

After this studio I feel I can design now.

Another thing from the presentation is that the design we present must be proved in some way is feasible for the project. As we considered the cost of the construction, so we decided to do a landscape scultpture instead of other sculptures, and we use Quadror units for the retaining wall to reduce the cost and increase the speed of construction.

The key of parametric design is learn to control the software, that is to know the rules of the game. This is quite challenging for all architects. What I like about the parametric design is its methods of creating geometry. Because I am not good at drawing, and have little knowledge about CAD (actually, only touched it a few times), Grasshopper give me the advantage of creating the geometry I want the way I wanted. This is actually a easier way of design for me personally.

There is always limitations in presenting so many ideas at once, it is rather difficult to present this one, as we not only designed a landscape sculpture, we also thinked about how to use it, what effect it creates, the possibility of water treatment, the possibility of retaining wall design etc. And when the ideas were generated, it is also hard to combine them together. I guess in the future, I have to focus on the key concept and ideas and push it though out the whole design.

The learning objective for me is the learn about parametric design and how we can apply it in real life. On the other hand, I wanted to become a expert of Zaha. Before, like Paul said that I do not really know or understand about Zaha’s work. The reason I take this course is to learn about Zaha’s world of Architecture, and now I feel I am gradually learning about this fantacy world.

I love this way of design and the process of generating architecture. I know that sculpture, especailly a high-way sculpture is just the beginning of a diffculture architecture, there is a long way to go.



We failed so many times for this project. At least, we wanted to give up so many times. At the beginning, no one is good at Grasshopper definition, and we are never able to generate the geometry we wanted, or be able to control it. That’s way our EOI sucks, and it did not even use grasshopper to generate the model, Rhino 3D alone is enough. To use fish lines for the structure was a nightmare, it took us more than 7 hours straight to finish the model. Although it looks cool in someway, it is not useful for any further development.

As everything else failed, I succeed in completing this course.

Then comes to the final drawing, one of the group member could not draw anything, so I have to take the whole presentation InDesign work plus not blame for some really bad drawings - especially we missed the matrix section.

I learned lots of Grasshoppers. I know lots of definitions by heart now. I learnt how to fabricate and how to do it properly, and I learnt a lot of InDesign work. Thank you very much Paul and Alison, I have to acknowledge lots of our design ideas and techniques came from you. Including the Billabong - see how much you taught us!


After the EOI, I spend a few weeks studied Grasshopper, and finally built some definition that can work for Doppler Effect. But after we finished the design, we could not even get the surface merge with a base box right for the fabrication. That alone took three days. Then we give up, and contour the section lines with the surface intersecting the box, and have to trim every single line. In total, I trimed 765 lines, with more than 2500 trims, and 6 hours.


Week 1-5 (1) Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 16. (pdf); (2) Kathy Pui Ying LO (2007) Emotional Design for Hotel Stay Experiences: Research on Guest Emotions and Design Opportunities, International Association of Hotel Research Paper. (3) ParaMaterial (2011) Architectural Geometry Informed by Static and Dynamic Loading Conditions. Retrived from: http:// (4) Patrik Schumacher (2008) Parametricism - A New Global Style for Architecture and Urban Design Published in: AD Architectural Design - Digital Cities, Vol 79, No 4, July/August 2009, London

Final Proposal - Pictures

Picture 1: Parametric Architecture (2012) retrived from: Picture 2: UN Studio (2012) Scott Tower, retrived from Picture 3: Patrik Schumacher, (2012) "Parametric Order—21st Century Architectural Order", retrived from: http://www. Picture 4: Kinetic Facades:


EOI: %8F%82%E6%95%B0%E5%8C%96%E8%AE%BE%E8%AE%A1.jpg Adaptive fittings Porosity Alantatic W hotel


Ned Kahn Billabong: Technique Exploration Material


Agent based



ADS Air Studio Journal Lewei Jiang (Tick)


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Air Journal