Page 1

New edition

Letterland has helped many children to become skilful readers, accurate spellers and to love literacy with the help of the engaging characters and memorable phonic stories. Now this sequel Grade Two Guide provides fresh support for the second school year. Children will learn the Six Syllable Types that help them predict the vowel sounds in thousands of previously unknown words. They will gain confidence as readers and writers as the Letterland story logic helps them to make sense of the many complexities of written English. Placement tests and formative assessments of spelling and fluency let you choose the optimal level for children to start, and enable you to closely track their progress. Key features include: • • • • • • • • • •

scientific research-based instruction that is exceptionally child-friendly systematic, synthetic phonic emphasis for daily support of literacy learning word structure teaching, including syllable types/division, prefixes and suffixes innovative multisensory methods for reading and spelling interactive strategies to engage children’s attention and accelerate learning continuous review of previous learning built in to each Unit comprehension taught regularly with discussion, questioning and storytelling emphasis on fluency at all levels: letter sounds, words, sentences, and stories Includes free CD with full assessment strand assessment and intervention compatible with Response to & extra learning Intervention (RTI) resources valuable reproducible resources on the accompanying CD including over 40 decodable Readers Theater plays.

You may also like: Code: TH09 ISBN 978-1-78248-088-4

Includes free CD with full assessment strand & extra learning resources

9 781782 480884 Child-friendly phonics

See our full range at: www.letterland.com TH09_OFCOBC.indd All Pages

Step-by-Step daily lessons 09/06/2015 15:17


Step-by-Step daily lessons

By Stamey Carter and Lyn Wendon Originator of Letterland

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Published by Letterland International Ltd, Leatherhead, Surrey, KT22 9AD, UK © Letterland International 2015 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 First published 2009. Reprinted 2010. This revised edition published 2015. ISBN: 978-1-78248-088-4 Product Code: TH09 LETTERLAND® is a registered trademark of Lyn Wendon. Written by: Stamey Carter, Lyn Wendon Originator of Letterland: Lyn Wendon Editor: Stamey Carter Design: Laura Bittles, Lisa Holt Editorial Assistant and Picture Editor: Klara E. Skariah, MA The authors assert the moral right to be identified as the authors of this work. Any educational institution that has purchased one copy of this book may make duplicate copies of the pages on the Phonics Teacher’s Guide CD for use exclusively within that institution. Permission does not extend to reproduction, storage within a retrieval system, or transmittal in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, or duplicate copies for loaning, renting or selling to any other institution without the prior written permission of the Publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not by way of trade or otherwise be lent, hired out, sold, or otherwise circulated without the Publisher’s written consent. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

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What is Letterland? Explain Letterland to your children along these lines… Do you know about the special place called Letterland? If you do, you can tell your friends and your family about all the friendly letter people and animals that live there. And here are some Letterland secrets all of you may want to talk about: Every Letterlander has a special sound and they love it when you make their sounds. When you see letters in stories, you won’t see the Letterlanders, but they are there, hiding behind their plain letters, ready to help when you need them. Not sure about a particular letter – just look at the letter shape and imagine the Letterlander in your mind. To get the sound, just start to say the Letterlander’s name and you’ll have the sound right on your tongue. The Letterlanders are very happy when you use their sounds to read words. But that’s not the only way the Letterlanders like to help us read. Maybe you have noticed that when letters are next to each other in words, they sometimes make different sounds. The Letterlanders help us learn those new sounds, too, with a brief story and a picture that explains the new sound. Soon you will be reading all sorts of words quickly and easily without even having to think about the Letterlanders. And that makes them happy too, because they know that they have helped you to enjoy stories and learn about all kinds of interesting things in our world.

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Contents Introduction ....................................................................................................................viii–18 Five Day Unit Plan ........................................................................................................... 19–40 Day 1 ..............................................................................................................................................................................21 Day 2 ..............................................................................................................................................................................25 Day 3 ..............................................................................................................................................................................30 Day 4 ..............................................................................................................................................................................34 Day 5 ..............................................................................................................................................................................38

Step-by-Step Units ........................................................................................................ 41–219 For children new to Letterland ..........................................................................................................42 Unit A: Short vowels: a, e, i, o, u .............................................................................................................................43 Short Vowels, blends & digraphs, Closed and Open Syllables .........................................................48 Unit 1: Closed and Open Syllables: e, o .................................................................................................................49 Unit 2: Closed and Open Syllables: a, i, u .............................................................................................................55 Unit 3: More review: ff, -ing, ll, ng, ss ...................................................................................................................59 Magic e Syllable .................................................................................................................................64 Unit 4: Magic e: a_e, i_e .........................................................................................................................................65 Unit 5: More Magic e: a_e, i_e, o_e, soft ce ......................................................................................................70 Unit 6: Soft sound of g: u_e, ge, Silent d (d/–/) ..................................................................................................74 Suffix -ed and more ............................................................................................................................79 Unit 7: The three sounds of -ed: /ed/, /d/ and /t/ .............................................................................................80 Unit 8: Special spellings: -tch and -cket ................................................................................................................84 Long Vowel Teams and other silent letters .......................................................................................88 Unit 9: Long Vowel Teams: ea, ee ..........................................................................................................................89 Unit 10: More long Vowel Teams: ai, ay, oa, and ow ........................................................................................93 Unit 11: Silent letters: kn, mb, igh, wr ..................................................................................................................97 Robot Syllable and y as a vowel ......................................................................................................101 Unit 12: R-controlled vowels: ar, or ..................................................................................................................... 102 Unit 13: Two spellings for /er/: ir, ur ................................................................................................................... 105 Unit 14: One more /er/ spelling: er, ear, o ....................................................................................................... 109 Unit 15: Double r’s and y as a vowel: rr, rry, y/ē/, y/ī/ .................................................................................. 113 Variant Vowel Teams and spellings .................................................................................................117 Unit 16: Vowel sound in boot: oo/ /, o/ / ..................................................................................................... 118 Unit 17: More variant teams: ew, ue, oo/ / ................................................................................................... 121 Unit 18: New sound for ea: ea/ĕ/ ........................................................................................................................ 125 Unit 19: Plurals: s, -es, y to ies ............................................................................................................................. 128 Unit 20: Diphthong: ow and ou ........................................................................................................................... 132 Unit 21: Another diphthong: oi, oy ...................................................................................................................... 135 Unit 22: New sound: au, aw ........................................................................................................................................ 138

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More r-controlled spellings .............................................................................................................141 Unit 23: Various spellings for /or/: ore, oor, our ............................................................................................ 142 Unit 24: Spellings for /air/: air, are .................................................................................................................... 146 Unit 25: Spellings for /–/: ear, eer ...................................................................................................................... 149 Word structure and spelling changes ............................................................................................153 Unit 26: Prefixes: un-, re-, pre- and dis- ............................................................................................................. 154 Unit 27: Variant plurals: f, ves .............................................................................................................................. 158 Unit 28: Consonant doubling: -ing ................................................................................................... 161 Unit 29: More consonant doubling: -ed .............................................................................................................. 165 Unit 30: Comparatives: -er and -est .................................................................................................................... 169 Unit 31: Contractions: -n’t, -’re, -’ve ................................................................................................................... 172 Syllable division ...............................................................................................................................176 Unit 32: Words with two Closed Syllables .................................................................................................................... 177 Unit 33: Closed Syllables with schwa ................................................................................................................... 181 Unit 34: Dividing before a single consonant ...................................................................................................... 185 Unit 35: Dividing with double consonants .......................................................................................................... 188 Unit 36: Dividing before or after: v/cv or vc/v ................................................................................................... 191 Unit 37: Multi-syllable words with Magic e ........................................................................................................ 195 Unit 38: Syllable division with Robot Syllables ................................................................................................... 198 Unit 39: Syllable division with Vowel Teams ....................................................................................................... 202 Special syllables and spellings .......................................................................................................206 Unit 40: Consonant-le syllable .............................................................................................................................. 207 Unit 41: New digraphs: gh/–/, gh/f/ and ph .................................................................................................... 211 Unit 42: Special syllables: -tion and -ture .......................................................................................................... 215

Assessment and Small Group intervention .............................................................. 221–250 Placement Assessment: Reading and Spelling ................................................................................................... 222 Step-by-Step Assessments ....................................................................................................................................... 223 Weekly spelling and fluency checks ...................................................................................................................... 223 Administering assessments for placement, diagnosis and evaluation .......................................................... 224 Administering Review Assessments ...................................................................................................................... 229 Small Group Intervention (for at-risk readers) The Placement Assessment and intervention ...................................................................................................... 232 Using the Class Record for intervention placement .......................................................................................... 232 Starting your intervention teaching ...................................................................................................................... 234 Five Day Intervention Plan ...................................................................................................................................... 235 Pacing decisions: Stay in the same Unit or move on to the next? ................................................................... 250

Appendix .................................................................................................................... 251–290 Strategies for children – Letterland Tricks .....................................................................................254 Letter sounds and shapes Sound Trick ................................................................................................................................................................ 254 Action Trick ................................................................................................................................................................ 255 Alliteration Trick ....................................................................................................................................................... 257 Character Names Trick ........................................................................................................................................... 258 Uppercase Trick ........................................................................................................................................................ 259

Contents

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Blending and segmenting Finger Tapping Trick ................................................................................................................................................ 261 Palm the Syllables Trick ........................................................................................................................................... 263 Roller Coaster Trick ................................................................................................................................................. 265 Rubber Band Trick .................................................................................................................................................... 266 Strategies for teachers ...................................................................................................................267 Letter sounds and shapes Pronunciation guide ................................................................................................................................................. 267 Costumes and props ............................................................................................................................................... 268 Picture Coding .......................................................................................................................................................... 270 Quick Dash ................................................................................................................................................................ 271 Guess Who? ............................................................................................................................................................... 272 Games for review ..................................................................................................................................................... 273 Consolidation of the short vowel sounds ............................................................................................................ 274 Reading Direction .................................................................................................................................................... 276 Handwriting Songs .................................................................................................................................................. 277 Handwriting practice suggestions ........................................................................................................................ 277 Blending and segmenting ‘Live Reading’ and ‘Live Spelling’ .......................................................................................................................... 278 Blending and segmenting with Picture Code Cards .......................................................................................... 281 Letterland Word Builders ........................................................................................................................................ 284 Written Spelling ........................................................................................................................................................ 287 Tricky Words ............................................................................................................................................................. 288 Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters ............................................................................................................. 289 Word Card sort ........................................................................................................................................................ 291 Rhyming words: ‘If I can spell...’ ........................................................................................................................... 292 Game of the Week ................................................................................................................................................... 293 Fluency check with the whole class ...................................................................................................................... 295 Reading text: fluency and comprehension Guided reading ......................................................................................................................................................... 297 Readers’ Theater ...................................................................................................................................................... 299 Charting to build accuracy and fluency ............................................................................................................... 299 My Best Reading: Charting reading accuracy .................................................................................................... 299 Super Reading: Charting reading fluency ........................................................................................................... 301 Comprehension ........................................................................................................................................................ 303 Story Stone ................................................................................................................................................................ 303 Interview a character .............................................................................................................................................. 304 Story Map .................................................................................................................................................................. 305 The K-W-L Strategy .................................................................................................................................................... 306 Graphic organizers .................................................................................................................................................. 307 Vocabulary ................................................................................................................................................................ 308 Indexes .............................................................................................................................................309 Glossary of terms ..................................................................................................................................................... 309 Pictogram guide ....................................................................................................................................................... 310 Phonics and word structure index ......................................................................................................................... 312 Activities and materials index ................................................................................................................................ 313

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CD-Rom contents 01 Unit activities Review Sentences Student Lists Unit Stories Word Detectives Word Detectives Key Written Word Sort

02 Asessments Placement Assessment Reading Robot Racers Charts Review Assessments Spelling Test Form Weekly Class Record

03 Homework Look-say-cover-write (English/Spanish) Parent Homework Letter (English/Spanish)

04 Accuracy and fluency charts My Best Reading Chart Super Reading Chart

05 Games Go-cart Race Letterland Quest Splash

06 Guide cards for teachers Daily Lesson Guide Cards Intervention Guide Cards

08 Lyrics Song lyrics

09 Comprehension and other resources Character Name Cards K-W-L Activity Reading Direction Sign Story Map

CD -Rom contents

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The authors Since our first Teacher’s Guide specifically made for Grade Two in 2010, thousands of second graders have advanced their phonics knowledge from basic words to complex multi-syllable ones with this program. Teacher’s report great results, as one said, “It has improved my students’ reading and spelling this year more than anything else I’ve used.” Students are enthusiastic, too, as another teacher explained, “The kids love the characters and pick up the rules because of the magical things the characters do. Thanks!” This updated and redesigned edition maintains these strengths, reemphasizes word structure and fluency strategies, and provides additional teacher support in an expanded Appendix. We hope you and your students have great success and joy in learning.

Lyn Wendon (Originator of Letterland) & Stamey Carter

(Co-author)

Letterland, one vital part of your complete literacy program Letterland for Grade Two provides you with a systematic, scientifically-based program to teach the foundational skills of learning to read and spell words. By fully developing phonemic awareness, phonic knowledge, word recognition, word structure and accurate spelling, Letterland helps children become automatic in reading and writing words. This mastery of written words allows them to focus on the higher order reading components such as vocabulary and comprehension. yyou u will want use other At the samee time, for a complete literacy program, in addition to the Letterland program, yo tteach ach fluent con ntextual re rreading, adin ng, academic vocabulary, written composition materials and activities to fully te contextual ehension in depth. Th housands of teachers have v found that using Letterland to teach the and comprehension Thousands mechanics of reading and spelling not only provides children with an excellentt foundation on which to build these higher levels of literacy ads to increased confidence and but also leads m for further learning. enthusiasm

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Message from the authors

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Important features of this Teacher’s Guide • • • • • • •

Systematic, synthetic phonic emphasis for daily support of literacy learning Word structure teaching: syllable types, syllable division, prefixes and suffixes Scientific research-based instruction that is exceptionally child-friendly Multisensory methods for reading and spelling Interactive strategies to engage children’s attention and accelerate learning Emphasis on fluency at all levels: letter sounds, words, sentences, and stories Comprehension taught though dramatic readings, discussion, and questioning

Structure • 42 weekly Units of instruction – choose Units to match your curriculum and student needs • Each Unit teaches new phonic elements or syllable types with appealing Letterland characters and memorable story logic • Daily activities for whole class, small group, independent/partner practice, and homework

Reproducible resources on the accompanying CD • Student pages for each Unit: Student List, Written Word Sort, Review Sentences, Word Detectives • A Unit Story for each of the 42 Units to practice current concepts, review previous learning, and build fluency, expression and comprehension • 3 games practicing word recognition and new concepts for use with various Units • Quick-reference Daily Lesson Guide Cards for teachers

Assessment and intervention • • • • •

Designed to be compatible with the Response to Intervention model (RTI) Special Intervention Section for Tier Two or Three instruction Optional Placement Assessment to match instruction to student needs Weekly Unit fluency and spelling assessments for instructional decision making Tri-weekly fluency and spelling assessments for monitoring progress

Important note on styles Throughout this Teacher’s Guide, you will see words that the teacher might say to the children printed in blue without quotations marks. (This text is meant to provide guidelines and does not need to be read word for word.) Words that the children might say are printed with quotation marks and in “bold.” Words or letters that may be used in an activity or an explanation are also printed in bold. Any CD contents are underlined in orange. Child Tricks are in bold gray. Abbreviations have been kept to a minimum but these are used frequently: PCCs – Picture Code Cards; APCCs – Advanced Picture Code Cards; TGCD – Teacher’s Guide Compact Disk

Introduction

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Grade Two scope and sequence Sections

Unit No.

For children new to Letterland

A

1

Short vowels, blends & digraphs, Open & Closed Syllables

2

3

4

Magic e Syllables, soft c & g

5 6

Suffix -ed & more

Vowel Men out walking & more

The Vowel Stealers

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Sample decodable words

Letterland alphabet wag met zip fox dug Short vowel/single consonant words (cvc) Closed Syllables and Open Syllables with long and short vowels e and o Digraphs sh, ck Initial and final blends with l Final st Vowels a, i, u Digraphs ch, th (voiced), th (unvoiced) Initial blends with s Open and Closed Syllables in two-syllable words Digraph ng Final consonant blends nk, nd, nt Suffix -ing Final ll, ss, ff ā and ī with Magic e: a_e, i_e Silent w in wr ō with Magic e: o_e ā with soft c: ce ī with soft ce ū with Magic e: u_e soft ge, dge Suffix ed with 3 sounds: /ed/ /d/ /t/ Magic e with -ed

Tricky Words they are

so sock she shelf

where when what

flu thin that chin music minus robot

who does

pond must standing bring bunk next shell floss stiff

their water wash

brave slide write trade invite

quiet everyone

globe trace slice advice

ahead ready

cube refuse stage bridge

change word

skated spilled thanked

heard young

8

-tch, -cket

match kitchen ticket

always watch almost

9

ee, ea/ē/

least breeze agree really agree

great because

10

ai, ay, oa, ow, kn

afraid tray know explain

once straight

11

Silent letters: igh, wr, mb, kn

bright limb wrote knife

people climb

12

or, ar

born forty barn alarm

animal picture

13

ir, ur

third Thursday birthday

thought around

14

o/ŭ/, er, or/er/

wonder above color

family father

15

y/ī/, y/ē/, rr after short vowels (i.e. carry, berry)

try reply sorry errand sleep hungry

laugh whole bury

Y as a vowel and Racing Robots

2

Skill

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Sections

Variant vowel pairs, diphthongs, and suffix -es

More Vowel Stealers

Prefixes and variant plurals

Consonant d do doubling

Contractions Multi-syllable words, syllable division

chĭp

mŭnk

closed

closed

Unit No.

Skill

Sample decodable words

Tricky Words

16

oo/ / as in boot o/ / as in do

smooth balloon who prove

children

17

ew, ue, oo/

rescue threw stood football

shoes through

18

ea/ĕ/

bread ready instead

enough care

19

Suffixes es, y to i plus -es s after Silent Magic e

babies tries inches dresses places bridges

answer special

20

ou, ow

proud cloudy clown flower

built build idea

21

oi, oy

annoy enjoy coin moist

length warn

22

aw, au

August because crawl

young water

23

ore, oor, our

score floor fourteen

touch orange

24

air, are

stair repair scare beware

break

25

ear, eer

nearly hearing cheerful

bear sure

26

Prefixes: dis-, un-, re-, pre-

unfair rewrite disagree preschool

twelve among

27

Variant plurals (men, loaves)

teeth leaves feet halves

woman women

28

-ing with consonant doubling

29

-ed with consonant doubling

30

-er, -est with consonant doubling

biggest wider hotter loudest

busy either

31

Contractions

they’ve couldn’t where’s

been hour

32

Syllable Division: Closed

contest insect admit cactus

brought

33

Closed Syllables with schwa

husband collect kingdom distant upon guard

34

Multi-syllable words: Open

silent pilot basic local

usual

35

Open and closed, with doubling

beyond happen final traffic

minute

36

Open and closed (vcv)

raven camel total closet

neither group

37

Multi-syllable words: Magic e

complete basement remote confuse

believe famous

paper surprise garden chapter

practice practicing

easel power certain

yeah beautiful

38 39 40

New patterns 41 42

/ as in foot

Mutli-syllable words R-controlled vowels Multi-syllable words Vowel Teams

hoping tapping jumping swimming dropped floated tagged stayed

extra question shall guess guest

Multi-syllable words Consonant -le cy ph gh/f/ Silent gh

table recycle puzzle able

ocean noticed

graph photo cough thought

eight piece

-tion, -ture

nation picture fiction nature

listen

Introduction

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What’s new in Grade Two:

Building on prior Letterland teaching Second Grade children build on their word knowledge with more advanced phonics and word structure concepts that lead to fluent reading and spelling of longer, more complex words. Pages 4–12 provide an overview of some of the new learning provided for children in Grade Two Letterland. Letterland learning from prior years...

Talking Tess likes tigers, turkeys and turtles.

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Grade Two Letterland learning...

In every Letterlander’s name its letter sound is repeated, which avoids the confusion of alphabet names like ‘eff’, ‘aich’ and ‘double-u’.

Even beyond the primary years, letter names can still cause spelling confusion for short vowels. Use the Letterland vowel sounds to keep these spellings straight.

Children use alliteration to discover favorite foods, sports, animals, etc. of each Letterlander, thereby strengthening phonemic awareness and letter-sound links.

Children, having mastered basic letter sounds, continue to enjoy the alliterative language links to the Letterlanders in many of the Readers’ Theater plays.

Consonant digraphs Harry Hat Man hates noise, so when Sammy Snake comes hissing ‘sss’ behind him, he turns and says... ‘sh’.

Harry’s dislike of noise provides the logic for other digraph stories in words like laugh, though, and at both ends of photograph.

Vowel Teams When two Vowel Men go out walking, the first one does the talking.

When Mr. E and Mr. A go out walking sometimes Eddy Elephant does the talking (e.g. bread)

Vowel sounds next to Walter Walrus are almost always changed by his teasing waves of water.

Sometimes Eddy Elephant squirts Walter Walrus first and all Walter can say is, “Oo! You!”

Magic e and Magic endings -ed and -ing make the Vowel Men appear in words like ride, and baked and hoping.

Sometimes the magic sparks need to be blocked to keep the vowel sound in place. Best Friends like Noisy Nick and Noisy Nicola come to the rescue.

When a robot Vowel Stealer like Orvil Or captures a vowel sound, he calls out his own last name, “Or!”

The Vowel Stealers even capture Vowel Men out walking! Now we have to remain alert and catch them in the act because they change the sounds in words.

The five Vowel Men are the only Letterlanders who say their whole alphabet names in words, like in hi, she, and go.

It gets exciting discovering how the Syllable Train reveals the secrets to what sound a vowel will make in hundreds of words you haven’t ever read before.

That’s a terrific idea! That’s tremendous, totally tip-top!

sĭc

Introduction

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Section 1 : Five Day Unit Plan Step-by-Step weekly activities Each Unit follows the Five Day Plan explained in this section. •

Across the week activities move from full teacher support toward child independence.

On Day 5 you assess the children on reading the words fluently and on spelling.

Then you decide whether to reteach the Unit (with List B or C) or move on to the next Unit (see p.39).

Activities are provided for three classroom settings: Setting Whole class

Small group

Independent/ partner

Suggested use Use if most of your students are in the same Unit. Even students who may be in another Unit for Intervention may be included in the whole class lesson. For children who need additional support to master current Unit. May be combined with guided reading and other small group instruction. Or for groups in differentiated Units. Some whole class activities should be used in the small group setting if there is no whole class lesson. Children can work quietly on individual and paired activities to build independence while the teacher works with other children in small groups.

Time Day 1: 30 min Days 2–5: 20 min 12–20 min

10–15 min

• Note on settings: Activities described in one setting may be adapted to another setting. If you differentiate by teaching different Units to different groups of children, you will want to do most of the whole class activities in the small group setting. In this case you may also combine some whole group and small group activities that are similar (e.g. on Day 1, ‘Introduce new concepts on the pocket chart,’ and ‘Teacher builds words for reading.’)

The activities described here comprise a very thorough program in phonics, word recognition and spelling. They help children build a solid foundation in these areas. Letterland lessons also include instruction and practice in reading for fluency and comprehension, but for a complete literacy program, your children need further teaching and practice in contextual reading, comprehension, and vocabulary from a variety of materials as well as extensive instruction in written composition. The time spent teaching these Letterland lessons will help your children be successful in all these literacy areas and other subjects as well. *If a lesson is taking too long, try to include each activity but use less examples in the activities.

Five Day Unit Plan ......................................................................................... 19–40 Overview ......................................................................................................................................................... 20 Day 1 ............................................................................................................................................................... 21 Day 2 ............................................................................................................................................................... 25 Day 3 ............................................................................................................................................................... 30 Day 4 ............................................................................................................................................................... 34 Day 5 ............................................................................................................................................................... 38

Section 1: Five Day Unit Plan

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Five Day Unit Plan Each Unit follows this same five day plan. The page number after each item below leads you to instructions on using the activity with your children. You may also want to print out the convenient Daily Lesson Guide Cards from the Teacher’s Guide CD.

Overview of Day 1

• Phonics concept review, p.21 • Introduce new concepts, p.21 • Beyond ABC or Far Beyond ABC (for some lessons) • ‘Live Reading’, p.22 • Read new Word Cards, p.23

• Teacher builds words for reading, p.23 • New Tricky Words, p.23 • Read the Student List, p.24

• Write words and sentences, Read to two partners, p.24

• Read the Student List, p.24

Overview of Day 2

 Homework

• Quick Dash and Sounds Race: Letter to sound, p.25 • Shared Reading of songs (some lessons), p.25 • ‘Live Spelling’, p.26 • Word Detectives, p.26

• Children build words, p.27 • Review Tricky Words, p.28 • Read Review Sentences, p.28

• Reread Review Sentences, p.29 • Quick Code the word list written on Day 1, p.29

• Look-say-coverwrite, p.29

Overview of Day 3

 Independent/Partner

• Guess Who? p.30 • Word Card Sort, p.30 • Read the Unit Story to the children, p.31

• Dictate new Tricky Words, p.31 • Dictate 1 or 2 Review Sentences, p.31 • Children read the Unit Story, p.32

• Prepare for the Game of the Week, p.32 • Written Word Sort, p.33

• Write 5 interesting sentences, p.33

Overview of Day 4

 Small Group

• Quick Dash, p.34 • Red Robot’s Reading Race, p.34 • Play the Game of the Week, p.34

• Share homework sentences, p.35 • Reread Unit Story, p.35 • Spelling sort, p.35 • New sentence dictation, p.36

• Written practice test with a partner, p.36 • Fluency practice with partners, p.36 • Quick Code Review Sentences, p.36

• Practice test, p.37

Overview of Day 5

 Whole Class

• Word Reading fluency check, p.38 • Spelling Test, p.39 • Deciding which Unit to teach next, p.39

• Choose from optional activities, p.40

• Picture Code words, p.40 • Read Unit Story to two partners, p.40

20

Five Day Unit Plan : Overview

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Section 2 : Step-by-Step Units

For children new to Letterland (Unit A) ..................................................................................................................42 Short Vowels, blends & digraphs, Closed and Open Syllables (Units 1–3) ......................................................48 Magic e Syllable (Units 4–6) .....................................................................................................................................64 Suffix -ed and more (Units 7–8) ................................................................................................................................79 Long Vowel Teams and other silent letters (Units 9–11) ....................................................................................88 Robot Syllable and y as a vowel (Units 12–15) .................................................................................................. 101 Variant Vowel Teams and spellings (Units 16–22) ........................................................................................... 117 More r-controlled spellings (Units 23–25) ........................................................................................................... 141 Word structure and spelling changes (Units 26–31) ........................................................................................ 153 Syllable division (Units 32–39) .............................................................................................................................. 176 Special syllables and spellings (Units 40–42) ..................................................................................................... 206

Section 2: Step-by-Step Units

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Section R

Unit A : For children new to Letterland

Do I start with Unit A or Unit 1?

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If this is the ďŹ rst time that most of your children have been taught with Letterland, start with...

Unit A: For children new to Letterland (next page)

If most of your children have been taught with Letterland in previous grades, start with...

Unit 1: Closed and Open Syllables: e, o

Unit A : For children new to Letterland

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For children new to Letterland

Unit A: Short Vowels: a, e, i, o, u Unit Focus wag

met

kit

jam

yet

zip

vet

sat

Tricky Words

fox nod

cub dug

The words and activities in this Unit allow you to review 25 of the 26 basic letter sounds and review the Letterlanders who help children to remember the sounds. (The qu is explained in Unit 1.) The emphasis is on the five short vowels because they are often a source of confusion. For children in your classroom who are new to Letterland, or who are not confident and quick with their letter sounds, you may want to spend more time learning all the characters and their sounds. In independent work time, children could draw and color their own personal version of the Vowel Scene Poster: Short & Long Vowels (pictured on the next page). Even for children who know their basic sounds well, strengthening their knowledge of the Letterlanders now will help them as they progress through this program learning more advanced phonic and syllabic patterns.

List A

they are

rub

met zip wag fox cub yet

List B

jam rub dug nod kit vet

gap win hop jet bug fog

ă, b, d, ĕ, ĭ, l, m, ŏ, p, t, ŭ APCCs – New PCCs in this Unit: ă, b, c, d, ĕ, f, g, h, ĭ, j, k, l, m, n, ŏ, p, r, s, t, ŭ, v, w, x, y, z

fix gap cub vet let fog

kit zip met job wag bug

Diagnostic Words

Picture Code Cards for review PCCs or LSCs

yet sad bag sip fox rub

List C

let, job, bug, sip

nod, zip, cub, vet

yet, fox, rub, sip

Tricky Words: they, are Story Words: pictures, vowels, important, interesting, consonants, idea New Spelling Sentences: Did you see the cub and the fox? They are at the vet.

Day 1 Note: After this Unit A, all Units will begin with a Phonics concept review.  Materials • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review (above) • Unit A Word Cards, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart as shown • Student List for Unit A

 Independent/Partner • Write words & sentences, p.24

 Homework • Read the Student List, p.24

Introduce new concepts PCCs: ă, ĕ, ĭ, ŏ, p, t, ŭ Words: tap, tep, tip, top, tup • Display the picture sides of the five short vowel PCCs. These 5 Letterlanders are very important. They are very important because they are vowels, and we need a vowel in just about every word we write or read. So you will find each one of these vowels in thousands and thousands of words. Can you say the word ‘vowels?’ “Vowels.” • First let me tell you their Letterland names and their sounds because some of you may not have met them. Then you say the Letterlander and the sound. Point to each PCC and say Annie Apple, /ă/, “Annie Apple, /ă/”, Eddy Elephant, /ĕ/, etc.

Unit A : For children new to Letterland

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• The Letterlanders, like Annie Apple here, have some neat tricks that help us read and spell the thousands of words we need to know. And these tricks are sort of secret. Only people who know about Letterland can understand how to use all the Letterland tricks. But these are secrets worth sharing – which is why I am going to tell you one of them right now.

Vowel Scene Poster: Short & Long Vowels

Ww w w ĭ ĭ ĭ ĭ ĭ n n n n n

• The Sound Trick Ăăănnnieee Ăăăpllle

ăăăă

• Try each vowel between the p and t. Children finger tap the word and decide if it is real or nonsense.

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First let’s try the Rubber Band Trick. Let’s put our palms together in front of us and pretend that we have an invisible rubber band around our hands. It is a strong rubber band so we pull our hands apart slowly until we have the rubber band stretched out about as wide as our bodies. Then we have to use our strong muscles to bring our hands back together slowly without making a sound. Guide children in stretching their imaginary rubber band a few times. Now, as we stretch our rubber band with our hands we can stretch out words with our voices. We call it ‘slow speaking.’ Let’s slow speak the word win, like you win a game. “Wwwwĭ ĭ ĭ ĭnnnnnn.” Have children slow speak win a few times as you walk about listening to hear if they are all actually stretching out each sound in the word. (Note: the word win is used here because all three sounds can be prolonged. While all vowels can be prolonged, stop sounds such as /d/, /b/, and /t/ cannot, so for example, in slow speaking a word such as bat only the a can be stretched: băăăăt. See more about sound pronunciation on page 267.) We can slow speak any word including our own names, too. Guide children in slow speaking the names of some children in the class (e.g. Andrea: “Aaaannndrrreeeaaaa.”). The result may sound like a parent calling to a child to come home from playing outside. You might let children pair up and quietly stretch each other’s names. We can also stretch the Letterlander’s names. When we want to remember Annie Apple’s sound, or any other Letterlander’s sound, all we have to do is slow speak and then start to say it again but just say the first sound like this, Aăăănnnieee Aăăăpllllle, ăăă. Repeat this with the children a few times. That’s called ‘the Sound Trick’ (p.254). It helps us remember Annie Apple’s sound. It also works with any of the other Letterlanders. You just say the name and then you START to say it again, but STOP with the first sound. Now tell your neighbor how you do the Sound Trick. Let’s do the Sound Trick to help us remember what sounds these other Vowels make in words. Guide the children in doing the Sound Trick with Eddy Elephant. Then let individual children try demonstrating the Sound Trick with the other three vowel sounds. Each time after a child demonstrates the trick, have everyone repeat it to keep them all involved. Now, let’s practice our vowel sounds. Pick up the Annie Apple card showing the plain letter side, push the card forward several times and have the children say the sound each time. You can make a little game of it by having children sustain the vowel sound as long as you have the letter pushed forward (“ăăăăăăăăă”). They become silent as you pull it back. Push it forward for varying intervals so children will sound something like this: “ăăăăă, ăăă, ăăăăă, ă, ăăăăăă, ă”. Follow these same steps with each of the five vowels. Display the picture sides of the PCCs for t and p on the pocket chart. We have met all the important Vowels. Now, do you know what all the other letters in the alphabet are called? Yes, they are consonants. That can be a hard word to say, so let’s practice saying it a few times. (Model the pronunciation by syllables, if needed, i.e. con-suh-nunts.) Briefly introduce Peter Puppy and Talking Tess and have children discover or ‘rediscover’ their sounds using the Sound Trick.

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Finger Tapping Trick 1. Touch thumb to first finger and say /t/. 2. Touch thumb to second and then third finger as you say /ă/ /p/. 3. Touch thumb to all fingers at once and say ‘tap’.

• Turn the t and p PCCs to their plain letter sides. Place the plain letter ă PCC between t and p to make tap. Show how to finger tap the word. (See box in left margin, also p.261.) Then have children decide if they’ve made a real or a nonsense word. Do the same as you place each vowel between the t and p.

‘Live Reading’

PCCs: ă, b, d, ĕ, h, ĭ, l, m, ŏ, t, ŭ Words: bad, bed, bid, bod, bud, lat, let, lit, lot, lut, ham, hem, him, hom, hum Have two children hold the Bouncy Ben and Dippy Ducky PCCs in front of the class. Introduce these two children as if they were the Letterlanders and have children use the Sound Trick to discover their sounds. Then have the two children show the plain letter sides of b and d PCCs and stand with space for a child holding a vowel letter in between them. Vowels-go-round: Distribute the 5 short vowel PCCs to 5 children. Have them line up on one side of the classroom showing the picture sides of their PCCs. Have each one in turn stand between the b and d, turning to their plain letter to make a word (bad, bed, bid, bod, bud). Have the class finger tap each word and decide if it is a real or a nonsense word. Do the same with l and t and then h and m. Let different children hold the vowel PCCs for each set of consonants so more of them can join in. Explain the meanings of words that children might not know (e.g. hem, bid). Read the new Word Cards in columns on the pocket chart with the class using the Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters activity.

Small Group Teacher builds words for reading Tricky Words

they are

e

PCCs: ă, b, d, ĕ, h, ĭ, l, m, ŏ, p, t, ŭ Words: bat, hat, hut, hot, dot, pot, pet, bet, bed, bud, mop, tip, hip, lip • Build each word and have the children finger tap it (p.261). For some words have one child finger tap it first and then have the group repeat the finger tapping. Call this child your ‘Blending Leader’. • New Tricky Words (p.23): On the board write the Tricky Words as shown. Show the PCC C of Mean Mr. e (e/ā/) and share the information on the card with the children. Mr. Mean e helps with spelling they and a few other words in which e says /ā/. Discuss the letters that are not saying the sounds the children have learned and mark them as shown in the margin. Teach children the 3-by-3 method to practice these words. • Read the Student List (p.24).

Use the APCC to help children spell they correctly. Mr. Mean e tries to trick us by saying /ā/. Spell they with e to show he can’t trick you.

Unit A : For children new to Letterland

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Day 2  Materials • PCCs for Review plus c, g, j, n, v, w • Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets • Word Detectives page (or write on the board) • Unit A Student List

Quick Dash PCCs: ă, b, d, ĕ, h, ĭ, l, m, ŏ, p, t, ŭ

‘Live Spelling’

•  Independent/Partner • Highlight short vowels and mark with a ‘smile’ on word list written on Day 1, p.29

 Homework • Look-say-cover-write, p.29

• •

PCCs: ă, c, ĕ, g, ĭ, j, n, ŏ, p, t, ŭ, v, w Words: got, get, vet, wet, wag, jog, jug, cut, cup, nap, pan Have children stand in front of the class holding picture sides of the following PCCs: c, g, j, n, v, w. Introduce them as Letterlanders and have the class discover their sounds using the Sound Trick. Then to review the new Letterlanders and their sounds have each child in turn push the picture side forward while the class says the character’s name (e.g. “Jumping Jim”). Then the child pushes the plain letter side forward and the class responds with the sound (e.g. /j/). Distribute the rest of the PCCs. Have all the children with PCCs sit down. (For more on ‘Live Spelling’, see pp.26 and 280, or your Daily Lesson Guide Cards, TGCD\Guide cards for teachers.) To begin say the first word, got, say it in a sentence and repeat it with a throwing motion, got. The children repeat the word as they ‘catch’ it. Then they finger tap it with one hand up in the air (e.g. “got, /g/ /ŏ/ /t/”). Decide with the children which Letterlanders are needed. Have the three children with the g, o, and t PCCs stand facing the class with plain letter sides forming the word got. Have the class finger tap and blend the word to check the spelling. The children in the word remain in place as you ‘throw’ the next word to the class and they ‘catch’ it. Children who are seated repeat the word and then decide who needs to sit down and who needs to replace them in the word. Follow the same steps with each word.

Word Detectives Dĭd you see the fŏx wăg her tail and nŏd ăt me? The bear cŭb lĕt the vĕt rŭb hĭs hurt lĕg.

Distribute or display the Unit A Word Detectives page. Read the two sentences with the children and let them highlight each short vowel sound in a different color and make ‘a smile’ (the curved line called a ‘breve’, e.g. ă, ĭ) above each one, as shown.

Small Group Children build words

Larger version of Quick Coding for each Unit is included in Word Detectives Key (TGCD\Unit Activities)

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Letters: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, l, m, n, o, p, t, u Words: dug, gap, let, mad, fin, cub, job, him, bug, nod, met You may want to play ‘Who’s that Vowel Sound?’ (p.275) to help the children identify the vowel sounds in each word. To play this game you say the word and children repeat it. Then they finger tap the word (“/d/ /ŭ/ /g/”) and place just the consonants on their board with a space between. Then they begin to finger tap again, stopping on the vowel sound (“/d/ /ŭ/”). They prolong the vowel sound and slide the sound into the Letterlander’s name (e.g. “ŭŭŭŭŭŭŭUppy Umbrella”). Then they place the vowel letter and check their spelling by finger tapping again. • Review Tricky Words (p.28). • Read Review Sentences (p.28).

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Days 3 to 5 Use the Daily Lesson Guide Cards (TGCD\Guide cards for teachers) for Day 3 to Day 5 and the detailed instructions on pages 30–40. A special, additional ‘Live Spelling’ activity is included below in this Unit on Day 3 in order to introduce the rest of the Letterlanders. Also, see notes below on the Day 3 Guess Who? activity and the Day 4 Quick Dash.

Day 3: Guess Who? Add these PCCs to the PCCs for Review for this activity: c, g, j, n, v, w (pp.30, 272).

Day 3: ‘Live Spelling’

• • •

PCCs: ă, b, ĕ, f, g, ĭ, k, n, ŏ, p, r, s, t, ŭ, x, y, z Words: fog, kit, rub, yes, fix, zip, yet, kin, ran, sip Have children stand in front of the class holding picture sides of the following PCCs: f, k, r, s, x, y, z. Introduce them as the Letterlanders and have the class use the Sound Trick to discover each sound. Then to review the new Letterlanders and their sounds, have each child in turn push the picture side forward while the class says the character’s name (e.g. “Firefighter Fred”). Then the child pushes the plain letter side forward and the class responds with the sound (e.g. “/fff/”). Distribute the rest of the PCCs. Have all the children with PCCs sit down. Say the first word as you ‘throw’ it. The children repeat the word as they ‘catch’ it. Then they finger tap it (e.g. “fog, /f/ /ŏ/ /g/”). With the children, decide which Letterlanders are needed. Have the children with the f, o, and g PCCs stand facing the class with plain letter sides forming the word fog. Have the class finger tap and blend the word to check the spelling.

Day 3: Unit Story

Unit A Story, TGCD

• Before reading ‘Peter Puppy’s Vowel Paintings’ to the children: In preparation write the three groups of five ‘words’ that the characters make in the story (e.g. hat, hut, hit, hot, het). As you come to these words in the story, have your children finger tap each word and decide if it is a real word or nonsense word. You will notice that each Letterlander likes to say words that begin with or contain their own sound. Emphasize these sounds as you read and encourage the children to do the same. It will make for a bit of fun in this and future plays. Later this will be a fun story to use for Readers’ Theater (p.299) or even to act out in front of a younger class.

Day 3: Written Word Sort • Guide children filling in the first words in each column on the Written Word Sort using their Student List (to be completed during Independent/Partner work).

Day 4: Spelling sort • In small group time, call out the words (but do not show them). Children choose the columns and write the words. Guide correction of errors.

Day 4: Quick Dash Unit A Written Word Sort, TGCD

• For today’s activity use all 25 of the PCCs that you have taught to this point (all the basic letters a-z except q).

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Section A

Units 1–3 : Short Vowels, blends & digraphs, Closed and Open Syllables

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Units 1–3: Short Vowels, blends & digraphs, Open & Closed Syllables

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Short Vowels, blends & digraphs, Open & Closed Syllables

Unit 1: Closed and Open Syllables: e, o Unit Focus help

sock

he

neck

plot

she

shelf

clock

belt

shop

so

Tricky Words

nest when

what

Children learn about Closed and Open Syllables to help them decide if a vowel will say its vowel sound (ă, ĕ, ĭ, ŏ, ŭ) or a Vowel Man’s name (ā, ē, ī, ō, ū). First they learn to think of a syllable as letters within a rail car. When a syllable has just one vowel and that vowel is at the end of the syllable, it is an Open Syllable. The Vowel Man likes to shout his name out because he doesn’t have to worry about shouting in another Letterlander’s ear (go, she, o-pen, mu-sic, e-ven). When we find only one vowel in a syllable with at least one consonant after it, we almost always hear a vowel sound (short vowel). That is because the vowel sounds like to have friendly consonants close by (plot, shelf), closing up the space keeping them safe from Vowel Stealing Robots. Digraphs ck and sh and several initial and final blends with letter l are also included (bl, cl, pl, lf, lp, lt) in the words. All were taught in the previous level and are reviewed briefly in this Unit. (See pp.8–9 for more on the six syllable types.)

where

Picture Code Cards for review b, c, d, ĕ, ē*, g, h, l, ŏ, ō*, p, v, ck, sh* APCCs – * Introduced in this Unit PCCs or LSCs

List A he so she plot belt shop

List B

help sock shelf neck clock nest

me go no best deck flop

melt got not plot block felt

List C we to melt sled plot felt

west got clock flop shelf shock

Diagnostic Words no, melt, belt, rest

help, she, sock, nest

sock, no, neck, she

Tricky Words: what, where, when Story Words: mystery, police station, police officer, trouble, character, solution, detective New Spelling Sentences: Where is the sock shop?

What can we do to help you?

Day 1  Materials • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review plus f, m, n, s, t, w • Unit A Word Cards, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart as shown • Make ‘door cards’ as shown on p.51 • Unit 1 Student List

Phonics concept review For children new to Letterland, first introduce Mr. O and Mr. E with the information on their PCCs. Have children say their sounds when you push the plain letter forwards. Show the plain letter side of each of these 10 PCCs b, c, d, ĕ, ē, g, h, l, ŏ, ō, p, v, ck, and sh. When you show a plain letter vowel children respond with two sounds because they can’t be sure which sound it will be (e.g. “/ŏ/ or /ō/”). Children say each sound. Review the picture sides and the captions of any that children are unsure of.

 Independent/Partner • Write words & sentences, p.24

 Homework • Read the Student List, p.24

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Introduce new concepts PCCs: ĕ, ē, f, g, h, l, ŏ, ō, p, t, sh Words: go, he, got, help, she, shelf

“ham” “bur” “ger” Palming the syllables

fantastic tiger rock

Six Syllable Types Poster

What is a syllable? • Write the word ’syllable’ on the board. A syllable is a word or a part of a word that we say with one push of breath. Everyone say hop. “Hop.” Hop is a syllable. Say hopscotch. “Hopscotch.” Hopscotch has two syllables hop and scotch. Say hippity-hop. “Hippity-hop.” Hippity-hop has four syllables, hip… pi… ty…hop. • Watch me as I palm the syllables in the word hamburger. Place your right hand on the board or the wall, slightly to your left, looking back over your shoulder at the children. Move your hand to the right for each syllable. Ham…bur…ger. Do it with me. Children can use their hands on their desks, their laps, or on the floor if sitting there. Oral syllable counting • Palm these additional words with the children and ask for the number of syllables each time: tiger (2), newspaper (3), rock (1), cucumber (3), television (4), cloud (1), marble (2), bicycle (3), trip (1), fantastic (3). You could also palm and count the syllables together in some children’s names. • Show the children the Syllable Train on the Six Syllable Types Poster. The syllables in a word are a bit like the cars on a train. They are all put together to make a word. Point to each car on the train as you say, “syl-la-ble.” The word syllable has three syllables, right? Have children say each syllable as you point to it. Rail cars to mark syllables • Write the words tiger, fantastic, and rock on the board. To show the syllables in words, let’s draw a rail car for each syllable. Draw the ‘rail cars’ under the syllables in fantastic as shown at the left. In a word like fantastic we draw three rail cars, one under each syllable. And just like on a train, the syllables are connected together to make a whole word. Have children say the syllables in fan-tas-tic as you point to them. • Make the rail cars (without wheels) under tiger and rock as shown. To make it quicker, we’ll leave off the wheels. Read the words together as you point to the syllables. For each word, ask, How many syllables? • The Letterlanders in a syllable like to be in the same car on the train. That way they can help us read the word. • We are going to be learning lots more about syllables this year. We will learn the six types of syllables that help us to read many, many new words, even very long words. Today we are going to learn about two of those syllable types. Introducing the Open Syllable • With the plain letter sides of the PCCs make the words go and he. • If I turn over this o in go, will it be Oscar Orange saying /ŏ/ or Mr. O saying /ō/? “Mr. O.” (Children will probably answer correctly because they know the word go.) Turn the PCC over to reveal Mr. O. Do the same steps with he. • Do you notice that in these short words the letter on the end is a Vowel Man every time? Would you like to know the secret reason why the Vowel Men like to be on the end of short words like these? It is because they like to shout out their names in the Reading Direction without their shouts hurting anyone else’s ears. • Show your open space card for go/got with the t folded back to show the word go. Here we have go with an open space after Mr. O in the rail car.

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go got

Use index cards to make ‘door cards’. When the door is closed it says got, when opened, go. Make them for sheshelf and he-help, also.

sh Picture Code Cards

• He is happy shouting out because he knows he won’t disturb anyone. Let’s pretend we are Mr. O shouting his name into the open space. We’ll have to ‘pretend shout’ so we don’t bother other classes. Have the children turn in their Reading Direction, put one hand up by their mouth as if shouting and say, “OOOOOH!” • But what happens if we have another letter right after the o? Unfold the flap to show the word got. Now we have the word got. Can we expect to find Mr O in this word? Do you hear Mr. O…or Oscar Orange in got? “Oscar Orange.” Introducing the Closed Syllable • Now make the word got with PCCs showing the picture sides of Oscar Orange. If Mr. O were here shouting out his name, he would be shouting right in Talking Tess ear. That might hurt her ear. She couldn’t even hear her telephone! • Oscar doesn’t shout his name; he just says his usual vowel sound /ŏ/. Let’s finger tap this word: “/g/ /ŏ/ /t/, got.” As a matter of fact, Oscar and the other vowel sounds, Annie Apple, Eddy Elephant, Impy Ink, and Uppy Umbrella, all like to be in syllables that have a consonant friend after them, or even two or three. The consonants close up the space in the rail car. That makes the Vowels feel safe because now there is no room for any Vowel Stealing Robots that might board the train. • Follow the same steps with your door cards and PCCs for exploring the sounds of the vowels in he-help and she-shelf. • Review the words go and he on the pocket chart and tell children these are called Open Syllables, because there is open space for the Vowel Man to shout his name. Point to each word in turn and ask, What kind of syllable is this? Have children answer each time: “Open Syllable.” • Change go to got and he to help with the picture sides of the vowels and the rest plain letters. Ask the children why we don’t find the Vowel Men in the words got and help. “They can’t shout their names without shouting in someone’s ear.” And ask why Oscar Orange and Impy Ink like to have a friendly consonant or two after them. “They protect them from robots!” • Yes, the consonants come and close up the space, and that makes the vowel sounds feel safe. So we call these ‘Closed Syllables’. Point to got and then help and ask, What kind of syllable? Children answer, “Closed Syllable.” Digraph sh • Show children the picture side of the sh PCC. When these two Letterlanders get together we don’t hear the usual sound of either. That’s because Sammy Snake is so loud and Harry Hat Man hates noise. So Harry turns to Sammy and says, ’Sh, noise gives me a horrible headache.’ Show the plain letter side and have children say /sh/ three times as you push the card forward. • Make she with plain letters. Children decide if this is an open or Closed Syllable and explain why. Have them then predict who will be behind the plain letter e. Do the same steps with the word shelf.

Unit 1: Closed and Open Syllables : e, o

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Section A

Units 4–6 : Magic e Syllable, soft c & g

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Units 4–6 : Magic e Syllable, soft c & g

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Magic e Syllables, soft c & g

Unit 4: Magic e: a_e, i_e Unit Focus grade

flake

shine

write

trade

mistake

while

quite

beside

Tricky Words

wrap

shin

quiet

grin

everyone

Picture Code Cards for review PCCs or ă, ā, e★*, ĭ, ī, ff, ll, ng, LSCs qu*, ss, a_e*, i_e* APCCs wh/w/*, wr* * Introduced in this Unit ★ Magic version

Children who have previously learned about Letterland will know about the powers of Magic e to make the Vowel Man appear and say his name. You will be reviewing the story logic for them while introducing it to new children, using the Vowel Men Mr. A and Mr. I in this Unit. The Magic e as a syllable type will be new to everyone. A few closed-syllable words are included for contrast. You will also introduce or reintroduce the qu pair in decodable words quit and quite as well as in the Tricky Word quiet. Quarrelsome Queen never appears in words without her royal umbrella which keeps her beautiful long hair safe from the weather. The Letterland stories for the digraphs wr (e.g. write) and wh (e.g. while) are also featured.

List A shine flake write grin grade mistake

trade shin wrap while quite beside

List B quit white grab shake slide became

while grape smile flake blame invite

List C smile shape write drag trade inside

grade slid snake hike white mistake

Diagnostic Words shade, slid, white, snake

shape, write, grin, trade

while, wrap, grape, quite

Tricky Words: quiet, everyone Story Words: behind, great, playground, count, monkey bars, sign Review Words: thanking, trunks, music, think, wing, grass, spell, thin New Spelling Sentences: Everyone must be quiet!

They are going down the slide.

Day 1  Materials • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review plus b, d, c, ē, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, ck, sh • Unit 4 Word Cards, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart as shown • Magic e wand (see next page) • Six Syllable Types Poster • Unit 4 Student List • Beyond ABC and Far Beyond ABC • Advanced Songs CD (#12 & 13)

Phonics concept review Display the plain letter sides of these PCCs: ff, ll, and ss. Ask children to say the sounds and tell where in words they appear (i.e. “at the end of a word right after the vowel sound”).

Introduce new concepts PCCs: ă, ā, b, d, e★, ĭ, ī, k, m, n, s, t, ck, qu, sh APCCs: wh/w/, wr Words: shin, shine, bit, bite, white, write, quit, quite, mad, made, snack, snake, mistake

Unit 4 : Magic e: a_e, i_e

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 Independent/Partner • Write words & sentences, p.24

 Homework • Read the Student List, p.24

Make a Magic e wand Attach colorful strips to a piece of paper. Roll into a thin cylinder and glue or tape together.

bīte wh Picture Code Cards

Silent Magic e: The power to make the Vowel Man appear • Make the word shin. Have children identify the syllable type and the sound of the vowel. Turn the vowel to the picture side and have children finger tap the word. Talk about the meaning of shin. • Display the picture side of the Magic e PCC. Here is a special e that Mr. E made in his magic shop. He calls it ‘Silent Magic e’. Can you see its magic sparks? Place Magic e at the end of shin to make the word shine. Hold your magic wand near Magic e with the fringes falling near the Impy Ink PCC as you say: Magic e always shoots its magic sparks back over just one letter. The sparks are so powerful they make a vowel sound disappear and a Vowel Man appear in its place! Put Mr. I in place of Impy Ink. Silent Magic e doesn’t make a sound so we only have three sounds in this word. Now, let’s finger tap it: “/sh/ / ī / /n/, shine.” Use shine in a brief sentence. • Mr. E likes to say, ‘Silent Magic e is the letter you cannot hear, with the power to make a Vowel Man appear!’ • Practice with the children to help them memorize this little rhyme. • Make bit with the picture side of Impy Ink and plain letters for the consonants. After children read bit use the word in a sentence. • Show the Magic e PCC. Now, what will happen when we put Magic e on the end of bit? Let children explain and then have someone come forward to change Impy Ink to Mr. I. Everyone finger taps the new word. The Magic e Syllable Write bite on the board. We now have a new syllable type named after Silent Magic e: the ‘Magic e Syllable’. Show children how to Quick Code bite as you explain. • First we dot our vowels. You will have spotted that Magic e at the end that shoots its magic sparks back over one letter to make a Vowel Man appear. • We make our rail car under the whole Magic e Syllable. • Now we write an e under the rail car to show it’s a Magic e Syllable. • Then let’s make a slash through our final e to remind us it is silent – no sound. • Next we draw in some magic sparks from the Magic e shooting back over one letter to land on the first vowel. • Finally we put a straight line over the i to show it’s Mr. I saying his name. That’s a straight line for him to sign his name. • Now that we know what our vowels say, we can finger tap our word: “/b/ /ī/ /t/, bite.” Introduce wh/w/, wr, and qu and build words with each • Show the picture side of the PCC wh/w/ and share the information in small print with the children. (Option: Share the story in Beyond ABC and/or play the ‘Walter Walrus & Harry Hat Man’ song (Track 12) from Advanced Songs CD to them.) Push the plain letter side forward and all say the sound: “/wh/ /wh/ /wh/…” • Replace the b PCC in bite with the wh to make the word white (with picture sides of wh/w/, ī, and Magic e. • Is this word a Magic e Syllable? “Yes!” Right, so we are ready to finger tap it: “/wh/ /ī/ /t/, white.” • Introduce wr with the PCC and Far Beyond ABC (and/or Advanced Songs CD, Track 13) as you did with wh/w/. Then make write. Work out the syllable type together and finger tap i. You will want to distinguish the meaning of write from its homonym right.

Walter Walrus and Harry Hat Man in Beyond ABC

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• Introduce the qu PCC as you did wr and wh/w/. Then make quit and quite for children to work out. Discuss the meanings of these words. You may want to also show the Word Card for quiet and discuss this Tricky Word. • Make mad, and then made and snack with plain letter sides to begin with. Work out the syllable types and vowels for each with the children. Clever Cat runs away in the word snake • Point to the word snack. An interesting thing happens when we add Silent Magic e to this word. Follow the pictures in the margin as you explain: Magic e’s sparks can only shoot over one letter. You can see that if we leave Clever Cat and Kicking King here, the sparks will fall on Clever Cat. She is afraid the sparks might burn her furry coat, so she gets out of the way, fast! That leaves only Kicking King making the /k/ sound. Now Magic e’s sparks can reach the vowel and make Mr. A appear! • Finger tap snake with the children: “/s/ /n/ /ā/ /k/, snake.” Multi-syllable word: mistake • Make the word mistake with plain letters. Separate the syllables and work out the syllable types and vowel sounds with the children. Confirm with picture sides. Then they read each syllable and then the whole word.

‘Live Reading’

• •

• •

PCCs: ă, ā, b, d, ē, e★, g, h, ĭ, ī, k, p, r, s, t, qu APCCs: wh/w/, wr Words: hid, hide, hike, grab, grade, wrap, white, quite, beside Distribute the PCCs. Children with PCCs remain seated until needed except for Magic e who stands to the ‘audience right’ with the magic wand. Children should show their plain letters, except for Magic e. Line up the children with the plain letter sides of their PCCs to make hid. Have Mr. I hide behind Impy Ink. Discuss the syllable type and the vowel sound. Have Impy Ink show the picture side to confirm the sound. Then have the Magic e child take a step forward and announce: Silent Magic e is the letter you cannot hear With the power to make the Vowel Man appear. As you say the word power, have the Magic e child hold up the magic wand and shake it. Then have Magic e move into place to form hide with the other children and wave the magic wand over the Impy Ink child who quickly moves behind as Mr. I moves to the front. The class then finger taps the new word, hide. Remind them that Silent Magic e makes no sound of its own. Build the other words in a similar way. For each word, have the vowel letters push their plain sides forward. Have the class identify the syllable type as Magic e, Closed, or Open. Then they are ready to predict the vowel sound. The vowels show their picture sides and Magic e waves the wand over one letter to make the Vowel Man appear. Then the class finger taps the word. For beside have the children leave a space between the syllables (be-side) until the children have worked out both syllable types. Read the new Word Cards in columns on the pocket chart with the class using the Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters activity.

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Small Group Teacher builds words for reading Tricky Words

quīet everyone

• • •

PCCs: ă, ā, d, e★, g, ĭ, ī, k, l, n, r, s, t, v, sh APCCs: wh/w/, wr Words: slid, slide, while, drag, grade, shake, write, invite Build words with the PCC C plain letter sides. Have someone explain the syllable type and vowel sounds before showing the picture sides of the vowels. Then all finger tap the word. Leave a space between the syllables of invite (in-vite) until children work out the syllable types and vowel sounds. New Tricky Words (p.23): On the board write the Tricky Words as shown on the left. (For further instructions, see your Dailyy Lesson Guide Cards on TGCD.) Read the Student List (p.24).

Day 2  Materials • PCCs for Review plus b, c, ē, f, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t • Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets • Blends & Digraphs Songs CD (#29) • ‘Magic e’ Song lyrics • Word Detectives (or write on the board) • Far Beyond ABC • Unit 4 Student List

Quick Dash PCCs: ă, ā, e★, ĭ, ī, ff, ll, ng, qu, ss, a_e, i_e APCCs: wh/w/, wr

Beyond ABC Share the ‘Mr. A and Silent Magic e’ and ‘Mr. I and Silent Magic e’ pages in Far Beyond ABC with the children. Children look for items in the illustrations that match the Magic e patterns.

Blends and Digraphs Songs  Independent/Partner • Read Review Sentences with two partners, p.28 • Quick Code the word list written on Day 1, p.29

 Homework • Look-say-cover-write, p.29

Blends & Digraphs Songs CD

When we unfolded the shāpes, they bēcāme whīte snow flākes. Did you ĭnvīte Sammy Snāke

‘Magic e Song’ (Blends & Digraphs Songs CD, Track 29). Printed Song lyrics (TGCD). Activity suggestions, p.25.

‘Live Spelling’ PCCs: ă, ā, b, c, d, e★, ē, f, ĭ, ī, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, qu APCCs: wh/w/, wr Words: smile, while, white, quite, quit, write, wrap, trade, flake, became, inside • Distribute the PCCs to the children. • Say the word. Children repeat it and finger tap it. Then they ‘Live Spell’ it. They check the spelling by blending the sounds. • For multi-syllable words see the steps on page 26 or on your Daily Lesson Guide Cards (TGCD).

Word Detectives Read the sentences to and with the children and guide them in Quick Coding as shown to the left. (Larger version of Quick Coding for each Unit is included in Word Detectives Key on your TGCD\Unit Activities) See the sequence for Quick Coding on page 27.

to go on our hīke?

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Section A

Units 7–8 : Suffix -ed and more

Units 7–8 : Suffix -ed and more

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Suffix -ed and more

Unit 7: The three sounds of -ed: /ed/, /d/ and /t/ Unit Focus traded

smiled

invited

thanked

excused checked

landed

closed

hoped

saved

wished raced

Tricky Words

heard

young

The three sounds of the suffix -ed (/ed/ /d/ /t/) are the subject of this Unit. Difficulty in spelling these past tense words tends to arise from the three different pronunciations of this suffix (depending on the ending of the base word) as ‘id’ or ‘d’ or ‘t’. Children also need to know that ed is a Magic suffix that replaces the final Magic e in base words. When children read words in ‘Live Reading’ and other reading activities, have them first finger tap and say the base word only, then say it with the suffix (e.g. /b/ /ā/ /k/, bake, baked). When finger tapping a word for spelling, teach them to say the whole word, then the base word, then finger tap the base word, build or write the word, and add the suffix (e.g. say “landed, land, /l/ /ă/ /n/ /d/,” write land, add ed).

List A thanked traded smiled checked raced excused

closed hoped landed saved wished invited

Picture Code Cards for review ă, ā, e★, ĭ, ī, ŏ, ō, s, s/z/, sh APCCs ce, -ed/ed/*, -ed/d/*, -ed/t/*, wr * Introduced in this Unit ★ Magic version

PCCs or LSCs

List B placed named waded skated tricked opened

List C

rushed voted winked closed smiled included

baked faded spilled thanked closed excused

skated filled saved landed raced invited

Diagnostic Words winked, placed, filled, handed

baked, filled, traded, thanked

waded, winked, placed, smiled

Tricky Words: heard, young Story Words: burrow, hoof, borrowed, bridge, handsome, chew, totally, terrible Review Words: quite, this, mistake, price, while, space, plot, thin New Spelling Sentences: I smiled when he cracked a joke.

The young dog waded in the pond.

Day 1  Materials • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review plus c, d, ĕ, e★, f, h, k, l, n, p, r, t, ū, v, w, x, ch, ck, ll, sh • Unit 7 Word Cards, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart as shown • Unit 7 Student List

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Phonics concept review Display the picture side of the PCCs a_e, ge and d/–/. Ask children to tell the Letterland story logic to explain the sounds of these letters.

Unit 7: The three sounds of -ed : /ed/, /d/ and /t/

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Introduce new concepts

 Independent/Partner • Write words & sentences, p.24

 Homework • Read the Student List, p.24

ed Picture Code Cards

PCCs: ă, ā, c, d, ĕ, e★, f, h, ĭ, l, n, ō, p, s, s/z/, ch, ck, ll APCCs: -ed/ed/, -ed/d/, -ed/t/ Words: landed, spilled, checked, closed, faded, hoped Show the plain letter side of the -ed/ed/ APCC. This week we will be using lots of words with the suffix -ed on the end. The tricky thing about suffix -ed is that it can have three different sounds. Show the picture side -ed/ed/ APCC. In this picture we can see both Eddy Elephant and Dippy Duck and we can often hear both of their sounds: /e/ /d/, ed. But sometimes they do a disappearing trick. We’ll find out more about that in a moment. Now you are going to help me tell a story with lots of words with the suffix -ed on the end. When I get to one of these words, I am going to make it on the pocket chart for you to read and help decide what the suffix sounds like. Are you ready? Make the word land on the pocket chart with PCCs, plain letter side. Have children finger tap this word as well as the others below. (The words of the story are underlined as follows.) One day I took a glass of water into the yard. All of a sudden I saw a beautiful bluebird. It... (point to the word land for children to read.) This is land, but we would say, ‘the bird landed,’ wouldn’t we? So we have to add the suffix -ed because it is something that happened in the past. What does the suffix sound like in landed? “/ĕd/” (It may sound more like /ĭd/ when you say it fast). So we use this ed card that shows both Eddy and Dippy. What do they say together in landed? “/ĕd/” Make the word spill with the plain letter sides of all the PCCs. Let’s get back to the story. The bird landed on a bush right beside my hand. I was so surprised that I... point to spill for children to read. But we would say... ‘spilled my water.’ So what does the suffix sound like in spilled? /d/ Yes, we hear Dippy Duck’s /d/, but no sound from Eddy. Show the -ed/d/ card. Eddy Elephant has done his disappearing trick as you can see. His letter is there but it is gray, which means it’s silent. All we hear in the suffix is /d/. Make the word check with plain letters. After I spilled my water, I... (point to check for children to read). I checked to see if the bird was still there. So what does the suffix sound like in checked? /t/. Show the -ed/t/ card. Look, both Eddy and Dippy have done the disappearing trick, and Talking Tess was the only one to see them before they disappeared. That’s why we just hear her little /t/ sound at the end of checked and in lots of other words. Add the suffix, and have children read the word checked. Point to the picture sides of all three -ed APCCs as children say the sounds. Do you see something special about these pictures? They all have magic wands and magic sparks because they are all magic endings. So they can take Magic e’s place in words! Make close for children to read. I checked to see if the beautiful bird was still there, but I must have frightened it because it had flown away. I went in the house and I closed the door. So our word close needs a suffix. Which one?... Yes, we just hear Dippy Duck. Replace the final Magic e with the -ed/ed/card to make closed. Now Magic ed takes Magic e’s place and takes on the job of making Mr. O appear in the word. Point to closed for the children to read. Make the word fade for children to read. Even though the bird was only there for a second, the memory of it has never faded from my mind. So we need to make this word say... ‘faded.’ Which ed do we need? Yes, we hear Eddy and Dippy

Unit 7: The three sounds of -ed : /ed/, /d/ and /t/

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Duck in fad-ed. Remove the Magic e to make the word faded for the children to read. • Make hope with picture sides for ō and Magic e. Back to the story: I hoped I would see that bird again. Help children choose the -ed/t/, add the suffix, and read the word hoped together. • Review the three sounds for ed with the APCC picture sides. Then show the plain letter side of one ed. When you see the plain ed card in the Quick Dash, you need to say all three sounds: /ed/ or /d/ or /t/. Practice this a few times. Note: There is no ‘Live Reading’ included in the Day 1 lesson of this Unit. • Read the new Word Cards in columns on the pocket chart with the class using the Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters activity.

Small Group Teacher builds words for reading Tricky Words

heard young

PCCs: ă, ā, c, d, ĕ, e★, f, h, ĭ, k, n, r, s, s/z/ ss/z/,, t, ū, v w, x, ll, sh APCCs: ce, -ed/ed/, -ed/d/, -ed/t/ Words: handed, wished, filled, skated, excused, raced • Build each base word and have children work them out with the steps on page 21 and on your Dailyy Lesson Guide Cards (TGCD). Add the ed with the plain p letter side showing. Have children read the word with the suffix. Then, based on the sound(s) they hear, they predict who they will see when you turn over the ed (Eddy and Dippy? Only Dippy? Or only Talking Tess?). Make race with the ce card picture side. Leave ce and cover the e with the -ed/t/ card (see margin). Explain that the ed can also make Blue Magic to turn Clever Cat into a hissing snake. • New Tricky Words: Write the Tricky Words as shown in the margin. • Read the Student List.

Day 2  Materials • PCCs for Review plus b, c, d, k, l, n, p, r, t, v, ll, th • Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets • Word Detectives • Unit 7 Student List

 Independent/Partner • Read Review Sentences with two partners, p.28 • Quick Code the word list written on Day 1, p.29

 Homework • Look-say-cover-write, p.29

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Quick Dash PCCs: ă, ā, e★, ĭ, ī, ŏ, ō, s, s/z/, sh APCCs: ce, -ed/ed/, -ed/d/, -ed/t/, wr

‘Live Spelling’ PCCs: ă, ā, b, c, d, e★, ĭ, ī, k, l, n, ō, p, r, s, s/z/, t, v, ll, th APCCs: -ed/ed/, -ed/d/, -ed/t/ Words: traded, thanked, closed, baked, spilled, invited • Two children hold -ed/ed/ together. Only one child each for -ed/d/ and one for -ed/t/. All children with -ed APCCs stand in front of the class on the audience right. Other children with PCCs remain seated until needed. • Follow the steps on page 26 or on your Daily Lesson Guide Cards (TGCD) to ‘Live Spell’ the base word and then have children choose which -ed to add. Have the Magic e child sit down when the ed is added to Silent Magic e words.

Unit 7: The three sounds of -ed : /ed/, /d/ and /t/

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Word Detectives Golden Girl smīled and wĭnked

Children circle the ed’s and mark the sound heard above, ed, d, or t.

as she skāted. A boy nāmed Jim ĭnvīted me to join him as he jŭmped along.

Larger version of Quick Coding for each Unit is included in Word Detectives Key (TGCD\Unit Activities)

Small Group Children build words Letters: a, c, d, d, e, h, i, i, l, l, m, n, p, s, t, v, w Words: spilled, wished, landed, placed, invited, named • See Unit Focus and Dailyy Lesson Guide Cards on your TGCD for word building procedures with suffixes. • Review Tricky Words. • Read Review Sentences.

Days 3 to 5 Refer to pages 30–40 of the 5 Day Unit Plan instructions for Days 3 to 5.

Day 3: Unit Story • Before reading ‘Where is Henry? – A Letterland Mystery’ to the children: Display the picture side of the PCCs for b, h, t, r, f, p (Patsy Puppy). Harry Hat Man’s horse Henry is missing and these Letterlanders try to help solve the mystery, but you may figure out what happened before they do. • After reading: Use the PCCs as you discuss each clue discovered by the Letterlanders that you have displayed and how most of the clues misled them. How did all the clues actually point to Munching Mike? You might also make a graphic organizer with the children similar to the example on page 307 based on this story. Unit 7 Story, TGCD

Unit 7: The three sounds of -ed : /ed/, /d/ and /t/

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Section B

Units 9–11 : Long Vowel Teams and other silent letters

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Units 9–11: Long Vowel Teams and other silent letters

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Long Vowel Teams and other silent letters

Unit 9: Long Vowel Teams: ea, ee Unit Focus feel

beach

freeze

east

street

scream

three

repeat

sleeve

please

between

leave Tricky Words

great

because

In Letterland when two Vowel Men go out walking, the first one waves and says his name, but the second man won’t do the same (e.g. reach, feel). He is the silent look-out man making sure the robot Vowel Stealers don’t capture them. The trick is knowing whether to spell a word with ea or ee. This week’s pair of Unit plays (Unit Story in two acts) will help. Just teach children to think about which play the word appears in to give them a clue as to which spelling to use. These two vowel pairs help introduce a new syllable type, the Vowel Team Syllable, in which two or more adjacent letters represent one vowel phoneme (e.g. ea, ee, ai, ay, oo, ou, ow, igh). Children can recognize most Vowel Team Syllables by noticing two vowels together. The Letterland story logic for the various combinations will help them learn and remember the sounds.

List A beach east street freeze three repeat

feel sleeve scream leave please between

Picture Code Cards for review z, ch, ea/ē/*, ee*, th, th, qu, ve* d/–/, e/–/*, -ed/ed/, -ed/d/, -ed/t/, ge * Introduced in this Unit

PCCs or LSCs APCCs

List B cheese teeth squeak speak sleeve peach

least sweet breathe squeeze three repeat

List C sweet queen peak meal breeze repeat

feel leave stream freeze steal between

Diagnostic Words breeze, speak, teeth, least

scream, between, leave, freeze

peach, east, squeeze, street

Tricky Words: great, because Story Words: mountain, eagle, magic, second, possible, reappear, tongue, beautiful Review Words: catch, itch, pocket, bucket, saved, tricked, judge, globe New Spelling Sentences: The queen said their trick was great. Mr. A did not speak because he was the look-out man.

Day 1  Materials • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review plus b, c, ē, f, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, t, w, ck • Vowel Scene Poster: Vowels out walking • Beyond ABC and/or Story Phonics software • Unit 9 Word Cards, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart as shown • Six Syllable Types Poster • Unit 9 Unit Story • Unit 9 Student List

Phonics concept review Write the words catch and rocket on the board. Ask children to explain the story logic from the previous Unit that helps them read these words.

Introduce new concepts PCCs: b, f, l, r, s, t, t, z, ch, ea/ē/, ee, ve APCC: e/–/ Words: beach, east, feel, street, leave, sleeve, freeze

Unit 9 : Long Vowel Teams : ea, ee

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 Independent/Partner • Write words & sentences, p.24

 Homework • Read the Student List, p.24

ea Picture Code Cards

bēach east

ee Picture Code Cards

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Introduce the Vowels out walking: Mr. E and Mr. A • (If your children have used Letterland at the previous level, they may be able to help you tell the Letterland story logic that explain the sounds of these pairs of vowels. At this level, they will be learning more challenging words containing these patterns.) • Display the ea PCC. Read about Mr. E and Mr. A out walking in Beyond ABC and/or Story Phonics software. Have children listen for words with the /ē/ sound and look for items in the picture with the sound. Turn the PCC to the plain side and push forward several times as children say “/ē/ /ē/…”. • Make the words beach and then east for children to finger tap. Vowel Team Syllable Type • Write beach and east on the board. The words we are learning about this week all have a new type of syllable in them. Let’s dot our vowels and see what we can learn about this syllable type. Make a dot under each vowel in beach. Hmmm, there are two vowels side by side and then some consonants. How many vowels are in an Open Syllable? “One.” And where is that vowel in an Open Syllable? “At the end.” Point to the word beach. So, is beach an Open Syllable? “No?” • Let’s see if it could be a Closed Syllable. How many vowels in a Closed Syllable? “One.” So, it is not a Closed Syllable, is it? It is a new kind of syllable with two vowels right together, and the two vowels just make one sound. Mr. E and Mr. A are walking together but only Mr. E is saying his name. And what is Mr. A doing? “Looking out for robots.” Yes, so they are working together like a team, helping each other and we only hear one sound. So this is called a ‘Vowel Team Syllable’. Let’s say that three times. “Vowel Team Syllable…” • Draw a rail car under beach. So a Vowel Team has two vowels working as a team to make one sound, in this case Mr. E’s name. So underneath these syllables we’ll put a ‘v’ for Vowel Team. And in the Vowel Team Syllables we are learning this week, the first vowel says its name and his teammate is silent. Make a straight line over the e in reach and a slash through the a. Have children finger tap the word. • Have children tell you the steps to Quick Code the word east, beginning with dotting the vowels and ending with finger tapping the word. More Vowels out walking: Mr. E and Mr. E • Read about Mr. E and his brother Mr. E in Beyond ABC and/or Story Phonics software. Explore the picture with the children to find words where they can hear Mr. E’s name. • Display the ee PCC. So, here is another pair of Vowel Men who like to go out walking. Who are they? “Mr. E and Mr. E.” Who is doing the talking? “The first Mr. E.” Who is looking out for Robots? “The second Mr. E.” Turn to the plain letter side. So what do these two letters say? Push it forward several times as children repeat: “/ē/ /ē/…” • Build the words feel and street with plain letter sides and follow the ‘Steps for Reading Words with PCCs’ on your Daily Lesson Guide Cards (TGCD). • Display the picture side of the ve PCC. Share the information on the back of the PCC about the Vase Prop e. Build the words leave and sleeve. As you follow the steps explain that they can tell these are Vowel Team Syllables because they have two vowels together and that the ‘e’ on the end is not a Magic e but is just there to keep Vickie’s Vase of Violets from tipping over at the end of a word. • Display the Burnt Out Magic APCC e (e/–/). Share the information on the plain letter side. This Burnt Out Magic e is at the end of several of our words this week. When we see the two vowels together in the middle of the word we will know the e on the end is not a Magic e but a Burnt Out Magic e.

Unit 9 : Long Vowel Teams : ea, ee

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• Build the word freeze and follow the steps with the children. • Display and discuss the Vowel Team panel of the Six Syllable Types Poster. Read the first Act of the Unit 9 Story • This Unit includes a decodable play (the Unit Story) about Mr. E and Mr. A, and a second one about Mr. E and his twin brother. Associating the words of the Unit with one or the other play will help children remember which words are spelled with ea and which with ee. For this reason, it is a good idea to read the first Act of the play aloud on Day 1 and save the second Act of the play for Day 2. • I am going to read you a play called ‘Mr. E and Mr. A out walking.’ Later in the week you will be reading it. In this play, there are lots of words with the Mr. E’s name in them and they are spelled with ea. If we remember how the words are used in this story, it will help us spell these words correctly. Listen as I read. I will stop two or three times in the story and we will talk about what has happened and make a list of ea words on the board. • After reading the first Act of the play and making a list of ea words, you might review the story by having children tell how each word relates to the story (e.g. “Mr. E and Mr. A hiked up a mountain peak.”). Unit 9 Story, TGCD

‘Live Reading’ PCCs: b, c, ē, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, s/z/, t, w, ea/ē/, ee, th, ve APCC: e/–/ Words: three, teeth, scream, please, speak, sleeve, between, repeat • Line children with PCCs up to form the words and follow the steps on your Daily Lesson Guide Cards (TGCD). Build two-syllable words with a space between the syllables (be-tween, re-peat). • Read the new Word Cards in columns on the pocket chart with the class using the Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters activity.

Small Group Teacher builds words for reading Tricky Words

great becausze

PCCs: b, ē, l, k, p, r, s, s/z/ ss/z/,, t, t, w, z, ch, ea/ē/, ee, qu, th, ve APCC: e/–/ Words: least, breathe, steal, street, sweet, squeeze, breeze, cheese, leave, repeat • Leave a space between syllables (re peat). • Write the new Tricky Words as shown. Practice them with the 3-by-3 Strategy. • Read the Student List.

Day 2  Materials • PCCs for Review plus b, ē, k, l, n, p, r, s, t, w • Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets • Review Sentences • Unit 9 Story • Word Detectives • Unit 9 Student List

Quick Dash PCCs: z, ch, ea, ee, th, th, qu, ve APCCs: d/–/, e/–/,-ed/ed/, -ed/d/, -ed/t/, ge

Unit 9 : Long Vowel Teams : ea, ee

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 Independent/Partner • Read Review Sentences with two partners, p.28 • Quick Code the word list written on Day 1, p.29

 Homework • Look-say-cover-write, p.29

Review ea words Display the ea Word Cards for the list you are working on (A, B, or C) and any additional ea words you choose. Have children read the words and tell how each word relates to the ‘Mr. E and Mr. A out walking play’. Read the second Act of the Unit 9 Story Read the play ‘Mr. E and Mr. E Visit the Queen’. Pause at several points in the story. Have children retell the story and identify ee words to list on the board. Review by having the children relate each word to the story.

‘Live Spelling’ PCCs: b, ē, k, l, n, p, r, s, t, w, z, ch, ea/ē/, ee, qu, th, ve APCC: e/–/ Words: peach, queen, sleeve, breeze, squeak, breathe, between • As you call out a word for ‘Live Spelling’, ask a child to relate it to either the ea play or the ee play, thereby, identifying the correct vowel spelling. • Have two children hold the ea/ē/ PCC and two more hold ee stand to the left of the class. They come walking in the Reading Direction when needed in a word. The first Vowel Man waves and says his name (i.e. /ē/), and the second puts a hand up above his eyes, as if on the Lookout.

Word Detectives Mr. E and Mr. A lēave for a hīke along a strēam and up to a pēak. Mr. E and his brother mēet on the

Read the sentences to and with the children and guide them in Quick Coding the words as shown here to the left (p.26).

Small Group

strēet and go to sēe the quēen.

Children build words Larger version of Quick Coding for each Unit is included in Word Detectives Key (TGCD\Unit Activities)

Letters: a, b, c, e, e, e, f, h, k, l, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z Words: beach, speak, sweet, cheese, feel, freeze, leave, repeat, between • Review Tricky Words. • Read Review Sentences.

Days 3 to 5 Refer to pages 30–40 of the 5 Day Unit Plan instructions for Days 3 to 5.

Day 3: Unit Story

Unit 9 Story, TGCD

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• Before reading ‘Mr. E and Mr. A out walking’ and ‘Mr. E and Mr. E visit the Queen’: You will already have read these stories to the children on Days 1 and 2. Place the ea and ee PCCs at the top of your pocket chart. Read out the ea and ee Word Cards for the list your children are studying (A, B, or C) without showing the word. Have the children decide which PCC each word should go under by relating it to one of the stories. • Since you have already read the stories to the children, you could begin on Day 3 with a whole class reading by assigning the various roles. • After reading each story: After the first story, you might ask small groups of children to make lists of as many ea words as they can find. Then compare lists and let children add more. Do the same with ee words after the second story.

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Section B

Units 12–15 : Robot Syllable and y as a vowel

Units 12–15: Robot Syllable and y as a vowel

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Robot Syllable and y as a vowel

Unit 12: R-controlled vowels: ar, or Unit Focus Tricky Words

harm

north

animal

march

storm

picture

barb

forty

smart

forget

apart

sorting

large

report

Children familiar with Letterland are reintroduced to the Vowel Stealers, Arthur Ar and Orvil Or, this time in more challenging words than at the previous level. These two troublemakers help introduce the Robot Syllable, which always includes one or two vowels followed by an r. Children learn that the robots capture the vowels in their robber sacks, preventing the vowels from making their usual sounds. Arthur Ar steals apples and reports his catch by saying his last name Ar (/ar/ as in art and car). Orvil Or is the orange stealer who reports his last name Or (/or/ as in organ and north). Children catch these robbers in the act by calling out the robots’ last names whenever they see them in words.

List A north forty large barb apart forget

march smart storm sorting harm report

porch thorn sports starve alarm forest

start short scar fork party harmless

List C short party large target darkness forget

shark forty sports smart forest report

Diagnostic Words

Picture Code Cards for review PCCs or ai, ar*, ay, ea/ē/, ee, LSCs oa, ow/ō/, or*, ve, igh APCCs a/ŭ/, ge, kn, mb, wr * Introduced in this Unit

List B

short, start, party, sport

march, smart, storm, north

north, start, fork, apart

Tricky Words: animal, picture Story Words: porcupine, absurd, rhyme, idea, warn Review Words: flight, okay, wrote, limb, crumbs, known, below, between New Spelling Sentences: We sat on the porch to watch the forest animals. I painted a picture of a shark for my report.

Day 1  Materials • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review plus b, b, c, ĕ, ē, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, y/ē/, ch, sh, ss, th, APCC -ing★ • Unit 12 Word Cards, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart as shown • Beyond ABC and/or Story Phonics software • 2 'robber sacks' or backpacks • Six Syllable Types Poster • Unit 12 Student List

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Phonics concept review Display the picture side of the PCCs igh, kn, mb and wr. Ask children to tell the story for each one. Then show the plain letter sides and have children say the sounds.

Introduce new concepts PCCs: ē, h, l, m, n, p, r, t, ar, ch, or, th APCC: a/ŭ/, ge Words: march, harm, alarm, large, north, report • Display the picture side of the ar PCC. Let children describe what they see in the picture. Then read about Arthur Ar in Beyond ABC and/or Story Phonics software.

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 Independent/Partner • Write words & sentences, p.24

 Homework • Read the Student List, p.24

• Have children pretend to be Arthur Ar with left arm held out in front and the other arm holding pretend sacks on their shoulders. Have them say his sound several times as you push the plain letter side of the PCC forward, “/ar/ /ar/ / ar/.” • Return to the illustration and have children find things with the /ar/ sound. • Build the word march with plain letters. Tell children that this is a new kind of syllable called the ‘Robot Syllable’. When we see a robot with a vowel behind him, we can imagine his robot sack wrapped around the vowel as he runs away saying his name. We need to be good detectives and not be tricked by these troublemakers into saying the usual vowel sound. Instead when we see a Robot Syllable, we need to say the robot’s last name as we read the word or syllable. • Point to the word march. So, what kind of syllable is this? “Robot Syllable.” Point to ar. And what will the sound of these two letters be? “/ar/.” Flip the ar PCC to the picture side, and then have children finger tap the word. • Build the words harm and alarm and follow the usual steps. For the word alarm, review the sentence on the a/ŭ/, card that explains the /ŭ/ sound before building the word as shown at the left. The syllable is still called ‘open’, but it is making a different sound. • Introduce Orvil Or with the same steps as above, including his story and scene in Beyond ABC and/or Story Phonics software. • Then build the words with or and follow the usual steps. (Note: in the word report the first syllable is open but Mr. E says his name so fast we may only hear a quick ‘/ŭ/’.)

‘Live Reading’

• • •

PCCs: ĕ, f, g, m, p, s, t, ar, or, ve APCCs: a/ŭ/, -ing★ Words: smart, storm, sorting, sport, starve, forget, forest Distribute PCCs. Let pairs of children hold the Vowel Stealer PCCs, ar and or, each with a sack or backpack. The vowel children hold on to the robot’s sack or shoulder to show they are captives. These pairs can stand to the audience left and rush into the word when you call for them. After ‘Live Reading’, review ar, or, a/ŭ/ PCCs, both sides. Point out the Robot Syllable panel of the Six Syllable Types Poster. Discuss the illustrations and example words with your class. Read the new Word Cards in columns on the pocket chart with the class using the Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters activity.

Small Group Tricky Words

picture animal

Teacher builds words for reading PCCs: b, b, c, ĕ, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, s, t, y/ē/ yy/ē/,, ar, er, or, sh, ss APCCs: a/ŭ/ Words: fork, forty, party, apart, short, shark, barb, scar, harmless • Write the Tricky Words as shown. Practice them with the 3-by-3 Strategy. • Read the Student List.

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Day 2  Materials • PCCs for Review plus d, f, ĕ, f, l, k, m, p, s, t, t, ar, ch, or, ss • APPC -ing★ • Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets • Word Detectives • Unit 12 Student List

 Independent/Partner • Read Review Sentences with two partners, p.28 • Quick Code the word list written on Day 1, p.29

 Homework • Look-say-cover-write, p.29

Quick Dash PCCs: ai, ar, ay, ea/ē/, ee, oa, ow/ō/, or, ve, igh APCC: a/ŭ/, ge, kn, mb, wr

‘Live Spelling’ PCCs: d, ĕ, f, l, k, m, n, p, s, t, t, ar, ch, or, ss APCCs: a/ŭ/, ge Words: porch, sport, sort, sorting, start, large, forest, alarm, darkness • Let pairs of children hold the ar and or PCCs. After the rest of the children palm the syllable and finger tap it, the appropriate vowel+r pair can rush into the word. • Leave the children in the word sport in place, until the rest of the children finger tap the word sort and decide what changes need to be made. Do the same with sort/sorting.

Word Detectives I scrēamed in alarm when I saw the large shark. The storm from the north

Children draw the robot’s robber sack around the captured vowel and Quick Code the other words as shown.

Small Group

spread darknĕss through the forĕst. Larger version of Quick Coding for each Unit is included in Word Detectives Key (TGCD\Unit Activities)

Children build words Letters: a, a, b, b, c, e, f, g, h, k, l, l, t, m, m, n, o, p, r, r, s, t, y Words: north, thorn, storm, smart, alarm, party, apart, porch, forty, forget, target • Review Tricky Words. • Read Review Sentences.

Days 3 to 5 Refer to pages 30–40 of the 5 Day Unit Plan instructions for Days 3 to 5.

Day 3: Word Sort This Unit works nicely for Live word sorting or if you prefer, use either pocket chart word sort, or sort by sound (p.291).

Day 3: Unit Story • Before reading ‘The Porcupine Report’ to the children: Ask if anyone has ever heard of ‘pen pals’, and also what they know about porcupines. This would be a good time to use the K-W-L strategy (p.306) on the subject of porcupines. • After reading: Have children retell this story using the ‘Story Stone’ activity (p.303), or complete the K-W-L activity (TGCD\Comprehension Activities).

Unit 12 Story, TGCD

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Section B

Units 16–22 : Variant Vowel Teams and spellings

Units 16–22: Variant Vowel Teams and spellings

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Variant Vowel Teams and spellings

Unit 16: Vowel sound in boot: oo/

/, o/

/

Unit Focus spoon

balloon

who

school

smooth

do

loose

proof

prove

rooster

choose

lose

Tricky Words

The Boot and Foot Twins help children remember both sounds for oo. In this Unit the focus is on the / / sound in boot. Children may be familiar with these twins from the previous level of Step-by-Step. The first twin grabs his brother’s footwear and taunts him, “Oo, I have your boots!” Sometimes the second twin hides behind his brother so we only see one o, as in do, to, who, and prove, but the Boot Twin still taunts, “ !” (They will learn the other sound represented by oo in the next Unit.)

List A spoon balloon who school smooth loose

do proof rooster prove choose lose

children

List B noon bloom tooth prove choose boot

List C

move whom cartoon loose tomorrow whose

goose raccoon whom who moose tool

pool zoom broom cartoon lose move

Diagnostic Words noon, move, tooth, broom

goose, smooth, who, school

loose, prove, bloom, whose

Picture Code Cards for review o/ŭ/, y/ī/, y/ē/, z, ar, er, oo/ /*, th, ve

PCCs or LSCs APCCs

e/–/, o/ /*, ch/c/*, rr, wh/h/ * Introduced in this Unit

Tricky Words: children Story Words: howl, bubbles, cuckoo, favorite, kazoos, footsies, extreme Review Words: sorry, carry, hungry, reply, farther, person, curly, thirsty New Spelling Sentences: The children like to see all the animals.

Who likes the moose the best?

Day 1  Materials • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review plus b, c, d, r, g, l, m, n, ŏ, p, r, s, s/z/, t, ow/ō/, sh • Unit 16 Word Cards, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart as shown • A pair of boots, shoes or cutout of a pair for the Boot Twin in ‘Live Reading’ • Six Syllable Types Poster • Special Unit 15 Word Cards: r, r • Unit 16 Student List • Far Beyond ABC and/or Story Phonics software

 Independent/Partner • Write words & sentences, p.24

 Homework

Phonics concept review Display the picture side of the PCCs y/ī/ and y/ē/. Ask children to explain the story logic and give the sound for each card.

Introduce new concepts PCCs: b, c, d, l, n, p, s, s/z/, t, ar, oo/ / APCCs: e/–/, o/ /, ch/c/, wh/h/ Words: boot, spoon, school, cartoon, do, who, lose, loose • Display the oo/ / PCC. Here are the Boot and Foot Twins. (If children are familiar with these twins, let them tell what they know about them.) They are the twin grandsons of Mr. O. The first twin likes to grab his brother’s boots away. Then he teases his brother saying, “Oo, I have your boots!” Have children repeat the sentence several times in a teasing manner. You may want children to pair up, one in the role of the Boot Twin and the other as the Foot Twin. All the Boot Twins pretend to take the boots of their partner and tease their ‘brothers’ by saying, “Oo, I have your boots.” Then let them switch roles and repeat.

• Read the Student List, p.24

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Unit 16 : Vowel sound in boot : oo, o

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oo Picture Code Cards

lose or loose? To get lose and loose right, tell children to remember: ‘You lose one twin in lose.’ For remembering the oo in loose, link it with tooth in the phrase ‘loose tooth’.

• Show the plain side. When we see these two in our words this week we’ll say, / /. Push the card forward several times as the children repeat the sound “/ /, / /…” • Share the story and illustration in Far Beyond ABC (also see Story Phonics software) that features the Boot Twins sound. Children listen for his sound and look for pictured items that include / /. • Build the word boot with plain letters. When we see two vowels together like these two o’s, we know it is a Vowel Team Syllable. Point to the Vowel Team panel on the Six Syllable Types Poster. And we know that it is going to be the Boot and Foot Twins. In lots of this week’s words, the first brother is talking, so what do we hear? “/ /.” Turn the oo to the picture side and have children finger tap the word. • Build the words following the steps on the Daily Lesson Guide Cards (TGCD) and on pages 21–22 and 281. When you come to the words with these PCCs, ch/c/, o/ /, and wh/h/, share their stories (see the back of the PCCs) and practice their sounds: o/ / – Sometimes when the Boot Twin says / /, his brother hides behind him so we only see one letter o. He hides just for fun in some words, but when Walter Walrus is around in words like who, whom and whose, he hides because he is afraid of Walter Walrus! Tell children these words are still considered Vowel Team Syllables even though one team member is hiding. ch/c/ – Sometimes the wind in Letterland blows Harry Hat Man’s hat off. Then it can’t tickle Clever Cat’s nose so she can go back to making her usual /k/ sound. Meanwhile Harry is too surprised to speak. wh/h/ – When these two are together, usually Walter splashes off Harry’s hat, but sometimes Harry gets back at Walter by splashing him with a pail of water and crying out, Who do you think you are! Then it’s Walter who is too startled to speak!

‘Live Reading’ PCCs: b, l, m, p, r, s, s/z/, t, oo/ /, ch, er, sh, ve APCCs: e/–/, o/ /, wh/h/ Words: choose, broom, rooster, whose, prove, move • Distribute PCCs. Let two children be the Boot and Foot Twins, the first one holding a pair of boots or shoes and the PCC, the second looking angrily at his brother. When two o’s are needed, they stand side by side and show the oo PCC. When just one o is needed, one child shows the o/ / PCC and the other child hides behind. • Line children with PCCs up to form the words, and have the rest of the class finger tap them. Build rooster with them. Then move children to make a space between the syllables (roos-ter). • Read the new Word Cards in columns on the pocket chart with the class using the Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters activity.

Small Group Tricky Words

childrĕn

Teacher builds words for reading PCCs: b, c, f, g, l, m, n, ŏ, p, r, s, s/z/, t, oo/ //, ar, ow ow/ō/, w/ō/, ve APCCs: e/–/, o/ //, wh wh/h/ /h/ Special Unit 15 Word Cards: r, r (Racing Robots) Words: proof, prove, tool, cartoon, bloom, goose, whose, who, tomorrow • Write the New Tricky Word as shown. Practice it with the 3-by-3 Strategy. • Read the Student List.

Unit 16 : Vowel sound in boot : oo, o

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Day 2  Materials • PCCs for Review plus l, m, p, r, s, s/z/, t • A pair of boots, shoes or cut out of a pair for the Boot Twin in ‘Live Spelling’ • Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets • Word Detectives

 Independent/Partner • Read Review Sentences with two partners, p.28 • Quick Code the word list written on Day 1, p.29

 Homework • Look-say-cover-write, p.29

Quick Dash PCCs: ă, ĕ, ĭ, ŏ, ŭ, y/ī/, y/ē/, ea/ē/, er, ir, ow/ō/, ur APCC: rr

‘Live Spelling’ PCCs: l, m, p, r, s, s/z/, t, oo/ /, er, th, ve APCCs: e/–/, o/ /, ch/c/, wh/h/ Words: tool, school, smooth, rooster, move, lose, loose, tooth • Two children hold the oo/ / PCC together and the same two hold the o/ / PCC. The class helps decide which PCC is needed in each word. When the o/ / is needed, one ‘twin’ hides behind the other.

Word Detectives Read the sentences to and with the children and then guide them in Quick Coding. The Boot Twin sound is marked with a boot whether spelled with one o or two. (Larger version of Quick Coding for each Unit is included in Word Detectives Key on your TGCD\Unit Activities)

Who let the goose and the rooster get loose?

Small Group

Did you lose your balloon

Children build words

at school?

Letters: a, b, c, c, e, h, l, l, m, n, o, o, r, s, v, w, z Words: who, whose, lose, loose, move, zoom, bloom, balloon, raccoon • Review Tricky Words. • Read Review Sentences.

Days 3 to 5 Refer to pages 30–40 of the 5 Day Unit Plan instructions for Days 3 to 5.

Day 3: Unit Story

Unit 16 Story, TGCD

120

• Before reading ‘The Cuckoo School’ to the children: Tell them, This is a poem about an imaginary school where children ‘rule.’ They need to listen for all the things the children do at the Cuckoo School. (The color words in the left margin are to help you divide the poem for Readers Theater. You could assign the colors to individuals or small groups when it is time for the children to read it.) • After reading: Ask children to recount as many things about the Cuckoo School as they can. You might use the ‘Story Stone’ activity on p.303. You might also, ask small groups of children to make lists of as many oo/ / and o/ / words as they can find. Then compare lists and let children add more. This can be a fun story to read and reread aloud to build fluency and expression. Children may want to talk and write about their own ideas for a cuckoo school.

Unit 16 : Vowel sound in boot : oo, o

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Variant Vowel Teams and spellings

/

Unit 17: More variant teams: ew, ue, oo/ Unit Focus blew

true

woods

jewel

clue

football

knew

argue

understood

few

blueberry bookshelf Tricky Words

In this Unit children will learn about three new Vowel Teams. You will be teaching them that ew can stand for two related sounds. Eddy Elephant is ready for Walter Walrus, who usually splashes the vowels next to him with cold, salty water. Instead, Eddy squirts Walter with water from his trunk causing the soaked Walrus to say, “Oo! You!” That explains the / / sound in blew and grew, as well as the /yoo/ sound in few. The spelling ue stands for the same two sounds, / / in blue and /yoo/ in argue and rescue. This spelling pattern is one of the Vowels out walking pairs. Mr. U is saying his name (or just part of it), while Mr. E silently looks for Vowel Stealing sound in foot and good, you will be reminding children of the Robots. For the story of the Boot and Foot Twins from Unit 16. Here the Foot Twin, whose boot has been taken, steps in a puddle with his bare foot and says, “OO, just look at my foot!”

List A shoes

through

Picture Code Cards for review er, ew*, oo/ /, oo/ /*, ow/ō/, th, th, ue* APCCs a/ŭ/, o/ /, y/ē/, all, ea/ĕ/, wh/h/ * Introduced in this Unit

PCCs or LSCs

woods true understood knew football argue

List B

blew clue blueberry jewel bookshelf few

hoof argue newspaper rescue overdue shook

flew blew cookbook threw footprint clue

List C stood chewy bookshelf knew dewdrop true

untrue flew footprint woods blueberry rescue

Diagnostic Words chew, shook, overdue, flew

true, knew, few, football

blew, argue, cookbook, understood

Tricky Words: shoes, through Story Words: library, laughter, magic, digital camera, recipe, mystery, excited, bouncing Review Words: loose, lose, who, worry, school, carrot, early, other New Spelling Sentences: We could see the footprints of our shoes in the snow. The big bird flew through the woods at top speed.

Day 1  Materials • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review plus b, d, ĕ, f, g, h, j, k, l, n, ō, r, s, s/z/, t, ū, v, w, er, sh, th • Unit 17 Word Cards, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart as shown • Unit 17 Student List • Beyond ABC, Far Beyond ABC • Blends & Digraphs Songs CD (#31 & 32) • Story Phonics software

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Phonics concept review Display the picture side of the PCCs oo/ / and o/ /. Ask children to retell the story logic and the sound for each card.

Unit 17: More variant teams : ew, ue, oo

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Introduce new concepts

 Independent/Partner • Write words & sentences, p.24

 Homework • Read the Student List, p.24

• •

ew ue

oo

Picture Code Cards

• • •

• •

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PCCs: b, d, d, f, g, l, n, r, s, t, ŭ, ar, er, ew, oo/ /, oo/ /, ue APCC: all Words: blew, few, true, argue, foot, football, stood, understood The ew and ue spellings are explored in Beyond ABC and the Boot Twins sound in Far Beyond ABC. You may want to share one of these stories each day as you teach this Unit. The Boot and Foot Twins two sounds are featured in one song on the Blends and Digraphs Songs CD (Track 31). Learning this song will help children remember that oo represents more than one sound. You can find the ‘Eddy Elephant & Walter Walrus’ song on the Blends and Digraphs Songs CD as well (Track 32). All these useful sounds’ stories and songs are also included in Story Phonics software. Display the picture sides of the three PCCs ue, ew, . We have these three Vowel Teams in our words this week. Point to the ew PCC. Eddy Elephant knows that Walter likes to splash vowels with cold, salty water, but Eddy has something that no other vowel has. He has a trunk (turn to the picture side) and before Walter gets a chance to splash, Eddy soaks him with his own spray of water. Walter is so upset, he says, “Ew, you!” Let’s say what Walter says, “Ew, you!” That reminds us (turn to the plain letter side) that these two letters sometimes say / / and sometimes say /y /. So when I show you these letters, you say / / /y /. Push the PCC forward a few times as children say, “/ / /y /.” Make blew with the plain letters. Which letters make a Vowel Team in blew? “E-w.” Yes, and what are the two sounds they could stand for? “/ /, /y /.” Turn to the picture side. Let’s finger tap first with / /, “/b/ /l/ / /, blew.” Yes, like the wolf blew down the little pig’s house. It’s not spelled the same as the color blue, is it? Make the word few. Let’s finger tap first with the / / sound (“/f/ / /, foo”). Since that didn’t make a real word, let’s try the /y / sound (“/f/ /y /, few”). Few is a word, isn’t it? ‘I have a few pencils on my desk.’ Point to the picture side of the ue PCC and explain that these are two more Vowel Men who like to go out walking. Elicit from the children that like the other Vowel Men out walking, Mr. U is waving and saying his name while Mr. E silently looks out for robots. Point out that in some words this pair sounds like /y / (Mr. U’s name) and sometimes like / / (only part of Mr. U’s name). Let a child point out Mr. U and Mr. E on the Vowel Scene Poster: Long Vowels. Turn to the plain letters ue for children to say (as with ew): “/ / /y /” each time you push the card forward. Build the word true and then argue (ar-gue) and follow the steps having children trying both the / / and /y / sounds to end up with a real word. Show the picture side of the Boot Twin PCC (oo/ /). Ask children to recall that the Boot Twin snatches his brother’s boots and says, “Oo, I have your boots!” Then show the picture side of the Foot Twin PCC (oo/ /). Sometimes the Foot Twin speaks instead. When he steps in a puddle of water without his boots, he says “Oo/ /, just look at my foot.” Let’s all pretend we just stepped in a cold, muddy puddle and say. “Oo, just look at my foot!” We hear that sound / / in look and foot. Turn to the plain letter side and push the card forward several times as children say “/ /, / /…” Make the four words with oo/ / and follow the steps. Tell the children, When we don’t know which twin is speaking we may have to try both sounds to make a real word. Review all three featured PCCs: ew, ue, and oo/ /.

Unit 17: More variant teams : ew, ue, oo

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‘Live Reading’ PCCs: b, c, d, ĕ, f, g, j, k, l, r, s, s/z/, w, ew, sh, oo/ /, ue Words: rescue, clue, flew, jewel, woods, bookshelf • Let pairs of children share in holding each of the Vowel Team PCCs ue, ew, and oo/ / cards. When they are in a word have them dramatize the story logic before the class finger taps the word. Separate the syllables for rescue (rescue), jewel (jew-el), and bookshelf (book-shelf). • Read the new Word Cards in columns (p.23) on the pocket chart with the class using the Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters activity (see p.289).

Small Group Teacher builds words for reading Tricky Words z

shoes through

PCCs: d, f, h, k, n, ō, r, v, er, ew, oo/ //, sh, th, ue

APCC: kn

Words: new, knew, threw, due, overdue, shook, hoof • New Tricky Words: Write the Tricky Words as shown. Practice one or two words with the 3-by-3 Strategy. • Read the Student List.

Day 2  Materials • PCCs for Review plus d, f, g, h, ĭ, l, n, p, r, s/z/, t, t, ŭ, w • Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets • Word Detectives • Unit 17 Student List

 Independent/Partner • Read Review Sentences with two partners, p.28 • Quick Code the word list written on Day 1, p.29

 Homework • Look-say-cover-write, p.29

Quick Dash PCCs: er, ew, oo/ /, oo/ /, ow/ō/, th, th, ue APCC: a/ŭ/, o/ /, y/ē/, all, ea/ĕ/, wh/h/

‘Live Spelling’ PCCs: d, f, ĭ, l, n, p, r, s/z/, t, t, ŭ, w, y/ē/, ar, ch, ew, oo/ /, ue Words: true, untrue, flew, chewy, woods, footprint • After saying each multi-syllable word for children, repeat the word with a pause between syllables: untrue (un-true), chewy (chew-y), and footprint (footprint).

Word Detectives Read the sentences to and with the children and guide their Quick Coding. For the sound of the Foot Twin draw a foot. For ew a water droplet reminds us of the splash that makes Walter Walrus say “Ew, you!”

I drew a few pictures but my goat chewed them all up. Is it trūe that glūe can be blūe? I took all the cookbooks and put them on the woodĕn bookshĕlf.

Larger version of Quick Coding for each Unit is included in Word Detectives Key (TGCD\Unit Activities)

Small Group Children build words Letters: a, b, b, c, e, e, f, h, i, k, l, n, o, o, p, p, r, r, s, t, t, u, w, y Words: news, newspaper, rescue, blueberry, footprint, bookshelf • Review Tricky Words. • Read Review Sentences.

Unit 17: More variant teams : ew, ue, oo

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Days 3 to 5 Refer to pages 30–40 of the 5 Day Unit Plan instructions for Days 3 to 5.

Day 3: Unit Story • Before reading ‘Lucy Lamp Light’s Library’ to the children: Explain, This is a play about Letterlanders going to the library. Each one has a special reason to hurry to the library and talk to Lucy Lamp Light, the Librarian. Let’s see what their reasons are. • After reading: Have children retell it by reviewing the reason each Letterlander came to the library and recalling what happened in the end.

Unit 17 Story, TGCD

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Section B–C

Units 23–25 : More r-controlled spellings

Units 23–25: More r-controlled spellings

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More r-controlled spellings

Unit 23: Various spellings for /or/: ore, oor, our Unit Focus shore

floor

your

bore

door

poured

boring

poor

course

explore score

Tricky Words

ignore

orange touch

Picture Code Cards for review ar, aw, au, er, ir, oy, oi, ow/ou/, or, ur APCCs a/ŭ/, i(y), -ed/d/, -ing★ *New: ore, oor, and our on Word Cards ★ Magic version

PCCs or LSCs

Vowel Stealer Orvil Or is still trying to trick us. He makes his /or/ sound in new spellings oor, ore, and our (e.g. door, more, and pour). Children learn that Orvil is in such a rush, he often picks up an extra vowel in his robber sack but he still reports his last name Or. The way to make sure he doesn’t trick them is to call out his name whenever they see him with his stolen vowels. Children also learn to link the meaning to spellings of two homophones: poor/ pour, four/for. Children need to be especially sharp in their detective work to identify syllables with ore, oor, and our as Robot Syllables. In place of Picture Code Cards for these spellings, you have three special pictogram Word Cards for this Unit.

List A floor course ignore boring your poor

shore bore door explore poured score

List B before pouring ignore store your snored

shore tore door floor fourth wore

List C adore floor score chore explored sore

fourteen poor snoring more pour four

Diagnostic Words four, more, snore, pouring

four, score, poor, more

shore, door, boring, your

Tricky Words: orange, touch Story Words: yeah, pajamas, coral reef, definitely Review Words: because, caught, awful, point, joy, clown, closes, babies New Spelling Sentences: Please do not pour your orange drink on the floor. Do not touch my poor sore arm.

Day 1  Materials • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review plus c, b, d, ĕ, ē, e★, f, g, ĭ, l, m, n, ŏ, p, r, s, t, ŭ, x, y, ee, sh, th • Unit 23 Word Cards, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart as shown • Unit 23 Student List

Phonics concept review Display the picture side of the PCCs au and aw. Ask children to tell the story logic. Turn to the plain sides and have children say the sound of aw and au each three times.

Introduce new concepts PCCs: b, d, ĕ, ē, e★, f, l, m, ŏ, p, r, ŭ, x, y, or, sh Words: door, poor, floor, your, four, pour, more, shore, explore, before

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 Independent/Partner • Write words & sentences, p.24

 Homework • Read the Student List, p.24

four 4

for a gift for you

pour poor sad, make it flow out no money

• Show the picture side of Orvil Or. Orvil Or loves to steal oranges, as you know. But do you know that sometimes he picks up not just one but two vowels and stuffs them both in his robber sack? Even when he has two vowels, he keeps on reporting his last name, ‘Or!’ I’ll make some words, and you be sure to catch Orvil Or by saying his name. • Make door as shown. Now Orvil Or has captured two o’s. But he still says… ‘Or.’ Have children finger tap the word door. And there are only a few words that have this spelling. I am going to tell you a secret to help you remember which words to spell with o-o-r so Orvil Or will not trick you. • Dippy Duck has a door, doesn’t she? Point out her capital letter on the Letter Sound Card (the ‘duck door’). You can see the door on her duck den, but she doesn’t have a floor in there. She just walks around on the ground. So to help us remember which words to spell with o-o-r, we can remember this secret sentence: (whisper) “Poor Dippy Duck has a door but not a floor.” Have children whisper the secret sentence with you a few times and then to each other. Then ask them to say the three oor words in the sentence. • Build the three oor words for children to finger tap (e.g. /p/ /or/, poor.) Make sure children see that this sentence will help them spell those three key oor words. (There are very few others, apart from indoors and outdoors.) • When we see o-o-r in a word, we need to be good detectives and catch Orvil Or stealing two o’s this time. It will still be a Robot Syllable with the /or/ sound. • Make your as shown in margin. Sometimes Orvil Or captures an umbrella and an orange, but he still says his last name, Or. Don’t let him trick you. Let’s finger tap this word: /y/ /or/, your. Make pour and four with plain letters to start. Guide children in recognizing this as a Robot Syllable with the /or/ sound. Discuss the meaning of these words since they have homophones (poor, for). Tomorrow we will learn a secret sentence for remembering words spelled with o-u-r. • Then make the word more as shown. In this word Magic e tries to rescue the orange, but Orvil Or just absorbs the magic sparks right into his robot arm and keeps on reporting…: “Or.” Yes. • Make shore and then explore (ex-plore) and before (be-fore) following the usual steps, including identifying the syllables with ore as Robot Syllables. (The first syllable in the word before is open, but the vowel is pronounced quickly sounding more like /ĭ/ or /ŭ/. Keep the PCC on the plain letter side.) Tell children that more of their words are spelled with o-r-e (where Orvil Or overpowers Magic e by absorbing its sparks) than with the other spellings for /or/. Note: ‘Live Reading’ in this lesson is replaced by the following activity. Special Homophone Activity • Write the words four and for on opposite sides of your board. Some of our words this week sound alike but have different meanings. Discuss the meaning of four and for with the children and write a brief definition or example under each word. It is useful to point out that there are always four letters in number 4. • Have children stand up to play ‘Think and Move’. Use four or for in a sentence (e.g. “I have four pets”). Tell children to think about whether the word four or for belongs in the sentence. When you say, 1, 2, 3, Move, the children take a side step towards the side of the board with the correct spelling. Do a few sentences with each word. Erase four and for and do the same steps with the homophones poor/pour.

Unit 23: Various spellings for /or/: ore, oor, our

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• Read the new Word Cards in columns on the pocket chart with the class using the Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters activity.

Small Group Teacher builds words for reading Tricky Words

orange touch

PCCs: b, c, d, e★, f, g, ĭ, n, ŏ, r, s, t, ŭ, y, ee, th, or Words: tore, bore, sore, score, ignore, door, poor, your, four, fourth, fourteen • New Tricky Words: Write the Tricky Words as shown. Practice one or two words with the 3-by-3 Strategy. Pronunciation of the word orange may vary by region or by individual. • Read the Student List.

Day 2  Materials • PCCs for Review plus b, c, d, e★, ē, f, l, ŏ, p, r, s, t, ŭ, y • Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets • Word Detectives • Unit 23 Student List • Review Sentences

 Independent/Partner • Read Review Sentences with two partners, p.28 • Quick Code the word list written on Day 1, p.29

 Homework • Look-say-cover-write, p.29

Quick Dash PCCs: ar, aw, au, er, ir, oy, oi, ow/ou/, or, ur APPC: a/ŭ/, i(y), -ed/d/, -ing★

‘Live Spelling’ PCCs: b, c, d, e★, f, l, ŏ, p, r, s, t, y, ŭ, or APCCs: -ed/ed/, -ing★ Words: poor, floor, door, sore score, store, bore bored, boring, pour, pouring, your, four, course • Review the sentence about oor words learned on the previous day, “Poor Dippy Duck has a door but not a floor.” Have children ‘Live Spell’ the three oor words. Use the plain side of ŏ and or for these words. • Then teach them the Secret Sentence for our words: “Of course, you may pour your four friends some juice.” Have them build the -our words. Use the plain sides of ŏ, ŭ, and r. (To remember how to spell fourth and fourteen they could think about the 4 letters in ‘four’ that start both words.) • Then tell the children that if they can remember the oor words and the our words, they can spell the sound /or/ in all the rest of this week’s words with ore. ‘Live Spell’ the ore words with or and the plain letter side of Magic e. Point out that just as in Magic e words, the Magic suffixes -ed and -ing take the place of the final e in words such as boring.

Word Detectives Poor Dippy Duck has a door but not a floor. Of course, you may pour your four friends some juice.

Read the sentences to and with the children. Guide them in Quick Coding the words as shown in the margin with robber sacks encircling the captured vowels. (Larger version of Quick Coding is included in Word Detectives Key on your TGCD\Unit Activities)

You cannot ĭgnore that my score is much more than it was before.

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Section C

Units 26–31 : Word structure and spelling changes

Units 26–31: Word structure and spelling changes

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Word structure and spelling changes

Unit 26: Prefixes: un-, re-, pre- and disUnit Focus rewrite

disappear

unwrap

refill

dislike

unaware

replace

untie unafraid prepay

unhelpful

preschool Tricky Words

twelve

among

Children learn how the prefixes un-, re-, pre-, and dis- change the meanings of base words. The base words used here provide a review of previously taught phonic elements (e.g. ai in unafraid, ear in disappear, ou in recount). To read words with a prefix, children read the prefix and then the base word. If needed, they finger tap the syllable(s) of the base word.

List A untie rewrite disappear prepay unaware unafraid

refill unwrap preschool replace unhelpful dislike

List B unfair dislike unhappy preheat reappear unknown

aw, au, ie/ī/*, air, ear/ear/ APCCs a/ŭ/, e/ā/, all, are/air/, ce, ck/k/, -ful, -ly, wr * Introduced in this Unit

PCCs or LSCs

dare aware compare staring scary chair

recall unhurt recount prefix disobey unfair

Diagnostic Words unlock, preheat, recount, disagree

unpack, disappear, replace, prepay

Tricky Words: twelve, among Picture Code Cards for review

reuse retry preschool uneven unfriendly disagree

List C

preschool, reuse, unknown, dislike

Story Words: probably, salty

Review Words: cheerful, nearly, square, repair, pouring, explore, fault, pause New Spelling Sentences: On my birthday I had twelve gifts to unwrap. I found my brother’s truck among the preschool toys.

Day 1  Materials • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review plus ă, ā, b, e★, ĕ, ē, f, g, h, ĭ, ī, k, l, ō, p, p, r, s, t, x, y, y/ī/, y/ē/, ay, ea/ē/, ee, ie/ī/, oo/ / • Unit 26 Word Cards, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart including prefix cards dis-, pre-, re- and un• Special Unit 25 Word Card eer • Unit 26 Student List

154

Phonics concept review Display the picture side of the APCC ear/ear/, and the special Unit 25 Word Card eer. Ask children to explain the story logic. Turn to the plain side and have them give the sound.

Introduce new concepts PCCs: ă, e★, f, g, h, ĭ, ī, k, l, p, p, r, s, t, x, y/ī/, y/ē/, ea/ē/, ee, ie/ī/, oo/ / APCCs: a/ŭ/, ch/c/, wr Special Unit 26 Word Cards: dis-, pre-, re-, unWords: preheat, preschool, prefix, rewrite, retry, unhappy, untie, dislike, disagree

Unit 26 : Prefixes : un-, re-, pre- and dis-

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 Independent/Partner • Write words & sentences, p.24

 Homework • Read the Student List, p.24

• Make the word heat for the children to finger tap. • Have you ever helped bake cookies or cupcakes? You may know that you don’t put the cookies in a cold oven. You have to get the oven heated up first before you put the cookies in. We say that we preheat the oven. You have to get it up to the right temperature before you put the cookies in. You preheat it. • Add pre- before heat to make preheat. Preheat means you heat it before. Let’s read it. “Preheat.” So the pre- part means before. Now whisper to your neighbor what preheat means. • Make school for children to read. Now you go to school, but maybe when some of you were younger you went to… Add pre- to make preschool for everyone to read. • It is called ‘preschool’, because children go there before they are old enough to go to school. So, once again pre- means… “before.” • We have talked about suffixes, such as when we put -s, or -ed or -ful on the end of a base word. Pre- goes before the word so we call it a ‘prefix’. Make the word prefix for children to read. So a prefix goes before a word and it changes what it means. Where do we put a prefix? Tell your neighbor. • Let’s look at some more base words and prefixes. Make each base word for children to read. Add the prefix and discuss how it changes the meaning (see table below). Ask the children as you work with the words… o What is the base word? o What is the prefix? o What does the prefix mean? o What does the whole word mean? Prefix reundis-

Prefix Meaning again not or opposite opposite or not

Words to build rewrite, retry unhappy, untie* dislike, disagree

* Before building the words tie and untie, show the ie PCC and explain that this is another pair of Vowel Men out walking, with Mr. I saying his name and Mr. E looking out for robots. (The ie PCC was introduced in the previous level of Letterland, but is used here for the first time at this level.)

Note: There is no ‘Live Reading’ included in the Day 1 lesson of this Unit. • Read the new Word Cards in columns on the pocket chart with the class using the Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters activity.

Small Group Teacher builds words for reading PCCs: ă, ā, b, ĕ, ē, h, l, ō, p, p, t, y, ay, ea/ē/, ear/ear/ r

Tricky Words

twĕlve among

APCCs: a/ŭ/, ce, e/ā/, -ful, wr Special Unit 26 Word Cards: dis-, pre-, re-, unWords: unwrap, unhelpful, disobey, disappear, reappear, replace, preheat, prepay • Make each base word and follow the usual steps. Then add the prefix. Ask them to read the resulting word and then explain the meaning or use it in a sentence. For the word disobey, use the APCC C Mr. Mean e (e/ā/), and review the explanation on the back for this special irregular sound. • Write the new Tricky Words as shown. Practice them with the 3-by-3 Strategy. • Read the Student List.

Unit 26 : Prefixes : un-, re-, pre- and dis-

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Day 2 Quick Dash

 Materials • PCCs for Review plus c, d, f, e★, g, h, ĭ, ī, k, l, n, r, s, t, ee, ea/ē/, ll, oo/ /, ou • Special Unit 26 Word Cards dis-, pre-, re-, un• Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets • Word Detectives • Unit 26 Student List • Review Sentences

 Independent/Partner • Read Review Sentences with two partners, p.28 • Quick Code the word list written on Day 1, p.29

 Homework • Look-say-cover-write, p.29

PCCs: aw, au, ie/ī/, air, ear/ear/ APPC: a/ŭ/, e/ā/, all, are/air/, ce, ch/c/, -ful, -ing★, -ly, wr

‘Live Spelling’ PCCs: c, d, f, e★, g, h, ĭ, ī, k, l, n, r, s, t, ee, ea/ē/, ll, oo/ /, ou, air APCCs: a/ŭ/, ch/c/ Special Unit 26 Word Cards: dis-, pre-, re-, unWords: unfair, preschool, disagree, preheat, dislike, recount, unkind, refill • Use the prefix cards from Special Unit 26 Word Cards for re-, dis-, un-, and pre-. Give each one to a different child. They stand in front of the class to the left. • Build a base word with the children following the usual steps. Then read the sentence below to them saying blank when you come to the missing word. Have the children decide which prefix should be added to the ‘Live Spelling’ word to complete the sentence. The child with the prefix card moves into place. Children read the word. Then you reread the sentence with the new word in place. 1. My sister got to visit our grandmother, but I did not. That is _____. (unfair) 2. My four year old brother goes to _____. (preschool) 3. I had to ____ with the choice of food since I do not like tacos. (disagree) 4. Before you bake the pie, you need to ____ the oven. (preheat) 5. I ____ this story because it is too sad. (dislike) 6. I was not sure if we had enough chairs, so I had to ____ them. (recount) 7. The boys did not let Alex play the game. That was ____. (unkind) 8. I was still thirsty so I had to _____ my glass. (refill)

Word Detectives Read the sentences to and with the children. Guide them in Quick Coding the words with prefixes as shown, including circling the prefixes along with the suffixes.

Mr. E made the rabbit dĭsappear and then rēappear in his hat. z

We had to help the prēschoolers

rēfĭll their cups and tie their shoes

Small Group

when they came ŭntīed.

Children build words Larger version of Quick Coding for each Unit is included in Word Detectives Key (TGCD\Unit Activities)

• • • •

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Letters: a, a, c, d, e, e, f, i, k, l, n, n, p, p, r, r, s, t, u, y, x Words: retry, prepay, prefix, appear, disappear, reappear, unpack, unfriendly After children repeat the whole word. Ask children, What is the prefix? Say the word without the prefix. Children build the suffix. Ask, What is the base word? Follow the usual steps to build the base word. Review Tricky Words. Read Review Sentences.

Unit 26 : Prefixes : un-, re-, pre- and dis-

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Days 3 to 5 Refer to pages 30–40 of the 5 Day Unit Plan instructions for Days 3 to 5.

Day 3: Unit Story • Before reading ‘The Prefix Fix’ to the children: In this play Fix-it Max is helping other Letterlanders in a new way… by fixing things by using prefixes. Let’s see how he does it. • After reading: Have children retell the story using the words listed at the end of the play to remind them of the details of the story. You could make a graphic organizer showing on one side each character’s problem and on the other how the problem was ‘solved’ by a prefix. See page 307. Unit 26 Story, TGCD

Unit 26 : Prefixes : un-, re-, pre- and dis-

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Section C–D

Units 32–39 : Syllable division

mas cot at p n s l

176

r p

f

t m

Units 32–39 : Syllable division

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mas cot

mascot

Syllable division

Unit 32: Words with two Closed Syllables Unit Focus contest

napkin

zigzag

admit

insult

picnic

plastic

selfish

dentist

until

upset

mascot

Children begin to divide words into syllables in order to read longer words on their own. They will first look for vowels separated by consonants. In this Unit they will divide between the two medial consonants, thinking of the syllables as the now familiar rail cars joined to make one word. Each syllable is then analyzed to decide on its syllable type and vowel sound. In this Unit all the syllables are Closed Syllables with short vowel sounds. The Guide to Quick Coding (pp.10–12) will help children remember where to divide words as they learn the first rule in this Unit. They will learn three others in subsequent Units. Instead of sorting Word Cards in this Unit, children will be matching the first and second syllables to build the words.

List A Tricky Words

brought

Picture Code Cards for review PCCs or LSCs APCCs

ă, ĕ, ĭ, ŏ, ŭ, ch, oo/ /, sh are/air/, -ed/ed/, -ed/d/, -ed/t/, -er★, -est ★ Magic version

contest napkin zigzag admit insult picnic

plastic selfish dentist until upset mascot

List B dentist insist insect until chipmunk cactus

insult admit contest plastic goblin selfish

List C mascot zigzag chipmunk napkin contest picnic

insult insists dentist admit selfish until

Diagnostic Words chipmunk, cactus, insect, goblin

picnic, zigzag, napkin, mascot

cactus, insect, goblin, upset

Tricky Words: brought Story Words: sample, pudding, interested, table, practice, collection, noisily, gentle Review Words: weren’t, they’ve, wider, hottest, planned, hopping, preschool, prepare New Spelling Sentences: Their team has a chipmunk for a mascot. The dentist brought toothbrushes for all the children.

Day 1  Materials • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review plus ā, c, d, ē, f, g, h, ī, l, m, n, n, ō, p, s, t, t, ū, x • Unit 32 Word Cards, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart • Unit 32 Student List • Guide to Quick Coding

Phonics concept review Write these pairs of words on the board: they have, were not, who is. Have children explain what happens when we say these words quickly. Have them tell you how to spell the contractions or come to the board and write them.

Unit 32: Words with two Closed Syllables

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Introduce new concepts

 Independent/Partner • Write words & sentences, p.24

 Homework • Read the Student List, p.24

• •

• • •

• •

• • •

PCCs: ă, c, d, ē, ĭ, ī, l, m, n, ŏ, p, s, t, t, ŭ Words: contest, dentist, admit, until, plastic With plain letters, make the word contest. Today we will begin to learn some special tricks about dividing words into syllables. Then you will know which letters go in which rail cars and you can read just about any longer words that you see! When we see a longer word like this one, it may have more than one syllable. First we need to look for the vowel letters. What are the vowel letters in this word? “o and e.” Yes, o and e are the vowels and there are other letters, consonants, between them. What are those consonants between these two vowels? “n and t” That’s right. When we see vowels separated by consonants, that tells us we need to divide our word into two syllables. The tricky part is deciding where to divide it. Put your fingers on o and e and ask, how many consonants are between these vowels? Yes, two, and when we see two consonants between the vowels we usually divide right between those two consonants. Pull the syllables apart (contest). Now we can see what letters go in each rail car or syllable. And all we have to do is work out what each syllable says, and then put them together to read the word. Point to the first syllable con-. What kind of syllable? “Closed Syllable” (make sure children say both words). So what is our vowel saying? “/ŏ/.” Ask someone to explain how they can tell that it is closed with Oscar Orange as the vowel. Turn the ŏ to the picture side. Have children finger tap the syllable. Do the same with the syllable -test. Then put the syllables together for children to read the word contest. Say a sentence with the word. Now let’s work out some more words. Even if you can already read any of these words, don’t say it until we go through the steps, because learning the steps will help us read thousands of other word that we don’t know! Make the word dentist. First we look for our vowels. Have a child come up and point to each vowel. How many consonants between the vowels? “Two.” So, where do we divide the word? “Between the two consonants.” Have a child make a space between the two syllables (den-tist). Work out the syllable types and the vowel sounds with the children as usual, letting children turn the vowels to the picture side after they have predicted the sound. Push the two syllables back together and have everyone read the word. Tell the students that in coming weeks they’ll learn a few more tricks for dividing syllables, but that just using this first one will help them read many new words. Follow similar steps with admit, until, and plastic. Point out that in words with more than one syllable (e.g. until and plastic) they will not usually find ll or ck on the end, like they do in one-syllable words.

‘Live Reading’ PCCs: ă, b, c, ĕ, f, g, h, ĭ, l, m, n, ŏ, p, s, t, ŭ, sh Words: upset, selfish, insect, mascot, goblin Use these steps for ‘Live Reading’ multi-syllable words (also pp.22, 278 and Daily Lesson Guide Cards, TGCD). 1. Line children up to form the word with plain letters. 2. Children with vowel letters push their plain letters forward.

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3.

Have the class decide where to divide the word. Children with PCCs make a space between the syllables. 4. Call on someone to identify the first syllable type and to tell the expected sound of the vowel. 5. The child with that vowel turns the PCC to the picture side to confirm-check the sound. 6. Everyone in the ‘audience’ finger taps the syllable. 7. Follow steps 4–6 with each syllable. 8. Children close the gap between the syllables. Then everyone reads the word. • Read the new Word Cards: The Unit 32 Word Cards are not sorted in columns but simply displayed on the pocket chart. Lead the children in reading them with the Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters activity.

Small Group Teacher builds words for reading Tricky Words

brought

PCCs: ă, c, d, ĕ, ĭ, k, l, m, n, ŏ, p, s, t, t, ŭ, ch Words: insult, napkin, chipmunk, dentist, mascot • Make the words with plain letter sides. Have children help to point to the vowels, divide between the middle consonants, identify the syllable types and sound of the vowels. They read each syllable, and then they push them together and read the whole word (more details on pp.23, 281 and Dailyy Lesson Guide Cards on TGCD). • Write the new Tricky Word as shown. Practice it with the 3-by-3 Strategy. • Read the Student List.

Day 2  Materials • PCCs for Review plus c, k, m, n, p, s, t, t • Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets • Word Detectives • Unit 32 Student List • Review Sentences • Guide to Quick Coding (pp.10–12)

 Independent/Partner • Read Review Sentences with two partners, p.28 • Quick Code the word list written on Day 1, p.29

 Homework • Look-say-cover-write, p.29

‘nap’ ‘kin’ Palming the syllables

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Quick Dash PCCs: ă, ĕ, ĭ, ŏ, ŭ, ch, oo/ /, sh APPC: are/air/, -ed/ed/, -ed/d/, -ed/t/, -er★, -est

‘Live Spelling’ PCCs: ă, c, ĕ, ĭ, k, m, n, ŏ, p, s, t, t, ŭ, ch Words: napkin, chipmunk, contest, insect Have the children follow these steps with each word. (These steps are also detailed on your Daily Lesson Guide Cards, TGCD, and on pp.26 and 280). 1. Repeat the whole word (e.g. napkin) 2. Lay your hand palm down, towards your left side as you say the first syllable and lift your hand and move it in the Reading Direction. Lay it down again as you say the next syllable. (nap-kin) 3. Move your hand back to the first position and say the first syllable and finger tap it (nap, /n/ /ă/ /p/). Decide which letters are needed. Children with those letters ‘Live Spell’ the first syllable. 4. Move your hand to the right for the second syllable (kin, /k/ /ĭ/ /n/). Decide which letters are needed. Children form the next syllable. 5. Read the word by syllables to check your spelling.

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Word Detectives I was ŭpsĕt at the pĭcnĭc when an ĭnsĕct crawled on my năpkĭn and a chĭpmŭnk took my plăstĭc

Read the sentence to and with the children. Look at the Guide to Quick Coding (pp.10–12) together with the students. For the first time, they will now decide where to divide the syllables themselves. You may want to work through the first few words with them step by step. Put a check mark above the other words that they should try to Quick Code on their own. Go over these words with them when they are finished.

fork. Larger version of Quick Coding for each Unit is included in Word Detectives Key (TGCD\Unit Activities)

Small Group Children build words Letters: a, a, c, c, d, e, g, g, i, i, l, m, n, p, s, s, t, u, z, z Words: zigzag, insist, picnic, cactus, admit, dentist, until • Guide children in following the steps for spelling multi-syllable words (similar to those in ‘Live Spelling’. Full details are found on your Dailyy Lesson Guide Cards on TGCD and on pp.27 and 284ff). • Review Tricky Words. • Read Review Sentences.

Days 3 to 5 Refer to pages 30–40 of the 5 Day Unit Plan instructions for Days 3 to 5.

Day 3: Word Sort Rather than sort the words, place the syllable cards in random order near the bottom of the pocket chart. Palm the syllables of one of the words and have children repeat the palming with you. Call on a child to find that Word Card and move it to the top of the chart. Do the same with each word.

Day 3: Unit Story

Unit 32 Story, TGCD

• Before reading ‘A Perfect Picnic’ to the children: In this play, Peter Puppy and some of his friends are having a picnic. They are getting ready for a special guest. As I read to you, listen for clues that will help you discover who the special guest might be. Stop occasionally to ask children to share the clues they have heard about the special guest (but not to tell who it is until just before she appears.) • After reading: What were some of the things that happened that made Peter Puppy worry? How did the Queen react when she arrived? Why did Peter Puppy decide it could be a perfect picnic anyway?

In place of Written Word Sort on Days 3 and 4

Written Written Word Sort, TGCD

180

• Children do the Unit 32 Activity pictured in the left margin (found within the document, Written Word Sort on the TGCD). On Day 3 they use their Student Word List to help them fill in the missing syllables. On Day 4, call out the words and have them fill in the missing syllables. There is a separate page for each word list A, B and C in case your students need to spend more than a week on this Unit.

Unit 32: Words with two Closed Syllables

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atlas

at Syllable division

Unit 33: Closed Syllables with schwa Unit Focus absent

basket

atlas

distant

kingdom

husband

problem

hundred

princess

pumpkin

sandwich

collect Tricky Words

upon

Children learn more words with two Closed Syllables, including words with a schwa sound in one syllable (e.g. kingdom). They continue to practice division of words between two consonants and also learn how to divide two-syllable words such as pumpkin and hundred with three consonants between the vowels. When they want to divide these, they examine the three consonants looking for blends or digraphs. They keep the blend or digraph together, dividing either after the first consonant or the second one.

List A absent basket atlas distant kingdom husband

List B

problem hundred princess pumpkin sandwich collect

insist, tablet, children, helmet ă, ĕ, ĭ, ŏ, s/z/,ŭ, ch, ng, ss APCCs a/ŭ/, i(y), ce, -er★, -est ★ Magic version

PCCs or LSCs

husband tablet children magnet sandwich kingdom

basket absent magnet instant tablet distant

pretzel pumpkin children hundred sandal trumpet

Diagnostic Words

guard

Picture Code Cards for review

problem collect helmet instant atlas trumpet

List C

absent, children, distant, basket

kingdom, husband, sandwich, problem

Tricky Words: upon, guard Story Words: parents, shriek, laughter, enormous, old-fashioned, superb Review Words: dentist, napkin, we’re, haven’t, let’s, funnier, smallest, stirring New Spelling Sentences: The mouse sat upon a pumpkin. The crossing guard helps children cross the street.

Day 1  Materials • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review plus b, d, d, g, h, k, l, m, n, n, p, p, r, s, t, t, w • Word Cards for Unit 33, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart • Unit 33 Student List • Guide to Quick Coding (pp.10–12)

Phonics concept review Write these words on the board: contest, insult, and plastic. Ask children to copy the words, dot the vowels, make rail cars for the syllables and show their type, and finally, code the vowels as shown with a smile. Let a few children do the marking of the words on the board.

cŏntĕst

ĭnsŭlt

plăstĭc

Unit 33: Closed Syllables with schwa

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Section D

Units 40–42 : Special syllables and spellings

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Units 40–42: Special syllables and spellings

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Special syllables and spellings

Unit 40: Consonant-le syllable Unit Focus

middle

candle

table

puzzle

uncle

able

giggled

tickling

stable

needle

title

Tricky Words

ocean

?

noticed

syllable

In this Unit children learn about the sixth and final syllable type, the ‘Candle L Syllable’. This syllable is never the only syllable in a word, and is never the first syllable. Usually it is the final syllable. The Candle L Syllable consists of a consonant followed by -le (e.g. candle, little, able). The vowel sound in this syllable is a schwa, sounding like /ŭl/, e.g. -/dŭl/, -/tŭl/, -/bŭl/. In Letterland, Magic e on the end of these words turns Lucy Lamp Light into a candle which then shoots magic sparks over the consonant to turn a single vowel before the consonant into a Vowel Man (e.g. title, cradle, bugle). Children find that Best Friends to the rescue can be applied in these words, as in previous Units, to prevent the sparks from reaching the vowel (e.g. bubble, apple, puzzle). They also discover that vowel sounds in some words do not need a Best Friend to the rescue because there is another consonant (e.g. candle) or an extra vowel (e.g. eagle) that the sparks fall on without any effect. Children use d for syllable division on the Guide to Quick Coding (pp.10–12), putting the consonant plus le in one rail car (e.g. cra-dle, strug-gle).

List A Picture Code Cards for review ă, ā, ĕ, ĭ, ī, ŏ, ŭ, ū, ea/ē/, ee, er APCCs ed/d/, -ing★, -le★ ★ Magic version

PCCs or LSCs

table puzzle able syllable title uncle

middle candle needle giggled staple tickling

List B apples juggling eagle cradle single bugle

handle maple little cuddle title settled

List C goggles pickle rattle mumble idle scribbled

fable single cable needle ripple tackling

Diagnostic Words cradle, apple, pickle, handle

bubble, needle, candle, cable

Tricky Words: ocean, noticed

little, tickle, able, handle

Story Words: scolded

Review Words: increase, continue, window, exclaim, supper, remember, arrive, talent New Spelling Sentences: We sat by the ocean and nibbled our apples. We noticed at least three eagles on our hike.

Day 1  Materials • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review plus b, c, d, d, f, g, g, j, l, m, n, p, p, r, s, t, ck • A magic wand and perhaps a Candle Magic hat (see illustration on next page) • Unit 40 Word Cards, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart • Unit 40 Student List • Six Syllable Types Poster • Guide to Quick Coding

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Phonics concept review Write these words on the board: thousand, powder, continue. Ask children to copy the words and Quick Code them.

thousand

powder

contĭnūe

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Introduce new concepts

 Independent/Partner • Write words & sentences, p.24

 Homework • Read the Student List, p.24

le Picture Code Cards

• •

• •

208

PCCs: ă, ā, b, c, d, d, g, g, ĭ, m, n, p, p, r, s, t, ŭ, ū, ee APCCs: -ed/d/, -le★ Words: table, staple, bugle, apple, middle, struggled, candle, uncle, needle Make the word table with plain letters except for the picture side of le as shown in the margin. Hold up the -le★ card. We know a lot about Magic e, don’t we? But here’s a new amazing magic trick. Yellow sparks can shoot up from Magic e and transform Lucy Lamp Light into a big magic candle! Then Lucy’s light becomes candle light, and takes on Magic e’s power to shoot the magic sparks! They shoot back over one more letter, counting from the top of the candle. Put the -le★ card at the end of table and demonstrate with your magic wand: So if Candle Magic’s sparks land on a vowel, what can we expect? Yes! They will make a Vowel Man appear. Let’s see how the Candle Magic works in this word. You help me work it out. First, what do Magic e’s sparks do to Lucy Lamp Light? “Turn her into a candle.” Then her magic sparks shoot over how many letters? “One letter.” Trace your finger over the top of the b to land on the a. Then something happens to the vowel. Who appears? “The Vowel Man, Mr. A.” Turn the PCC over to reveal Mr. A. And Mr. A says...? “/ā/”. Now let’s see how we divide this word. Read the fourth rule (d.) on the Guide to Quick Coding (pp.10–12). So we keep the consonant beside the l and put the three final letters in one rail car. Make a space between the syllables (ta-ble). Have children sound out the first syllable /tā/. Now we add the b sound and then say Candle Magic’s sound – the sound at the end of the word candle, like this / l/. Say / l/ with me. Now let’s say both syllables: “/tā/ /b l/, table.” Use table in a brief sentence. Build staple and bugle in similar fashion. Let children explain the Candle Magic in each word and turn the vowel PCC over to reveal the Vowel Man. Build the word apple as shown. Show the children that the sparks fall harmlessly on the nearest p and not the vowel. Point to the plain a PCC. So is this going to be Mr. A or Annie Apple? “Annie Apple.” Turn the a to the picture side to confirm the children’s answer. Separate the syllables (ap-ple) and have the children read each syllable and then say the whole word, “/ăp/ /p l/, apple.” If we did not have Best Friends in this word… (remove one p and close the space) …then the sparks would land on the vowel and who would appear? “Mr. A.” Replace Annie Apple with Mr. A. Have children pronounce the resulting word “āple.” That’s not a word… (rebuild the word apple) …so we know we need Peter Puppy’s Best Friend to make the word apple. Make the words middle and struggled and call on children to explain why the Best Friends need to be there. For struggled, show them that the e in the Magic ending -ed/d/ replaces the Magic e at the end of struggle. Cover the e in le with the -ed/d/ as shown in the margin. Make the word candle. In this word, let’s see what happens with the magic sparks. Show children that the sparks fall on the n, so that a Best Friend is not needed to protect Annie Apple. Make uncle and needle and have children help explain why a Best Friend is not needed in these words. Review the Candle L Syllable with children using the Six Syllable Types Poster.

Unit 40 : Consonant-le syllable

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Make a Magic e wand Attach colorful strips to a piece of paper. Roll into a thin cylinder and glue or tape together.

‘Live Reading’ PCCs: ă, ā, b, c, f, ĭ, k, m, p, p, r, s, t APCCs: -ing★, -le★ Words: able, apple, maple, staple, ripple, tickle, tickling • Let two children hold the -le★ APCC showing the picture side as shown at the left above. Have the child representing e hold the magic wand and then hand it on to the l child. Distribute the remaining PCCs one per child. • After you line children up to build a word, have the children in the audience decide where to divide it, and then have them explain how the magic sparks work in the word. For tickling explain that the Magic -ing ending takes Magic e’s place. Children hold the PCCs so that -ing overlaps the e in -le. • Read the new Word Cards: Discuss the pocket chart header cards in relation to the words below (Best Friends, Best Friend not needed, Vowel Man). Read the Word Cards in the columns and Tricky Words using the Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters activity.

Small Group Teacher builds words for reading Tricky Words

oc ean t nōticed

PCCs: ă, ā, c, d, ĕ, g, g, ĭ, ī, j, l, n, r, s, t, t, ŭ APCCs: -ed/d/, -ing★, -le★ Words: title, little, settle, settled, single, juggling, cradle, candle • Follow the usual steps, and let children separate the syllables and help explain what happens with the ‘Candle Magic’ in each word. • Write the new Tricky Words as shown. Practice them with the 3-by-3 Strategy. • Read the Student List.

Day 2  Materials • PCCs for Review plus b, c, d, d, g, m, m, t • Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets • Advanced Songs CD (#9) • ‘Candle Magic’ Song lyrics • Word Detectives • Unit 40 Student List • Review Sentences

Quick Dash PCCs: ă, ā, ĕ, ĭ, ī, ŏ, ŭ, ū, ea/ē/, ee, er APCCs: -ed/d/, -ing★, -le★

Advanced Songs ‘Candle Magic’ song: Project or copy the Song lyrics (TGCD). Lead the children in reading them. Play the song from the Advanced Songs CD (Track 9).

‘Live Spelling’  Independent/Partner • Read Review Sentences with two partners, p.28 • Quick Code the word list written on Day 1, p.29

PCCs: ā, b, c, d, d, g, m, m, t, ŭ, ū, ea/ē/ APCCs: -ed/d/, -ing★, -le★ Words: cable, table, cuddle, bugle, eagle, mumbled, mumbling

 Homework • Look-say-cover-write, p.29

Unit 40 : Consonant-le syllable

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Word Detectives Are you āble to jŭggle four ăpples without dropping a sĭngle one?

Read the sentences to and with the children. Guide them in marking the words. Make a flame on top of the l. Draw magic sparks from the final e through the flame, then over the previous letter. Use a capital L to identify the Candle L Syllables.

The baby in the crādle gĭggles when her ŭncle tĭckles her.

Larger version of Quick Coding for each Unit is included in Word Detectives Key (TGCD\Unit Activities)

Small Group Children build words Letters: a, b, b, b, c, d, e, f, g, g, g, i, k, l, n, p, p, s, t, u Words: able, fable, apple, pickle, tackle, tackling, idle, bugle, giggle, giggled, bubbles • Review Tricky Words. • Read Review Sentences.

Days 3 to 5 Refer to pages 30–40 of the 5 Day Unit Plan instructions for Days 3 to 5.

Day 3: Unit Story • Before reading ‘Jumping Jim Goes Fishing’ to the children: Let’s see what happens when Firefighter Fred takes Jumping Jim fishing. • After reading: Have children retell the story perhaps with the ‘Story Stone’ activity (p.303). Later children could make lists of consonant -le words.

Unit 40 Story, TGCD

210

Unit 40 : Consonant-le syllable

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Section 3 : Assessment and Small Group Intervention

Assessment .............................................................................................................................222 Placement Assessment: Reading and Spelling ......................................................................................222 Step-by-Step assessments ..........................................................................................................................223 Weekly spelling and fluency checks .........................................................................................................223 Administering assessments for placement, diagnosis and evaluation .............................................224 Administering Review Assessments .........................................................................................................229 Small Group Intervention .......................................................................................................230 The Placement Assessment and intervention .........................................................................................232 Using the Class Record for intervention placement .............................................................................232 Starting your intervention teaching .........................................................................................................234 Five Day Intervention Plan .........................................................................................................................235 Intervention Instruction .........................................................................................................236

Section 3: Assessment and Small Group Inter vention

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Assessment Levels of Step-by-Step Assessment 1. Placement: Reading and Spelling 2. Weekly spelling and fluency checks 3. Tri-weekly Review

• Letterland Step-by-Step provides assessments for a number of purposes. The chart on the next page lists the assessments and provides information on each. • Each assessment is described briefly below. Instructions for the assessments follow beginning on page 224. Forms for children to read from, and for you to use for scoring and record keeping are found on the CD that accompanies this Teacher’s Guide (TGCD).

Placement Assessment: Reading and Spelling

Placement Assessment: Reading, TGCD

Placement Assessment: Spelling, TGCD

The Placement Assessment if given during the first few weeks of school can serve several purposes: • To decide which Unit is the best place to start your whole class or groups of students. • To help identify children who may need small group intervention in reading and spelling. • If the assessment is repeated at the end of a term or school year, it can be used to show each child’s progress and to evaluate the teaching plan. This assessment is administered in two parts: • Reading: For this individually administered test, the child reads up to five short lists of words for 30 seconds per list. • Spelling: This assessment can be given to the whole class at once and consists of one list of five words and four lists of ten words each that children spell. It can be given in several sessions. If the assessment shows that some children are not ready for Grade Two Units, the Grade One Placement Assessment is also available (TGCD\Assessments). You can compile the data for all your children for Reading and Spelling on the Class Record Sheet for the Placement Assessment (‘Class Record for Placement Assessment’). If you are grouping for instruction see page 227 or if identifying children for intervention see page 233.

Class Record for Placement, TGCD

222

Assessment

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Step-by-Step assessments For placement, diagnosis and yearly evaluation Assessment

Purpose

Individual or Group

Placement Assessment: Placement in Units Reading Evaluation of yearly progress

Individual

Placement Assessment: Placement in Units Spelling Evaluation of Yearly Progress

Group

When/How Often

Time

Beginning of year End of term or year Beginning of year End of term or year

3–7 minutes

Instruction pages p.224

2 or 3 sessions, 10–20 minutes p.224 each

Weekly spelling and fluency checks Unit Fluency Check Unit Spelling Test

Determines mastery and whether to Individual or advance to next Unit with partners Determines mastery and whether to Group advance to next Unit

Weekly Weekly

3–5 minutes

p.38 and p.223 20–25 minutes p.39 and p.224

Tri-weekly review assessments Review Assessment of Fluency

Progress monitoring

Individual

Every third week

3 minutes

p.223 and p.229

Review Assessment of Spelling

Progress monitoring

Group

Every third week

10–12 minutes p.224 and p.229

Weekly spelling and fluency checks At the end of the Five Day Plan for each Step-by Step Unit, you will assess your students with a fluency check using the Student List (TGCD\Unit activities) for the Unit and a spelling test (Spelling Test Form, TGCD\Assessments). This is a very important part of the instructional program. These assessments allow you to see if children have mastered the phonic skills and the set of words taught in the Unit. If they score at or above mastery level, you can feel confident in continuing to the next Unit. If children have not mastered the Unit, they need to repeat the Unit for another five days using alternative Lists B or C. Full details for administering these assessments and making decisions about pacing your children are found in the Five Day Instruction Plan on pp.19–40.

Tri-weekly review assessments The Fluency and Spelling Reviews are both based on the same lists, one for every three Units. These tri-weekly lists include both decodable words and Tricky Words from previous Units. The assessments are given anytime during the week after the third Unit in the set has been completed. Children should not practice on the list prior to being assessed. These are important assessments because they show if the children are retaining the skills and information from several Units. If children are not meeting the criteria both for reading and spelling, further review is called for within the three previous Units. Fluency review Listen to individual children read the list for 60 seconds. The number of correct words per minute is compared to mastery criterion printed on the page.

Review Assessment, TGCD

Assessment

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Spelling review Children are tested as a group spelling 20 words including decodable words and Tricky Words. The goal is to spell 80% or more or the words correctly without additional study of the words.

Administering assessments for placement, diagnosis and evaluation The Placement Assessment forms include the ten pages listed below. You will begin with Grade Two pages (Placement Assessment, TGCD\Assessments). Children who do not score at ‘Mastery’ on the R section of the Grade Two Reading or Spelling Assessments, are tested with the Grade One Assessments. 1

Grade 2: Reading – Teacher’s Page

6

Grade 1: Reading – Teacher’s Page

2

Grade 2: Reading – Student Page

7

Grade 1: Reading – Student Page

3

Grade 2: Spelling – Student Page 1

8

Grade 1: Spelling – Student Page 1

4

Grade 2: Spelling – Student Page 2

9

Grade 1: Spelling – Student Page 2

5

Grade 2: Class Record for Placement

10

Grade 1: Class Record for Placement

Administering the Placement Assessment: Reading

Placement Assessment: Reading – Teacher’s Page, TGCD

Placement Assessment: Reading – Student Page, TGCD

224

This test is administered to one child at a time. Use the Student Page for the child to read from. You will need a timer and a copy of the Teacher Page for use with each child. Start each child on List R. 1. Point to the first row of words and then the second and tell the child, Read the words going from left to right as quick as you can without missing words. Keep going until I tell you to stop. If you do not know a word you can skip it. Say ’skip’ so I will know you are going on to the next word. If you get stuck on a word for more than five seconds, I will tell you to go on to the next word. 2. Ready? Begin. Time the child for 30 seconds. 3. As the child reads, follow along on the score sheet. If a word is read correctly, make no mark. If the child misreads a word or skips a word, make a slash mark through it. If a child skips a whole row of words, point to the row and have them read it. 4. Say, Stop, at the end of 30 seconds. Draw a bracket after the last word read within the time limit. 5. Count the number of words read correctly within the time limit. Enter this number in the score box. Based on this score check the box for ‘Mastery’ or ‘Below mastery’. 6. If the child scores below mastery on Section R, stop there and assess the child on the Grade One Placement Assessment (included on your TGCD). 7. If the child scores at ‘Mastery’ or above on Section R, continue to each next section, stopping when the child has scored ‘below mastery’ on two consecutive sections. 8. If the child is unable to read any of the words or only one or two in the first two lines of a section, you may stop before the time is up. 9. Enter scores from this assessment along with the spelling scores on the Class Record for Placement (TGCD).

Assessment

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Section 4 : Appendix

This Appendix provides you with all the Letterland strategies that can be used again and again in your teaching.

Appendix ................................................................................................... 251–296 Strategies for children – Letterland Tricks ..............................................................................................254 Strategies for teachers ...............................................................................................................................267

Indexes ...................................................................................................... 309–314 Glossary of terms ........................................................................................................................................309 Pictogram guide ..........................................................................................................................................310 Phonics and word structure index ............................................................................................................312 Activities and materials index ...................................................................................................................313

Section 4 : Appendix

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Strategies for children – Letterland Tricks This is a summary of the main Letterland strategies for children to learn. Present them as ‘tricks’ that the Letterlanders have thought up to help them become better readers and writers. They are called ‘tricks’ because once children know them, they can use them independently whenever they are reading and writing. Children who have been taught with previous levels of Letterland will know many of these tricks. You will find new ways to apply these tricks in Grade Two on the pages indicated. To see videos of these tricks please visit our website: www.letterland.com/training.

Letter sounds and shapes Mmm

Sound Trick

254

Just say the Letterlander’s name and start to say it again, but this time stop with just the first sound. That is exactly the sound this letter makes in words. Action Trick 255 Each Letterlander has made up an action for you, to help you remember the sound. Just do the action and say the sound. Alliteration Trick

257

You can predict what each Letterlander will like by listening for their sounds at the start of words. Lucy Lamp Light likes animals like lions, lambs, and lizards, etc. Annie Apple Bouncy Ben Clever Cat

Character Names Trick 258 Names are important words and therefore always start with a capital. Letterlanders always appear at least twice in their own name as capital letter shapes. Uppercase Trick 259 The Letterlanders help us remember their uppercase shapes even when they don’t look at all like their lowercase shapes. Each one has a special trick to start an important word like a name. Here is Eddy Elephant’s ‘Elephant-on-End’ trick.

Blending and segmenting Finger Tapping Trick 261 Grade Two children use this Trick for most blending and segmenting. Simply tap your fingers in order, one for each sound. For spelling, tapping will help children hear the sounds. For reading, they tap and say the sounds and then rub their thumb across their fingers to blend. Palm the Syllables Trick 263 When children want to spell a longer word, they pat the table (or their laps) with the palm of their hands from left to right as they say each syllable (e.g. fan-tas-tic). Then they are ready to finger tap each syllable separately. Roller Coaster Trick 265 When blending is more challenging, especially early in the year, use this strategy to read an unknown word. Place each sound on your ‘arm roller coaster’ from top to bottom, and then zoom down the hill to blend them. Rubber Band Trick 266 When first learning to segment, this trick helps you pull that word apart and hear each sound. Pretend to stretch a giant rubber band with your hands as you very slowly say the word. Listen for each sound to help you spell.

252

Strategies for children – Letterland Tricks : Overview

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Strategies for teachers The strategies for teachers summarized below are organized from the smallest Units of language, phonemes, then word level strategies, to the largest Units, fluent reading of stories.

Letter sounds and shapes Pronunciation guide ................................................................................................................................................. 267 Costumes and props ............................................................................................................................................... 268 Picture Coding .......................................................................................................................................................... 270 Quick Dash ................................................................................................................................................................ 271 Guess Who? ............................................................................................................................................................... 272 Games for review ..................................................................................................................................................... 273 Consolidation of the short vowel sounds ............................................................................................................ 274 Reading Direction .................................................................................................................................................... 276 Handwriting Songs .................................................................................................................................................. 277 Handwriting practice suggestions ........................................................................................................................ 277

Blending and segmenting ‘Live Reading’ and ‘Live Spelling’ .......................................................................................................................... 278 Blending and segmenting with Picture Code Cards .......................................................................................... 281 Letterland Word Builders ........................................................................................................................................ 284 Written Spelling ........................................................................................................................................................ 287

Reading and spelling words accurately and quickly

288–296

Tricky Words ............................................................................................................................................................. 288 Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters ............................................................................................................. 289 Word Card sort ........................................................................................................................................................ 291 Rhyming words: ‘If I can spell...’ ........................................................................................................................... 292 Game of the Week ................................................................................................................................................... 293 Fluency check with the whole class ...................................................................................................................... 295

Reading text: fluency and comprehension Guided reading ......................................................................................................................................................... 297 Readers’ Theater ...................................................................................................................................................... 299 Charting to build accuracy and fluency ............................................................................................................... 299 My Best Reading: Charting reading accuracy ............................................................................................. 299 Super Reading: Charting reading fluency in context ................................................................................... 301 Comprehension ........................................................................................................................................................ 303 Story Stone .......................................................................................................................................................... 303 Interview a character ........................................................................................................................................ 304 Story Map ........................................................................................................................................................... 305 The K-W-L Strategy ............................................................................................................................................. 306 Graphic organizers ............................................................................................................................................ 307 Vocabulary ................................................................................................................................................................ 308

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Child strategies

Letter sounds and shapes Sound Trick (initial phoneme isolation) Objective

Mmm

• For children to learn simple recall routes to the a-z letter sounds Resources • Picture Code Cards of new or recently learned letters Explanation for children Let’s learn a new trick that will help us discover the sound that the Letterlanders make in words. Hold up the m, picture side. Who is this? “Munching Mike.” Yes, it is Munching Mike, and here’s the special way to discover his sound. It’s called the Sound Trick. You say his name and then just start to say his name again, but stop just as the name starts to come out of your mouth, like this, Mmm… Don’t say too much, just that very first sound in his name. Let’s do the Sound Trick together. First we say his whole name very slowly, and then just start to say it, but only the very first sound, “Mmmmuuuunnnching Mmmmiiiike, mmmm.” Yes, that’s the sound he makes in words: /mmm/. Procedure Step

m Munching Mike

/mmm/

1 2 3 4

Description Teacher shows the picture side of the PCC. Children say the Letterlander’s name. Teacher shows the plain letter side. Children start to say the name again but stop on the first sound.

Example Munching Mike

/mmm/

When to use • Use the Sound Trick in Grade Two primarily to help children remember the short vowel sounds, e.g. “Eddy Elephant, /ĕ/.” • Use the Sound Trick in reviewing letter sounds that some children are unsure of. • Encourage children to use the Sound Trick on their own if they need it to recall a letter sound. Development over time Once children know the letter sounds, move on to children saying only the sound in response to the plain letter.

“Mmmunching Mmmike”

Variations For children finding difficulty in isolating the beginning sound in the Letterlander’s names and in other words, try adding this kinesthetic support. The child says the character’s name while pretending to stretch an imaginary rubber band wrapped around their hands. The child starts to say the name again while stretching the rubber band, but stops just as his hands begin to pull apart. The best letters for learning this process are the easily prolonged sounds: f, l, m, n, r, s, v, z and the five short vowel sounds (see p.267).

“Mmm”

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Action Trick (VAK phoneme cues) Objectives • To develop multisensory (kinesthetic-auditory-oral-visual) memory cues for letter sounds • To provide movement to keep children engaged and alert Resources • Action Tricks Poster and Picture Code Cards Explanation for children Each Letterlander has made up an action to help us remember his or her sound. They call them the Action Tricks. When to use • Action Tricks are taught for each letter when it is introduced. In Grade Two use the Actions Tricks primarily with the easily confused short vowel sounds. • Action Tricks are used with the Quick Dash activity (p.271) to review letter sounds. They can also be used with the Guess Who? activity (p.272). • At first, ask the children to make the actions at the same time as saying the letter sound. Once they know them well, try some of the activities below.

Action Tricks Poster

Variations • Get the wiggles out When you notice children getting restless and in need of a change of pace and some movement, try this: Go through the alphabet a to z with everyone making the actions as they say the sounds. Action Tricks can be used sitting or standing. As an option, ask everyone to repeat each sound and action three times before moving on to the next letter. • Follow the leader Ask one child to silently do an action and everyone else respond with the action and add the sound. • Action spelling Show one child a regular word. That child silently does the actions for each letter in the word. The other children write the word or make it with a Letterland Word Builder or in the word building section of the Story Phonics software. Then everyone reads the word.

Action Tricks

a

e

b Bite an imaginary apple.

Spread out hands behind ears and flap like elephant ears.

f

Shoot arms up for ears and wiggle them.

c

Stroke whiskers across cheeks.

g Hold and direct imaginary hose towards fire.

Mime holding tipped glass of grape juice in 'glug, glug' position.

d

Flap elbows like a waddling duck.

h

Breathe on to hand in front of mouth, OR put on imaginary hat.

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Character Names Trick

Annie Apple Bouncy Ben Clever Cat Dippy Duck

Objectives • To make each Letterlander name a-z readily recognizable by use of the two capital letters in their alliterative names • To use the character names to recognize common words contained in them and read rhyming words by analogy to these words • To aid recognition of capital letters by seeing them frequently in character names and picture coded on the Character Name Cards Resources • Unit Stories (TGCD\Unit activities), Phonics Readers Sets 1–4, and other materials that include Letterland character names • Character Name Cards (TGCD\Comprehension and other resources) with initial capital letters picture coded Explanation for children We always start everybody’s name with a capital letter, because names are important words! So in every Letterlander’s name we will see their capital letter. But there is something special about their names: Letterlanders always appear at least TWICE in their capital letter shapes in their own names! Procedure Enlarge several of the Letterlander names from the Character Name Cards to introduce the Uppercase Trick. Write the character name without picture coding on the back. Step 1 2

Description Show children several of the Character Name Cards on the picture coded side. Then show the same names on the plain letter side and have children read them.

When to use • Introduce the Character Names Trick early in the school year especially for children who are new to Letterland. • In Grade Two the Letterlanders’ names are used frequently in stories. Some of them will not yet be fully decodable at the beginning of the year. The Character Names Trick helps children recognize these names quickly as sight words (e.g. Quarrelsome Queen). Variations • When children come across a Letterlander’s name in a story, remind them of the trick to help them recognize the name quickly. • Point out common words that occur in Letterlander names especially as they come up in the Units and in stories (e.g. cat, duck, light, fire, noisy, puppy, talking, yellow). Also make rhyming words with these common words by changing the first letter (e.g. night, light, bright).

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Teacher strategies

Letter sounds Use the activities below to help children move from learning the Letterlanders’ names and sounds to instantly and automatically responding to the plain letter with the correct sound.

Pronunciation guide Children need to pronounce letter sounds correctly in order to use them effectively for reading and spelling. When saying consonant phonemes in isolation, they tend to put a vowel sound after them, leading to “buh, mmmuh, puh, suh” etc. instead of the pure /b/, /mmm/, /d/ and /sss/ sounds. The ‘uh’ sounds can distort children’s blending, so, for example, sip becomes “sssuhipuh”. To avoid the extra ‘uh’ sound, the three categories of consonant sounds set out below are helpful. Useful tips for helping children pronounce each group are provided. Some sounds fall into more than one category. That just means you have more ways to help children get the sound right. • Whispered sounds are spoken without the voice box. We just whisper them. • Prolonged sounds can be extended or ‘stretched.’ We can continue the sounds of ‘ssssss’ or ‘mmmm’ until our breath runs out. Tell children to stop the sound before dropping their jaws to avoid ‘ssssuh’ and ‘mmmuh.’ • Almost closed mouth sounds are the hardest to say without adding an ‘uh’ sound. Tell children to keep their mouths almost closed and say these sounds both quietly and quickly.

• To listen to the correct pronunciation of a–z sounds, short and long vowels, you can refer to: • www.letterland.com/letter-sounds • Living ABC or Story Phonics software programs • Alphabet Songs CD • For consonant blends, consonant digraphs and vowel digraph sounds: • Blends & Digraphs Songs CD • Story Phonics software

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Costumes and props Many teachers have found that using a piece of costume, a headband or some prop to hold in the hands help engage even the most reluctant students in learning about phonics. Even if you don’t use costumes every day in Grade Two, they can be especially helpful when teaching a new concept such as a magic wand to teach Magic e or a backpack to serve as the robber sack for teaching r-controlled vowels Here are some of the ways that props or costumes can enhance your teaching: • Use early in the year to introduce each Letterlander especially for those new to Letterland. • Use in ‘Live Reading’ and ‘Live Spelling’ early on to engage children. • Extend comprehension further with the ‘Interview a character’ activity (p.304). The list below provides suggestions for each character but feel free to be creative. Letterlanders a-z

268

Annie Apple

Apple leaf hat; red t-shirt

Bouncy Ben

Big, brown ears

Clever Cat

Yellow ears

Dippy Duck

Headband with picture of Dippy Duck’s head

Eddy Elephant

Elephant ears

Firefighter Fred

Firefighter helmet; hose; raincoat

Golden Girl

Long blond ponytail made of wool; green glasses

Harry Hat Man

Hairy green hat or hat picture on a headband

Impy Ink

Headband with yellow dot; yellow letter on blue t-shirt; a special pen

Jumping Jim

Jeans jacket or a jump rope

Kicking King

Crown and cape

Lucy Lamp Light

Lampshade hat; flashlight

Munching Mike

Cardboard monster mask covered in foil, or headband

Noisy Nick

Toy hammer and tinfoil nails

Oscar Orange

Orange on a headband

Peter Puppy

Long droopy ears

Quarrelsome Queen

Crown and cape; plain ‘royal’ umbrella

Red Robot

Square, red cardboard headgear; red sack

Sammy Snake

Snake headband; toy snake

Talking Tess

Headphones or phone

Uppy Umbrella

Small umbrella hat or small colorful umbrella

Vicky Violet

Violet t-shirt; flower necklace

Walter Walrus

Grey flippers

Fix-it Max

Toy tools and cap

Yellow Yo-yo Man

Yellow cap; yellow t-shirt; yellow yo-yo

Zig Zag Zebra

Ears on headband; black and white striped clothing

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Teacher strategies

Reading text: fluency and comprehension Guided reading Objective • To practice recently taught phonics and Tricky Words in a meaningful context • To build accurate, fluent reading with good comprehension • To promote reading for meaning and enjoyment Resources • Unit Stories (TGCD\Unit activities): one reproducible story for each of the 42 Units in this TG • Other decodable or leveled reading materials • Children who are learning to read need to practice, practice, practice. They need at least 30–60 minutes per day of additional reading in material that they can read with 90–95% accuracy.

Sample Unit Stories, TGCD

Guided reading a Unit Story Before reading • As you introduce the story on Day 3 or as children prepare to read it themselves, you may find some of following suggestions helpful: • Before your first read-aloud of the Unit Story, tell children the title and show any illustrations. For Unit Stories, use the suggestions for introducing the story on the last page of the Unit in this Teacher’s Guide. Read the first sentence or two or ask a question to elicit some predictions about the story. • Before children first read the story for themselves, preview any Story Words. The Story Words are listed at the beginning of the play or story. Have them point to each word as you read it. And then they repeat it. Then reread all the Story Words together. • Some plays also list decodable words at the beginning. These are words of more than one syllable that include only phonic patterns already taught. Read these with the children and then have them read them to a partner before they read the play for the first time. During reading • Stop once or twice at key points in the story for discussion. Have children talk to a partner about what they have learned so far from the story. You might prompt them by choosing a few open ended questions from the list below. Have each child talk to a partner first. • What pictures did you see in your mind as you listened? • Who are the characters? What is the setting? Is there a problem or something that one of the characters wants to do that may be difficult? • What do you know about the Letterlanders in the story (if any) that may tell you something about the story? (E.g. The Hat Man hates noise. Walter Walrus likes to splash water. All the Letterlanders like things that begin with their sounds.) • Does the story remind you of any of your own experiences or of other stories? • What do you wonder about or have questions about at this point? • What do you think might happen in the next part of the story?

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• After children talk to their partners, open up the discussion to the whole class. After reading • At the end of story, ask children again to talk to partners and prompt with any of the relevant questions from those above. Then use the ‘Story Stone’ activity to guide children’s retelling (p.303). Ways to read a story The traditional practice of having each child read part of the text while everyone else listens (a.k.a. round robin reading) should be avoided as it severely limits the amount of text that each child reads. Here are several alternative ways to guide children in reading or reading a story. • Choral-reading Everyone reads together aloud at the same time. Use your voice to get each page started and to get everyone back on the same word when they get out of sync. Then fade your voice out and move about to listen to individual readers. • Echo-reading When children need lots of support, you can read a sentence or paragraph to them and then have them reread. • Mumble-reading Oral reading is an excellent, research-proven way to improve reading. So let everyone read with quiet voices, but unlike choral-reading don’t try to keep them together. Everyone reads at their own pace. This is a good time to listen to individuals. • Partner-reading Use paired reading when children are rereading for the second or third time or beyond. Children can read alternating paragraphs or they can each take several roles in the play. You can listen to each child for a few moments. Coaching oral reading What do you do when a child is struggling to read a word? Research tells us that giving children feedback as they read aloud is very important. Here are a few guidelines to apply ‘on the fly’ when listening to children read. • Sound it out Children need the opportunity to apply the phonics they have learned, so encourage them to use the Finger Tapping Trick (or the Roller Coaster Trick). Also, encourage them to decode one syllable at a time for unknown words. • After a few seconds hesitation, remind the child of the Story Logic that explains a sound or syllable type. • Tricky Words are those in which some of the letters don’t sound the way the child expects them to. If a child is unable to read one of these words, it is often best just to say the word, have the child repeat it and go on. • Misreading We want children to read accurately. If you are in a small group situation, just point to a missed word immediately as a signal to try again. • Did that make sense? Sometimes children are so focused on sounding out words that they lose track of meaning. You may sometimes choose to let a child keep reading past an error. At the end of a sentence, gently ask, “Did that make sense?” Point to the beginning of the sentence or phrase and ask the child to try again. • Keep the flow Sometimes it’s okay just to say the word for the child to keep the story going without too many interruptions.

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Readers’ Theater

Unit Story, TGCD

In Readers’ Theater individuals or groups of children take on different character roles or different parts of the story and read them as they might read a play. There is no action or movement in Readers’ Theater; the idea is to keep it simple but to express the meaning of the story clearly through the expression of the children’s voices. Here are some suggestions to make the reading enjoyable and sociable. • Assign the roles in the current or previous Unit Story. Children can practice their roles with partners before reading with the rest of the group. Note that in many plays there are parts for everyone to read together. • A pair of children or even a group can be assigned to a role to read together. • Discuss what various lines mean and how they might be expressed. Let children try out different words to emphasize, vary the speed of reading, change the volume of various parts, or use different emotional tones of voice. The aim is to make the text meaningful and interesting.

Charting to build accuracy and fluency in text One of the clearest ways to measure progress in Grade Two reading is by tracking children’s decoding accuracy and reading rate or fluency expressed as correct words per minute (cwpm). Of course, the goal of reading is comprehension, but as decoding the words on the page becomes more automatic and fluent for children, they have more mental resources to devote to meaning and deeper understanding. A good rule of thumb for developing children’s reading, is ‘Accuracy before fluency.’ In other words, you want children to be able to decode a story with few or zero errors before encouraging them to read faster. Otherwise they may read faster at the expense accuracy defeating the ultimate purpose of reading: comprehension. You can track accuracy separately with My Best Reading Chart or track both accuracy and fluency at the same time with Super Reading Chart, both explained below (find charts on TGCD\More Learning Activities).

My Best Reading: Charting reading accuracy Objective • To read with 95 to 100% accuracy Resources • Current or previous week’s Unit Story (TGCD\Unit activities) • My Best Reading Chart (TGCD\Accuracy and fluency charts) • Optional: a copy of the story in a clear, plastic sheet protector and a dry-erase marker for the teacher My Best Reading Chart, TGCD

Procedure The child reads the Unit Story aloud. For longer stories, choose one or two pages for reading. The teacher does not offer help unless the child is stuck on a word for more than five (5) seconds. (You may choose to have them read up to the 100th or 200th word, which are marked in the story.)

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Step

Description As the child reads aloud, make the note of errors including any words that you supply for the child (after waiting 5 seconds).

1

Write errors over the words on your copy of the story or make a note showing each word missed by writing the correct word with the error above it (e.g.): Substitution:

Omission:

Word supplied:

Self-correction:

cam came

reach

s. about

cam  came

2

Praise the child for effort. Count the number of errors (self-corrected errors are considered correct). If the child made 10 or less errors, record this on the child’s graph by circling the number. Point to each word that was missed on the child’s copy of the story and say the word. The child repeats the word. Then point to each word again for the child to reread.

3

If the child made at least one error, ask him or her to read aloud again and follow steps 1 and 2 above. If the child made no errors, no rereading for accuracy is needed. Consider timing the same reading for fluency at this time or later with the Super Reading Chart.

4

After the second reading has been recorded and missed words practiced, point out and praise improved performance (fewer errors). If there was no improvement, consider a third reading, if you think the child is up for it.

5

After the last reading, the child colors in the column on the chart up to the number of errors. The graph is designed so that the better the reading, the higher up the color goes.

Interpreting the score The number of words in the Unit Stories varies since the child is rereading a story before with a group and perhaps with a partner, more than five (5) errors is generally too many. With most readings (100 to 200 words) you want children to make three (3) or less errors on their final reading.

Unit Story, TGCD

300

When to use • Chart accuracy only after the child has read the story at least twice before and discussed the story to ensure comprehension. • Charting accuracy takes a good deal of time if done with every child in your class. You will probably want to only chart with the few children who frequently read inaccurately to help them concentrate on accuracy. • Children who tend to make numerous decoding errors will benefit from accuracy charting before they try fluency charting. You might chart accuracy on a story until a child reads 95–98% or more of the words correctly and then the next day try fluency charting. If fluency charting leads to decreased accuracy, return to only charting accuracy for a while.

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Super Reading: Charting reading fluency in context Objective • To measure reading progress • To help develop fluent reading of continuous text • Serve as an alternative or in addition to the weekly fluency check with Student List for monitoring progress

Super Reading Chart, TGCD

Resources • Current or previous week’s Unit Story for teacher and student (TGCD\Unit activites) • Super Reading Chart (TGCD\Accuracy and fluency charts), two forms available, 0–55 cwpm and 0–110 cwpm • Optional: a copy of the story in a clear, plastic sheet protector and a dry-erase marker for the teacher Explanation for children Read this story aloud with care. Try to go a little bit fast without missing words. Starting and Stopping points • Start with the first word of dialog in the Unit Story (skip the character list, Story Words, etc.) • At the beginning of the year, stop on word 100 (marked on the script just below the word) • Later as a child increases their reading rate to 50–55 cwpm, have them read to word 200 (also marked below the word) Procedure The child reads from the beginning of a Unit Story aloud starting on the first line of dialog. (They do not read character list or story word list, etc.) Word 100 and word 200 are marked in each story. At the beginning of Grade Two, stop the reading on word 100. When children begin to read with more fluency read to word 200. The teacher times the reading and records errors. Step

1

2

3

Description Start you timer as the child reads the first word. Do not help unless child stops reading for five seconds. Then supply the word and count as an error. Put a slash through the words missed on your copy, or list them on a separate piece of paper. Place a check beside each self-corrected error. Stop timing as the child reads word 100 (or 200). Record the time in minutes and seconds. Convert minutes and seconds to total seconds (e.g. 1 minute 18 seconds = 78 seconds). Count the number of errors. On the Super Reading Chart enter the number of errors with a dot on the lower grid. (If there are more than ten (10) errors do not record this reading.) Go over the error words with the child and have the child reread. If less than ten errors, subtract from the total read (100 or 200) words in the story as listed to the right of the last line of the story. This is the number of words read correctly.

4

Calculate Correct Words Per Minute (cwpm) with this formula (N = number of words read correctly; T = reading time in seconds): (N x 60) \ T = cwpm

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Vocabulary The children in your classroom will likely vary a great deal in the size of their ‘meaning vocabulary.’ This refers to the words that they can understand when they hear them and use accurately when they speak. Children with limited vocabularies are at a great disadvantage in becoming successful as readers and learners. Among these children even those who get a good start in beginning reading will falter later as they reach eight or nine years old. That is when most children begin to need to read many more words that are not in our day-to-day vocabulary. Children who have a deficit in vocabulary must begin to close that gap from the earliest possible age if they are to be successful in school and beyond. Since beginning reading resources are necessarily composed of simple, everyday words, they do not help children build vocabulary. So it is important to teach the meanings of useful but less common words as a regular part of daily instruction. Researchers have identified several principles that describe effective vocabulary instruction in primary classrooms. They include: • regularly selecting 10–12 words to teach with child friendly definitions and interactive oral exercises from each read-aloud book. • selecting words that are unknown to at least half of the children and that can be explained in ways that children can understand with direct, explicit instruction. • providing repeated exposure to and personal use of new words in varied contexts in order to fully understand their meanings and be able to use them. • creating excitement about learning new words and discussing word meanings, so children become active seekers of new and interesting words. Make use of quality children’s literature, nonfiction and meaningful classroom experiences in addition to your Letterland lessons to ensure adequate vocabulary learning.

You may find this picture dictionary helpful for English language learners. ‘My First Dictionary’ (order code: TE57)

Teaching vocabulary with Unit Stories While the focus of the Unit Stories is on practicing words with various phonic patterns, they can also be a source for learning new words and their meanings. Most of the words in the Stories will be familiar to children, but the characters and situations may suggest concepts and less familiar words. ‘Story’ words Some Unit Stories include a few Story Words listed on the title page. These are words that children are not expected to decode. They are included to make the story more meaningful and interesting. Children will readily understand most of these words, but a few will need explanation, leading to further vocabulary exploration.

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Glossary of terms adjacent consonants: Two or three letters with discrete sounds which are blended together: sm, bl, cr, spl. alliteration: a phrase containing words beginning with the same initial sound: Clever Cat collects coins; Munching Mike loves to munch mushrooms in the meadow. base word: a word minus any prefix or suffix -added to it: unconcerned, kindness, goats, snowing. blending: the process of sounding out each individual phoneme in a word and then blending them together to read the word. For example, /c/ /ă/ /t/ blended together is cat. compound word: a word which consists of two words put together with each retaining its meaning: playground, roundabout, notebook. comprehension: understanding the text being read. consonant: all alphabet letters except the vowels a, e, i, o, u. contraction: a word that combines two words with one or more sounds left out: I’m, wasn’t, we’ve. An apostrophe is placed where one or more letters are left out. decoding: the process of going from printed or written words to verbal language whether reading aloud or silently. digraph: two letters representing one phoneme: thin, luck, shop, grow, treat, cloud. grapheme: a written representation of a single phoneme; may consist of one or more letters. For example the phoneme /s/ can be represented by the graphemes shown: sun, mouse, cell, city, science. letter name: the name commonly used when referring to letter shapes: aye, bee, cee, dee, ee, eff, gee. letter shape: the form of the letter. letter sound: the speech sound represented by a letter, often represented in print between back slashes: /t/ for the letter t. multisensory: the simultaneous use of visual, auditory and kinesthetic senses (VAK) to enhance learning. phoneme: the smallest identifiable unit of sound in a word. A phoneme can be represented by one, two, three or four letters. The following words end in the same phoneme: to, shoe, through.

phonemic awareness: the ability to hear, identify and manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. A child shows phonemic awareness when they can separate the phonemes in a word (map, /m/ /ă/ /p/). phonics: the teaching of the relationship between sounds and spellings (phonemes and graphemes). pictogram: a picture embedded in a letter or digraph that helps children remember the shapes and sounds even when they see only the plain letters. prefix: a part added at the beginning of a base word that changes the meaning: unseen, rewrite, disappear, preview. schwa: an unstressed vowel phoneme. Any vowel can be pronounced as a schwa if the syllable is not stressed: man → workman. segmenting: the process of splitting up a spoken word into its individual phonemes in order to spell it: cat /c/ /ă/ /t/ → cat. slow speak: a term used to describe stretching out a word by saying it slowly enough to identify each sound to aid spelling: run, rrrrrruuuuuunnnn. split digraph: two letters, split, making one sound, For example, a_e as in make. suffix: a part added to the end of a word that may change its tense, number, meaning, part of speech, or use in a sentence: reached, wishing, bells, careless, kindness, thinks. syllable: each ‘beat’ in a word is a syllable. Words with only one syllable (cat, fright) are called monosyllabic; words with more than one syllable (super, superman) are polysyllabic. Tricky Words: Frequently used words that cannot be decoded easily. They often have one or more unusual spelling patterns: was, said, what, they, of. Also called common exception words, sight words, irregular highfrequency words. trigraph: three letters representing one phoneme: high. vowel: the five vowel letters, a, e, i, o, u. They can represent short or long sounds (cat, cake). The letter y can also represent vowel sounds (fly, very, bicycle).

Glossar y of terms

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Pictogram guide The table below shows what abbreviations have been used for which pictograms. The color coding is as follows:

Red = Picture Code Cards Green = Advanced Picture Code Cards Yellow = Special Unit Word Cards (part of your Grade Two Word Cards)

All pictograms listed here are included in the small group Letter Sound Cards.

a

a/ŭ/

Parachuted Apple

parachute

a

ā

Mr A, the Apron Man

apron

a

ă

Annie Apple

a-e

a_e

Mr A & Silent Magic e

As in the word...

Pictogram Name

Abbr.

Letters

As in the word...

Letters

Abbr.

Pictogram Name

★ = the Magic Ending version of a Picture Code Card (e.g. e★, -er★, -y★/ē/).

ed

-ed/ed/

Suffix -ed (Eddy Elephant & Dippy talking)

skated

add

ed

-ed/d/

Suffix -ed (Eddy hiding, Dippy talking)

smiled

make

ed

-ed/t/

Suffix -ed (both hiding, Tess talking)

hoped

ee

Mr E & Mr E out walking

bee

ai

ai

Mr A & Mr I out walking

rain

ee

air

air

Mr A, Mr I & Robot

fair

eer

eer

Mr E, Mr E & a Robot

deer

-er★

Magic Ernest Er

later

er

Ernest Er, the Elephant Stealer

her

est

-est

Magic ending: Eddy Elephant, Sammy Snake & Talking Tess

closest

ew

ew

Eddy Elephant & Walter Walrus

few, grew

f

f

Firefighter Fred

fan

Firefighter Fred & Firefighter Frank

puff

ful

-ful

Lazy Giant Full

helpful

full

full

Giant Full

full

g

g

Golden Girl

go

g

g

Golden Granny

egg

ge

ge

Gentle Ginger

gentle

gh

gh/–/

Golden Girl & Harry Hat Man

bought

gh

gh/f/

Golden Girl & Harry Hat Man

laugh

gi

gi

Gentle Ginger

ginger

h

h

Harry Hat Man

hen

i

i(y)

Yo-yo Man in i-clothes

happiest

i

ī

Mr I, the Ice Cream Man

ice

i

ĭ

Impy Ink

it

i-e

i_e

Mr I & Silent Magic e

like

ie

ie/ī/

Mr I & Mr E out walking

tie

igh

igh

Mr I, Golden Girl & Harry Hat Man

night making

al

al/all/

Giant All

almost

er

all

all

Giant All

ball

er

ar

ar

Arthur Ar, the Apple Stealer

farm

are

are

Arthur Ar & Silent Magic e

are

are

are/air/

Arthur Ar & Silent Magic e

scare

au

au

Annie Apple & Walter Walrus

cause

aw

aw

Annie Apple & Walter Walrus

saw

ay

ay

Mr A & Yellow Yo-yo Man out walking

say

b

b

Bouncy Ben

bat

b

b

Bouncy Barbara

hobby

c

c

Clever Cat

cat

ce

ce

Clever Cat as a hissing snake

fence

ch

ch/c/

Clever Cat & Harry Hat Man

school

ch

ch

Clever Cat & Harry Hat Man

chip

ck

ck

Clever Cat & Kicking King

duck

d

d/–/

Silent Dippy Duck

edge

d

d

Dippy Duck

dog

d

d

Diana Duck

muddy

dis

dis-

Prefix dis-

dislike

e

e★

Silent Magic e

tape

e

e/–/

Burnt Out Magic e

engine

e

e/ā/

Mr Mean-E

they

e

ē

Mr E, the Easy Magic Man

he

ing

-ing★

Suffix -ing (Magic ending: Impy, Nick & Golden Girl)

e

ĕ

Eddy Elephant

egg

ir

ir

Irving Ir, the Ink Stealer

girl

e-e

e_e

Mr E & Silent Magic e

these

j

j

Jumping Jim

jet

ea

ea/ĕ/

Mr E, Mr A & Eddy Elephant

head

k

k

Kicking King

kit

ea

ea/ē/

Mr E & Mr A out walking

sea

kn

kn

Kicking King & Noisy Nick

knee

ear

ear/ur/

Ernest Er, the Elephant Stealer

earth

l

l

Lucy Lamp Light

leg

ear

ear/ear/

Mr E, Mr A & a Robot

year

le

-le★

Magic ending: Candle Magic

table

310 Pictogram guide

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As in the word...

Pictogram Name

Abbr.

Letters

As in the word...

Pictogram Name

Abbr.

Letters

r

r

Red Robot (empty sack)

carry

r

r

Red Robot

run

re

re-

Prefix re-

refill

rr

rr

Racing Robots

hurry

summer

s

s

Sammy Snake

sun

Munching Mike & Silent Bouncy Ben

thumb

s

s/z/

Sleepy Sammy

is

n

Noisy Nick

net

sh

sh

Sammy Snake & Harry Hat Man

shop

n

n

Noisy Nicola

tennis

s

ss

Sally Snake

miss

ng

ng

Noisy Nick & Golden Girl

ring

t

t

Talking Tess

tap

nk

nk

Noisy Nick & Kicking King

tank

t

t

Talking Tom

little

o

o/ /

Boot Twin & Hiding Twin

who

o

ō

Mr O, the Old Man

so

th

th

Talking Tess & Harry Hat Man (speaking)

that

o

ŏ

Oscar Orange

odd

th

th

thing

o

o/ŭ/

Oscar’s Bothersome Little Brother

son

Talking Tess & Harry Hat Man (whispering)

o-e

o_e

Mr O & Silent Magic e

home

tion

-tion

Mr ‘Tion

attention

oa

oa

Mr O & Mr A out walking

boat

ture

-ture

Talking Tess, Urgent Ur & e

adventure

ū

Mr U, the Uniform Man

uniform

l

Linda Lamp Light

ly

-ly

Suffix -ly (Lucy & Yo-yo Man working for Mr. E)

lovely

m

m

Munching Mike

map

mm

m

Munching Maria

mb

mb

n

ll

bell

oi

oi

Roy & Mr I

coin

u

oo

oo/ /

The Boot Twin

moon

u

ŭ

Uppy Umbrella

up

u_e

Mr U & Silent Magic e

cube

oo

oo/ /

The Foot Twin

book

u-e

oor

oor

Orvil Or

door

ue

ue

Mr U & Mr E out walking

blue

un-

Prefix un-

unkind

or

or

Orvil Or, the Orange Stealer

for

un

ore

ore

Oscar, Orvil Or & Silent Magic e

shore

ur

ur

Urgent Ur, the Umbrella Stealer

fur

out

v

v

Vicky Violet

van

ve

Vicky Violet & Vase Prop e

have

ou

ou

Oscar Orange & Walter Walrus

our

our

Orvil Or

your

ve

ow

ow/ō/

Oscar, Mr O, & Walter Walrus

show

w

w

Walter Walrus

wig

wh/w/

Walter Walrus & Harry Hat Man

when

ow

ow/ou/

Oscar Orange & Walter Walrus

how

wh

oy

oy

Roy & Yellow Yo-yo Man

boy

wh

wh/h/

Walter Walrus & Harry Hat Man

who

wr

Walter Walrus & Red Robot

write

p

p

Peter Puppy

pen

wr

p

p

Patsy Puppy

happy

x

x

Fix-it Max

box

photo

y

y/ē/

Yellow Yo-yo Man

very

-y★/ē/

Magic ending: Yellow Yo-yo Man

cosy

ph

ph

Peter Puppy & Harry Hat Man

pre

pre-

Prefix pre-

prepay

y

q

q

Quarrelsome Queen

quiz

y

y

Yellow Yo-yo Man

yes

y/ī/

Yellow Yo-yo Man

my

z

Zig Zag Zebra

zip

qu

qu

Quarrelsome Queen with umbrella

quiz

y

r

r

Green Robot

carry

z

Pictogram guide

TH09_text.indb 311

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19/06/2015 09:47


New edition

Letterland has helped many children to become skilful readers, accurate spellers and to love literacy with the help of the engaging characters and memorable phonic stories. Now this sequel Grade Two Guide provides fresh support for the second school year. Children will learn the Six Syllable Types that help them predict the vowel sounds in thousands of previously unknown words. They will gain confidence as readers and writers as the Letterland story logic helps them to make sense of the many complexities of written English. Placement tests and formative assessments of spelling and fluency let you choose the optimal level for children to start, and enable you to closely track their progress. Key features include: • • • • • • • • • •

scientific research-based instruction that is exceptionally child-friendly systematic, synthetic phonic emphasis for daily support of literacy learning word structure teaching, including syllable types/division, prefixes and suffixes innovative multisensory methods for reading and spelling interactive strategies to engage children’s attention and accelerate learning continuous review of previous learning built in to each Unit comprehension taught regularly with discussion, questioning and storytelling emphasis on fluency at all levels: letter sounds, words, sentences, and stories Includes free CD with full assessment strand assessment and intervention compatible with Response to & extra learning Intervention (RTI) resources valuable reproducible resources on the accompanying CD including over 40 decodable Readers Theater plays.

You may also like: Code: TH09 ISBN 978-1-78248-088-4

Includes free CD with full assessment strand & extra learning resources

9 781782 480884 Child-friendly phonics

See our full range at: www.letterland.com TH09_OFCOBC.indd All Pages

Step-by-Step daily lessons 09/06/2015 15:17

Letterland Grade Two Teacher's Guide  

Essential resource for teaching phonics, spelling and word structure for your classroom.

Letterland Grade Two Teacher's Guide  

Essential resource for teaching phonics, spelling and word structure for your classroom.

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