Page 1


Youssry Fouad Saweris


.


Contents:

First unit: Chemical Reactions 1st lesson: Chemical combination ...................................... 7 2nd lesson: Chemical Compounds .................................... 17 3rd lesson: Chemical Equations and reactions. .................. 27

wUnit one general exercises ............................................ 36

Second unit: Force and motion 1st lesson: Universal forces in nature ................................39 2nd lesson: Accompanied force with motion ..................... 47 3rd lesson: Motion ........................................................... 55

wUnit two general exercises ........................................... 66

Third unit: Earth and Universe 1st lesson: The Celestial bodies ............................................71 2nd lesson: The Earth............................................................. 83 3rd lesson: Rocks and minerals ............................................ 95 4rd lesson: Earthquakes and volcanoes ............................... 107

wUnit threegeneral exercises .......................................... 120 wGeneral exercises on the second term ........................... 123


Unit One

Chemical Reactions ‹*OLTPJHS*VTWV\UKZ ‹*OLTPJHSYLHJ[PVUZ

Unit lessons 1- Chemical combination . 2- Chemical Compounds. 3- Chemical Equations and Reactions.


Objectives By the end of this unit, a student will be able to:  +PZ[PUN\PZO [OL H[VT HUK PVU MHY[OLY [V  [OLPY ILOH]PVY PU JOLTPJHS YLHJ[PVUZ  *VTWHYLIL[^LLUTL[HSZHUKUVUTL[HSZ  0KLU[PM`[OLJVUJLW[VMPVUPJIVUKZHUKJV]HSLU[IVUKZ  +LZPNUHTVKLSMVYPVUPJIVUKHUKJV]HSLU[IVUKTVSLJ\SLZ  0KLU[PM`[OLJVUJLW[VM]HSLUJL  0KLU[PM`[OLJVUJLW[VMJOLTPJHSMVYT\SHHUK[OLH[VTPJNYV\W  >YP[L [OL TVZ[ MHTV\Z Z`TIVSZ MVY LSLTLU[Z HUK JVTWV\UKZ MVYT\SHL  0KLU[PM`[OLJVUJLW[VMHJPKZHUKHSRHSPLZ  <UKLYZ[HUK [OL JVUJLW[Z VM JOLTPJHS YLHJ[PVUZ HUK JOLTPJHS LX\H[PVUZ  0KLU[PM` [OL YLSH[PVU IL[^LLU THZZ JVUZLY]PUN SH^ HUK [OL JOLTPJHS YLHJ[PVU  ,_WYLZZ JOLTPJHS YLHJ[PVUZ ]PH IHSHUJLK Z`TIVSPJ HUK ^HYK LX\H[PVUZ  *HYY`V\[L_WLYPTLU[Z[VZVTL[`WLZVMJOLTPJHSYLHJ[PVUZ  4LU[PVU L_HTWSLZ MVY JOLTPJHS YLHJ[PVUZ SPML LU]PYVUTLU[HS HUK PUK\Z[YPHS  /PNOSPNO[ [OL T\[\HS YLSH[PVU IL[^LLU [LJOUVSVN` HUK JOLTPJHS YLHJ[PVUZ  (WWYLJPH[L[OLILULÃ&#x201E;[ZVML_WLYPTLU[HSTL[OVKZPUJOLTPJHSYLHJ[PVUZ HUK[OLPYJVU[YVS  .P]L L_HTWSLZ MVY [OL WVZP[P]L HUK ULNH[P]L ZVJPHS H[[P[\KLZ [V ^VYK JOLTPJHSYLHJ[PVUZ  (WWYLJPH[L[OLYVSLVMZJPLU[PZ[ZPU[OLLU]PYVUTLU[HSKPZJV]LYPLZ  (WWYLJPH[L[OLLMMVY[ZVMZJPLU[PZ[ZPU[OLÃ&#x201E;LSKVMJOLTPJHSYLHJ[PVUZ   (WWYLJPH[L[OLNSVYPV\Z.VKNYHU[ZHUK[OLTHY]LSSV\ZJYLH[PVUPU[OL \UP]LYZL


Chemical combination Lesson Items 1. Atom and Ion. 2. Chemical Bonds.

Lesson objectives By the end of this lesson, a student will be able to: ‹ Compare between metals and nonmetals. ‹ Identify an element type through P[ZLSLJ[YVUPJJVUÄN\YH[PVU ‹ Compare between the positive ion and the negative ion. ‹ Write the electronic JVUÄN\YH[PVU[VHUH[VTHUK its ion. ‹ Explain the meaning of ionic bond. ‹ Show the ionic bond formation in one of the compounds or elements. ‹ Design a model to a molecule of an ionic compound and a covalent one.

Life Issues ‹ Investing the environmental resources.

Lesson One


Nonmetals:

Some of the non - metals are solids, others are gases and only there is one liquid element which is bromine. They have no luster, not malleable or ductile (brittle), most of them are bad conductors of heat and electricity, except Graphite which is a good conductor of electricity. Most of nonmetals contain 5,6 or 7 electrons in their outer shells. Nonmetal atoms are likely to gain electrons from other atoms to their outer electron shells and therefore change into negative ions in with the number of negative charges equal to the number of electrons gained. Examples: 16 14 35 1- Chlorine Cl 2- Oxygen O 3- Nitrogin N 8 7 17 35

Cl

17

+17 ±18

gains one electron

Cl -

8 7

2

2

(17) Electrons (17) Protons

negative Ion (17) Protons (18) Neutrons

-2

+8 ±8

+8 ±8

O gains two electrons

2

(8) Electrons (8) Protons

8 8

(18) Electrons

Neutral atom

(18) Neutrons

16 O 8

+17 ±18

6

Neutral atom

2 8 (10) Electrons

negative Ion (8) Protons

(8) Neutrons

(8) Neutrons

A negative ion: is an atom that gains an electron or more during the chemical reaction. Exercise Exercise

27

to: Aluminum 13 Write the electronic Then conclude the following : ● Type of the element. ● The electronic

Al

Second Term - 2015/2016 2016/2017

14 , Nitrogen 7

N

for each ion. Shorouk KawmiahPress Press

9


Unit One: Chemical Reactions

Ionic bond Activity

1

Study the following chart describing the formation of sodium chloride compound NaCl and magnesium oxide compound MgO.

11

Na

+11 ±12

+11 ±12 2 8 1

17

Cl

+17 ±18

Na+ 2 8

+17 ±18

Cl 2 8 8

2 87

-

+ Na Cl (NaCl)

Sodium chloride (Table salt) compound

Mg 12

O 8

+12 ±12

+12 ±12 2 8 2

+2 Mg 2 8

+8 ±8

+8 ±8 2 6

O-2 28

+2 -2 O (MgO)

Mg

Magnesium oxide compound

Describe the changes in the electrons number of the outer shell for both atoms. Conclusion: ....................... When a proper condition for a combination between a metal molecule and a nonmetal molecule takes place, a metal atom gives its outer shell electrons to the nonmetal atoms, and a strong electrical attraction is taking place among the metal positive ions and the nonmetal negative

10

Science - Explore & Learn

First Grade Preparatory


ions forming an ionic compound molecules, this type of linking is known as the ionic bond. Ionic bond : is a bond resulting from the electric attraction between a positive ion and a negative ion . Activity

2

Covalent bonds

The following indicates the formation of hydrogen H2, oxygen O2 and nitrogen N2 molecules. 1

1

1

1

H

+

H

+

16 O 8 +8 ±8

8

14 N 7 +7 ±7

+

16

+

7

2

+

O

O

+8 ±8

14

+

H

N

+7 ±7

+7 ±7

H-H

+8 ±8

O=O

+7 ±7

N≡N

2

+8 ±8

N

+

2

Second Term - 2015/2016 2016/2017

Shorouk KawmiahPress Press

11


Unit One: Chemical Reactions -VYLHJOLSLTLU[H[VTZPU[OLWYL]PV\ZÄN\YLZ^OH[KV`V\VIZLY]LVU [OLV\[LYZOLSSLSLJ[YVUZ& *VUJS\ZPVU >OLU[^VUVUTL[HSH[VTZHYLPU[LYHJ[PUN^P[OLHJOV[OLYUVVULVM LHJOSVZLZVYL]LUNHPUZHU`LSLJ[YVUZ)\[ZPTWS`LHJOH[VTZOHYLZ[OL V[OLYH[VT^P[O[OLZHTLU\TILYVMLSLJ[YVUZMYVTP[ZV\[LYZOLSS[VÄSS LHJOV\[LYSL]LS(UPU[LYMLYLUJLVJJ\YYLKHTVUNIV[OH[VTZYLZ\S[PUN PUIVUKPUNRUV^UHZ*V]HSLU[IVUK Enrichment *V]HSLU[IVUK! information 0Z H IVUK VJJ\YYLK HTVUN UVU TL[HSZ ( JV]HSLU[ IVUK TH` VJJ\Y [OYV\NO[OLWHY[PJPWH[PVUVMLHJOH[VT^P[O ‹ HTVUN ]HYPV\Z H[VTZ VM LSLTLU[Z [OLZHTLU\TILYVMLSLJ[YVUZÄSSPUNP[ZV\[LY YLZ\S[PUN PU H JV]HSLU[ JVTWV\UK Z\JOHZO`KYVNLUJOSVYPKLTVSLJ\SL LSLJ[YVUZOLSS /*SHUK[OL^H[LYTVSLJ\SL/ V ‹ )LYaLSP\Z ^HZ ;`WLZVMJV]HSLU[IVUKZ! [OL ÄYZ[ ZJPLU[PZ[ ^OV JSHZZPÄLK :PUNSLJV]HSLU[IVUK!PU^OLYLLHJOH[VT LSLTLU[ZPU[VTL[HSZHUKUVUTL[HSZ [OJLU[\Y` ZOHYLZ[OLV[OLYH[VT^P[OVULLSLJ[YVU PU[OL ‹ ;OL,N`W[PHUZJPLU[PZ[(OTLK  A^LPSOHZILLUNYHU[LK5VILSWYPaL  +V\ISL JV]HSLU[ IVUK! PU ^OLYL LHJO PUJOLTPZ[Y` PUMH]V\Y[VOPZ YVSL PU PU]LU[PUN UL^ H[VT ZOHYLZ [OL V[OLY H[VT ^P[O [^V HWWYLJPH[LK IYHUKZVMJHTLYH^VYRPUN]PHSHZLY LSLJ[YVUZ$ [LJOUVSVNPLZ ;YPWSLJV]HSLU[IVUK!PU^OLYLLHJOH[VT ‹ >OLUHUH[VTNP]LZHULSLJ[YVU ZOHYLZ[OLV[OLYH[VT^P[O[OYLLLSLJ[YVUZ VYTVYLP[ZKPHTL[LYKLJYLHZLKHUK JVUZLX\LU[S`P[Z]VS\TLKLJYLHZLK (Ł) K\L [V [OL SLHRPULZZ VM LSLJ[YVUZ YH[OLY [OHU WYV[VUZ HUK [OL 5VISLPULY[LSLTLU[Z! PUJYLHZLK H[[YHJ[PVU MYVT U\JSL\Z (YLLSLTLU[ZPU^OPJO[OLPYV\[LYLSLJ[YVU [V[OLYLTHPUPUNLSLJ[YVUZ ‹ )` NHPUPUN HU LSLJ[YVU VY ZOLSSZHYLJVTWSL[LS`ÄSSLK^P[OLSLJ[YVUZ HU H[VT»Z KPHTL[LY PZ SPRLS` ZV[OL`KVU[ULLKHJOLTPJHSJVTIPUH[PVU TVYL [VPUJYLHZLHUKP[Z]VS\TLHZ^LSS ^P[OHU`V[OLYH[VTZ;OLPYTVSLJ\SLZZ[PSS K\L [V [OL PUJYLHZPUN U\TILY VM LSLJ[YVUZ YH[OLY [OHU WYV[VUZ HUK OH]L[OLZHTLZ[Y\J[\YL;O\ZLHJOTVS [OLVJJ\YYLUJLVMYLWLSSPUNKVTPUN LJ\SLJVUZPZ[ZVMVULZPUNSLH[VT5VISL LSLJ[YVUZ ‹ ( WVZP[P]L PVU KPHTL[LY PZ LSLTLU[ZHYLUV[L_WLJ[LK[VMVYTWVZP[P]L ZTHSSLY[OHUP[ZH[VTKPHTL[LYI\[ VYULNH[P]LPVUZPU[OLVYKPUHY`JVUKP[PVUZ H ULNH[P]L PVU KPHTL[LY PZ IPNNLY 2

[OHUP[ZH[VTKPHTL[LY

Exercise Exercise ^YP[L[OLLSLJ[YVUPJJVUÄN\YH[PVU[V[OLMVS SV^PUNH[VTZ! 1

23

14

36

16

1

11

7

18

8

H

Na

N

Ar

O

;OLUPUKPJH[L! ;`WLVM[OLLSLTLU[

12

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24 12

Mg



35

Cl

17

;`WLVM[OLPVU -PYZ[.YHKL7YLWHYH[VY`


Optional activities:

Select one of the following activities and try to perform it within a group of your classmates, consult your teacher, then add it to your portfolio: 1- Writing an essay about the properties of metals and non metals according to their usages. 2- Writing a short essay on scientist Ahmed Zweil’s life. 3- Design a model of a molecule shows the covalent bond from materials found in your environment .

Summary • Metals: are solids ( except mercury which is a liquid ) having lusters, most of them are good conductors to heat and electricity, malleable and ductile. They contain 1,2 or 3 electrons in their outer electron shell. • Positive ion: is an atom that lost an electron or more during the chemical reactions. • Nonmetals: They are solids, liquids or gases not lusters, most of them are bad conductors of heat and electricity, not malleable or ductile (brittle) and containing 5,6 or 7 electrons in their outer shells. • Negative ion: is an atom that gained one electron or more during the chemical reactions. • Ionic bond: is a bond resulting from the electric attraction between a positive ion and a negative ion. • Covalent bond: is a bond resulting between two non - metallic atoms through the participation of each atom with the same number of electrons to complete the outer electron shell of each atom. • Types of covalent bonds: 1- Single: a pair of electrons ( one electron from each atom). 2- Double: 2 pairs of electrons (2 electron from each atom). 3- Triple: 3 pairs of electrons (3 electrons from each atom). • The ion: is an atom that (lost or gained) one electron or more during the chemical reactions. • Noble elements: don’t participate in any chemical interactions due to the completeness of their outer electron shells. Second Term - 2015/2016 2016/2017

Shorouk Press Kawmiah Press

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Unit One: Chemical Reactions Exercises

Question 1: (A) Write the

term in front of each of the following:

1- An atom that lost an electron or more during the chemical reactions. 2- A bond resulting from the electric attraction between a positive ion and a negative ion. 3- An atom gains one electron or more during the chemical reactions. 4- A bond resulting from the participation of each of the two atoms with 3 electrons. 5- An atom of an element doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t lose or gain any electrons. 6- Elements have lusters, good conductors of heat and electricity, malleable and ductile. They contain 1,2 or 3 electrons in their outer electron shells. 7- They are solids, liquids or gases not lusters, bad conductors of heat and electricity, not malleable or ductile (brittle) and containing 5,6 or 7 electrons in their outer shell.

(B) you see one of the iron smiths hitting a rod of iron without being broken, but if somebody hits a piece of coal it will be easily broken into pieces. How do you explain?

Question 2: (A) Fill in the following table: Atom Na 11 Cl 17 N 7

electronic K

L M

Molecule

Type of bond

NaCl

...............................

N

............................... ............................... ...............................

N

2

...............................

(B) On a diagram show the electronic to the atom 16 of oxygen 8 O then show how two of its atoms are bonded to form oxygen molecule O2 . 14

Science - Explore & Learn

First Grade Preparatory


Question 3: (A) Write down the electronic Mg following elements: then indicate:

12

16

S

of the atoms of the

18

Ar

1- The type of each atom (metal-nonmetal-noble). 2- The type of each ion (positive- negative-has no ions).

(B) Give reasons: 1- When an atom of chlorine 17Cl is joined with an atom of sodium 11Na , the product will be an ionic compound but when two atoms of chlorine are joined together the product will be a covalent molecule. 2- When an atom loses an electron or more, it directly becomes a positive ion. 3- When an atom gains an electron or more, it becomes a negative ion. 4- Ionic bonds produce compounds only not elements, but the covalent bonds produce both types an element or even a compound. 5- The bond in an oxygen molecule is a double covalent one. 6- The bond in a compound of magnesium oxide MgO is an ionic bond regarding that the atomic number for magnesium (Mg=12) and Oxygen (O=8).

Question 4: 1- Compare each pair of the following: (a) Metals and nonmetals. (b) Positive ion and negative ion. (c) An atom and an ion. (d) Ionic bond and covalent bond.

2- What do we mean by? Positive ions - Negative ions - The ions. Second Term - 2015/2016 2016/2017

Shorouk KawmiahPress Press

15


Unit One: Chemical Reactions

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16



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Chemical Compounds Lesson Items

Lesson Two

1. Chemical formulae. 2. Types of compounds.

Lesson Objectives By the end of this lesson, a student will be able to: ‹ Explain the meaning of valencies. ‹ Mention examples to some elements having different valencies. ‹ Explain the meaning of the atomic group. ‹ Write the chemical formulae to the atomic groups. ‹ Write the chemical formulae for some compounds. ‹ Explain the meaning of acids and bases as well. ‹ Explain the meaning of salts and oxides. ‹ Give examples to an acid, a base, an oxide and salts. ‹ Mention examples to salts which are easily dissolved in water and others which are not dissolved in water.

Life Issues ‹ Environment AHTaHT7YLZZLZ

17


Unit One: Chemical Reactions

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18

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The Atomic Group It is a set of atoms joined together conducting the behavior of one atom during a chemical reaction, having its own valency and it is not existed solely. Here are some examples of atomic groups and their valencies: Atomic group

Symbol

Valency Atomic group

-

Hydroxide

OH

Nitrate

NO3

Bicarbonate

HCO3 + NH4 NO2

Ammonium Nitrite

1

-

1 1 1 1

Symbol Valency

Sulphate

(SO4)-2

2

Carbonate

(CO3)-2

2

Phosphate

(PO4)-3

3

Chemical formula We can express a molecule of a compound via a certain formula known as chemical formula which expresses the number of atoms and their types. For example sodium chloride molecule ( Table salt ) can be expressed by NaCl, that means it is composed of two atoms from two elements sodium Na and chlorine Cl. The chemical formula for water is H2O, which means that the water molecule is composed of 3 atoms of two elements, one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen.

Second Term - 2015/2016 2016/2017

Shorouk KawmiahPress Press

19


Unit One: Chemical Reactions Exercise Exercise :[\K` [OL MVSSV^PUN [HISL ^OPJO PUKPJH[LZ ZVTL JVTWV\UKZ HUK [OLPYJOLTPJHSMVYT\SHL5V[PJL[OL^H`VM^YP[PUNLHJOMVYT\SH[OLU JVTWSL[L[OLTPZZPUNWHY[Z! Chemical formula

No. of atoms No. of forming in molecules elements 



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20

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Types of Compounds In nature there is a countless number of existing compounds. according to its properties to many kinds as Only it can be acids, bases, salts and oxides Activity

Study the following chart which indicates examples for some acids, bases, and their chemical formula. Type of compound

Acids

Name

Chemical formula

Hydrochloric Acid

HCl

Sulphuric Acid

H SO 2 4 HNO 3

Nitric Acid Sodium Hydroxide ( caustic soda )

NaOH

Potassium Hydroxide

KOH

Calcium Hydroxide ( Lime water )

Ca(OH)

Bases

2

What do you observe on the chemical formula of each of them. Conclusion: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Acids: Acids are materials that dissociate in water + producing positive ions of hydrogen (H ). Acids are common in some of its properties such as : the sour taste and changing the colour of litmus to be red due to the presence of the hydrogen ion (H+).

Second Term - 2015/2016 2016/2017

Shorouk KawmiahPress Press

21


Unit One: Chemical Reactions *OLTPJHSMVYT\SHVMTPULYHSHJPKZILNPU^P[OO`KYVNLUQVPULK^P[O  VULVM[OLULNH[P]LH[VTPJNYV\WZL_JLW[O`KYV_PKL6/ Z\JOHZ :\SWO\YPJ HJPK /2:645P[YPJ HJPK /563 /`KYVNLU TH` QVPU ZVTL  UVUTL[HSZSPRLJOSVYPULVYIYVTPULJVTWVZPUNZVTLJVTWV\UKZZ\JO HZ/`KYVJOSVYPJHJPK/*S

Bases:

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Oxides:

Caution +VU»[[V\JOHJPKZVYL]LU IHZLZ ^P[O `V\Y IHYL OHUKZ

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(S\TPU\TV_PKL(S 6 2 3 :\SWO\Y[YPV_PKL:6 3

Salts:

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Examples: Table salt ( sodium chloride ), the unhydrous copper sulphate, and sodium nitrate. Examples for some minerals: Salts dissolved in water

Salts undissolved in water

Sodium chloride NaCl

Silver chloride AgCl

Potassium sulphate K SO4 2 Calcium nitrate Ca(NO ) 32 Sodium sulphide Na S 2

Lead iodide PbI

2 Lead sulphate PbSO

Optional activities:

Select one of the following activities. Perform it then consult your teacher and add it to your portfolio. 1- Prepare a report includes examples for acids, bases, oxides and Salts then write their chemical formula in addition to their daily usages. 2- Prepare a research on the types of chemical

4

Enrichment information â&#x20AC;˘ Acids are completely variants in strength. There are strong acids such as nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and weak acids such as carbonic acid depending on the degree of ionization. Further more they differ according to the status of stability, in which we stable acids and unstable acids depending on the boiling point of of the acid and the its decomposition. Sulpheric acid is considered the most stable acid among them due to its high boiling point.

reactions.

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Summary Unit One: Chemical Reactions Â&#x2039;

=HSLUJ`!PZ[OLU\TILYVMLSLJ[YVUZNHPULKSVZ[VYL]LUZOHYLKI` HUH[VTK\YPUN[OLJOLTPJHSYLHJ[PVU

Â&#x2039;

([VTPJNYV\W!HZL[VMH[VTZQVPULK[VNL[OLYILOH]LSPRLVUL H[VTVUS`OH]PUNHZWLJPHS]HSLUJLHUKJHUUV[ILL_PZ[LKZVSLS` PUKP]PK\HSS`

Â&#x2039;

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Exercises Question 1: (A) Write the chemical formula for the following molecules: Magnesium oxide - Sodium sulphate - Copper nitrate - Sulphuric acid - Calcium chloride - Aluminum hydroxide

(B) Write the statements:

term in front of each of the following

1- The number of electrons gained, lost or even shared by an atom during a chemical reaction. 2- A set of atoms joined together, behave like one atom only, having a special valence and can not be existed solely. 3- A formula represents the number and types of atoms in a molecule. 4- Compounds that dissolve in water producing positive hydrogen ions (H+). 5- Compounds that dissolve in water producing negative hydroxide ions (OH-).

Question 2: (A) Compare between acids and bases, giving examples for each. (B) Give reason: 1- All acids turn the colour of litmus to be red, having a sour taste, where all bases turn the colour of litmus to be blue with a bitter taste. 2- Potassium 19K is monovalent where oxygen 8O is a divalent. 3- An oxygen atom joins two atoms of sodium when composing one molecule of sodium oxide.

Question 3: (A) The following formulae represent some molecules, name each one: NaNO - Ca(OH) - CO - Al (SO ) - CaCO 3 2 2 2 43 3

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Unit One: Chemical Reactions

)0KLU[PM`^OPJO[`WLVMJVTWV\UKZHYL[OLMVSSV^PUN! 26/5H*S4N6/ :6 2 4 *6UJL`V\JVSSLJ[LKHUHTV\U[VMYHPU^H[LYHUKHUV[OLYHTV\U[ VMZLH^H[LYHUKWSHJLKHSP[T\ZWHWLYPULHJOZHTWSLVM^H[LY @V\VIZLY]LK[OH[P[ZJVSV\YJOHUNLK[VILYLKPUJHZLVMYHPU^H[LY ^OLYLP[JOHUNLK[VILIS\LPUJHZLVMZLH^H[LY,_WSHPU&

:LSMYLÃ&#x2026;LJ[PVUHUKZLSMevaluation 4`KLHYZ[\KLU[I`[OLLUKVM`V\YZ[\K`[V[OLJOLTPJHSJVTWV\UKZ [Y`[VJVTWSL[L[OLMVSSV^PUNJHYK! H>OH[HYL[OLP[LTZ`V\YSPRLPU[OPZSLZZVU&  I>OH[HYL[OLP[LTZ`V\KPZSPRLPU[OPZSLZZVU&  J>OH[HYL[OLTPZ[HRLZ`V\JVTTP[[LKK\YPUN`V\YWLYMVYTHUJL[V [OLHJ[P]P[PLZHUKL_WLYPTLU[ZLUJSVZLKPU[OPZSLZZVU&  K>OPJOTPZ[HRLZJHU`V\H]VPKUL_[HJ[P]P[PLZ& 

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Chemical Equation and Chemical Reactions. Lesson Items 1. Chemical equation. 2. Types of chemical reactions.

Lesson Objectives By the end of this lesson, a student will be able to: ‹ Explain the meaning of a chemical reaction. ‹ Give an example to a chemical equation. ‹ Prove via a balanced chemical equation that the total mass of reactants through a chemical reaction is equal to the total mass of products. ‹ Identify the types of chemical reactions. ‹ Explain the meaning of direct combination reactions. ‹ ,_WSHPU[OLILULÄ[ZVM[OL chemical reactions. ‹ Show some harms of chemical reaction. ‹ Cooperate his (her) classmates to avoid the negative effect of some chemical reactions.

Life Issues ‹ Environmental pollution.

Lesson Three


Unit One: Chemical Reactions

Chemical Reactions: >LJHUZPTWS`NL[HWSLU[`VMULJLZZHY`Z\IZ[HUJLZ[OYV\NOJOLTPJHS YLHJ[PVUZ PU ^OPJO ^L JHU [YHUZMVYT SLZZ \ZLK Z\IZ[HUJLZ [V V[OLY \ZLM\SZ\IZ[HUJLZ 4VZ[VM[OLTVKLYUPUK\Z[YPLZHYLKLLTLK[VKLWLUKIHZPJHSS`VU [OLJOLTPJHSYLHJ[PVUZHZLSLJ[YPJHSHUKOLH[LULYN`YLZV\YJLZZ\JOHZ MLY[PSPaLYZJHYIH[[LYPLZM\LSWSHZ[PJZHUKMVVKPUK\Z[YPLZL[J Activity

1

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Chemical reaction

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Chemical equation:

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A chemical equation should be balanced, that means the number of reactant atoms of an element should be equivalent to the number of its atoms produced from the reaction.

Examples: Activity

2Mg + O2

2MgO

2

In the chemical reaction that expressed by the following balanced equation: 2MgO 2Mg + O2 If you know that the mass of magnesium Mg=24, the oxygen mass=16, you should be able to calculate the masses of reactants and products. (24 x 2) + (2 X 16) 2( 16 + 24) 48 + 32 2 x 40 80

80

What do you observe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The total amount of reactants masses is equal to the total amount of products masses. A compound is produced from a chemical combination between atoms of two or more different elements by constant weight proportions. So each 48 g from magnesium join 32 g from oxygen to form 80 g from magnesium oxide. That what is known as Law of constant ratios.

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Unit One: Chemical Reactions

Some Types of chemical reactions: There are many types of chemical reactions, we will study only one of them which is the Direct combination reactions.

Direct combination reactions:

a- An Element with another Element: Carbon which is a nonmetal joins with oxygen which is a nonmetal too, forming carbon dioxide gas. This can be represented by the following equation: Heat

Carbon + Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

CO2 C + 2O The type of reaction between magnesium and oxygen to form magnesium oxide is considered as a direct combination reaction. b- An element with a compound : Oxygen combines with carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide + Oxygen 2CO

+

carbon dioxide

O2

2CO2

C- A compound wih another compound: Activity 4 Place a wetted glass rod with hydrochloric acid close to the mouth of a test tube containing ammonia solution, and observe what happens? .......... ..............

Conclusion : . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . A white clouds of ammonium chloride is composed as a result of the direct combination reaction between ammonia NH3 and the hydrochloric acid HCI. Ammonia + Hydrochloric acid NH3 + (gas)

30

HCl (gas)

Science - Explore & Learn

hand

white clouds

Hydrochloric acid Ammonia solution

Conc. Conc

Ammonium chloride NH4Cl (solid)

First Grade Preparatory


Exercise Exercise the type of each of following chemical reactions. Type of reactions

Chemical reaction 2NO + O2 H2 + Cl2 NH3 + HNO3

2NO2 2HCl NH4NO3

Chemical Reactions in our life:

Chemical reactions play an essential role in our life, through these reactions thousands of compounds are commonly used in many industries such as medicines, fertilizers, fuel, plastics and others. These chemical reactions also have negative effects such as the emissions that pollute the environment. So you have to be cautious, and stay far apart from these harmful reactions which have negative effects on human and environment. Fuel burning is an example for environmental pollution due to the presence of harmful gases such as: Carbon oxides which increase atmospheric temperature where Second Term - 2015/2016 2016/2017

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Unit One: Chemical Reactions JHYIVUKPV_PKLHJ[ZHZHNYLLUOV\ZL0[WLYTP[Z[OLWLUL[YH[PVUVM[OLYTHSYH`ZMYVT [OLZ\U[V[OL,HY[OHUKUL]LYSL[[OLTYL[\YUIHJR *HYIVUTVUV_PKL*6OHZHKHUNLYV\ZPTWHJ[VU[OLO\THUILPUNZ [OH[P[JH\ZLZOLHKHJOLMHPU[PUNPUHKKP[PVU[VZL]LYLZ[VTHJOHJOLZ HUKTH`SLHK[VKLH[O Â&#x2039;:\SWO\YV_PKLZSPRLZ\SWO\YKPV_PKL:62HUKZ\SWO\Y[YPV_PKL :63)HYLHJPKPJNHZLZJH\ZPUNYLZWPYH[VY`Z`Z[LTZTHSM\UJ[PVUZHUK I\PSKPUNJVYYVZPVU Â&#x2039;5P[YVNLUV_PKLZHYLUVYTHSS`YLZ\S[LKH[[OL[PTLVMSPNO[UPUN;OL` HYLWVPZVUV\ZHUK[OL`HYLHJPKPJNHZLZ[OH[HMMLJ[[OLULY]V\Z Z`Z[LTHUK[OLL`L Â&#x2039;)\YUPUNVMJVHSHUKJLSS\SVZLÃ&#x201E;ILYZZ\JOHZWHWLYHUKJPNHYL[[LZ JH\ZPUNHPYWVSS\[PVUHUKS\UNJHUJLY Optional activities:

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Summary Â&#x2039;

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â&#x20AC;˘ Types of chemical reactions: Direct combination reactions: a- An element with another element: C + O2

CO2

b- An element with compound 2CO + O2

2CO2

c- A compound with another compound: NH3 + HCl

NH4Cl

Note: Some chemical reactions have a vital role in our life and some others have negative impacts on both the human beings and the environment.

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Unit One: Chemical Reactions Exercises

Question 1: a-

Write the chemical equation representing the following reactions, then indicate the type of each reaction: 1- Carbon burning in the presence of oxygen. 2- Hydrochloric acid is combined with ammonia gas. 3- The reaction between carbon monoxide with oxygen .

b- What do we mean by: Chemical reaction - Chemical equation .

Question 2: a- Give reasons: 1- A chemical equation should be balanced. 2- White clouds are formed when hydrochloric acid reacts with ammonia gas

b- Write a short paragraph on fuel burning and its harmful effects on human beings and environment.

Question 3: Knowing that the mass of carbon C=12 and Oxygen O=16 Find the total masses of reactants and products through the following reaction: C + O2

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Science - Explore & Learn

CO2

First Grade Preparatory


Self reďŹ&#x201A;ection and self evaluation My dear students, by the end of your study to the Chemical Equation and Chemical reaction, try to complete the following card: (a) What are the items your like in this lesson? . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) What are the item you dislike in this lesson? . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (c) What are the mistakes you committed during your performance to the activities and experiments enclosed in this lesson? . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (d) Which errors can you avoid next activities? . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Unit One: Chemical Reactions Unit 1 General Exercises:

Question 1:

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Question 2:

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Unit Two

Force and Motion ‹<UP]LYZHSMVYJLZPUUH[\YL ‹4V[PVU

Unit Lessons 1- Universal forces in nature. 2- Accompanied force to motion. 3- Motion.


Objectives By the end of this unit, a student will be able to:  *SHZZPM`\UP]LYZHSMVYJLZPUUH[\YLPU[VH[[YHJ[PVULSLJ[YVTHNUL[PJZ[YVUN HUK^LHRU\JSLHYMVYJLZ  0KLU[PM`[OLJVUJLW[VMMVYJL  0UMLY[OLLMMLJ[P]LMHJ[VYZVU[OLH[[YHJ[PVUMVYJLIL[^LLU[^VVIQLJ[Z  5HTL[OLMVYJLZ^OPJOHMMLJ[HUVIQLJ[HUK[OH[YLZ\S[LKMYVTHUVIQLJ[ THZZLMMLJ[  0U[LYWYL[[OLZ[H[PJHUKTV]PUNVIQLJ[Z  +LZJYPIL[OLWLYPVKPJTV[PVU  0KLU[PM`^OH[^H]LTV[PVUTLHU  (WWS` SVNPJ PU[LYWYL[H[PVUZ MVY [OL YLZ\S[Z VM ^H]L TV[PVU L_WLYPTLU[Z  .P]LL_HTWSLZVM[LJOUVSVNPJHSHWWSPJH[PVUZPU^H]LTV[PVUKVTHPU  4LU[PVUSPMLL_HTWSLZMVYMVYJLZLMMLJ[VUSP]PUNZ`Z[LTZ  7YV]L [OL PTWVY[HUJL VM L_WLYPTLU[H[PVU PU VYKLY [V PU]LZ[PNH[L [OL PUMVYTH[PVU  .YHWOHUVIQLJ[TV[PVUWOHZL  *VVWLYH[L^P[OOPZOLYJSHZZTH[LZ[VJHYY`V\[L_WLYPTLU[ZHUKKLK\JL JVUJLW[Z  (WWS`[OLZJPLU[PÃ&#x201E;J[OPURPUNZRPSSZ[V\UKLYZ[HUKHUKPU[LYWYL[TV[PVU WOLUVTLUH  0KLU[PM`[OLYLSH[P]LTV[PVU[VHUVIQLJ[PUWYVWVY[PVU[VHUV[OLYVUL VYHÃ&#x201E;_LKILUJOTHYRMYHTLVMYLMLYLUJL  -VYTHULSLJ[YPJJPYJ\P[[VTHRLHULSLJ[YVTHNUL[  9LHSPaLNYLH[ULZZVM.VKPUVYKLYPUN[OLMVYJLZJVU[YVSSPUN[OL\UP]LYZHS WOLUVTLUH  (WWYLJPH[LZJPLU[PZ[ZYVSLZPUPU[LYWYL[PUNMVYJLHUKTV[PVU


Universal forces in nature Lesson Items 1. Attraction forces. 2. Electromagnetic forces. 3. Nuclear forces.

Lesson objectives By the end of this lesson, a student will be able to: ‹ Classify universal forces in nature into Attraction, electromagnetic, strong and weak nuclear forces. ‹ Identify the concept of force. ‹ Interpret the attraction force relation between two objects and the effective factors on it. ‹ Name the forces which affect and resulted from the object mass effect. ‹ Form an electric circuit to make an electromagnet.

Life Issues ‹ Forces around us.

Lesson One


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The concept of force Activity

1 Moving the objects

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First: Attraction forces: Activity

2 Earth attracts objects

- Have a set of objects graded in mass to be (1 kg - 5 kg - 10 kg) and put them on the ground. - Try to lift the masses and to put them on a table beginning with the smallest mass then the next in order. ● Record your observations ............................ ● Conclusion: The Exerted work to lift an object increases when the object's mass becomes larger. ● Interpretation: Earth attracts object to its center by a force known as the object's weight, this force increases when the object's mass becomes larger. So an object weight: is the earth’s ability to attract that object and it can be measured by the Newton unit and the object’s effective point is located at the center of the object, this known as the object’s center of gravity. ● An object's weight (w) : The product of an object mass (m) * Earth’s gravity acceleration (g). w=mxg ● The more we approach to the Earth’s center, the value of Earth’s gravity acceleration increases. Note: An object's weight changes from a place to another on the Earth’s surface whereas its mass remains - Calculate the weight of an object if its mass is 100 kg if the Earth’s gravity acceleration is 9.8 m/sec2.

Solution : Weight = mass x Earth’s gravity acceleration = 100 x

9.8

= 980 Newton Second Term - 2015/2016 2016/2017

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Second : Electromagnetic forces. Activity

:├б`┬л`┬░├╣┬лW├Й├ж┬иeh├┤

3 (Magnetic forces of electric current) (тЙИH├┤┬б┬╡dG Q├Й┬л├атИПd ├б┬л┬░├╣┬лW├Й├ж┬и┼╕G i╞ТтЙд 4H[LYPHSZ!ZJPZZVYZHSVUNPUZ\SH[LKJVWWLY^PYLHZVM[PYVUIHYVYHU

тАля╗Уя╗▓тАм тАля║╕я║Оя╗БтАм тАля║╕я╗Дя║ФтАм

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тАля│Эя╗Ья╗жтАм тАля╗мя║оя║Ся╗░тАм

*VPS [OL ^PYL PU H ZWPYHS MVYT HYV\UK [OL WSHZ[PJ [\IL HZ ZOV^U 0UZLY[[OLPYVUIHYVY [OL PYVU UHPS PU [OL [\IL HUK JVUULJ[ [OL[^VLUKZVM[OL^PYL^P[O[OLIH[[LY`[OLUHWWYVHJO[OLPYVU тАля╗гя╗ж я╗гя╗ая╗ТтАм JVYLPUZPKL[OL[\IL[V[OLPYVU├ДSPUNZ 9LJVYK`V\YVIZLY]H[PVUZ! *VUJS\ZPVU!,SLJ[YPJJ\YYLU[OHZHTHNUL[PJLMMLJ[

Electromagnet  0[ PZ THKL \W VM HU PZ\SH[LK JVWWLY ^PYLJVPSPUNHYV\UKHIHYVMZVM[PYVU HUK ^OLU HU LSLJ[YPJ J\YYLU[ WHZZLZ [OYV\NOP[^VYRZHZHTHNUL[ ,SLJ[YVTHNUL[PZ\ZLKPUTHU`ZL[ZZ\JO HZ[OLJYHULZ^OPJOSPM[ZJYHWPYVUHUK JHYZPUWVY[Z0UHKKP[PVUP[PZ\ZLKPU тАля║Ня│Мя╗Ря╗ия║Оя╗Гя╗┤я║▓ я║Ня╗Яя╗Ья╗мя║оя║Ся╗░тАм THRPUNLSLJ[YPJILSSZHZ^LSS

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27

тАля╗Ья╗мя║оя║Ся╗░тАм тАля│Уя║Оя║│я╗░ я╗гя╗Мя║░я╗ня╗ЭтАм тАля│Кя║кя╗│я║к я║Ня│Мя╗Дя║Оя╗ня╗ЙтАм тАля╗мя║оя║Ся╗░ я╗Уя╗░ я║Ня│Мя╗ая╗ТтАм

тАля╗Ья╗мя║оя║Ся╗░ я╗Уя╗░ я╗Ыя║Ья╗┤я║отАм тАля╗╖я╗ня╗зя║Оя║╡ я║Ня╗Яя╗Ья╗мя║оя║Ся╗┤я║ФтАм ╪МтАля│Кя║кя╗│я║к я║Ня│Л┘А┘Ая║оя║йя║УтАм тАл я╗ня╗│я║кя║зя╗ЮтАм╪МтАля║Ня│Мя╗оя║Ня╗зя╗░тАм

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тЙИf├Й├гdG тЙИ┬░SGQ├│dG ╧А┬░├╝├ШdG


Electric generators and electric motors ô¡µdG iƒ`≤dG :Ék«sets fÉKdepend mainly on electromagnetic forces to work. These

≤dG)

3 1- Electric

generators: are sets converting the ‫ ﻣﻊ ﺯﻣﻴﻞ ﻟﻚ‬mechanical ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ energy into electric one such as ‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺸ‬an‫ﺍﳌﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻧﺸ‬dynamo. ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﺢ‬

2- (٢٦)‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬ Electric motor: Works on converting electric energy ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﳝ‬ into ‫ﻣﻦ‬ mechanical energy such as the electric motor ‫ﺃﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻬ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ in the‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮً ﺍ‬ fan or the blender . ‫ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﴼ‬ (mixer ).

Electric generator

Third: Nuclear forces

¥(y¡•D'‚}§7cžŒ¹' Scientists have discovered that an atom stores a massive amount of

energy‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬ inside-the nucleus. They succeeded in getting this nuclear energy ‫ﺍﳌﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜ‬ out and used it in the military and peaceful purposes. ‫ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﻚ‬ This massive energy is ‫ﺑﻘﻀﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﻴﻂ‬ accompanied with forces ‫ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻬ‬ known‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪ‬ as nuclear forces which .‫ﻛﻤﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ‬ can be‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‬ divided into:

1- Weak nuclear ‫ﺍﳌﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺧﻞ‬ - forces: used to get radioactive elements and ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ radiations used in medicine, ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﳊ‬researches and in ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍ‬industry. ‫ﻭﺗﺮﻓﻊ‬ .‫ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﻰ‬2‫ﺍﳉﺮﺱ‬ Strong‫ﻓﻰ‬nuclear forces: used

in producing electric energy from the nuclear energy and in the military purposes too.

Egypt hopes to use nuclear energy in producing electricity.

Second Term - 2015/2016 2016/2017

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43


Unit Two: Force and Motion Summary

The universal forces in nature are :1- Attraction forces.

2-Electromagnetic forces.

3- Nuclear forces • Force: is an effect attempts to change the object phase from being static to motion or vice versa or attempts to change the motion direction. • An object weight is the amount of earth’s attraction to that object. Optional activities:

Choose an activity of the following and perform it then add it to your portfolio. -

Form a simple dynamo using an isolated thin copper wire and a strong magnet on a shape of a bar.

-

Make an album for technological applications of the electromagnetic forces.

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First Grade Preparatory


Exercises: Question 1 Choose the correct answer: 1- Earth’s gravity acceleration is changed from a place to another on earth’s surface because of .................. a) objects’ masses b) earth’s mass c) the distance from the earth’s center d) varied temperature. 2- Electromagnet is used in making the ........................ set. a) calculator b) electric bell c) microscope d) night vision

Question 2:

the following:

force - weight.

Question 3: a) If the earth’s gravity acceleration in a place is 9.8 m/s 2 the following. 1- A 0.3 Kg mass ball. 2- A 50 kg mass boy. b) Complete the following: 1 Electric motor works on changing .................... 2 Electric generator works on changing .................... 3 Egypt seeks after using ........................ energy in producing electricity.

Second T Term erm - 2015/2016 2016/2017

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:LSMYLÅLJ[PVUHUKZLSMevaluation

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46

:JPLUJL,_WSVYL 3LHYU

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Accompanied forces with motion Lesson Items 1. Inertia. 2. Friction. 3. Forces inside living systems.

Lesson Objectives By the end of this lesson, a student will be able to: ‹ Identify the concept of inertia. ‹ 0KLU[PM`[OLILULÄ[ZHUKOHYTZ of friction. ‹ Give life examples of force effect in living systems. ‹ Cooperate with his (her) classmates to perform experiments and deduce concepts.

Life Issues ‹ Safety and security.

ǟſƾƅŽȚȦȤNjŽȚ

Lesson Two


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First: Inertia: ,]LY`KH``V\TH`^H[JO [OPUNZSPRL! =LOPJSLZI\ZLZWHZZLUNLYZ VY [OL KYP]LY HYL Y\ZOLK MVY^HYKVUJL[OL]LOPJSL Z[VWZ =LOPJSLZI\ZLZWHZZLUNLYZ HYLY\ZOLKIHJRVUJL[OL ]LOPJSL Z[HY[Z ^VYRPUN PU MYVU[KPYLJ[PVUHM[LYP[^HZ H[YLZ[ (MVV[IHSSWSH`LYPZY\ZOLKMVY^HYKHUKMHSSZVU[OLNYV\UKPMOLPZ [YPWWLKK\YPUNY\UUPUN ;VPU[LYWYL[[OH[SL[»ZWLYMVYT[OLMVSSV^PUNHJ[P]P[PLZ Activity

1 (Objects resist change)

*HYY`ZVTLZTHSSWSHZ[PJJ\ILZVU`V\YWHST HUKZ[YL[JO`V\YHYTMVY^HYK[OLU^HSR MVY^HYKMHZ[HUKZ[VWH[VUJL >OH[OHWWLULK& *VUJS\ZPVU! -VYJLZVMPULY[PHHMMLJ[VUVIQLJ[ZPUTV[PVU HUKH[YLZ[0[PZ[OLZHTLMVYJL^OPJOHMMLJ[ZH JHY KYP]LY K\YPUN P[Z Z\KKLU Z[VW(U` VIQLJ[ PUZPKL[OLJHYPZHUVIQLJ[PUTV[PVUOH]PUN[OL ZHTLJHYZWLLKL]LU^OLU[OLKYP]LYWYLZZLZ [OLIYHRLZZ\KKLUS`HUK[OLJHYZ[VWZI\[[OL VIQLJ[Z PUZPKL [OL JHY RLLW TV]PUN  HUK ZV [OLMVYJLZVMPULY[PHHMMLJ[[OLVIQLJ[ZH[YLZ[ ^OLUHJHYKYP]LY[YPLZ[VQLYR[OLJHY[OLZHTL HZWHZZLUNLYZPUHJHYH[YLZ[^OLUP[TV]LZMVY^HYKZ\KKLUS`

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Activity   2  Inertia  

1- place a piece of cardboard paper on the top of a glass cup and put  a coin on it.

2- Use your index (fore)    to deliver a quick hit to the  paper. What happens? ..................... ........................................ Conclusion: .......................... ....................................... The paper moves because of  your   hit was at a high  speed that the coin can’t match  up with your   rapid hit due to its inertia and resistance to the  sudden movement so it remains static then it fell in the cup. Inertia:  is  a  property  of  an  object  to  resist  the  change  of  its  phase  from rest to motion in a regular speed and in a straight line unless an  external force acted upon it.

Or each object can’t change  its phase (even in motion or at  rest) unless an external force  acted upon it. Safety  belts  and  inertia  forces: work on stopping the  forces of inertia not to injure  (hurt) car or plane passengers  when  a  sudden  change  in  motion occurs.

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Unit Two: Force and Motion

Second: friction: Activity

3 (friction brakes)

- When you ride a bike and it becomes fast then you want to slow it down or stop it, what do you do? ................ - What is your interpretation to the bike stopping? ........................ Conclusion: Friction among the object in motion with the ground, air or a surrounding medium generates a force against the motion to resist it.

Benefits of friction 1- It prevents feet from slipping on roads during walking. 2- It helps to stop and start carsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; motion.

Harms of friction 1- It causes a great loss of mechanical energy because this energy is changed into a heat one. 2- Generated heat due to friction causes some parts of the machines to get hot, in addition this heat causes expansion of these parts so it affects their performance. 3- It causes the erosion of machines parts and damages them as well. Exercise Exercise

Give the reason.

A) Car tyres are covered with a very coarse substance. B) lubricating and oiling mechanical machines.

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First Grade Preparatory


Third: Forces inside living systems:       Activity

4 (Force effects on living systems)

Record your observations about the following: 1- Blood rises (goes up) to the heart from the bottom (lower parts) against  gravity.............................. 2-  A heart  pumps the blood all over the body organs ......................... 3- Using the water pump to pump water upwards from canals and the  ground water to irrigate plants...................................................  

4- Water and salts go up from soil to plants ........................... ● Conclusion: There are forces inside living systems enable living  organisms to do their different biological operations. This is done in all  simple systems from the unicellular living organisms to complex ones  inside multicellular living organisms such as:

1- Heart muscle  contraction and relaxation.

2- Pulse inside  blood vessels.

3- Liquids transport  through pores and the walls of cells from the lower  concentration to the higher one.

4- The contraction  and relaxation of muscles to move the body organs.

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Unit Two: Force and Motion Summary There are forces produced when objects move or when their motion phase change: â&#x20AC;˘ Inertia: Is a property of an object to resist the change of its phase from rest to motion in a regular speed and in a straight line unless an external force acted on it. â&#x20AC;˘ Friction forces: are resistant forces (against motion) originated between the surface of the object in motion and the medium touching it. â&#x20AC;˘ There are forces inside living systems help changes acted inside a living organism go on and keep its survival and vitality. Optional activities:

- Write down a report about the daily applications of inertia, then add it to your portfolio. - Write briefly about the scientists who studied the universal forces in nature.

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First Grade Preparatory


Exercises: Question 1: Choose the correct answer:  

1- The car brake performance is an application of .........................  

a) attraction forces  

c) centrifugal forces  

 

b) friction forces d) forces of inertia.

2-  The inertia force affects the  ........................ objects     

a) moving 

c) moving and static   

 

b) static   d) no correct answer

3-  From the examples of forces inside living systems :   

a) Pulse inside blood vessels. 

c) brakes  

b) inertia  d) all the previous.

Question 2:  Name three 

and three harms of friction forces.

Question 3: Give reasons:  

1- The car  passengers are rushed forward when the car stops suddenly.

2- A car passengers  are  rushed  backward  when  the  car  moves  suddenly.

3- Policemen  advise drivers using safety belts in cars and planes.

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Unit Two: Force and Motion

Self reflection and self evaluation My dear student: After you have learnt accompanied forces with motion, fill in the following card. (A) what are the items you liked in this lesson?

.....................................................................................................

(B) what are the items you didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t like in this lesson?

.....................................................................................................

(C) what are the mistakes you have committed while performing the activities in the universal forces in nature lesson?

.....................................................................................................

(D) what are the mistakes you can avoid in the next activities?

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Science - Explore & Learn

First Grade Preparatory


Motion Lesson Items 1. Relative motion. 2. Types of motion. 3. Applications on wave motion. 4. Graphing motion.

Lesson Objectives By the end of this lesson, a student will be able to: • Identify wave motion. • Give logic interpretations for the results of wave motion experiments. • Give examples for technological applications in the field of wave motion. • Graph an object’s motion. • Cooperate with his (her) classmates to perform the experiments and deduce the concepts. • Use scientific thinking skills to understand and interpret the motion phenomena. • Identify the relative motion to an object in proportion to another object or a fixed frame of reference.

Life issues • Globalization

Lesson Three


Unit Two: Force and Motion

First: Relative motion concept: Activity

1 (Describing motion)

Imagine that you are in a moving car and another car is going by your side in the same direction, another car moving against your direction .. Record your observations about your car motion in relative to the other cars: 1- The car moves by your side with the same speed. 2- The car moves against your direction. 3- A stopping car. 4- When you stop your car, when do you feel that your car is moving forward and another time backward although it is at rest? Record your observations: .................. Conclusion: ........................ Relative motion:Is a change of an object's position or its direction as time passes in proportion to another object and in proportion to a fixed point known as a frame of reference.

Second: Types of motion Activity

2 (Diversity of motion)

(A) Observe the following objectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; motion: - one of the fan arms while it is on. - a piece of cork on water surface. - the pendulum motion. Record your observations: ................ , (B) Observe the following objects motion. - A car motion - A train motion - A football player motion. What do you observe? ................ Conclusion: motion is divided into several types: periodic motion and transitional motion.

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(1) Periodic motion: It is a motion which is regularly repeated  in equal periods of time such as.  

- Vibrating   motion:  such  as  the  pendulum.

- Circular   motion:  such  as  a  fan  arm  while it is on. -   Wave  motion:  such  as  water  waves  shown  by  a  piece  of  cork  which  appears  on  the  vibrating  water  surface.

(2) Transitional motion: It is the motion which the object position is changed in proportion   frame of reference from time to time from an initial position  to a   one, such as the train and bike motion. to 

Third: Applications on wave motion: You have known that sound and light are forms of energy and transfer  from a place to another in a form of wave  motion .... what is the difference between  those two types of energy?

Lightning and thunder Lightning and thunder occur just before  raining,  but  we  see  lightning  before  hearing  the  thunder.  (However),  both  occur at the same time. Thunder  sound  transfers  in  a  form  of  mechanical  waves  (sound)  where  as  lightning   transfers in an other type of waves known as electromagnetic  waves: - Waves are divided into two types:

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Unit Two: Force and Motion

(A)- Mechanical waves are characterized by: 1- vibration of the medium particles. 2- It needs a medium to transfer through. 3- Its speed is relatively low.

Examples of waves: sound waves - water waves.

(B)- Electromagnetic waves: They are accompanied with electromagnetic forces and spread out in all media and space, these waves' speed are extremely great and can be accounted as 300 million m/s

Examples of electromagnetic waves: Light waves - wireless waves - the radio and television waves - ultra violet and infrared rays accompanied by sun rays. Some technological applications for waves:

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Science - Explore & Learn

First Grade Preparatory


First: some Technological applications for mechanical waves: 1- Examining and curing sets for the human body using sound waves. 2- Stringed musical instruments (contain strings) such as violin, lute and  guitar and pneumatic musical instrument such as 

and the reed 

pipe with all its types. 3- 

and the sets of distributing and controlling sound used in 

broadcasting studios.

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Unit Two: Force and Motion

Second: Some technological applications for electromagnetic waves: 1- Applications on infra red rays:

- Night vision apparatus is used by modern military forces.

Night vision apparatus

- Remote sensing instrument to photo Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface using satellites. - Cooking food because it has a heat effect. - Making remote sets to control and operate electric sets.

Captured photo via night vision apparatus

2- Applications on ultraviolet rays. - Sterilizing the sets of surgical operations rooms. 3- X - rays applications: - Photographing bones for detecting the sites of bone fractures. - Examining mineral raws in industry and showing errors, pores and cracks in these minerals. - Studing the inner structure of minerals crystals . 4- Gama rays applications: - Used in medical purposes as the treatment and discovering some tumors

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First Grade Preparatory


5- Visible light (seen): -  Used  in  photographic  cameras,  television cameras and data show.

Fourth: Graphing motion: When  an  object  moves  in  a  straight  line, the displacement occurred to the  object  changes  with  the  time  passes  from the object original position.  

that: To  graph this over time, we  1-  If the displacements occurred every second are equal, it is said that  the uniform velocity it represented the variation of  distance - time    graph by a straight line passing through original point. ( The point  where the two axes are intersected). 2-   If the displacements occurred every second are not equal, it is said  that the non - uniform velocity.  We make a distance - time graph  by curved line passing through the original point. (The point where  the two axes are intersected).

(1)

(2)

Regular Speed motion

Irregular speed motion

Displacement

Displacement

(distance)

(distance)

Time

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Time

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Unit Two: Force and Motion

3- If the displacement value is fixed (it doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t change with time passes), it is said that the object is in static state and can be graphed by a straight graphic line parallel to the axis of time.

Displacement

(3)

Time

A static object

Note: Displacement: It is the distance at which an object moves away from its original position at any moment.

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First Grade Preparatory


Summary

• Motion: it is a change in an object position or direction with the    point known    time passes in proportion to another object or a  as frame of reference and can be divided into periodic and transitional motion. • In  general, waves are divided into two types:  (A) Mechanical waves. it has this name because: 1- It is a vibration to the particles of a medium. 2- It needs a medium to transfer through.

Examples of mechanical waves: - Sound waves  

- The waves on the water surface.

(B) Electromagnetic waves: These waves are accompanied with electromagnetic forces and spread out in all the material and non - material  media (space).

Examples of electromagnetic waves: Light waves - wireless waves - radio and television waves - ultraviolet  rays and thermal rays (infrared rays) which are accompanied with sun  (solar) rays. Optional activities:

1- write  a  report  about  the  technological  uses  and  applications  of  electromagnetic waves, then add it to your portfolio. 2-  Make  an  album  of  the  pictures  to  show  different  applications  of  the  motion  types  in  our  daily  practical  life  then  add  it  to  your  portfolio.

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Unit Two: Force and Motion Exercises:

Question 1 Choose the correct answer:

1- In the periodic motion, .........................

a) the pathway is straight

c) time is regularly repeated

b) motion is regularly repeated d) speed is regularly changed.

2- All the following are periodic motions except for the ...................

a) fan motion

b) pendulum motion

c) train motion

d) sun flower motion.

Question 2:

Graph the relation between the displacement and the time for an object moves in regular speed.

Question 3: Define each of the following ●

Speed

Transitional motion

Relative motion

Periodic motion

Question 4: Give reasons

1- We receive the sunlight at the same time we don't hear the sound of solar explosions. 2- Astronauts can't hear each other voices directly in space.

64

Science - Explore & Learn

First Grade Preparatory


Self

and self evaluation

My dear student: After you have learnt Motion,

in this card.

a- what are the items you liked in this lesson? ................................................................................................ b- what are the items you didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t like in this lesson? ................................................................................................ c- what are the mistakes you have done during your performance to the experiments in wave motion? ................................................................................................ d- what are the mistakes you can avoid in the next activities? ................................................................................................

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5- When the horse is tripped, the horse rider is suddenly pushed forward, this is related to the force of ................ a) inertia

b) centrifugal

c) attraction

d) The horse pushing

6- The following forces and operations are an application on friction except for ................ a) taking walks on the road. b) car moving because of its wheel turning. c) the work of dynamo (electric generator). d) Stopping the car using the brakes. 7- All the following are periodic motions except for...................... a) the fan motion

b) the pendulum motion

c) the projectile motion

d) the light waves

8- All the following are electromagnetic waves except for the ...................... a) thermal rays (infrared)

b) visible light

c) sound waves

d) ultraviolet rays

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Unit Three

Earth and Universe

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Unit Lessons 1- Celestial bodies 2- The Earth. 3- Rocks and minerals. 4- Earthquakes and volcanoes.


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The celestial bodies Lesson Items 1. The Galaxy 2. The Solar System 3. The Planets of the Solar System

Lesson Objectives By the end of this lesson, a student will be able to: ‹ Identify the galaxy as the universe unit. ‹ Identify planets, stars and moons. ‹ Compare the planets, the stars and the moons. ‹ Compare between the planets and asteroids. ‹ Compare between the inner and the outer planets. ‹ Explain the difference in gravity from a planet to another. ‹ Design a model of the solar system. ‹ Appreciate the grandeur of Allah in his Excellence for the universe creation.

Life Issues ‹ Globalization

Lesson One


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The solar system Solar system exists in the Milky way or the way of chopped hay. Through the astronomical expeditions, astronomers knew that solar system consists of one star, which is the sun, and eight planets revolving around it. In addition to some smaller sized other components.

Planets:

they are eight spherical opaque bodies revolve around the sun in one direction (anti clockwise in a semi - circular or elliptical (oval) paths. These paths lie in one plane perpendicular to the sunâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s axis of rotation (spinning) around itself. Milky way

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Meteors:

They are the small rocky masses that fall within the atmosphere and burn due to the heat produced from their friction with air. They are in the form of luminous arrows that can be seen with the naked eye.

Meteorites:

They are the huge solid rocky masses that fall and did not burn completely as they penetrate the atmosphere. Some parts of them reach to the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface. The biggest meteorite till now is a mass of 80 tons and exists at the southern west of Africa.

Comets:

They are masses composed of rocks, ice and gases. They rotate around the sun in more elongated elliptical orbits intersecting with the orbits of the planets. A comet is consisted of a head contains ice spheres which is a mixture of gases (carbon dioxide, nitrogen and methane gases) and rocky parts, dust and water molecules. The second part of a comet is the tail which is consisted of a gaseous cloud. The most famous comet is Halley. It completes one rotation around the sun every 76 years.

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Neptune Uranus

Mars Saturn Earth

Mercury

Jupiter

Venus

Planets of the solar system Activity

1 (Dividing the planets of the solar system)

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The farthest group of planets from the sun

       

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Based on their distance from the sun, the planets of the solar system are divided into two groups: a- The inner planets group ( the nearest to the sun). b- The outer planets group (the farthest from the sun).

a- The small or inner planets group:

It is the nearest to the sun and includes: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. They all are small solid bodies and their densities are high ranging between 3.3 to 5.5 g/cm3.They have a solid surface and all of them have an atmosphere except Mercury.

b- The big or outer planets group:

They are the farthest planets from the sun including: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. They are also known as the giant planets because they are big sized. They have low densities ranging from 0.7 to 1.3 gm/ cm3 because they are consisted of gaseous elements, where the most important of them are the hydrogen and helium. Scientists explained the presence of hydrogen gas in a state due to the high pressure and extreme coldness on these planets surface. These outer planets are characterized by the presence of a large number of moons rotating around each one of them

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Exercise Exercise 0U[OLSPNO[VM[OLJOHYHJ[LYPZ[PJZVMPUULYHUKV\[LYWSHUL[Z[OH[`V\ OH]LZ[\KPLKJVTWSL[L[OLMVSSV^PUN[HISL! Planets characteristics

Planet group

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Planet

Acceleration of gravity on the surface (meter/second 2)

Mercury

3.78

Venus

8.60

Earth

9.78

Mars

3.72

Jupiter

22.88

Saturn

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Uranus

7.77

Neptune

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Activity

2 (Planets gravity):

Arrange the solar system planets ascending regarding of their force of gravity mentioned in the table above. ................. , ................. , ................. , ..................... , ................. , ................. , ................. , ................. Venus Activity

3 (Studying the celestial

bodies pictures):

Second Term - 2015/2016 2016/2017

Mars

Earth

- The in front of you shows celestial bodies picture from the space by a satellite. Try to differentiate between these celestial bodies that spread over the space regarding of their: shape - volume - type.

Moon

Mercury

Jupiter Saturn Neptune

Uranus

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Exercises: Question 1:

Give the term for each of the following: a- A system that consists of thousands of millions of stars. b- Small space bodies that are affected by the planets gravity. masses of ice, gases and rock pieces revolving around the csun.

Question 2:

Give reason: a- The density of outer ,planets is low. b- The gravity on Earth s surface is larger than that on Marsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface. c- Astronomers do not measure the distance between the planets by kilometers.

Question 3:

Compare between each of the following a- Meteorites and meteors b- Asteroids and planets c- The universe and the galaxy.

Question 4: Complete each of the following:

a- The force of gravity between two objects depends on ......and ...... b- The biggest planet in volume is .............and the highest one in density is the.............. c- The nearest planet to the sun is ..................where the farthest one from the sun is ...................

Question 5:

Choose the correct answer: 1- Planets revolve around the sun in ..................paths. a- circular b- elliptical c- spiral d- irregular. 2- Which of the following planets has the largest gravity on its surface? a- Mars c- Venus d- Earth. b- Mercury 3- In addition to the sun, the solar systems includes: a- eight planets only. b- asteroids, meteorites and comets only. c- stars and planets. d- eight planets with the asteroids, meteorites and comets.

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The Earth Lesson Items 1. Location and characteristics of the Earth. 2. Earth is the planet of life. 3. Inner structure of the Earth.

Lesson Objectives By the end of this lesson, a student will be able to: ‹ Identify the Earth location in the solar system. ‹ Infer the Earth volume in proportional to the other planets of the solar system. ‹ Explain the causes of life  existence on the earth s surface.



‹ Identify the Earth s atmosphere and hydrosphere. ‹ Explain the inner structure of Earth. ‹ Draw a section showing Earth structure. ‹ Appreciate the grandeur of Allah in creation the Earth and providing all causes of life existence on Earth`s surface.

Life Issues ‹ Earth protection.

Lesson Two


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Earth location within the solar system

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1 (Earth location within the solar system)

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Earth shape:

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Earth volume:

Concerning volume, Earth occupies a medium position in the solar system. It is bigger than the small planets (mercury,) Venus and Mars so it occupies the fourth order regarding the volume. Its average radius is about 6386 kilometers.

Earth mass:

Earth is considered as the biggest mass in the inner planets of the 24 solar system, where its mass is 5.9 x 10 kilograms.

Characteristics of the earth supporting the continuity of life: Allah creates the Earth granting it some of the characteristics that keeps the continuity of life on its surface. Activity

2 First: The Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s atmosphere

(Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s atmosphere):

The picture in front of you shows the Earth. This picture is captured from the moon surface. Explain why does a white colour exist around the earth? Conclusion:.................................................. The earth is surrounded by an atmosphere consisting of a group of gases that are shown in the following table: Components of the atmosphere

Percentage

1-Oxygen

21 %

2- Nitrogen

78 %

3- Carbon dioxide

0.03 %

4- Water vapour

Variable percent

5- Other gases

Very little percent

Second Term - 2015/2016 2016/2017

21% Oxygen

e ioxid on D s Carb r Gase e % th 3 o 0.0 and Vapor r te a W

78% Nitrogen

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Importance of the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s atmosphere: ;OL H[TVZWOLYL PZ JVUZPZ[LK VM ]LY` PTWVY[HU[ NHZLZ SPRL V_`NLU ^OPJOPZ\ZLKI`[OLSP]PUNVYNHUPZTZPU[OLPYYLZWPYH[PVUWYVJLZZ HUK OLSWZ PU I\YUPUN WYVJLZZLZ M\LS 5P[YVNLU NHZ PZ VUL VM [OL H[TVZWOLYLJVTWVULU[ZHZ^LSS^OPJOSLZZLUZ[OLLMMLJ[VMV_`NLU PUI\YUPUNWYVJLZZLZ7SHU[Z\ZLUP[YVNLUNHZ[VMVYT[OLWYV[LPUZ 0UHKKP[PVU[VJHYIVUKPV_PKLNHZ^OPJOPZ\ZLKI`NYLLUWSHU[ZPU WOV[VZ`U[OLZPZWYVJLZZ[VMVYTMVVKMVYHSSV[OLYSP]PUNVYNHUPZTZ PUJS\KPUNWLVWSL ;OL NYLH[ L_[LUZPVU VM H[TVZWOLYL PU [OL ZWHJL OLSWZ PU I\YUPUN TPSSPVUZVMZTHSSMHSSPUNTL[LVYZJVTWSL[LS`ILMVYLYLHJOPUN,HY[O»Z Z\YMHJL0[HSZVYLK\JLZ[OLOPNOZWLLKVMSHYNLTL[LVYP[LZHUKI\YU HWHY[VM[OLTILMVYL[OLPYOP[[PUN^P[O,HY[O»ZZ\YMHJL ;OL^LH[OLYHUKJSPTH[LWOLUVTLUH[HRLWSHJL^P[OPU[OLH[TVZWOLYL Z\JOHZ^PUKTV]LTLU[ZJSV\KZMVYTH[PVUHUKYHPUMHSSPUNPUVYKLY [VJVTWSL[L[OL^H[LYJ`JSL 0[WHY[PJPWH[LZPURLLWPUN[OL[LTWLYH[\YLZ\P[HISLVU,HY[O ([TVZWOLYLJVU[HPUZ[OL­VaVULSH`LY®^OPJOWYV[LJ[Z[OLSP]PUN VYNHUPZTZMYVT[OLOHYTM\S­\S[YH]PVSL[®Z\UYH`Z[OPZSH`LYWYV[LJ[Z HSSVM[OLSP]PUNVYNHUPZTZ Activity

3 Second: Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hydrosphere:

(Water distribution on Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface):

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Look at the previous picture and answer the following questions: • In your opinion, what does the blue colour in the picture represent? • What is the percentage of the blue colour in proportion to land? • In your opinion, what does the green colour in the picture represent? • What is the percentage of the green colour in proportion to the earth? The blue colour you see on the earth’s surface represents the water bodies that include oceans, seas, lakes, and rivers. They represent about 71% of the Earth’s surface area.

71% Water

29% Land

This water is divided into:

Salty water: which represents 97% and exists in oceans and seas. Fresh water: which represents 3% and exists in rivers, lakes, and the snow at the two poles. Ground water: which exists in the pores and cracks of rocks that forming the solid mass of Earth.

97% Salty Water

3% Fresh Wat er

Importance of water for living organisms:

Water is necessary for the life of all living organisms (plants, animals and human). 1- Plants use it in photosynthesis process to form food. 2- Man benefits from it in completion of food digestion and absorption processes within his digestive system. Water also share in blood formation, and in keeping the constancy of body temperature. 3- Hydrosphere helps in keeping temperature on land during day and night within the proper limits for the living organisms. 4- Hydrosphere is the suitable environment for large numbers of living organisms, where more than 50% of known living organisms live in the aquatic environments. Second Term - 2015/2016 2016/2017

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Third: A suitable temperature:

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Fourth: The gravity:

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4 (Earth section):

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Record Record your your observations: observations: ........................................................ ........................................................ Do Do you you observe observe a similarity a similarity between between the the inner inner structure structure ofof the the egg egg and and that that ofof the the Earth? Earth? Conclusion: Conclusion: ............................................................................... ...............................................................................

a picture a picture of of a section a section in in thethe boiling boiling egg. egg.

a picture a picture of of a section a section in in thethe Earth. Earth.

Earth Earth consists consists ofof a number a number ofof arranged arranged layers layers from from the the surface surfaceinto into the the center, center,asas shown shown inin the the following following

Enrichment Enrichment information information

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘TheThe inner inner structure structure of of earth earth that that hashas 1-1The The crust: crust: been been through through thethe studying studying of of Is Is a relatively a relativelylight light outer outer layer. layer.ItsIts thickness thicknessis is earth earth quakes quakes andand thethe different different speeds speeds of of seismic seismic waves waves inside inside thethe earth earth ranging ranging between between 88 - 60 - 60 km. km. 2-2The The mantle: mantle: Is Is a rocky a rocky layer layer with with a thickness a thickness ofof about about 2885 2885 km. km. 3-3The The core: core: Is Is divided divided into: into: AnAn earth earth sector sector indicating indicating thethe inner inner structure structure a-a-Outer Outercore: core:is isa alayer layer Crust Crust ofofmolten moltenmetals metalswith witha a upper upper mantle mantle thickness thicknessofofabout about 2100 2100 Lower Lower mantle mantle km. km.

b-bInner Inner core: core: is is a solid a solid layer layer rich richininiron ironand andnickel. nickel.ItsIts diameter diameter is is about about 1350 1350 km. km.

Second Second Term Term- 2015/2016 - 2015/2016 2016/2017

Outer Outer core core Inner Inner core core

Shorouk Press 8989 Shorouk Press Kawmiah Press


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Index Water *VU[PULU[Z Crust 4HU[SL 6\[LYJVYL 0UULYJVYL Optional activities:

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Summary

The Earth

1

Location The third planet far from the sun

2

Shape

Volume

Spherical

radius 6386 km

Mass 24 5.9 x 10 km

Some characteristics of the Earth

Presence of an atmosphere

Presence of a hydrosphere

A suitable temperature

Presence of gravity

A suitable atmospheric pressure

The Earth inner structure

3

The Crust

The mantle

8 - 60 km

2885 km

Second Term - 2015/2016 2016/2017

The core

Inner core:

Outer core:

1350 km

2100 km

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<UP[;OYLL!,HY[OHUK<UP]LYZL Exercises:

Question 1:

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Question 2:

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Question 3:

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Question 4:

Put (✔ ) in front of the correct statements and (✘) in front of wrong ones: 1. The water of oceans is fresh water.

( )

2. The Earth’s inner core is rich in iron and nickel.

(

)

3. Green plants use carbon dioxide gas in photosynthesis process. 4. Mantle layer lies beneath the Earths outer core.

(

)

(

)

5. Air pressure on Earth’s surface is suitable for the continuity of life. (

)

6. Earth radius between the two poles is larger than that at the equator. (

Question 5:

Explain

)

the importance of:

a- Oxygen gas. b- Carbon dioxide gas.

Question 6:

Choose from group (B) what suits the words of group (A), then write the complete sentence: Group (A)

Group (B)

• Atmospheric pressure on Earth’s • An outer light layer, its thickness surface ranging between 8 - 50 km. • helps in the steadfastness of the • Earth’s crust atmosphere and hydrosphere • Earth occupies in solar system on its surface. • The force of Earth’s gravity • is about 76 Cm Hg. • third position in view of distance from the sun. • is rich in iron and nickel.

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Rocks and Minerals Lesson Items 1. Types of rocks. 2. Minerals.

Lesson Objectives By the end of this lesson, a student will be able to: ‹ Identify the types of rocks. ‹ Explain the formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. ‹ Compare between the types of rocks. ‹ Identify the mineralogical structure of some rocks. ‹ Appreciate the importance of rocks as a natural resource.

Life Issues ‹ Rationalizing the consumption.

Lesson Three


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Rocks and Minerals Introduction:

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1 (The rocks and soil)

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First: The igneous rocks:

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Igneous rocks can be divided according  to  the  place  of  their  formation  in  proportion  to  earth’s   surface  into  two  main divisions, which are: a- Plutonic rocks: They  are  the  rocks  that  formed  inside  earth’s  crust at great depths. They are in the  form of huge masses and cover wide areas. b- Surface or volcanic rocks: They  are  the  rocks  which  formed  when magma reaches earth’s  surface as  it extruded from volcanoes. They are in  the form of a   of lava.

The difference between the plutonic and volcanic rocks:  Activity     2 (Size of granules): Compare the two rocks shown in the pictures regarding the size of  granules of minerals that form each of them.

Plutonic rock.

Volcanic rock

Record your observations: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Conclusion: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The igneous plutonic rock has a coarse texture with a relatively large  sized crystals where magma at depth gets cool slowly.  Therefore, minerals  take a longer time to crystallize and their crystals are large sized.  Second Term  -  2015/2016 2016/2017

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Unit Three: Earth and Universe On the contrary, the minerals that form the surface (volcanic) rocks do not take the time required for crystallization where lava cools quickly on the surface. Therefore, their crystals become small sized.

Examples of igneous rocks: Granite:

Activity

3 (Examination of granite):

Examine the samples in front of you by the naked eye. Record your observations about the shape, colour, texture and solidarity: ........................................... .....................................

granite

Granite: A plutonic rock, its colour is pink or grey. The minerals forming it are seen by the naked eye. It exists in the eastern desert and Sinai Peninsula. This rock is heavy, rough, solid, cohesive and hard breakable.

The minerals forming the granite: Granite rock is consisted of three main minerals which are quartz, feldspar and mica

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Dark Mica

Feldspar

Light Mica

4- Basalt:  Activity     4 (Basalt examination): Examine  the  sample  in  front  of  you.  Record your observations about the shape,  colour, solidarity....................... Do you see small circular holes  in the sample? Try to 

an explanation .....

Basalt is  formed  of  the  lava  ,   as  they  cool  on  Earth s  Basalt surface. It is a dark colored rock.  Its components can not be seen by the naked eye. In Egypt, it exists in  Abu - Zaabal and close to Abu - Rewash and Faiyoum.

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Unit Three: Earth and Universe

Volcanic rocks contain small holes indicating the extruding of gases from volcanic flows during their cooling and formation of the rock.

The minerals forming the basalt:

By the microscopic examination, basalt is consisted of Olivine, pyroxene and feldspar minerals. Basalt under microscope

Olivine

Pyroxene

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Second: The  sedimentary rocks:

Sedimentary rocks  form  a  thin  cover  that  wrap about 75% of the  surface of the Earth solid  mass. At the same time,  it represents 5%only of  the total volume of the  Earth’s  crust rocks.   

                    Activity       5  (Transportation  and  deposition): Bring  a  rectangular  basin  and  place  it  in an inclined position. Put a mixture of  sands,  shingles  and  gravels  at  its  upper  parts. Pour water upon this mixture.

Record your observations: 

........................................................ Conclusion:................................. We  observe  that  water  takes  the  smooth  sands  in  its  way.   Sands  deposit  at  the  lower  part  of  basin  whereas  shingles and gravel remain at its upper part. As the speed of water is  increased, the size of the transported gains increase. This represents what  happens in rivers  and seas, and it produces    sediments in the form of layers. Sedimentary  rocks  are  formed  as  a  result  of  the  processes  of  fragmentation  and   disintegration of the igneous, sedimentary or  metamorphic rocks that are previously existed.  After that the detritus (fragmented particles of  rocks)  is  deposited  in  a  watery  or  an  aerial  medium, then this deposited particles adhere  together forming the sedimentary rocks. Deposition of sand in water.

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Unit Three:  Earth    and Universe    40% deposits 60% water

Activity     6 -The  picture  in  front  of  you  shows  the  stages  of  a  sedimentary  rock  formation. -Record  your  observation  about  the  amount  of  water  and  the  effect  of  pressure on the grains. 

90% coherent  deposits 10% water

Exercise Exercise Look at the opposite picture, then  identify the layers that are deposited   (A) or (B). at  The  deposits  (sediments)  of  the  bottom are exposed to high pressure  resulted  from  the  weights  of  the  deposits above them. This decreases  the ratio of water exists between the  grains. As  the  pressure  increases,  more  grains  are  deposited.  By  the  time, they become solid and appear  as  layers  above  each  other,  where  the layers in the bottom are the older  and  the  ones  above  are  the  more  recent.

(A)

(B)

Examples of the sedimentary rocks: a- Sandstone:

Activity 7                       

(Examination of sandstone):

Sandstone

Examine the sample in front of you. Record your observations about the shape, colour and texture. Sandstone  is  consisted  of  sand  grains  that  are  less  than  2mm  in  diameter. The main componant almost is quartz.                

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Colour : yellow. 

Texture : coarse.

Shape: thin layers as shown in the picture.

b- Limestone:

8 Activity         (Limestone examination): Examine the sample in front of you. Record  your  observations  about  the  shape,  colour and texture. Add some dilute hydrochloric acid to it. Observe what happens?................................. Limestone consists of a mineral calcite due  Limestone to  the  precipitation  of  calcium  carbonate  in  lime solutions. It is characterized by a white colour and smooth touch.  It reacts with dilute   hydrochloric     acid producing     an effervescence     due     to the evolving     of carbon   dioxide   gas.

Third: The metamorphic rocks:

These rocks  are  originated  as  a  result  of  exposing  the  old  rocks  (igneous  or  sedimentary)  to  the  factors  of  pressure  and  high  temperature  which  convert  them into another rock. This conversion  takes  place  often  in  the  rocks  that  the  magma interferes within them. This effect  depends  upon  the  mass  of  magma  and  temperature,  and also upon the type of    rock which surrounds them.

Metamorphic rocks

Magma

The most important metamorphic  rocks: a- Marble:

Activity     9 (Marble examination): Examine the sample in front of you. Record  your  observations  about  the  colour,  Marble touch and solidarity. Record your observations: ........................................................ Second Term  -  2015/2016 2016/2017

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Unit Three: Earth and Universe Marble is produced from the conversion of limestone. It is a rock with a rough touch and white colour if it is pure. It has other colours when it contains impurities. It has more solidity and solidarity than the limestone. Optional activities:

Choose one of the following activities, carry it out and keep it in your own portfolio: 1- Write a short brief about the different types of rocks in Egypt. 2- Record the observations you have seen during a voyage on a desert road in a company of your classmates where different types of rocks are found on both sides.

Summary , Rocks are every natural solid material exists in Earth s crust and consisted of one mineral or a group of minerals.

Classification of rocks

Igneous rocks

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Plutonic igneous rocks

Volcanic igneous rocks

Granite

Basalt

Science - Explore & Learn

Sedimentary rocks

Sand stone

Lime stone

Metamorphic rocks

Marble

First Grade Preparatory


Execises: Question 1: Complete the following: a-  The molten material that exists beneath.................. which extremely   in earth interior is known as ................., and  hot and as a thick  after its going out on  earth’s  surface in the form of .................. is  called................. b-  Sedimentary  rocks  form  a  thin  cover  that  wraps  about  ............  of  earth’s  surface although they represent ..............of the total volume  of the earth’s  crust rocks.

Question 2: Which of the following rocks is sedimentary,  igneous 

or metamorphic? Marble - Granite - Limestone - Sandstone - Basalt

Question 3: Mention the main minerals that share in structure of 

the following rocks: a- Granite.    

b- Basalt .              Limestone. c-      

Question 4: Give reasons: 1-  The crystals of the minerals that form the plutonic igneous rocks  are large sized. 2-  Volcanic rocks contain small circular holes.  3-  Effervescence takes place when hydrochloric acid is added to  a sample of limestone.

Question 5: What are the characteristics we depend on to distinguish  between the plutonic igneous rocks and the volcanic igneous rocks?

Question 6:  What are the main factors that lead to the formation  of the metamorphic rocks?

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Unit Three: Earth and Universe

Self reflection and self evaluation Dear student ... after you have finished the study of rocks and minerals, fill in the following card: (a) What are the items you like in this lesson?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) What are the item you dislike in this lesson?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(c) What are the mistakes you committed during your performance to the activities and experiments enclosed in this lesson?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(d) Which mistakes can you avoid next activities?

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Science - Explore & Learn

First Grade Preparatory


Earthquakes and Volcanoes. Lesson Items 1. Earthquakes 2. Volcanoes 3. Safety precautions

Lesson objectives By the end of this lesson, a student will be able to: • Identify the causes of earthquakes. • Identify an earthquake intensity scale and its way of reading. • Infer the damages resulted from the earthquake. Describe the shape of a volcano and its components. • Infer the harms resulted from volcanoes. • Design an instrument to measure earthquakes. • Prove the eruption of volcanoes practically. • Design a model of a volcano. • Identify in the safety precautions from earthquakes.

Life Issues • Safety and security.

Lesson Four


Unit Three: Earth and Universe

Earthquakes

Egypt is considered as one of the countries that less exposed to earthquakes. Most earthquakes that take place in Egypt are belonging to the weak type which cause no great damages. But in 1992, Egypt was exposed to an intermediate earthquake. Its intensity was 5.9 on the Richter magnitude scale. That earthquake caused material harms and great losses in spirits. Cairo, Faiyoum and Beni-Sweef were the most damaged areas because they were very close to the earthquake centre. Furthermore, Sinai Peninsula has witnessed more than earthquake. Of all the earthquakes Sinai witnessed, the earthquake occurred in 1995 was the worst and places like Nweba and Dahab were the most damaged areas .because thay were very close to the earthquake centre

Enrichment information • Only in a day the earth’s crust is exposed to nearly 400 earthquakes, actually we don’t feel it but the seismic and remote sensation detecting centers are to record and track them.

Earthquakes:

Rapid and successive shaking of the ground, take place one after the other.

Causes of earthquakes: Activity 1 (Sliding of rocks): The pictures in front of you show the effects , that resulted from breaking of earth s crust. This leads to the sliding of rocks on both sides of the fracture. In front of each picture, put what suits it from the following statements: a- Rocks were slided on both sides of the fracture horizontally. b- Rocks were slided on both sides of the fracture vertically.

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Activity   2 (Seismic waves): By the using of the picture in front of you, describe what happens  when you throw a stone in the water.

Record your observations:  .................................................................................................. Conclusion: ..................................................................................................

The direct  cause  of  earthquakes  is  the  breaking  , of  rocks  suddenly  due to the occurrence of fractures in rocks of earth s crust called faults.  Earth shakes begin once the fault takes place where energy is released  in forms of different waves which spread through the crust as the waves  that  released  on  water  surface  when  you  throw  a  rock  and  so  these  waves causes the earthquake.

The fault:  Is  a  fracture in earth’s   crust  causes  the  sliding of rocks in  a vertical direction  or in a horizontal  d i r e c t i o n   o n  both sides of the  fracture. Second Term  -  2015/2016 2016/2017

a fault with horizontal  displacement

a fault with vertical displacement

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Unit Three: Earth and Universe There are another reasons for the earthquakes, the most important one is the volcanoes. The eruptions of volcanoes may be accompanied with shaking of ground due to the movement of molten materials and trapped gases before and during their coming out to the surface. Not all volcanic activity is accompanied with an earthquake.

Earthquakes intensity:

Earthquakes vary in their intensity in between very unfelt smooth shakes and extremely violent ones that lead to great losses in spirits, destroying the homes and blocking roads.

Earthquakes recording: Activity 3 (Idea of seismograph working): Materials used: 1- Cardboard box (shoes box). 2- Pencil. 3- Cord. 4- Paper strip. Procedures: 1- Fix the box well on a table. 2- Move the cover of the box little to forward. 3- Tie the pencil with a cord and fix the cord in the upper of the box as shown in the drawing where the pencil tip touches the paper strip. 4- Pull the paper strip, and at the same time a classmate shakes the table. Record your observations:........................................................ Conclusion:............................................................................... Earthquakes are recorded by an apparatus known as Seismograph .It is used in recording the earthquake intensity, the timing of its occurrence and its duration.

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Seismograph structure:

This apparatus consists of a vertical stand   in the ground. A spring  wire is   at the above of the stand at one end, and a metallic weight is   at its other end. One end of an arm is   in the weight , and the  other  end  carries  a  thin  point  of a pencil touches a cylinder  called  the  recording  cylinder.   Recording cylinder This cylinder is wrapped with  a  paper  which  the  time  is  Weight recorded  on  it. The  cylinder  Seismogram rotates slowly. The way of the apparatus  working:

Arm Ground

When an earthquake occurs,  the  waves  shake  the  ground,  so the cylinder is also shaked,  whereas  the  metallic  weight  remains steady because the spring absorbs the shaking. Therefore, the  pencil draw a zigzag line, called the seismic record, on the paper. The table of earthquake  Earthquake intensity  according to Richter scale

according to their intensity: Earthquake effects

Less than 3 Richters

Felt by some animals only.

Between 3 and 4 

Weak shakes felt by people.

Between 4 and 5 

Intermediate shakes that may cause  some slight damages as destruction of  weak buildings.

Between 5 and 7 

Strong shakes cause great losses.

More than 7

Violent shakes cause the occurence of  catastrophes.

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Unit Three: Earth and Universe

Harms of earthquakes:

Earthquakes have many destructive effects and great dangers, where they cause: 1- Great losses in spirits and buildings.

Enrichment information

2- Roads blocking, dams destroying and Richter magnitude scale: â&#x20AC;˘ It is a logarithmic scale or occurrence of great fires. 3- Extremely high waves originated from the earthquake which destroy and submerge coastal cities. These waves are known as Tsunami, the marine tide waves.

measuring of earthquakes intensities. This means that the intensity increases by ten times when the Richter scale increases by one unit.

Do you know that earthquakes have benefits? By studying of seismic waves of earthquakes and their reflection on the surface that separate the earth inner layers, it is possible to know the earth internal structure.

Volcanoes:

There are thousands of volcanoes on earth surface, but sixty one only are active as an evidence of the permanent activities and movements beneath earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s crust. Activity

4 (A volcano of soft drink):

-Bring a closed soft drink bottle, then open it. -Shake the bottle, then open it. Record your observations:............................................. Conclusion:...................................................................

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Explanation:

The prisoned gas inside the closed bottle lies under of a high pressure. On opening the bottle, the pressure decreases, so the gas rushes to outside with the liquid making an effervescence... This is what happens in the case of volcano, where the prisoned magma inside the earth contains gases under high pressure and in the presence of weak parts in earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s crust, magma extrudes (goes out) to earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface in the form of volcanic eruptions.

The volcano:

, It is an opening in the Earth s crust which permits the passage of molten materials (lava) and the prisoned gases outside it to the , Earth s surface.

Parts of volcano:

A volcano consists of three parts, which are: 1- Volcanic vent: is an opening lies at the top of the volcano. 2- The pipe or neck: is a cylinderical cavity reaches earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface, through which magma moves during its ascendence. 3- The cone: it is the body of the volcano. It consists from the molten material after their the volcanic vent.

Volcanic vent

Cone

Pipe

and accumulation around

The materials ejected during the volcanic eruptions:

a- Fragmented materials: they are the materials that the volcano emanates them, these materials are variable in size ranging from big projectiles to volcanic ashes. b- Lava and lava are the molten materials mass that spread on the volcanic sides. c- Volcanic gases: the most important of them are water vapour and the oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur. Second Term - 2015/2016 2016/2017

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Safety and security precautions at the occurence of natural catastrophes: It is known that earthquakes cause great losses in spirits and possessions, so it must be taken into consideration the group of precautions as a try to lessen and avoid the losses as possible. From these precautions: a- At the time of earthquake occurrence: - If you were at a building, you must take a similar position to that shown in the -

This position is the sitting under a hard table.

If you were outdoors, you must go away as possible from buildings.

- If you were in the car, you must remain inside. b- Directly after the earthquake occurrence: It must be known that through the 12 - 24 hours after the earthquake, shakes called earthquake consequences which are relatively less in strength take place. They are dangerous, so we must follow the following items: - Before your going out from a building, cut out the electricity , gas, and water. - Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t enter buildings harmed by the earthquake. - Go to places free from buildings such as gardens or playgrounds. -

Try to follow the radio to know the instructions.

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Summary Earthquake: are rapid consequent earth shakes that take place one by one, so they are more intense or weak and unfelt by humans. Causes of earthquakes occurrence: 1- Breaking of the crust and formation of faults. 2- The volcanoes.

Earthquakes recording:

Seismograph is used for recording of earthquakes intensity, the time of their occurrence and the period of duration. Richter magnitude scale: It measures the earthquakes intensity and is divided into 9 degrees.

Volcanoes:

An opening in the crust permits the going out of the molten materials (lava) and poisoned gases. Causes of the volcanoes: Presence of weak parts in the crust where the molten materials are going out to the earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface.

Parts of the volcano

The vent

The pipe or neck

The cone

Volcanic materials

Lava and lava

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Projectiles and Volcanic ashes

Gases

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<UP[;OYLL!,HY[OHUK<UP]LYZL Execises:

Question 1:

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Self Self

and and selfselfevaluation evaluation

Question Question6:6:ByBy thethe help help of of internet internet web, web, identify identify the the relation relation between between earthquakes earthquakes and and volcanoes. volcanoes. Dear Dear student, student, after after youyou have have thethe study study of earthquakes of earthquakes andand thethe following following cards: cards: volcanoes volcanoes in in a-aWhat Whatareare thethe parts parts that that admired admired youyou in this in this lesson? lesson? ................................................................................... ................................................................................... What areare thethe parts notnot admired youyou in this lesson? b-bWhat parts admired in this lesson? .................................................... .................................................... ............................... ............................... in carrying out out the the activities in carrying activities c-c-What youyou do do Whatarearethethemistakes mistakes and and exercises in in earthquakes andand exercises earthquakes volcanoes lesson? volcanoes lesson? ................................................................................... ................................................................................... d-dWhat areare thethe mistakes youyou cancan avoid in the following activities? What mistakes avoid in the following activities? ................................................................................... ...................................................................................

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<UP[;OYLL!,HY[OHUK<UP]LYZL Unit Three General Exercises:

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Question 3:

Give reasons:

a- The rushing of the molten material at high speed during its going out from the vent. b- Some rock masses that fall in the space do not reaches earth’s surface. c- The plutonic igneous rocks are characterized by the presence of large sized mineral crystals that can be seen by naked eye. d- The earth’s inner core is rich in iron and nickel.

Question 4: Choose the correct answer: a- Water bodies on earth’s surface form the percentage of: ( 50% - 71% - 40% - 30% ) b- The metamorphic rock is produced as a result of the effect of the heat and pressure on the ................ rocks. ( Igneous only - sedimentary only - metamorphic only Igneous, sedimentary ) c- The telescope is used to study the ............... ( minerals - earthquakes - celestial bodies - volcanoes ) d- Seismograph is used for recording of the .................. ( Volcano - rocks - earthquakes - planets )

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GENERAL EXERCISES ON THE SECOND TERM


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4- The idea of machine lubrication depends on the lessening of the................ a) object weight b) inertia c) friction forces d) gravity

Question 3: Write the

term that indicated by each of the

following statements: 1- The earth attraction force to an object. 2- A movement repeated regularly on equal intervals of time. 3- A natural solid material that exists in the crust and consists of one mineral or a group of minerals. 4- Masses of the molten materials spread on the sides of a volcano. 5- The property of object resistance to change its state from the rest or movement unless a force affects on it. 6- The number of electrons lost, gained or shared by the atom during a chemical reaction. 7- Breaking out the bonds between the molecules of reactants and formation of new bonds between the molecules of products of the chemical reaction.

Question 4:

Name the specimen from the following

characteristics: 1- A specimen of a rock consists of feldspar , olivine and pyroxene minerals. 2- A white rock, if it is pure, it has more solidity and solidarity than the limestone. 3- An igneous plutonic rock, its colour is pink or grey, In Egypt exists in the eastern desert and Sinai peninsula .

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Question 5:

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General General General questions questions questions on on on second second second term term term Question Question Question 1: 1:1: Complete Complete Complete the thethe following following following statements: statements: statements: 11- 1Some Some Some nonnonnonmetals metals metals are areare gases gases gases asas……..and as ……..and ……..and others others others are areare solids solids solids asas………… as ………… ………… 22- 2The The The bond bond bond ininmagnesium in magnesium magnesium oxide oxide oxide compound compound compound isis…………….. is …………….. …………….. , ,but but , but the thethe bond bond bond ininmolecule in molecule molecule ofofwater of water water isis……………. is ……………. ……………. .. . 33-On 3OnOn dissolving dissolving dissolving acids acids acids ininwater in water water , ,they they , they give give give ………….. ………….. ………….. ions ions ions , ,while while , while on onon dissolving dissolving dissolving alkalis alkalis alkalis ininwater in water water , ,they they , they give give give …………….. …………….. …………….. ions ions ions .. . 44- 4NH NH NH HCl + HCl ³ ³++³HCl 52CO +² ²O² 55-2CO 2CO ++OO

Conc. Conc. Conc.

∆∆ ∆

………………. ………………. ………………. …………………. …………………. ………………….

6The chemical formula of water is …………….but chemical 66-The The chemical chemical formula formula ofofwater water isis…………….but …………….but the thethe chemical chemical formula of sulphuric acid is …………….. formula formula ofofsulphuric sulphuric acid acid isis…………….. …………….. 7The chemical formula of hydrochloric acid is ………… 77-The The chemical chemical formula formula ofofhydrochloric hydrochloric acid acid isis………… ………… but butbut the thethe chemical chemical formula formula ofofsodium sodium hydroxide hydroxide isis……………….. ……………….. chemical formula of sodium hydroxide is ……………….. 88-Waves Waves are areare divided divided into into two two types types which which areare …………. 8Waves divided into two types which …………. waves and are …………. waves waves and and ……………… waves ……………… ……………… waves waves .. . 9From sets which depend electromagnet forces to work 99-From From the thethe sets sets which which depend depend on onon electromagnet electromagnet forces forces totowork work isis is …………………… the thethe …………………… …………………… 10……………. rays used in remote sensing instruments 1010……………. ……………. rays rays are areare used used ininremote remote sensing sensing instruments instruments .. . 11The nearest planet to sun is ……………, …………… is 1111The The nearest nearest planet planet totothe thethe sun sun isis……………, ……………, but butbut …………… …………… isisthe thethe biggest one in solar system biggest biggest one one ininthe thethe solar solar system system .. . 12The types of telescopes …………… and ……………. 1212The The types types ofoftelescopes telescopes are areare …………… …………… and and ……………. ……………. 1313The The Earth Earth consists consists ofofaof anumber number ofofarranged arranged layers layers from from the thethe surface surface 13The Earth consists a number of arranged layers from surface totothe thethe center center ; ;the the crust crust , ,…………….. …………….. and and ……………… ……………… to center ; the crust , …………….. and ……………… 1414The The ……………. ……………. layer layer ininthe thethe atmospheric atmospheric air airair protects protects living living 14The ……………. layer in atmospheric protects living organisms organisms from from the thethe harmful harmful rays rays .. . organisms from harmful rays

2016/2017 Second Second Second Term Term Term - - 2015/2016 2015/2016 - 2015/2016

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Unit Three: Earth and Universe 15- Granite is an igneous rock that consists of three minerals quartz , …………. and ………………. 16- Granite is from ……………… rocks, but limestone is from ………………….rocks . 17- The intensity of the earthquake is measured by …………… and ……………. is an apparatus for recording the earthquakes .

Question 2 :

Write the

term :

1- It is an atom that loses one electron or more during the chemical reaction .

(

)

2- It is an atom that gains one electron or more . (

)

3- A bond resulting between two non- metallic atoms through the )

participation of each atom by three electrons . ( 4- Elements whose outermost shells are completely

with electrons

and don’t participate in chemical reactions under the ordinary conditions .

(

)

5- The number of electrons gained , lost or even shared by an atom during a chemical reaction .

)

(

6- Elements have luster , good conductors of heat and electricity and they contain less than ( 4 ) electrons in the outermost energy level .

(

)

7- A set of symbols and chemical formulae expressing the reactants , the products and the reaction conditions if they exist . 8- Breaking of the existing bonds in the reactants molecules and forming of new bonds in the products molecules .

(

)

9- The motion which is regularly repeated in equal periods of time . (

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10- It is the motion of an object in which its position is changed relative to a

point .

11- The distance covered by light in one year .

(

)

(

)

12- Spherical dark bodies , their number is eight revolve around the sun in one direction .

(

)

13- Small space bodies that are affected by the planets gravity .

)

(

14- Huge solid rocky masses that fall in space and do not burn completely and some parts of it reach to the Earth’s surface .

(

)

15- It is relatively light outer layer of the Earth, its thickness is ranging between 8-60 Km.

(

)

16- It is any natural material that exists in the Earth’s crust and is formed of one mineral or a group of minerals .

(

)

17- A fracture in the rocks of the Earth’s crust that moves the rocks on its sides .

(

)

18- Rapid and successive shakes of the ground , take place one after the other .

(

)

19- It is an opening in the Earth’s crust which permits the passage of molten materials and the prisoned gases .

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)

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Unit Three: Earth and Universe

Question 3 : 1- Positive ion . 2- The atomic group . 3- Force . 4- Inertia . 5- Meteorites . 6- Comets . 7- Moons . 8- Asteroids . 9- Outer planets . 10- Inner planets . 11- Earthquake . 12- Volcano .

Question 4 :

Give reasons for: 1- Nobel gases donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t participate in chemical reactions under the ordinary conditions . 2- When an atom of chlorine ( 17Cl ) is joined with an atom of sodium ( 11Na ) , the product will be an ionic compound , but when two atoms of chlorine are joined together , the product will be a covalent molecule . 3- The bond in an oxygen molecule is a double covalent bond . 4- Acids change the colour of litmus paper into red . 5- Bases change the color of litmus paper into blue . 6- White clouds are formed when ammonia gas reacts with hydrochloric acid . 7- Chemical reactions play a vital role in our life . has bad effects . 8- Burning of coal and cellulose 9- Carbon monoxide is a dangerous gas for humanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s health . 10- The car passengers are rushed forward when the car stopped suddenly . 11- Spare parts of cars are covered with grease .

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Unit Three: Earth and Universe

Question 8 :

Choose the correct answer :

1- All of the following are metals except …………. (iron – oxygen – copper – sodium) 2- The chemical formula of sulphuric acid is …………. (HNO 3 – H2SO4 - HCl - H2O ) 3- The chemical formula of sodium hydroxide is ……..... ( Na2CO3 – NaOH – NaCl – HCl ) 4- The chemical formula of carbonate group is ………… -2

(HCO3 – CO – CO2 – (CO 3) 5- From applications on ultraviolet rays ………… (Photographing bones – night vision apparatus – sterilizing the sets of surgical operations rooms – discovering some swellings) 6- The biggest units of the universe are ………… ( Planets – stars –galaxies – moons ) 7- Planets revolve around the sun in …………… paths. ( Circular – elliptical – spiral – irregular ) 8- The nearest planet to the sun is ………… ( Earth – Mars – Mercury – Venus ) 9- A big volume planet , its density is low and consists of gaseous elements is………… (Earth – Mercury – Jupiter – Venus ) 10-The inner layer of the Earth is called ……… (crust – epidermis – mantle – core ) 11-The inner core of the Earth is rich in ………. (iron and copper – iron and silver – iron and nickel – iron and aluminum )

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12-Telescope is used in studying the……… (intensity of earthquakes – minerals – volcanoes – celestial bodies ) 13-All of the following parts of the volcano, except……… ( pipe- cone – volcanic vent – plateau )

Question 9 : Put ( ✓ ) in front of the correct statement and ( X ) in front of incorrect one and correct the wrong :1- When ammonia gas reacts with hydrochloric acid , white clouds is formed .

(

)

2- Sodium hydroxide changes the colour of the litmus paper into red.

(

)

(

)

3- The water bodies represent about 50% of the Earth’s surface.

4- The Earth is the third planet according to the distance from the (

sun.

)

5- Earth is considered as the biggest mass in the inner planets of the (

)

6- Inner core layer of the Earth is rich in iron and nickel.

(

)

7- Quartz mineral is a main compound in granite rock.

(

)

solar system.

8- The earthquakes intensity are recorded by an apparatus known as ( ) seismograph. 9- The earthquake of intensity ranges from 3 to 4 Richter causing strong shakes that cause great losses .

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Question 12 :

General questions :1- Which of the following graph expresses an object moving with a uniform velocity? displacement

displacement

time (a)

212345-

displacement

time (b)

time (c)

Mention one application for each of the following:Infrared rays Ultraviolet rays X-rays Visible light Gamma rays

3- Problem Calculate the mass of an object weights 98 Newton (knowing the 2 Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s gravity = 9.8m/s )

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Unit Three: Earth and Universe

Question 13 : Choose from column (B) and (C) what is suitable for column (A):-

136

(A )

(B)

(C)

1- Comet 2- Fault 3- Volcano 4- Galaxies s 5- Lava that 6- The cone 7- Sandstone 8- Marble 9- Basalt

1- Sedimentary rock 2- Molten materials 3- Fracture in the outer core 4- Fracture in the Earth’s crust causes the sliding of rocks. 5- Unit that the universe is consisted of. 6- Opening in the Earth’s crust. 7- White pure metamorphic rock. 8- Volcanic igneous rocks. 9- It consists of yellow small granules from basic minerals. 10-It rotates around the sun with in orbits intersecting with of the planet’s orbits. 11-Volcano’s cone.

1-In a vertical or horizontal direction. 2-To measure the universal distances. 3-To permit the passage of lava and prisoned gases. 4-exits from volcanic vent. 5-It is formed of the molten material after their 6-The main componant is quartz. 7-Its origin is from limestone. 8-Tremendous collection of stars. 9-Is formed of olivine , pyroxene and feldspar minerals. 10-Is consisted of head and tail. 11-Its origin is from sediments.

Science - Explore & Learn

First Grade Preparatory


Test ( 1 ) Answer the following question :

Question 1 :

Complete the following statements:

1- The ……….. layer in the atmospheric air protects living organisms from the harmful rays . 2- From the sets which depend on electromagnet forces to work is the …………………… 3- From the

of friction; it …………..

4- Waves are divided into two types which are …………. waves and ……………… waves . 5- Object’s weight= Earth’s gravity acceleration × …………….. 6- Granite is from ……………… rocks but limestone is from ………………….rocks .

Question 2 : A-

:

1- Earthquakes 2- Positive ion B- Write the

term for the following sentences:

1- It is an atom lost one electron or more during the chemical reaction .

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)

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Question 4 : A- Choose the right answer : 1- Oxygen is from …………. (acids – bases – metallic elements – non metallic elements) 2- The chemical formula of sulphuric acid is ………… ( H2O – HCl – H2SO4 – HNO3) 3- The telescope is an apparatus which is used in studying: (earthquakes intensity - minerals - volcanoes - celestial bodies ) 4-The idea of machine lubrication depends on the decreasing of the ………..….. . ( object’s weight – inertia – friction forces – gravity ) 5- Seismograph apparatus is used in recording the …………. ( volcanoes - storms - earthquakes - celestial bodies) B- Compare between: 1- Electric generator – Electric motor . 2- Bases ( alkalis ) – Acids .

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(B) Write the

term :-

1- The motion which is regularly repeated in equal periods of time . 2- The region which separates between the group of the inner planets from that of the outer planets. 3- Elements donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t participate in chemical reactions under the ordinary condition due to the completeness of their outer most energy levels with electrons .

Question 3 : (A)Compare between each of the following : 1- Positive ions and negative ions. 2- Ionic bond and covalent bond. (B) Correct the underlined words: 1- Electric generator ( dynamo )converts the heat energy into an electric one. 2- Inner core of the Earth is rich in iron and aluminum. 3- Salts are substances that dissociate in water producing negative hydroxide ions (OH) .

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Unit Three: Earth and Universe

Question 4 : (A) Choose the correct answer between brackets :1- The chemical formula of sodium hydroxide is …………… (Na2CO3 – NaOH – NaCl- HCl) 2- The outer layer of the Earth is called …………… (crust – mantle – inner core – outer core) 3- Electromagnet is used in making ………….. ( calculator – electric bell – microscope – night vision apparatus ) 4- Car brakes are one of the applications of ……………. (gravitational force – friction force – nuclear force – inertia force) 5- Which of the following is considered as a circular motion ? …...……..

plant motion ) 6- Which of the following isn’t considered as electro magnetic waves……………? (infrared rays – visible light – sound waves – ultraviolet rays ) (B) Give reasons for:1- An object’s weight is changed from a planet to another. 2- An effervescence takes place when hydrochloric acid is added to a sample of limestone

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