Dissertation-Development of HK Public Housing Estates and Civic Quality of Life

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University of Portsmouth

Development of Hong Kong Public Housing Estates and Civic Quality of life Significance of public area to residents

Figure 1 : Jat Min Chuen (HONG KONG HOUSING SOCIETY )

Name: Lauren, Leung Shuk Yee Student Number : UPIAD19-016 Unit Title : U26044 Dissertation Word Count : 4551




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Chapter 1 Types and characteristics of public housing estates

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Chapter 2 Relationship between government policy and the development of public housing estates

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Chapter 3 The effect of the housing estates communal space on this residents

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Bibliographic reference list

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The development of public housing in Hong Kong began in the 1950s and has a history of more than 60 years. Today, nearly half of Hong Kong's population are living in public housing estates. Due to the large influx of immigrants and refugees to Hong Kong during the World War Two, the demand for housing increased dramatically. The majority of these immigrants lived in tenement houses, whereas most of the refugees lived in simple squatter huts. As the housing demand far exceeded supply, there were more than 300,000 people living in squatter areas. The squatter huts were ill-equipped and were prone to fires. In 1953, a fire broke out in the Shek Kip Mei squatter area which lasted over 6 hours, and it left 53,000 people homeless. As a result, the government stepped in to provide public housing, which started in the development of resettlement estates.


From the creation of resettlement estate at the beginning, it later developed “Twin-tower buildings” which had balconies installed and large-area units called “Harmony” and up until now the creation of “Local conditions” called “Non-Standard Domestic Block”, the design of public housing units will be explained in detail in Chapter One. Hong Kong’s public housing development dates back earlier than that of Singapore’s, and at the time Singapore officials would visit Hong Kong every year to study its urban planning and public housing policy. However, after years of development, the design and development of Singapore’s HDB Housing (Singapore’s public housing) far surpassed Hong Kong’s public housing, and Singapore’s designs have accumulated numerous accolades, for example, see: The Pinnacle (Figure 3) and SkyTerrace (Figure 4). However, after more than 60 years of public housing development in Hong Kong, there seems to be a sign of retrogression. At present, there are some people who would consider Hong Kong’s public housing to be "stereotypical", “lacking in human touch” and "lacking in the human element", while other people are of the view that “public housing is permanent residence", “public housing does not require aesthetical qualities “and “today’s public housing design is to make use of every inch of space”. The government, architects, and general citizens hold different views. Hong Kong has always experienced acute housing shortages, especially the supply of public housing. At present, there are about 151,900 applications for general public housing units and about 108,500 applications for single non-elderly applicants. The average wait time for a general applicant is 5.4 years, and the average wait time for a single non-elderly applicant is 3.0 years. (Hong Kong Housing Authority, 12/2019) The government attributes the root cause of public housing shortage to the lack land, but the father of Singapore's public planning is of the view that there is "no shortage of land in Hong Kong" (Liu Thai Ker,2018). Government public policy, the economic situation of Hong Kong and the ideals behind public housing all play a part in the development of public housing, which will be explained in Chapter 2. In addition to giving its citizens a place to live in, a public housing estate is a type of community planning, and the design of its public space is also very important, because such public space is not just a communal area shared between its residents, but it is also a place for neighbors to establish strong community bonding. Because the indoor space of the living quarters is small, residents need larger communal space to carry out different activities. The impact of public space on housing estates will be explored in Chapter 3.


Figure 3 : The Pinnacle (The Pinnacle Duxton , 2014)

Figure 4 : Sky Terrace (Home & Decor , 2016)


Chapter 1 Types and characteristics of public housing estates

(Figure 5) Lai Tak Tsuen

Clague Garden Estate

Choi Hung Estate


Since the 1950s, Hong Kong has seen 5 generations of public housing estates. The 1st generation housing estate appeared before 1954, which includes “Single-tower buildings", "Old Slab", “Twin-tower buildings”, "Cruciform Block", "H block" and "I block". The 2nd generation public housing estate appeared at the end of 1970s and during the 1980-1990 period, including "Trident", "New Slab", "Ziggurat" and "Linear". The 3rd generation public housing estate appeared during the period from 1992 to 2005, including: "Harmony", "Concord" and "New Cruciform". The 4th generation public housing estate appeared between 2003 and 2012, which can be divided into "New Harmony" and "Standard Domestic Block. The 5th generation public housing estate, which take on the latest public housing estate design appeared after 2012 and mainly comprises of "Non-Standard Domestic Block". In its last 60 years of development, many housing estates were built with quite distinctive designs, which is very different from today’s public housing estate designs consisting mostly of monotonous repetitive designs.


Lai Tak Tsuen, Wan Chai (1975) Lai Tak Tsuen (Figure 6) is Hong Kong’s only public housing estate with a cylindrical design, and it’s also one of Hong Kong’s rarely seen column-based architecture. Its unique design has attracted movie and television series (such as: Ghost in the Shell - 2017, Never Dance Alone – 2014) producers shooting their scenes there. Lai Tak Tsuen consists of a total of 8 towers, towers 1 through 8, each consists of 27 storeys, separated into odd/even numbered towers. Towers 1 through 4 consist of cylindrical shaped designs, in order to allow for more residential units to face the beautiful Victoria Harbor view. Whereas towers 5 through 8, each storey has a total of 17 residential units, and the towers themselves adopt a rectangular structure. Lai Tak Tsuen’s most unique aspect is that it is Hong Kong’s only public housing estate adopting cylindrical design, having a roof garden. Each tower adopts a semi-open architectural design, from inside the building, one can look up and see the circle-shaped sky, its semi-open design also enables better air circulation into the building, allowing for more natural lighting to light up its corridors. Apart from Lai Tak Tsuen’s signature cylindrical shaped exterior (Figure 7), its other unique aspect is that its rooftop is accessible to its residents, compared to most of Hong Kong, whether it is private estates or public housing estates, their rooftops are closed to the public. Lai Tak Tsuen’s rooftop is filled with chairs and various fitness facilities, and it is also installed with a pebble-walking trail which encircles the rooftop water reservoir, from there, its residents can take a stroll while enjoying the nice sea view.

Figure 6 : Lai Tak Tsuen (Hong Kong Housing Society , 2000s)

Figure 7 : Lai Tak Tsuen Rooftop (Hong Kong Housing Society , 2000s) 10

Clague Garden Estate, Tsuen Wan (1989) In 1991, Clague Garden Estate with its unique design was awarded the Merit Award by The Hong Kong Institute of Architects, in which only a few public housing projects are awarded with accolade, and its design is functional but at the same time it has retained its own uniqueness. Because modern architecture at the time emphasized on collaboration between structural function and design, each design did not incorporate excessive detail. The estate consists of 3 towers, and they are interconnected at the lift lobby level, and the lifts would stop once at every 3 third level, this way the efficiency of the lifts can be increased, and there is activity space located in each of these level, which can allow for residents to gather and interact with each other. The estate is situated on reclaimed land, and at the time when it is built, it was surrounded with flat land, which makes the estate susceptible to strong wind. Because the estate is 40 stories high, it needed Tie Beam to stabilize its structural integrity. However, if there is a Tie Beam at every level (Figure 8), then its view would become obstructed, therefore, there are only 3 “super” Tie Beams, each spanning 3 stories high, are installed. There is one Tie Beam located at each of the top, middle and bottom part of the building. To increase visual transparency, a large circular window is included so that even at the lift lobby one can enjoy the sea view. The estate’s neighboring Castle Peak Road is a source of sound pollution, and therefore all the buildings are situated far back near the edge of the building site, and there is a green park built in the atrium to create a one’s little own world (Figure 9).

Figure 8 : Clague Garden Estate (Hong Kong Housing Society , 2000s)

Figure 9 : Clague Garden Estate Garden (Hong Kong Housing Society , 1980s) 11

Choi Hung Estate, Choi Hung (1963) The above two estates are both owned by the Hong Kong Housing Society where as the Choi Hung Estate is owned by the Hong Kong Housing Authority. It is one of the earliest public housing estates to be built and the first public housing estate in Hong Kong to be awarded architectural award. The housing estate occupies an area of 7 hectares, it contains 7400 residential units with a capacity for 18,000 residents, but when you walked into the Choi Hung Estate, you did not feel that the housing estate was densely packed at all, even though the buildings are very closely situated with each other on paper. Because the buildings are interspersed, it does not give off a visual sense of overcrowding at all. The rooftop parking lot of the housing estate is equipped with a basketball court, and the housing estate’s colorful external walls reflect Hong Kong’s unique characteristics, therefore Choi Hung Estate has become a well-known local landmark in recent years. (Figure 10) Because the facades of buildings are not always the same, starting from the building’s mid-section, I can see different shapes. This is not a balcony or a kitchen, but a relatively transparent space. There would be one of these sections in every other building level, which give people a different feeling. This is based on the fact that at the time the architect had converted some of the residential units into living spaces, and converted the nearby units into solid walls, which together changed the external wall ratios and thus enriched the external appearance of the estate.

Figure 10 : Choi Hung Estate (Photographer : Fabio Mantovani , 2017) 12

Neave Brown once proposed "Immediacy of relationship between house and neighborhood", and "the traditional quality of background stuff, anonymous, cellular, repetitive". Similarly, the modern architect should conceive concepts that "relate each house to its neighbor and to its open space, determine the desirable relationships between housing and the attendant functions" (Neave Brown, 1967, The form of housing, Architectural Design) exemplified the importance of having a close-knit neighborhood. Le Corbusier stated that "A house is a machine for living in" (Le Corbusier, 1927, Toward an Architecture) is to view a building as a machine, not just to strive for aesthetical qualities, but need to attach great importance to the relationship between the living space and the local community. In his work "UnitĂŠ d'Habitation", he viewed 3 storeys as 1 single unit, sky garden at the rooftop, the cross-section is interlaced designed, the front door of each unit faces the internal corridors to allow for additional sunlight exposure and to connect to the inside the building. The housing estate is well equipped with amenities, creating a little self-sufficient society and the neighbors have a place to interact with one another. These four estates are also considered to be the relatively early built public housing estates, and their designs emphasized interpersonal relations and increased harmony amongst the close-knit neighborhood, and therefore even the corridors are designed with significant width to allow for the neighbors to interact with each other in this space. Furthermore, the designer has attached great importance of capturing natural sunlight.


Chapter 2 Relationship between government policy and the development of public housing estates

(Figure 11) Clague Garden Estate


According to the Hong Kong Housing Authority’s website, the organization’s vision is to fulfil the housing needs of low-income families. The non-profit Hong Kong Housing Authority shall build public housing and provide low-cost rental housing for those in need. With reference to the government’s publication (Hong Kong : The Facts, Housing, 2018), we know that the government’s initiative to build public housing was not solely benevolent governance, but it’s also a result of political consideration. By providing stable public housing, it can reduce the life burden on grass root citizens, and from then on, table and cheap labour can be secured. This is the government’s tool in distributing society’s resources. Moreover, the government has always regarded “Housing Ladder as a starting point for low-income families to secure affordable housing. As the financial conditions of these households improve, their income increase and savings accumulate, they can opt for purchasing government subsidized housing. Eventually, they will reach the stage where they can purchase private housing, thus they can be seen as moving up society’s social ladder. This can be seen as a significant social and economic achievement of the capitalistic society of Hong Kong. Since the 1970’s “MacLehose Years”, the government started to implement “Ten-year Housing Programme” in which it built public housing endlessly, making the Hong Kong government the largest landlord with the highest total property value. As a result, some academic scholars and real estate businessmen criticized the government’s public housing policy as it interfered with the free market, which went against the government’s laissez-faire policy, especially when the government introduced the “85000 Policy “during the Asian Financial Crisis caused the private housing sector to collapse, in 5 years’ time the private housing prices dropped by 70%, many private properties held by the middle-class families had negative equity prices, and those which held multiple properties like individual speculators and property developers suffered the most. The government then introduced "The Nine Measures of Michael Suen" policy, which ended the sale of Home Ownership Scheme (HOS) flats, mixed development pilot schemes、Private Sector Participation Scheme and the Hong Kong Housing Society’s subsidized "Tenants Purchase Scheme", and in 2005 it stopped the sale of public housing. However, the impact of this policy on the public housing supply has in turn prompted the Housing Department to try and build public housing in the quickest way possible, without adding sufficient property amenities and creating public housing units which are rather not user-friendly. The public housing designs in 2000 were based on mold-based designs because at the time the government’s “85,000 Policy” required each year to provide no less than 85,000 public housing units, in the hopes that within 10 years 70% of the Hong Kong families would be able to buy their own homes. Therefore, at the time both quantity and quality of public housing units was emphasized, especially with regard to quantity, due to the huge demand. In order to be completed quickly, the majority of the public housing units adopted the "Standard Domestic Block" design, so just like a factory producing the same brand of matchboxes, the standard type public housing estates uniformly adopted the "Modular Flat Design". This way, a lot of money could be saved and the public housing units could be mass-produced.


In a South China Morning Post survey by Wai Chui Chi, we know that after 2000, because as the land received by the Housing Department was getting smaller and smaller, and the land shape was irregular as it could no longer adopt the traditional "Standard Domestic Block" coverage, coupled with the current global trend, new designs require environmental friendly elements, and so the government changed the "Standard Domestic Block" design to the "Non-Standard Domestic Block" design, but having to adhere to the principles of fairness and cost savings for the public housing units, hence it utilized the original public housing project, "Non-Standard Domestic Block" still adopted the "Modular Flat Design", only adding minor modifications, just like laying Lego Blocks with "Local conditions" to build the public housing estates. Under such inherent standards, the architect for public housing project designs is only concerned with how to maximize the number of residential units to be built, and how to utilize maximum space, but he fails to put into consideration the ideal living space and how to harmonize the residential units with the surrounding area. But the Housing Department is of the view that the "Modular Flat Design" and "Local conditions" are proven and perfected. After more than 60 years of development, the Housing Department has been modifying the designs of public housing estates to meet the ever changing social needs of society. Though receiving feedback from the community, the Housing Department modifies its designs and hence today’s standing public housing estates are a product of years of accumulated experience. In the beginning, the development of public housing in Hong Kong took place much earlier than that of Singapore, and so the public housing models in Hong Kong really matured in as early as the late 1970s and 1980s. At that time, Singapore officials would visit Hong Kong every year to study our urban planning and public housing policy. However, today’s Singapore HDB flats design, the famous PRH "The Pinnacle" is based on the blueprint of the winning design from international public housing estate design competitions. Its public housing designs are not based on repetitive molds, and different HDB estates have different styles and characteristics. On the contrary, Hong Kong’s public housing designs seem to have come to a standstill. Are there any public housing estates with beautiful designs in Hong Kong? Many people are of the view that "public housing does not need to be made with aesthetic qualities." Because of this mode of thinking, public housing designs in Hong Kong have generally not made significant progress. Apart from this reason, the designs of public housing in Hong Kong are based on the spirit of "Functionalism" and "Form follows Function" (Louis Sullivan,19 World). And "Functionalism" is the architectural spirit that had become popular at the early 20th century. By the end of the 19th century, American Architect Louis Sullivan proposed his view "Form follows Function", that "It is the pervading law of all things organic and inorganic, of all things physical and metaphysical, of all things human and all things superhuman, of all true manifestations of the head, of the heart, of the soul, that the life is recognizable in its expression, that form ever follows function. This is the law" (Louis Sullivan, 1896, The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered). He emphasized that the design of the shape must change in accordance with function, and it is not a meaningful decorative event. The shape of the main building should be designed and molded to fit its intended function.


"Functionalism" advocates that architecture does not need decoration, it promotes the “less is more” concept. Functionalism refers to the principle that a building should be designed solely in accordance to its use and function. In architecture, the theory of functionalism can be traced back to Marcus Vitruvius Pollio’s three principles of utilitas, in which "utilitas" stands side by side with "venustas" and “firmitas”. Functionalism in architecture as part of the wave of modernism’s rise. These ideals are largely inspired by the need to build a better world for the people. Until the 20th century, functionalism which emphasized rationalism and intellectualism was one of the two major schools of thought in architecture at the time.


Chapter 3 The effect of the housing estates communal space on its residents

Mun Tung Estate

(Figure 12) Kai Yip Recreation Centre


The interior of public housing units in Hong Kong is cramped, and hence residents’ living space would not be limited to indoor space. Therefore, the housing estate’s communal area becomes rather important. When constructing public housing, not only is the government tasked with providing living space to its residents, but at the same time it has to engage in urban planning for its community, which includes various facilities, amenities, transportation, and so on. The importance of communal space in housing estate residents : On a personal level, the communal space is an extension of the personal private space, which enables the maintenance of a high standard of living, because human activities must be carried out in a physical space, and the communal space provides us with a place outside of the personal private space to carry out different activities. Our daily activities are mainly carried out inside cramped public housing units, which are private places and are usually confined indoor spaces. Communal space extends our living space, so that our lives no longer just carried out in private, enclosed space. In the communal space, there are different facilities allowing its residents to carry out various activities, such they can maintain healthy physical and mental lives. At the community level, it enables the aggregation of communal living and community network setup. Apart from providing a place for the residents to move about, another feature of having the communal space is to enable residents to enjoy communal lifestyle, and to allow different people in housing estates to interact with one another, thereby engaging in face to face communication, intentionally or otherwise, and helps the housing estate residents to set up personal networks, to let them feel a better sense of belonging and to allow the neighbours to become more harmonious with each other. At the structural construction level, community development can be balanced because the communal space can compensate for the dense development of the building’s interior and to provide a green environment. In between the buildings, there are recreational space to provide communal space to maintain good air circulation.


Mun Tung Estate, Tung Chung (2018) Mun Tung Estate, based in Tung Chung, was first put into use in November 2018. The surrounding area of the housing estate is clean and beautiful, and the air is fresh, but the playground facilities are too scattered, although the housing estate’s recreational areas can be seen everywhere, but each recreational area contains very few facilities, sometimes only one wooden “rocking chair” can be seen. As such, seemingly there can only be two to three children who can play in each recreational area, making it difficult for children to come together to play. In fact, it is more advisable to combine a few playground areas together forming 3-4 main playground areas. (Figure 13) In the housing estate there is also a pavilion which does not provide shelter from the rain, and there are chess boards inside the pavilion for residents to play chess, but the roof of the pavilion is not fully covered, so it will be bad when it rains. (Figure 14) On the other hand, everywhere you see in the housing estate are also green areas, but only a few of the facilities have any practical use. In a housing estate which houses more than ten thousand residents, there is a such a large area of courtyard space with greenery but only equipped with one tennis court, one badminton court and a small number of children's facilities. Although it is important to have a green area, however, Tung Chung itself is a new urban area, and it is surrounded by flowers and plants, hence adding so much green space inside the housing estate becomes somewhat overabundant. Mun Tung Estate is a recently developed new type of large-scale public housing. By way of these examples, we can see the key emphases in the government's planning for communal space in recent years. In this example, we know that the government’s planning for communal space includes adding sufficient resting area and recreational facilities, but in practice these facilities are only added to meet the bare minimum of the government’s set targets, but in planning it meets the government's regulations, but it is not very user-friendly and often times they are difficult to put into use.

Figure 13 : Mun Tung Estate Public area (HK01 District 18 News , 2019)

Figure 14 : Mun Tung Estate Public area (HK01 District 18 News , 2019) 20

Kai Yip Estate, Kowloon Bay (1981) Even though there are problems with the public facilities in many housing estates, but these problems can be solved by revitalization. For example, Kai Yip Recreation Centre, (Figure 15) which was completed in the 1980s, is one of the few outdoor basketball courts in Hong Kong. When I entered the Kai Yip Estate, from a distance I saw this large yellow metal cage structure. When I entered the basketball court, I could feel that sunlight was penetrating the translucent rooftop and shone on the ground, forming a unique scenery in the housing estate. This has also become Kai Kai Estate’s landmark structure. According to the design team, the design, revitalization and self-revitalization efforts took 6 to 8 months to complete, the basketball court usage rate jumped 50% and it also brought in a bigger flow of people to the housing estate. It also won the 2019 Urban Land Institute – ULI Asia Pacific Award of Excellence, making it the first sportsground in a local housing estate to be awarded an international architectural design award. In the sportsground, there are three basketball hoops designated as “free shoot-around” zones, which is considered to be a novel concept. This play area is quite inspirational, it allows the users to freely design their gameplay, and the symbolic yellow metal cage together with the black-themed sportsground; inscriptions on the walls, with neon sign inspired court lines create an luminescent effect, these colours create a very sharp contrast. (Figure 16)

Figure 15 : Kai Yip Recreation Centre (Primary source , 2020)

Figure 16 : Kai Yip Recreation Centre (One Bite Design Studio , 2018) 21

Conclusion Hong Kong’s public housing development is largely affected by government policies, and the government policies are directly driven by the people’s prevailing livelihood situation and economic environment. Hong Kong’s private housing prices have remained the world’s most expensive for the past 10 consecutive years, which makes it out of reach for most of the Hong Kong population. Subdivided units have very poor living conditions, and so there is a great demand for public housing. In view of the fact that the design of public housing estates and their residential units is subject to government policy, there is little room for big changes. As a result, changes can be made to the design of communal spaces in public housing estates, thereby improving the living standards of their residents. From the example of Kaifeng Village, we know that revitalization can increase the utilization rate of the basketball court by the residents. Through personal inspection of different Estate, it is believed that the below plans can increase the utilization rate of recreational spaces and increase harmony in the community: For some housing estates with a large number of elderly population, there should be more open space with rooftop coverage where its elderly residents can bring their chairs to meet and interact with each other. Compared to affixed seating, the elderly residents may prefer to bring their own chairs as they may find them more comfortable. Affixed seating would limit the number of elderly people gathering and may restrict their activities, and most of these affixed seats are made of wood or other hard materials. Their extended usage may cause discomfort, especially among the elderly. If movable seats are used instead, they may be damaged easily and may even be stolen. In addition to allowing residents to gather and engage in social bonding, open space can also be regarded as multi-purpose space, where residents can play badminton, engage in shuttlecockkicking and other activities. From then on, the open space would no longer be just for a single purpose, but would also allow for increased social harmony among the community.


Bibliographic Reference List Skybridge (2014). The Pinnacle @ Duxton. Retrieved from www.pinnacleduxton.com.sg/index. html Amazing HDB estates in Singapore – tour Sky Ville and Sky Terrace at Dawson (2016). HOME DECOR. Retrieved from https://www.homeanddecor.com.sg/design/news/amazing-hdb-estatesin-singapore-tour-sky-ville-and-sky-terrace-at-dawson/ Lai Tak Tsuen (2018). HONG KONG HOUSING SOCIETY. Retrieved from https://www.hkhs.com/ en/housing_archive/id/22 Clague Garden Estate (2018). HONG KONG HOUSING SOCIETY. Retrieved from https://www. hkhs.com/en/housing_archive/id/10 Patrick Lynch (2018). Fringe Events to Celebrate the City of Berlin at World Architecture Festival 2017. Archdaily. Retrieved from https://www.archdaily.com/882932/fringe-events-to-celebratethe-city-of-berlin-at-world-architecture-festival-2017 Hong Kong Housing Authority. Retrieved from https://www.housingauthority.gov.hk/en/index.html Hong Kong: The Facts (Housing) (2018). Transport and Housing Bureau. Retrieved from https:// www.thb.gov.hk/eng/psp/publications/housing/hongkongthefacts/index.htm Christopher DeWolf (2020). How Hong Kong developed unique design for social housing – seeds were sown in a prisoner-of-war camp. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from https://www. scmp.com/lifestyle/arts-culture/article/3065133/how-hong-kong-developed-unique-design-social-housing-seeds LCQ16: Private housing land supply (2011). Press Releases. Retrieved from https://www.info. gov.hk/gia/general/201103/09/P201103090196.htm Kai Yip Recreation Centre Renovation Works (2018). PEOPLE’S PLACE. Retrieved from https:// www.peoplesplace.com.hk/revitalisation-en/kai-yip-recreation-centre-renovation-works/ Kai Yip Recreation Centre (2018). onebite. Retrieved from https://www.onebitedesign.com/kaiyip-recreation-centre Catherine Slessor (2018). “Neave Brown is now among architecture’s immortals”. dezeen. Retrieved from https://www.dezeen.com/2018/01/18/neave-brown-now-among-architectures-immortals-opinion-catherine-slessor/


Episode 7 日常生活中的公共設計 (Public design in daily life). Designers in Hong Kong. ViuTV. Retrieved from https://viu.tv/encore/designers-in-hong-kong/designers-in-hong-konge7yat-seungsaang-woot-jung-dik-gung-gung-chit-gai Ryan Ip Man-ki (2020). Budget overlooks housing supply shortage. OUR HONG KONG FOUNDATION. Retrieved from https://www.ourhkfoundation.org.hk/en/report/31/housing/budget-overlooks-housing-supply-shortage-0 Kurt Kohlstedt (2018). Machines for Living : Le Corbusier’s Pivotal “Five Points of Architecture”. 99% INVISIBLE. Retrieved from https://99percentinvisible.org/article/machines-living-le-cobusiers-pivotal-five-points-architecture/ Function Follows Form: Rethinking the ‘Function’ of ‘Form’ in Architecture (2011). Sputnik Shuffle. Retrieved from https://mfareview.wordpress.com/2011/10/21/function-follows-form-rethinkingthe-%E2%80%98function%E2%80%99-of-%E2%80%98form%E2%80%99-in-architecture/ The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica See Article History. Functionalism. BRITANNICA. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/art/Functionalism-architecture 廖俊升 (2019). 東涌滿東邨不能避雨亭 康體地得一張凳 街坊要遊樂場. HK01. Retrieved from https://www.hk01.com/18%E5%8D%80%E6%96%B0%E8%81%9E/333804/01%E9%A9% 97%E5%8D%80-%E6%9D%B1%E6%B6%8C%E6%BB%BF%E6%9D%B1%E9%82%A8%E4 %B8%8D%E8%83%BD%E9%81%BF%E9%9B%A8%E4%BA%AD-%E5%BA%B7%E9%AB%9 4%E5%9C%B0%E5%BE%97%E4%B8%80%E5%BC%B5%E5%87%B3-%E8%A1%97%E5%9 D%8A%E8%A6%81%E9%81%8A%E6%A8%82%E5%A0%B4


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