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BETWEEN Religions

And ethics – A common ground


Comenius project magazine


PARTNERS

ğ

Ń


C. N. Octav Onicescu

National College ''Octav Onicescu'' from Bucharest is a theoretical public school, where 780 students are learning. Our High school is in Berceni district, located in sector 4. The population of this district is low and has an average income. For this reason many students in our school come from families with limited financial possibilities. A small percentage of students are part of ethnic minorities, most of them are included in the Rrome minority. Besides this minority you can also find students from migrant families such as Chinese, Iranians, Turks and many others. In the past few years the National College ''Octav Onicescu'' participated as partner in many national and international projects, programs leaded by the National Agency for Programs in Education and training programs coordinated by the Ministry of Education Research and Youth, School Inspectorate of Bucharest as well in partnerships initiated by our educational establishment. Following these

projects, our school students coordinated by teachers created www.onicescu.ro the school's website, an on-line magazine onix.onicescu.ro and a high school newspaper ''Jurnal de Liceu''. In this project ''Octav Onicescu'' National College serves as coordinator of the project. This will ensure optimal communication between project partners using modern means of communication. All partners will equally participate in the project, the coordinator will ensure project monitoring activities. The final report will be done by the coordinator with the help of the partners.


SANTA CLARA SCHOOL

Santa Clara School is situated in the City Center of Santander, Capital City of Cantabria. Many students come not only from Santander,but from other cities or villages of Cantabria , because our school offers not only Secondary studies but also professional modules in different areas. Our school has a great number of students whose families are of many different country origin as migration activity has being increased last years in Spain. Santa Clara has more than 22 different origin countries´ students: from Eastern Europe and ancient USSR , such as Ukrania. Other students come from Caribbean countries, Central America or South

America, and North of Africa or other African countries of origin. So, we have teachers in charge of intercultural pedagogical work and also for special attention to those students who need it in order to help them to adaptation to a new culture and study model in Spain when it is a need for them Project will in fact have the cooperation with the Psycho and Pedagogic Department in this sense. The main lines of our project will be a great educative value in connection with the inner situation of school with those targets centered in the intercultural, integration and open minded view upon to all different cultures we have in this global and information sharing times.


YAHYA TURAN ANATOLIAN TEACHER TRAINING HIGH SCHOOL

Yahya Turan Anatolian Teacher Training High School is a state and boarding school. The aim of our school is to train students to be a teacher trainee before university. The students and the teachers of Institution for initial teacher training are selected through certain examinations which make our teacher training school privileged among all the other schools in Turkey. The students learn English and French as a second language . We have 154 boarding

students. Most of the students come from different cities in Turkey. It creates the cultural

richness to the school. Our school is located the border to Syria.


Zespol Szkol nr. 31

Zespol Szkol nr. 31 im.Jana Kilinskiego, a partner school in the project "Between Religions and Ethics- A Common Ground", is based in Warsaw, Poland. It comprises a comprises a comprehensive secondary school where students can choose a class with extend history,geography and mathematics or a class with extended art, history of art, culture or IT( computer graphic). There is a unique in Warsaw secondary school of artistic handcraft and metal work, where students learn to make jewelry and other decorative and utilitarian objects of metal glass and plastic. They are also take part in glass painting and decoupage classes. After completing this school, the students have the possibility of going on to a one-year postsecondary school to obtain the qualifications needed for the jobs of a goldsmith-jeweller or blacksmith (artistic objects). The students are between 1518 years old. they all learn

English and German as foreign languages. Because of the school's specificity, its students come not only from Warsaw but often commute from different peripheral small towns and villages. Zespol Szkol nr.31 participates in e-Twinning projects ( "Contemporary Migration and the Children", "Penpals-Polish -Turkish Friendship") and its students correspond in English with their peers from many school abroad. As for the students' specific needs, 15% of the students are financially disadvantaged and there are 30% of dysfunctional students(dyslexia and health problems).


Pencho Slaveikov School

Pencho Slaveikov School is a successor of the oldest secondary school of Bulgaria’s capital, known as The First Classical Secondary School for Boys. It was founded in 1879. This school is a general school catering for pupils of all abilities and backgrounds with a stable staff. The teachers work hard and put in many extra hours to provide activities above and beyond curricular requirements. Their goal is to provide Bulgarian youths with the best possible education and to instill in them high standards of morality and integrity. They are constantly striving to give the pupils opportunities which will enrich their lives and open their minds to the range of possibilities available to them and to the world at large. Pencho Slaveikov School primary stage department majors in foreign languages,music and art. The

secondary stage department majors in foreign languages, art combined with foreign language learning, the humanities and natural sciences. Their course of study begins with a year of intensive training in English or Spanish and includes all academic subjects. The school enables students to develop critical thinking skills, participate in respectful exchanges of diverse opinions and become enthusiastic lifelong learners. In so doing, students will learn to demonstrate sensitivity to the global human condition and the environment, cherish democratic values, and become responsible citizens.


THE MOTIVATION FOR THIS PROJECT The need for this project results from the need of students from the EU, but not only, for a closer dialogue between them

that would lead to mutual trust, respect and understandi ng because in each school there are a lot of students belonging to different religions and cultures. Similarly, the students from the partner schools belong to different cultures and the understanding between them will be deeper when they gain the knowledge of traditional values held by every partner country. The project will open the students’ minds to the resemblance between them in spite of the differences arising from their

different cultures and religions. It will also teach them mutual understanding through cooperation. The cross-cultural dialogue between the participating schools in the project will prepare students for active citizenship in a globalized world (understanding the positive sense of globalization) by recognizing equal rights, responsibili ties and opportuniti es for everyone. Helped by teachers ,

the students will raise their awareness of the necessity of respecting national and international political priorities, especially through the examples of Central and Eastern Europe that witnessed violent conflicts after the


collapse of communism. This demonstrated how dangerous the ignorantness of values, the violation of rights and liberties of citizens, and how unsuitable treatment of minorities can be. The students will learn about the projects set up and efforts made by the European governments and institutions out of concern for the future of a united Europe: The Romanian Department for Interethnic Relations and the National Council for the Fight against Discrimination supported by European Commission (2000-2006) act in favour for cohabitation among one’s equals, without discrimination. According to the recent political priorities, the project aims to promote fundamental common ethical and religious values, discovered by students comparing and analyzing different cultures and religions during the project time which

sustain fundamental human rights. Thanks to this project students will improve all the skills recommended by Lifelong Learning Programme: 1. Communicating in the national language 2. Communicating in English ((speaking, reading, listening and writing) via the Internet and through direct contact with English – speaking friends.) 3. Logical thinking (analyzing the materials for the project, comparing them and making conclusions) 4. Using ICT (gather useful information and communicate with the persons involved in the project) Learning skills (the teacher will apply motivating, attractive teaching methods: teamwork, online classes, thematic lessons in museums, mosques, synagogues, and other places of worship, workshops, Internet correspondence, foreign


culture related trips, exposure to direct, non-stop contact with English when living with foreign families and communicating with the peers from abroad). 5. Social and civic skills (when analyzing the problems related

to living in a multicultural community) 6. Initiative skills (the students will show their initiative in finding a common language with the students from abroad and bound with them, as well as in finding useful materials for the project activities.) The teachers need this project in order to improve their teaching by discovering new and modern methods and didactic strategies, the project being a challenge for them and in the same time a motivation for a better work. This project enables the development of partner schools as educational communities.

English, Philosophy, Literature, History, Art, English, IT teachers will work together during the project time to improve interactive teaching. The project will help teachers to implement team-teaching, and to improve school relations such as student-student, student-teacher, and teacherteacher and also, teachersparents and students-parents. Thus, it will make school a more friendly, attractive and efficient place that no student will want to leave

before graduating, decreasing school drop.


The Purpose of This Project Religions have historically being seized away from their original spiritual meaning and used as ideological tools with a powerful impact on society in support of wars and conflicts. This project aims to show the similarity between monotheistic religions, their precepts and ethic rules followed by both atheist and more or less religious people. Beginning from prehistory with the identification of ancestors, their polytheist religions and their manners, their myths and cultures, by each partner schools, the project aims to accentuate not only the similarities between polytheist religions and their moral rules but also the common space and spirituality which gave substance to European identity. Showing the similarities between monotheistic religions rules, their background – the major ethical system of ancientthe project aims to emphasize that different cultures have

a lot of common religious values which are in the same time ethic values supported by the great paradigms of humanism: Renaissance, Enlightenment, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Interculturalism which defend the sacrality of human dignity. The intercultural dimension of the non-formal education realized through this project offers opportunity for intercultural dialogue facilitating actions which constitute models for building coexistence in context where diverse cultural, ethnical and religious students face each others preparing them to live in a globalized world. Cross-cultural dialogue will be done with ITC tools (an electronic encyclopedia, on-line magazine, web site) using English language. An experimental pedagogical proposal will be done not only to facilitate cross-cultural study but also to improve interactive teaching.


Project Objectives and Strategy

Objectives: -To develop the

sense of European identity, through searching out the common religious, ethical and cultural values in every school involved in the project; -To understand the connection between fundamental human rights (as individual rights) and cultural rights (of different cultures and religions), as a

-To establish a moral matrix according to the EU values through interactive teaching; -To develop the project topics by improving language, communication and technological skills through ICT tools of both students and teachers.

base for tolerance and respect;


CHRISTIANITY,

ISLAM,

BUDDHISM)

Subjects:

SIMILARITIES

AND

DISPARITIES; 1.PRECEPTS

OF

MY

ANCESTORS

IN

PREHISTORY,

THEIR

MYTHS AND CULTURES, POLYTHEISTIC RELIGIONS;

OF THE MAJOR ETHICAL OF

ANCIENT

REGARDING THE MORAL VALUES, THE MEANING OF

LIFE

DISTORTION

ORIGINALLY OF

AND

HUMAN

MEANING

THE

RULES

DECLARATION

7.EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW, EQUALITY BEFORE GOD

NON-

8.UNIVERSAL

AND

PARTICULAR NATIONAL CULTURES

RIGHTS- STAMP OF

OF

HUMAN RIGHTS;

3.THE GREAT PARADIGM

ENLIGHTEN, HUMAN

IN

UNIVERSAL

DISCRIMINATION;

RENASCENCE

-

TERRORISM;

RELATIONSHIPS;

OF HUMANISM -

OF

RELIGION

6.RELIGIOUS

2.THE CONTEMPORANEOUSNESS SYSTEMS

5.THE

(RELIGION,

ART, MORALITY);

MORALITY;

9.POLICIES

4.FUNDAMENTAL

CULTURAL IDENTITY IN

ETHICAL (JUDAISM,

FOR

THE

PRESERVATION OF THE CODES

A GLOBALIZED WORLD;


Activities: -Teamwork will find and translate documents, will create IT tools and work with them; -Workshops through cooperation, sharing a virtual space where the students from every partner school will share their own values, religious believes,myths, ethical rules, customs; -Classes on-line during which students and teachers will analyze and compare similarities and disparities between religions rules and ethical values; -Classes at synagogues, mosques, Christian churches

where students from every partner schools will analyze the similarities and disparities between religions; -Art workshops to share cultural values of every partner school country; -Debates in every partner school in order to compare the national policies regarding migration and ethnic minorities in every partner schools’ countries; -Workshops for analyzing the consequences of the violation of Human Rights and religious precepts; -Advocacy for tolerance and respect regarding migrants; -Inter-disciplinary dialogueteaching that will be applied by a team of Philosophy, English, History,Art and IT teachers from every partner school


The first meeting: Bucharest November 2010


The first meeting of the project was in Bucharest, at the National College “Octav Onicescu”. The coordinators project from all the participant schools – Romania, Spain, Turkey, Bulgaria, Poland – and some of headmasters of their schools came in Bucharest to discu ss about the programme of activities. Every team assumed specifical tasks of the project. Everybody got the questionares based on they made the project team – teachers and students, and the research work for the first theme:” PRECEPTS OF MY ANCESTORS IN PREHISTORY, THEIR MYTHS AND CULTURES, POLYTHEISTIC RELIGIONS”. Also, the teachers discussed about philosophical, ethical and religious dimension of the project, in order to understand the purpose of all the activities.


PRECEPTS OF MY ANCESTORS IN PREHISTORY, THEIR MYTHS AND CULTURES, POLYTHEISTIC RELIGIONS


Our Ancestors – culture, religion, conduct rules PREHISTORIC PRECHRISTIAN RELIGIONS IN DACIA Since the oldest times mankind tried to find out what are his or environment origins. The answers depending of ethic background and degree of spiritual evolution made possible the appearance of myths which tried to explain the phenomena and enigmatic events with a spatial or temporal nature which happened in man’s existence, in nature or universe, about human or cosmic destiny, things that before that were explained using the supernatural. It’s interesting to observe the fact that although the world civilizations were dispersed and they made contact later, the myths have commune themes like creation of the world or food. Gradually, the

myths gave birth to religions, especially through a religious ceremony followed by creation of specific institutions (church). Geto Dacians had a monotheistic religion. They worship Apollo (also known as Char-Ystos, the son of the sky) and after they moved to Orpheus, considered the founder of the first true religion (the first with a book) with a cosmogony and a theory of saving and anthropogenesis well formulated. Orpheus cult influence was manifested to the ritual and Christian iconography, in many paintings of the catacombs, Christ being depicted as Orpheus in the depiction of ‘the Good Shepherd.’ Christianity was precisely a great enemy for the mysteries because it has much affinity with these cults. Bibliography: Mircea Eliade, History of religious beliefs and


ideas – Publishing: Enciclopedic, 2004 Rizea Mariana The XII-th form National College Onicescu” Bucharest, Romania

Univers

“Octav

Zalmoxis: cult, rite and interpretation Zalmoxis (Greek Ζάλμοξις, also known as Salmoxis, Σάλμοξις, Zamolxis, Ζάμολξις, or Samolxis Σάμολξις) was a legendary social and religious reformer, regarded as the only true god by the Thracian Dacians (also known in the Greek records as Getae Γέται). According to Herodotus, the Getae, who believed in the immortality of the soul, looked upon death merely as going to Zalmoxis (who is also called Gebeleizis by some among them) as they knew the way to become immortals.

‘The Greeks from Hellespont or Herodot himself has integrate all had heard about Zalmoxis, about the doctrin and his cult into a spiritual horizon structure Pythagorean. Or, that mean that Getae-Dacian god cult believes in the immortality of the soul acts and certain type initiation rites. Beyond rationalism and Herodotus euhemerism (Doctrine mythological characters that would be deified people fear, or admiration peoples; Evhemer ancient Greek philosopher) or his informants, guess the mystery of the cult character. That is maybe the reason way Herodotus reluctant to give details (if –but that in not sure- those that had been sad this things really told him): his discretion about Mystery is well known. But Herodotus acknowledges that he does not believe in the story of Pythagoras' slave


Zalmoxis, and that, contrary, he is convinced about the anteriority of get daemon, and this detail is important.’ Mircea Eliade – History of religious beliefs and ideas, vol II The belief of Getae in immortality mentioned by Herodotus, Eliade, following the study of Linforth, made an essential clarification in understanding the cult of Zalmoxis, namely that ‘immortalize’, after the term used by Eliade, ‘be acquired through an initiation, What approaches Zalmoxis cult created by the Greek and Hellenistic Mysteries.’ Although the actual ceremonies hasn’t been transcribed by historians, the information transmitted by Herodotus indicates, according to Eliade's interpretation, a mythical-ritual scenario of death and return to earth. And as to the meaning of the only ritual magic transcribed by Herodotus, sacrifice, Eliade interprets law designed to, ‘update relations between the Dacians and their god, as they were originally, when

Zalmoxis among them’, constitutes such a ‘symbolic repetition of the founding of the cult’, similar, only functionally with the updating of the Cross in Christianity. Htonic character of the god was revealed by some ancient authors and by many modern scholars they have put it in the relationship, on the one hand with Dionis and Orpheu, and, on the other hand, with mythical characters, whose main feature was either a shamanic technique, be Mantica, or descent into Hell. Mircea Eliade nevertheless, see in Herodotus stories about Zalmoxis cult, elements that approaches the dac god to Mystery. Along with the form Zalmoxis that seems to be the real one (present in Herodotus, Plato, Diodorus of Sicily, Apuleius, Jordanes, Porphirios etc.), Antiquity also knew Zamolxis form (Lucian, Diogenes, Laertios, etc.). Eliade observe that one of the other forms may be derived


by metathesis. Porphiros explain the Zalmoxis variant through the trac word zalmos, ‘skin, fur’ what give sense to a anecdote that say that at his birth, a bearskin was thrown over Zalmoxis. From this etymology, some authors have concluded that Zalmoxis was originally a Bärengott (beargod). The hypothesis is resumed Rhys Carpenter that place the getae-god among other "sleeping bears". Not all the ancient sources consider that Zalmoxis was a god. Herodotus is the only source to suggest that the Getae were monotheistic: "...and they do not believe that there is any god but their own" (Herodotus). According to some, ancient sources don’t present any other God of Getae-Dacians than Zalmoxis. Among others, Vasile Pârvan, Jean Coman, R.Pettazzon, E.Rohde and S. Paliaga consider that Getae -Dacians religion is

monotheisti c. Others consider it henotheistic . But Diodorus Siculus states that the Getae worship Hestia, following the teachings of Zalmoxis.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Mircea Eliade, From Zamolxix to Gingis Han, comparative studies about the religions and the folklore of Dacia and East Europe , translated by Maria and Cezar Ivănescu, Humanitas: Bucharest, 1995 Mircea Eliade, History of religious beliefs and ideas, vol II Rizea Ionela Denisa Romania


Prehistoric pre-Christian religions in Dacia Since the oldest times man kind tried to find out what are his or environment origins. The answers depending of ethic background and degree of spiritual evolution made possible the appearance of myths which tried to explain the phenomena and enigmatic events with a spatial or temporal nature which happened in man’s existence, in nature or universe, about human or cosmic destiny, things that before that were explained using the supernatural. It’s interesting to observe the fact that although the world civilizations were dispersed and they made contact later, the myths have commune themes like creation of the world or food. Gradually, the myths gave birth to religions, especially through a religious ceremony followed by creation of specific institutions (church).

Geto – Dacians had a monotheistic religion. They worship Apollo (also known as Char-Ystos, the son of the sky) and after they moved to Orpheum, considered the founder of the first true religion (the first with a book) with a cosmogony and a theory of saving and anthropogenesis well formulated. According to this cult, man carries with him the original sin (idea which appear later in Christianity), that must be served by sufferings, man soul being imprisoned in body just like in a prison. To stop the reborn, release the soul and find the salvation (similar to the Buddhist idea of metempsychosis), he must live a moral life, without animal food and practice the prayers and the purification rituals. Orpheus cult influence was manifested to the ritual and Christian iconography, in many paintings of the catacombs, Christ being depicted as Orpheus in the depiction of ‘the Good Shepherd.’ Christianity was precisely a great enemy for the mysteries


because it has much affinity with these cults. Bibliography: Istoria credintelor si ideilor religioase – Mircea Eliade, Univers Enciclopedic,2004

Rizea Mariana The XII-th form National College “Octav Onicescu” Bucharest, Romania


The Myth of the Hero slaying the Dragon The hero slaying the dragon is one of the few myths that have survived for thousands of years in almost all the cultures of the world. Numerous songs, ballads and fairy tales retell the story of a dragon that created a serious disturbance in the community, and had to be vanquished by the hero. This study attempts to analyze and compare the Romanian ballad Iovan Iorgovan, the hero who set to slay the dragon, with different versions of the ancient myth as part of the Indo-European cultural complex.

Dragons are mythical characters having the body of a very large serpent with one or several heads, spitting fire through their mouths, with many tongues and sharp fangs, and sometimes having a set of bat-like wings. In the various

European traditions they are monstrous and fierce symbols of the chaos in Nature, belonging to the precosmic era. Gods or heroes had to reassert their sovereign power over the dragon’s force of destruction and chaos, and thus create or restore the cosmic order. As an obstructer of waters, the dragon has been vanquished by the god of storms, who thus frees the rain and returns fertility and prosperity to the community. The Romanian tradition describes the dragon, ‘balaur’, as a huge and strong serpent, with wings and golden scales, having three or nine and sometimes twelve heads, blowing fire through his mouths. Killing him was the greatest achievement of the legendary Iovan, or the fairy tale hero “Făt Frumos”/ Prince Charming. In a cosmogonic legend Fârtate, the world creator, punished the dragon for his continuous mischief by


telling him to coil nine times around the Earth to protect it from floods, which reminds us of Midgard, the Teutonic dragon that also coiled around the Earth, and also reinforced the monster’s connection with water and floods. As I mentioned above, Romanians believed that after having lived under the threshold for seven years, the dragon came out and went to the sky as stormy clouds, an image reminding us of the Indian dragon Vrtra. The

serpents/dragons ruled the wells and the springs, and the rainbow was their road. Their most widespread image is that of a strong storm, which is in accord with their description in other Indo-European traditions.The Romanian word for dragon is ‘balaur’, with roots in the I-E *bolä, Skt. bala ‘physical power’, found in Dacian language in names like Balius, Decebalus; in modern languages we find: Romanian bală, ‘monster, fierce beast’,

Albanian bollë, ‘snake’, Serbian. blavor, ‘snake’, but also ala in Serbian or hala in Bulgarian, a female dragon, a creature closer to lamia. The slaying of the dragon myth is generally interpreted as the symbolic victory of order over chaos, of growth over stagnation during the annual cycle, of rebirth over death. It is a myth that has to be recited and enacted cyclically in order to maintain its magic force. According to Calvert Watkins the dragon represents the chaotic world and it must be subdued in order to restore order; this is interpreted as a sovereignty fight. As the obstructer of waters the dragon generates draughts, and the hero must fight with it in order to free the waters, and ensure an abundance of crops. This is considered a fertility myth, which must be re-enacted every spring. In conclusion, by comparing the motifs that are common to the Indo-European versions of the myth and the Romanian ballad we find several common motifs such as: the hero fights the dragon, using a wooden club, which makes him heroic and recognizable, whether it is


Thor’s ‘Crusher maul,” or Indra’s “whizzing club,” or Iovan’s “buzdugan,” the leitmotif of the ballad: “Iovan Iorgovan / Brat de buzdugan”; “Iovan Iorgovan / Wielder of the wooden club”; the dragon tries to discourage the hero from fighting by threatening the community with the consequences of his death, the fly that would kill horses and cattle, as in the most of the ancient Indo-European versions according to which something comes out from the dragon’s head, from his teeth, the Spartoi and the earthmen as in the Greek documents; or, from each of the Vrtra’s heads comes out in some versions a herd of cows, in other versions birds, or wives, as in the Iranian source. The difference is that in the ancient European versions the dragon’s head produces an army of fighters, and in the Romanian ballad an army of aggressive and dangerous horseflies; the Romanian hero rebuffs the dragon by acquainting it that he will teach people how to fight the flies, thereby taking up the leadership role of a sovereign, imparting the divine instruction to people. In the Romanian

ballad the hero’s fight with the dragon does not free the waters explicitly, but the hero has to cross the Cerna river, as Herakles had to cross the western Ocean, or Indra had to cross ninety-nine streams. The fragment relating the magic offerings to the Cerna River conveys information about certain consecrating rituals at the river crossings, particularly since in most of the ancient myths such crossings of waters symbolize entering into a magic world. The Romanian ballad retains the main motif of the ancient myth, that of the hero, Iovan Iorgovan, the godlike presence, strong, powerful and young.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Mircea Eliade, The Encyclopedia of Religion, Ed., New York, 1987. Vrabie, Gheorghe. Romanian Popular Ballad, Bucharest, 1966. Romanian Popular Ballads; Stelian Carstean anthology. Bucharest, 1997 Watkins, Calvert: How to Kill a Dragon; Aspects of I-E Poetics, Oxford U. P., New York, 1995. West, M. L. Indo-European Poetry and Myth, Oxford U. P. 2007 Kerenyi, C. The Heroes of the Greeks, Thames & Hudson, 1952; reprinted, 1997 Noolen, Lars. Animal Symbolism in Celtic Mythology,

paper presented at the Univ. of Michigan, 1992. Bailey, James and Ivanova, Tatyana. An Anthology of Russian Folk Epics. M.E. Sharpe, Inc. Armonk, New York, 1998. Saineanu, Lazar. Romanian Fairy-Tales, Bucharest, 1978 Dundzila, A. V. Maiden, Mother, Crone: Goddesses from Prehistory to European Mythology and their Reemergence in German, Lithuanian, and Latvian, Wisconsin, 1991 Dumezil, Georges. The Destiny of the Warrior, Chicago, 1970 Propp, Vladimir. Rădăcinile istorice ale basmului fantastic, Univers, Bucharest, 1973 Emile Benveniste & L. Renou: Vrtra et Vr(th)ragna; etude de mythologie indo-iranienne; Cahiers de la Societe asiatique, III, Paris, 1934. Andreea Rotaru Romania


The wolf and hind myth

Our nations history is rich and blessed , there are always a bunch of legends, myths and stories, a source of knowledge but because, along with documents and archaeological discoveries of great significance, scraps of Herodotus, Strabo, Homer and Ovidius ... strengthen through this treasure of divine blend of truth and legend, the reality of myth, beliefs and conclusions of the undeniable continuity and roots of our people in these places, considered to be holy, to be protected by Zamolxis Sacred Earth, the God of the Dacians God of Light, also known as God Mosh, Nevada god, god of the rocks. Myth 'Wolf and Hind "said the beast ancestor, was a lone gray

wolf, which came down from heaven and was united with a deer, a doe appears. According to this myth, Dacia was born under the sign of the wolf, so it was destined for defensive wars, invasions and immigrations, cultivation of mystery and reverence. Since ancient times, the Dacians were known as "wolves of the Danube", "wolf warriors of light", "the wolf country", "beasts", "wolf children." Strabo says that in the past is ancient Dacian "you" (the woman if she was daie) or "DAV", meaning "wolf" or "those who are like wolves." In fact, the entire nation was represented by symbols Thracian characteristic, they are "surging" in Religion and


Religion Deer Wolf, also appeared in cult Hind holy faith. It is known as the Dacians have faith that they are immortal, they having no fear of death, smiling face death, they were known as "immortal wolves and wolf myth and the myth of the deer, the deer sacred, the myth of eternal life, rebirth, immortality myth Dacians expanded spectrum since ancient times worldwide. The whole "world" of the Dacians is tied to symbols, they strengthen your faith in connection with divinity, thus shaping the idea that they are protected by divinity, by the very fact that there is something in the divine covenant with His chosen people. Many manuscripts,documents, notes, evidence brought to light by archeologists, reinforce the confession. A banner is the undisputed symbol of the Dacians, dragons, around which the warriors gathered in case of danger, before they turn to fight, and that was worn by knights twins. Along dragons, there were caul, flags Dacians. Dragons or dragon, dragon Dacians was a wolf's head with open mouth, the body of a

snake with wings and neck who had stuck a thorn, and the slightest breath of wind that dragons 'driving out' sounds scary sharp, though coming from another world. This was frightening for dragons enemies, was the voice of caves and cliffs, and the synthesis of wolf and snake has the attributes of strength and pride, fear imposed by dragons Dacian warriors and respect ... that is why the battle cry against the Dacians and the occurrence of these dragons , install a sense of fear and respect required, indescribable, if we accept as "beasts" on Dacian warriors. Geto-Dacians were renowned warriors everywhere admired for their courage and fearless, for lack of fear in the face of death, the determination to learn and be instructed to fight, their daring and skill with wielding weapons (bow, arrow), discipline who gave evidence, but were


especially admired for studying ancestral battle cry, shout that instilled fear. There are not enough documents and evidence, but more distant from the notes, it

seems that Dacia emblem, and most likely this dragons but cauls, three were in their chromatic colors, the rainbow is a symbol of the covenant and the connection with divinity, and these three colors in the master plan was because they had faith symbols defined in the Dacians, as follows: red represent morning, afternoon, yellow and blue signifies significance was dusk. It is said that when he offered Burebista Dacian banner ready to fight should be uttered these words: "To hit the enemy with the power of wolf fangs, get the snake and strain among juveniles, to go over them like a bird in flight. The flag that will

be with him in the-flag fight will lift him above the cliff cities, to see him far away from those who believe that race is not afraid of wolves. "The proof of the wisdom of the ancient Dacian fortresses testify and traces of Dacian, built on hills, or other raised the exhortations grow to be the second front, setting, because, they say that everything would be commanded Burebista great masters of raising Only the cities telling them: "Let them pick the most high places, who knows where that comes danger and his mother to provide the victory." Here we have ruled the Dacians and the gift of watch, to be Cautious. Why do we believe about the divinity of the Dacians, the wolf has remained Dacians strength and courage, strength, and doe, gave Dacians gentleness and mercy and kindness. They were invited to feast on human and foreigners, but were attacked if they became beasts, beasts while defending their cities and nation. I recently browsed the oldest collection of historical and magazine store with great excitement I read the notes


and speeches of Dio Chrisostamus a "world traveler in Dacia, and was impressed by" the land of the Dacians or missiles as Homer calls them .. "Geto-Dacians and seeing that they have met with fortitude, which places left, here:" ... I came eager to see some people fighting for domination and power, and others for freedom and homeland and I have gone from no danger made me reluctant ... and I returned to us, always thinking that the Zeist are above and more useful than human, no matter how meaningful it would be. "he also says with admiration

"... you could see everywhere swords, breastplates, spears, all places are full of horses, weapons and armed men in the midst of these special people, I may present myself indifferent, spectator .. Peacefully." One thing is for sure, Dacians wolves hunted in a while and no deer and no doe, because they had faith in Religion wolf, the wolf as their strength and power was given to the deity, and faith in the Holy Religion Hind, doe is about heaven, symbol of love and kindness. And beautiful legend says that the union and love between the Beast and Wolf would have been born Holly Hind Dacia and why she is immortal, for, and shall protect and guard Zamolxis, cyclic, it's time for rebirth. Ovidiu Roșca Romania


Mythology in Ancient Cantabria This paper is based upon some presentation made by two students of 4ºC under History and Cultures of Religions in the Santa Clara High School , Santander City – Cantabria, SPAIN, 2010, November Rocío Rodríguez made a general introduction to the meaning of Myths in different cultures. She tried to find if there are inside Myths a key to religions or not nd if so, how they interconnect. Claudia Benito made the schematic relations and connections between myths, legends, religious beliefs and we tried to make some comparative regarding other similar myths, such as we can find in Scandinavian mythologies, and Ancient Greek or Roman Myths between others It seems that the native Cantabrian mythology connected, from the beginning and with the passing of the years, with Celtic and becoming partly related with legends and traditions from the rest of the Cantabrian Mountains. In most cases its deeper meaning, passed from parents

to children through oral tradition, has been diluted, either because this meaning has been lost or because the classic writers didn't gather all the popular wealth and mentality of the time, paying attention only to cults and divinities that were similar to theirs. On the other hand, the Romanization and later incursion of Christianism transformed the sense and representation of these pagan rites, reaching in many cases religious syncretism. The fire cult has always been present in mythology Even so, Cantabrian people still conserve more apologues and legends with a great ritual or behavioural component than significant tales Divinities. Among the remains of myths that still persist as substrate in the Cantabrian tradition is the


cult to great protective divinities, like the adoration to the Sun, as is evident in Cantabrian Steles, and in relation to the cult of the fire. Also, the Cantabrians worshiped a supreme divinity-father which in Roman time was associated with Jupiter and the cult to the Sun, and later with the Christian God Cantabrian stele of Barros. Combined with the marked warlike disposition of the Cantabrians, appears a god of war, subsequently identified as the Roman Mars, to whom they offered sacrifices of male goats, horses, or large numbers of prisoners, as Strabo, Horace and Silius Italicus point out. These hecatombs were accompanied by the drinking of the still warm blood of the

horses, as Horace mentions in regard to the concanos, and it will be, then, a true communion et laetum equino sanguine Concanum —Horace. Carm. III 4. v29-36 For the ancient Cantabrians these practices had a mystic origin thanks to the belief that these animals were sacred.In this sense, we can read the Spanish philosopher´s Gustavo Bueno book The Divine Animal, where a theory of religions proposes that we can find three stages in the streams of religions: the fisrt one should consider animals as the centre of all religious activities: these animals are numen, such as we could see when watching the Paleolitic caves such as Altamira: those animals should be the first stage of religions “gods”: they are besides humans and they are not only able to kill them but also to become the human groups food allowing first humans to survive Zurita Stela , Piélagos, Cantabria.


This big stela which represents a horseman rider by his mount, and with the company of a child or maybe a page. Seeminlgy he wear a canid masque, supposedly a wolf. At his feet a fallen warrior is eatened up by a vulture Apud Lorrio, A(1997):Los CeltĂ­beros. Extra Complutuum 7. Ediciones de la Universidad Complutense, Madrid. Some link this ritual very closely with the variant of the Celtic solar god Mars and that these animals they represented his reincarnation. The Human sacrifices among the northern peoples are also mentioned by Saint Martin of Braga and they will have the same value of redemption and prediction that for the rest of the Celts of Gaul, where they were very frequent. Then Strabo will tell that those who examined the prisoners' viscous, covering them with thin tunics, cut the right hand and consecrated it to the gods. The way to predict the future

depended on the fall of the victim. Together with this war deity, appear the germinator mothergoddesses related to the Moon, remaining almost until the present time, when they have a clear influence in rural environments, evident in the phases of sowing and gathering of the crops. In the same way, the cult to a god of the sea was assimilated in Roman times through Neptune (a statuette of this deity, but with features of the original Cantabrian divinity, was found in Castro Urdiales) The ancient Cantabrians believed in the immortality of the spirit. Thus they demonstrated in their funeral rites where cremation predominated, with the exception of those who died in combat, who had to rest in the battlefield until vultures opened their entrails to take their soul to Heaven and reunite in glory with their ancestors. This practice is


Telluric and arboreal mythology

testified in the engravings of the Cantabrian Stele of Zurita. Sacrifice played a major role in the complex Cantabrian society in both its aspects: as a means to fulfill the divine will as well as the prevalence of abnegation to collectivity against the individual. Then, in a warring society, as the Cantabrian, immolation was not considered as primitive or barbarian but the strong determination required from the person to commit sacrifice gave it a great importance. That was the case of the devotion, a singular and extreme sacrifice practices by the Cantabrians in which the warring communities joined their destiny to that of their leader. The German historian Schulte told about how Cantabrians did not ever lose their freedom against Romans, and they preferred to die than becoming slaves.

We can make a comparison between Cantabria and Scandinavian lands, because we have high mountains and a high rocked coast line and many rivers and valleys where many different tribes practiced hunting of wild bears and by the Sea fishing was so ancient activity as the Palaeolithic periods as shown by excavations. That could explain the reason why we have many similarities to the Norwegian and Swedish Myths in telluric and wild life inhabitants in those deep woods. Torre Bermeja (2.400 m) and Pe単a Santa (Sacred Mount) (2.596 m),in Picos de Europa. At the same time, a terrene mythology of adoration to Gaia, the Mother Earth, exists through the divinization of animals, trees, mountains and

waters like elementary spirits. Beliefs, on the other hand,


common to all the people who received Celtic influences. Places like Pico Dobra, in the valley of Besaya ( by Besaya River), have given evidence of their sacred condition since pre-Roman times through the altar dedicated to the Cantabrian God Erudinus, dated on the year 399, which demonstrates that these rites extended beyond the instauration of Christianity in the Roman Empire as official religion. In the same way toponyms like Peña Sagra ("Sacred Mount"), Peña Santa ("Saint Mount"), Mozagro(Montem sacrum = Sacred Mount) or Montehano (montem fanum = Mount of the Sanctuary) indicate that they have been considered sacred places from the most remote antiquity. Also divinized were the rivers and water bodies. At the Mount Cildá appeared an area dedicated to the mother goddess Mater Deva, known though the Celtic world and personified in the Deva river. At Otañes it was found a patera dedicated to the nymph of a fountain with medicinal

properties. Pliny the Elder mentions the existence in Cantabria of one of the intermittent fountains - the Fuentes Tamáricas - adored by the Cantabrians and that had a prophetic value and that corresponded to the current Velilla del Río Carrión. Suetonius, in a story about the life of Galba, points uut as a symbol of good devination having found, during his stay at Cantabria, 12 axes in a lake. There were, without any doubt ex-votos left there following their tradition (which is also found in other European peoples), which suggests a cult to the lakes The offerings to the waters of stips, or bronze coins of low value, as well as other pieces of higher value, as denari, aurei and solidi, its manifested in the presence of some of those pieces at La Hermida, Peña Cutral, Alceda and at the Híjar river. Yew berries. This mythical tree may be the most representative of Cantabria and has often been planted with remarkable buildings. There is a little village named as this sacred tree of Cantabria. It


is El Tejo (the yew berry), near of Comillas village and the Oyambre beach and La Rabia estuary. At the same time, the forest were also divinized, a cult with clear Celtic influences through an arboreal mythology. Some species of trees were specially respected; the yew and the oak. The former is the most emblematic and symbolic species of Cantabria and it was venerated by Cantabrians in antiquity, being part of some of their rituals. We know by the accounts of Silius, Florus, Pliny and Isidore of Seville, that Cantabrians committed suicide with poison they got from the leaves of this tree, but they preferred death rather than slavery. It's usual to find them at the town squares, at cemeteries, churches, chapels, palaces and big houses because of being considered a witness tree, which has allowed them to perpetuate that halo of mystery and sanctity that surrounds everything related with this

species. Oak trees were for some of our recently died grandfathers a symbol of protection as much in life as in the ethernity of life of human souls, so many little cemeteries had a big oak at the main entrance surroundings The oak is the Celtic tree by excellence maybe because it is the most sacred species for the druids, from which they recollected the muĂŠrdago. It is a species that carries lots of folkloristic, symbolic and magic meanings in Cantabria, it was frequent to use it as "Maypole", the pole that presides the festivities in some towns, around which the people dance to celebrate the rebirth of the vegetal life. The Oak symbolized the union between the sky and the earth, image that gave them the position as axis of the world. They tend to attract lightning, so it played a preponderant role in the ceremonies to attract the rain and the fire in all Europe. Oaks, beeches, holly oaks and yews were used as a place of


tribal meetings for many generations where religious and secular laws were taught. Until recent times it was usual to celebrate open meetings under centennial trees (the meetings of Trasmiera got together at Hoz de Anero, Ribamontรกn al Monte, under a great holly oak that still stands). In some villages after Christian development, an ancient ritual related to the beech grove was celebrated under the name of La Virgen del Hayedo, and people get disguised as of trees, animals, phantoms... Here are some images of villages in Cantabria containing animals or trees inside, as much as the symbol of the sun. Significative dates As in other peoples, in Cantabria there were dates that have been appropriated since antiquity for rituals and legends, days that are charged with dark or ancient meanings. For this reason during the summer solstice, the "night is

magic". Tradition says, in all different variants, that the Caballucos del Diablo (Damselflies, literally "Devil's little horses") and the witches loose their powers after dusk and the curanderos gain control over them; plants as the four-leaf clover, the fruit of the elder berry, the leaves of the willow, the common Jupiter or the tree heath among others cure and bring happiness if they are collected at dawn. Around Christmas (winter solstice) there were ritual ceremonies, remains of ancient cults to the tree, the fire and the water. Around those dates the sources of the rivers and the balconies were dressed with flowers and people danced and jumped over the fire. These ceremonies are connected to some kind of common annual dinner named magosta, which still is celebrated in Cantabria :


La Magosta, in a big fire people jumping through fire and singing like in any other cultures ritual dinners, everybody eats chestnuts taken from the many chestnuts groves around Cantabrian fields and mountains Also important were specific moments of the day, mostly the twilight. Ancient Cantabrians talked about the "Sun of the Dead", referring to the last part of the day when the Sun was still visible and that they believed was sent by the dead. They believed that it marquees the moment in which the dead came back to life and several author have related it with the solar cult Mythological creatures Cantabrian people have not only telluric and natural divinities, but also fabulous beings with different aspects

that people feared or adored and have legends and histories on their own. There are many of them in Cantabrian mythology, yet the most important are: The Ojรกncanu. The sorrow of Cantabria, this creature embodies the evil among the Cantabrians and represents the cruelty and the brutality. This giant cyclops is the Cantabrian version of the Greek Polyphemus that appears in other Indoeuropean Mythologies. The Ojรกncana or Juรกncana. Wife of the former, is even more ruthless as children are counted among her victims. The Anjana. Is the antithesis of the Ojรกncano and the Ojรกncana. Good and generous fairy, she protects honest people, the lovers and those who get lost in the woods or roads. The Esteru. This is a Christmas character, he is a lumberjack that lives alone in the forest and makes toys to give them


away in Christmas throughout Cantabria. The goblins. This is a large group of little mythological creatures, most of them mischievous. There are two groups among them: a) the domestic goblins, those who live in or around houses as Trasgu and Trastolillo b) and the forest goblins, as Trenti and Tentirujo. There are other fabulous beings that populate the mythological pantheon of Cantabria, as the Ventolín. the Caballuco s del Diablo the Nuberu the Musgosu the Culebre the Ramidreju Or beautiful legends such as that of the Sirenuca ("Little Mermaid"), a beautiful but disobedient and spoiled lady with a fancy for climbing the most dangerous cliffs of Castro Urdiales to sing with the waves and was, therefore, transformed into an ephydriad. Or that of the Fish-man, a man from Liérganes who loved to swim and that got lost at the

Miera river, being finally found at the Bay of Cádiz, transformed into a strange aquatic Being Cantabrian mythology nowadays Foggy forest of oaks in Cantabria. In the lushness of these forests Cantabrian mythology locates to spirits and mythologycal beings, trying to give answers to the fear of the unknown.. All these beings and legends prove the mystical mentality of a time, that was required in order to satisfy the Cantabrians needs to express their fears and to be able to enter into the hard and sometimes hostile and dangerous surrounding environment. Even today there are Cantabrians that worship the Anjanas, not being replaced by saints or virgins, as they still consider that some gifts are granted by these good fairies of the mountains, and even today the Ojáncano is used to scare the childre n when they are mischi


evous. But this world of meanings and values has become diluted little by little with the advance of the modernity and time, giving place to new urban legends and forgetting the old deities. It is until now that Cantabrian mythology has attracted the interest of scholars, especially after the publishing of the recompilation made by the writer Manuel Llano Merino (1898– 1938) throughout his work, enriched with oral tradition, and several other writers like Adriano GarcíaLomas. References 1. Julio Caro Baroja suggests the possibility of the existence of an equestrian deity among Hispanian Celts similar to that of the otherEuropean Celts 2. At Numantia ( Actually Soria ), these representations of the horse-god are decorated with solar signs. It is interesting to remember that Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra(1547-1616), author of the famous book Don Quijote de la Mancha wrote a dramatic tragedy theatre piece under the

name The destructio n of Numancia and here we can find many references to the ancient belivings of peoples in pre Roman times, and their moral and religious values 3. A. Schulten. Los cántabros y astures y su guerra con Roma. Madrid. 1943 4. The leaves of the yews and its seed, present in its red berries, contain a very toxic alkaloid, the taxine, that provokes hypotension and cardiac arrests if consumed. 5. It's worth to mention the presence of millenary yews as the one that exists next to the pre-Roman church of Saint Mary of Lebeña and under which the town councils took place. This tree, present in the Inventory of Singular Trees of Cantabria, has been severely damaged by a recent gale.


6. Beings similar to the Ojánc anu or the Ojánc ana are found in other pantheons such as the Extremenian mithology (the Jáncanu or Pelujáncanu and the Jáncanas, where is also evident the similar denominations in Asturias or the Basque mithology (Tartalo or Torto, among others.) BIBLIOGRAPHY Mitos y Leyendas de Cantabria. Santander 2001. Llano Merino, M.. Ed. Librería Estvdio. ISBN 84-95742-01-2 Los Cántabros. Santander 1983. González Echegaray, J.. Ed. Librería Estvdio. ISBN 84-87934-23-4

Gran Enciclopedia de Cantabria. Santander 1985 (8 tomos) y 2002 (tomos IX, X y XI). Various. Editorial Cantabria S.A.ISBN 8486420-00-8 Mitología y Supersticiones de Cantabria. Santander 1993. Adriano GarcíaLomas. Ed. Librería Estvdio. ISBN 8487934-87-0 I.E.S. Santa Clara Santander- SPAIN


The Proto-Bulgarians While the Thracians were assimilated by the Slavs prior to the formation of the new state, the Proto - Bulgarians and the Slavs followed a relatively independent course of development within the boundaries of the same state until the end of the ninth century. The Proto-Bulgarians inhabited mainly North-Eastern Bulgaria, although traces of them have been discovered in Western Bulgaria, the Rhodope mountains and Macedonia (in the area to the north of Salonika, where Kouber's group settled. The Proto-Bulgarians had a well developed literary tradition. In the new state, however, their script was not put to use, for the Greek script was in currency as a more effective means of communication between the various ethnic groups. A great number of stone-carved Bulgarian inscriptions in Greek or Proto-Bulgarian symbols chronological, victorious and memorial - testify to the existence of an advanced 'historical memory'.

Prior to Christianity Bulgarians had a different religion. Our ancestors believed not only in the celestial bodies but also in a supreme God-Creator. So far scholars had only one real fact to rely on the name TANGRA in an early Bulgarian inscription of the 9th c. It turns out that, like the Persians, who called God with three parallel names, the Bulgarians called


him Tangra, but also Edfu. The notion of TANDRA/ lightening/ is connected with the supreme God of thunder. The roots of the religion of the Bulgarians can be found in the region of Pamir and Hidukush where they lived before moving to Europe. Two relics of this forgotten religion were discovered: - a bronze rosette from Pliska, dedicated to the seven celestial bodies and marked by the typical Bulgar symbol IYI, and two stone slabs with the same symbol and - drawings of the Sun and the Moon, found not far from the Bulgarska Morava river. To the same religion we can attribute also three newly deciphered runic inscriptions from Murfatlar, two of which are dedicated to the Sun and Jupiter. The history of the religious cult of the seven celestial bodies is

very interesting. It appears for the first time in the ShumerAccadian civilization where the names of the Sun, the Moon and the five planets, known to the Ancient world. From this very part of the world the cult of the celestial bodies spread to the East and the West among the ancient peoples Assyrians, IndoIranians, Hittites, Celts, Romans, etc. Bulgarian religion, with its devotion to the seven celestial bodies and the Supreme God, called Tangra and Edfu, is part of this religious system. Bibliography: http://www.spellintime.fsnet. co.uk/Folklore.htm http://www.veda.harekrsna.cz /connections/VedicBulgaria.php Gabriela Markova 1st school, Sofia Bulgaria


The Slavs The Slavs migrated to the Balkan peninsula from Central Europe in the early part of the 7th century AD. They believed in many deities, spirits of nature and demons. The Slavs had a dualistic view of the universe; that is, they believed that the world was fuelled by the interaction of complementary opposites such as dark/light, male/female, summer/winter. At the centre of the Slavic universe, giving it structure, stood the World Tree. The realm of the dead lay at its roots, the world of living creatures at its trunk and heaven rose at its crown. The Slavs worshipped their gods in the form of stone or wooden idols in shrines located near old trees. Their main god was Perun, the god of thunder, who gave his name to the Pirin mountains in southern Bulgaria.

Perun

In Slavic mythology, the world was represented by a sacred tree, usually an oak, whose branches and trunk represented the living world of heavens and mortals, while its roots represented the underworld, i.e. the realm of dead.

Perun was a ruler of the living world, sky and earth, and was often symbolised by an eagle sitting on the top of the tallest branch of the tree, from which he kept watch over the entire world. Perun was a punish er of evildoers. Deep down in the roots of the tree was the place of his enemy, symbolised by a serpent or a dragon: this was


Zaltys, a great serpent curled at the base of the world tree (which people later associated with Veles, watery god of the underworld. Perun is generally believed to have been considered as the supreme god by the majority, or perhaps nearly all Slavs, at least towards the end of Slavic paganism. The earliest supreme god was probably Rod; it is

unclear precisely how and why his worship as the head of pantheon evolved into the worship of Perun. As the thunder god, he enters into a union with the mother earth (or sometimes creates it), and impregnates it through rainwater, causing her to generate life. One of Perun's main roles is to restore the earth's productive powers after the multi-headed snake demon steals the holy waters, takes away the earth's moisture, and renders her infertile. After killing the demon, Perun releases the holy waters that come pouring down to restore the earth's fertility. Closely associated with this is the belief that the rains, especially, of the spring season bless all those, who bathe in its waters, with strength, health, beauty, and fertility. These waters are also a protection against evil forces and spirits.


Perun's family all had roles in the coming of rain. His sons would make the thunder and cause the lightning to strike. His daughters and wife would sift the rain. Together, they brought the moisture, thus making the land fertile so crops would grow. This would have been very important to the agricultural societies which worshipped Perun. To invoke Perun's favor or call upon him to bring the rains, worshippers would give food offerings to the

god. It is considered unlikely that human sacrifices were made to Perun. The sun as the eye of god Perun or, as the fire hidden in the eyes of god, can burn and destroy everything when they

are open but, soaked in holy waters, it generates lifegiving forces. These attributes of the sun and Perun are transferred on the earth to stones. Stone, like the oak tree, is seen as a mediator between the two worlds. The grave stone represents death. Like the oceans, it also separates the worlds of the dead and the living. The stone appears as a frequent symbol of death in folktales. The death of the hero is represented by his turning into stone. Bibliography: http://www.spellintime.fsnet. co.uk/Folklore.htm http://www.ancientbulgaria.com/category/history /slavs/

Ekaterina Kovacheva Bulgaria


THE BELIEF SYSTEM OF TURKISH PEOPLE Turkish countries started to believe in Islam. They even tried to emit Islam. And now Turkey is one of the most powerfull Islamic Countries. THE RULES OF THE ISLAM Mostly Turkish people believe in Islam. Islam is the real belief system acording to Turkish people. We believe that it is the religion of God. Turkish people first met with Islam in their migration. They think that the traditions of Islam are nearly same with Turkish people’s traditions. Through the years our ancestors started to believe Islam. The first Turkish Country which accepted the Islam was “Karahanlı Turkish Country”. After this country nearly all

Islam has five main rules. A person who says I’m a mouslim has to accept these rules. The ‘Five Pillars‘ of Islam are the

foundation of Muslim life: 1. Faith or belief in the Oneness of God and the finality of the prophethood of Muhammad; 2. Establishment of the daily prayers; 3. Concern for and almsgiving to the needy; 4. Self-purification through fasting 5. The pilgrimage to Makkah for those who are able


THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE BELIEF SYSTEM Believe in God Believe in God’s Angels(Azrail,Cebrail,Mikail,Isra fil) Believe in God’s Books (Koran,Bible,Torah,Zebur)

Believe in God’s Prophet Believe in The Day of Life to Come Believe in Fate and believe in whatever we live is from God. Enver Avcıoğlu , Emin Kanşat , Yemen Bozkaya , Ayşe Batıray TUR KEY


BELIEFS AND POLAND

MYTHS

The Polish pantheon of pagan gods exists in direct relation to many Slavic supernatur al beings found among the peoples inhabiting Central and Eastern Europe as well as the Balkans, including Rus people. The major gods are: Dadźbóg – Sun god, possibly a culture hero and a source of wealth and power; Jaryło- God of vegetation, fertility and spring; also associated with war and harvest; Marzanna- Goddess of harvest, witchcraft, winter and death; Piorun – God of thunder and lightning, the supreme god, the only Slavic deity who was equated with the Christian God; Swaróg- God of fire, sometimes

OF

ANCIENT

described as a smith god; Świętowit – God of war, fertility and abundance depicted as a four-headed god with two heads looking forward and two back. Victory in battle, merchant travels and a successful harvest all depended on Świętowit; Trygław – God depicted as a three-headed man sometimes with bands of (gold) blindfolds over his eyes, or a man with three goat heads similar in nature to the Trinity in Christianity; Weles- God of earth, waters, and the underworld. He is the opponent of the Supreme thunder-god Piorun, and the battle between two of them constitutes one of the most important myths of Slavic mythology; Zaria- Goddess of beauty. She was greeted at dawn as “the brightest maiden, pure, sublime, honorable.” She was also known as a water priestess that protected warriors.


Zory – Three (or two) guardian goddesses that represent the morning, evening and midnight stars. Zory serve the sun god Dadźbóg, who in some myths is described as their father. The Morning Star opens the gates to his palace every morning for the sunchariot’s departure. At dusk, the Evening Star closes the palace gates once more after his return. The Midnight Star holds the dying sun in her arms until he is restored to life the following morning. The three

goddesses are also associated with marriage, protection, and exorcisms. There is the ancient myth of a fight between the two major gods of the Slavic pantheon, Piorun and Weles. Attacking with his lightning bolts from the sky, Piorun pursues his serpentine enemy Weles who slithers down over the earth. Weles taunts Piorun and flees, transforming himself into various animals, hiding behind trees, houses, or people. In the end, he is killed by Piorun, or he flees into the water, into the underworld. This is basically the same thing; by killing Weles, Piorun does not actually destroy him, but simply returns him to his place in the world of the dead. Thus the order of the world, disrupted by Weles’s mischief, is established once again by Piorun. The idea that storms and thunder are actually a divine battle between the supreme god and his archenemy was extremely important to Slavs, and continued to thrive long after Piorun and Weles were replaced by the Сhristian God and Devil.


There is another myth revolving around the fertility and vegetatio n god, Jaryło, and his sister and wife, Marzanna, goddess of nature and death. Jaryło is associated with the Moon and Marzanna is considered a daughter of the Sun. Both of them are children of Piorun, born on the night of the new year (Great Night). However, on the same night, Jaryło is snatched from the cradle and taken to the underworld, where Weles raises him as his own. At the Spring festival of Jare, Jaryło returns from the world of the dead, bringing spring from the ever-green underworld into the realm of the living. He meets his sister Marzanna and courts

her. At the beginning of summer they get married. The sacred union between brother and sister, children of the supreme god, brings fertility and abundance to earth, ensuring a bountiful harvest. Also, since Jaryło is the (step)son of Weles, and his wife the daughter of Piorun, their marriage brings peace between two great gods; in other words, it ensures there will be no storms which could damage the harvest. After the harvest, however, Jaryło is unfaithful to his wife, and she vengefully slays him (returns him into the underworld), renewing the enmity between Piorun and Weles. Without her husband, god of fertility and vegetation, Marzanna — and all of nature with her — withers and freezes in the upcoming winter; she turns into a terrible, old, and dangerous goddess of darkness and frost, and eventually dies by the end of the year.


Various elements of old myths are revealed in tales and songs of legendary heroes like legendary founders of certain tribes such as the story about Lech, Czech and Rus or about quite historical persons like Krak the dragon slayer -prince and founder of Kraków, the ruler of the tribe of Lechitians (Poles). In the legend of Lech, Czech and Rus, three brothers went hunting together but each of them followed a different prey and eventually they all travelled in different directions. Rus went to the east, Czech headed to the west to settle on the Rip Mountain rising up from the Bohemian hilly countryside, while Lech travelled to the north until he came across a magnificent white eagle sitting perched on a tree guarding his nest, upon a background of a brilliant red sun. Startled but impressed by this spectacle, he decided to settle there. He named his settlement Gniezno (from the Polish word for ‘nest’ – gniazdo) and adopted the White Eagle with a red background as his coat-of-arms which remains a symbol of Poland to this day. According to the legend of Krak, around the year 700 AD the legendary

Polish hero, prince Krak, destroyed a gigantic dragon by giving it a sheepskin full of saltpeter which caused it to drink water until it burst.

References: Stanisław Szczur, Historia Polski /Średniowiecze/, Wydawnictwo Literackie 2002; Andrzej Chwałba, editor, Obyczaje w Polsce /Od średniowiecza do czasów współczesnych/, PWN 2008; Anna Chrypinski, editor, Polish Customs, Friends of Polish Art, Detroit, MI, 1977; Marija Gimbutas, The Slavs, Preager Publishers, New York, 1971; Sophie Hodorowicz, Polish Customs, Traditions, &


Folklore, Hippocrene Books, New York, 1993; Anstruther J. Sekalski, Old Polish Legends, 1997; Wikipedia, the on-line encyclopedia Students who wrote the works on Slavic ancestors: Luiza Grabowska, Ola Około-Kułak Iwona Norberczuk, Katarzyna Hajdas, Małgorzata Karbowska, Klaudia Zielińska, Paweł Kamelak, Scherley Stylianos, Julia Radulska, Mikołaj Teperek, Joanna Krupa Dominika Sztaba – POLAND


Project meeting: Reyhanli, Hatay, Turkey February, 2011


We all are the winners!

The Comenius Group

Let’s find something abut us! Here lived St. Peter!

Workshop-Romanian Team

At the St Peter’s Cave


Workshop again – conclusions

In a mosque

Workshop

Antakia - Hatay

St. Peter’s Cave – Old Christians’ places

Non- formal education


Holidays the common spirituality


carnival

The carnival is a public celebration that takes place immediately before the Christian Lent, with variable time (from late January to early March in the year), combining elements such as costumes, parades and street parties. Despite the great differences that its conclusion presented in the world, their common characteristic is to be a period of permissiveness and a lack of control.

The origin of its conclusion seems likely to pagan festivals, such as those performed in honour of Bacchus , the god of wine, Roman Saturnalia and the Lupercalia, or to be made in honour of the ox Apish in Egypt . According to some historians, the origins of this festival date back to ancient Sumerian and Egypt, more than 5,000 years, with celebrations alike at the time of the

Roman Empire , where the custom spread throughout Europe,


being brought to America by the Spanish and Portuguese navigators in the fifteenth century. Carnival is mostly associated with Catholicism, and to a lesser extent with the Eastern Orthodox Christian, usually Protes tant cultur es do not celebr ate the carniv al or have modified traditions, like the Danish Carnival.

The largest Carnival celebration in the world is that of Rio de Janeiro , but many other countries have major celebr ations, such as being held in Italy in the Venice Carnival in Colombia with the Carnival of Barranquilla, in Spain with the Carnival Santa Cruz de Tenerife , the Cรกdiz Carnival and Carnival of Aguilas which are also the only Spanish carnivals to have the


category of International Tourist Interest . The anthropologists found in the surviving elements of ancient carnival festivities and cultures, as the Feast of Winter ( Saturnalia ), celebrations Dionysian Greek and Roman ( Bacchanalia ), the parties pre-Hispanic Andean cultures and African American . Some authors consider that rural society, heavily structured by Christianity, the time of

"carnival" offered masquerades pagan rituals following a period of permissiveness that was opposed to the repression of sexuality and severe Lent liturgical formality. Lara Cesco GonzĂĄlez Rebeca OrdoĂąez Torre I.E.S. Santa Clara

Santander-Spain


Dochia Dochia symbolizes one of the oldest Romanian myths. There are two legends related to this myth. One of them is related to Traian and Dochia. It is said that Dochia was the daughter of the dacian king, Decebal, with whom Traian, the Roman Emperor fell in love.

Being followed by Traian's army, she hides on the holy mountain, Ceahlau, with the sheeps. Mary, mom of god, helps Dochia and turns her and the sheeps into a rock complex.

Another legend says that Dochia had a son, Dragobete, who got married against her will. In order to tease her daughter in law, in a cold winter day, Dochia gave her a ball of black wool and told her to go to the river and wash it, and not come back until the wool becomes white. The girl tried to wash it, but even though her fingers began to bleed, the wool remained black. In desperation because she couldn't return back to her beloved husband, she started to cry. Impressed, Jesus Christ came to her and gave her a red flower, telling her to wash the wool with it. After thanking him, the girl put the flower in the river and noticed that the black ball has turned white.


Happy that she had succeed in doing this hard job, she headed home, but she wasn't welcomed by her mother in law, because she thought that Martisor (this is what the girl called him, because she didn't recognize Jesus) was her lover. After this, Dochia started to head with her sheeps to the mountain, being sure that the spring has came, otherwise how could Martisor have the flower? During the trip, she removed her coats one by one, all twelve of them, until none remained. But the weather had changed. As hot as it was at the beginning of the day, as

cold it was then. It was snowing and everything started to freeze. Dochia freezed with her sheeps, turning, according to the legend, into a rock. The rocks can be seen nowadays on the Ceahlau Mountain and they are a testimony to this myth.

Denisa Ungureanu Romania


Călușul The Căluşari were the members of a romanian fraternal secret society who practiced a ritual acrobatic dance known as the căluş. According to the Romanian historian Mircea Eliade, the Calusari were known

for "their ability to create the impression of flying in the air”which he believed represented both the galloping of a horse and the dancing of the fairies (zine). Indeed, the group’s patron was the "Queen of the Fairies" (Doamna Zianelor), who was also known as Irodiada and

Arada, and who Eliade connected with the folkloric figure Diana Due to their connection with the fairies, the Calusari were believed to be able to cure the victims of fairies and for around two weeks - from three weeks after Easter till Whitsunday - would travel to all the local communities where they would dance, accompanied by a few fiddlers, in order to do so.In their dance, the Căluşari carried clubs and a sword, as well as a flag and a wooden horsehead. They swore on the group’s flag to treat each other as brothers, to respect the customs of the Calusari and to remain chaste for the next nine days. Upon


their return home, their flag was fixed into the ground, with one member climbing up in and crying out "war, dear ones, war!". The origins of the Calusari are unknown, although the first written attestations are from the 17th century musical notations of Ioan Căianu. Eliade noted that "Although the oath taken is made in the name of God, the mythico-ritual scenario enacted by the calusari has nothing in common with Christianity" and that, in the 19th century at least, there was clerical opposition to the group, with its members being excluded from taking communion for three years in some regions.The Romanian historian of religion Mircea Eliade believed

that the term Căluşari originated with the Romanian word for horse, cal, from the Latin caballus. The generally accepted derivation of Căluş is from the old Latin double form "collusium, collusii", meaning both "a dance group" and "a secret society", however other derivations have been proposed. The Romanian word căluş also means "a small piece of wood placed in the mouth to prevent talking", and derivation from this word has some support from the presence of the mute figure in some groups,


and the ritual silence that used to be observed by the entire group. Others see căluş as a diminutive of cal "horse", in turn derived from the Latin caballus, and point to the horse's mythical associations with fertility and war, as well as the imitation of horses found in certain Căluş dances, although these dances do not currently play a principal role in the ritual. Another theory is that it derives from "Coli-Salii", the Roman priests dedicated to the worship of Mars.

The căluş is a male group dance, although there are records of traditions from Oltenia region that included 1-2 young girls, now obsolete. Dancers wear white trousers and white tunics, with brightly coloured ribbons streaming from their hats. Bells are attached to their ankles, and dances include the use of sticks held upright whilst dancing, or pointing at the ground as a prop. Like many morris dances, in many traditions căluşari dancers include a fool, known as the "nebun", or "mute".


Figures are formed from combinations of elements, often have a beginning-middle-end structure. Radu Badea Romania

The dance includes the following elements. The starting figure of walking (plimbări), or a basic step, in a circle moving counter clockwise. More complex figures (miĹ&#x;care) performed in place between walking steps.


Dragobete Dragobete's story dates from dacians time, and he is the mythological divinity related to the well-known Cupidon, the Valentine's day hero. Dragobete is known to officiate all the animal's weddings. As the time pass, romanians transformed Dragobete in the master of love. Dragobete was a outstanding, beautiful son, known for his ability to steal virgin’s and young married women's minds. Because of this, of his passionate character, Virgin Mary punished him and transformed him into the plant which gate his name. It is believed that on the Dragobete's day, the birds talk into their language, looking for

their perfect match for mating , and then the birds are starting to build their own home ( nest). Unmated birds, will remain like this till next year, when Dragobete is approaching. It is said that this is the reason that teenagers are meeting in this day, to make their love like the birds one: united and safe.

Giuliano Isa Zamolo Romania


Baba Marta Grandma The month of March, according to Bulgarian

folklore, marks the beginning of springtime. Therefore, the first day of March is a traditional holiday associated with sending off winter and welcoming spring. In Bulgaria, "mart" is the word for March and "baba" means grandma. The mythical character of Baba Marta personifies the spring, the sun that can easily burn the fair skin of people's faces. According to the national belief Baba Marta is a

or

March

grumpy old lady whose mood is unpredictable. The common belief is that by wearing the red and white colours of the martenitsa people ask Baba Marta for mercy. They hope that it will make winter pass faster and bring spring. Baba Marta is a pagan tradition. Pagans worldwide celebrated the coming of the spring each year, thousands of years before Christ's birth. Spring was renowned as a time of renewal and fertility


representing new life and a fresh start after the cold winter. Martenitsa is usually worn pinned on the clothes, near the collar, or tied around the wrist. The tradition calls for wearing the martenitsa

until the person sees a stork or a blooming tree. Hristo Itzov Bulgaria


Mucenicii

On March 9th, in Romania is celebrated the day of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste (Locally known as Mucenici). Now let's take a short look into the pages of history. The Forty Martyrs of Sebaste or the Holy Forty were a group of Roman soldiers in the Legio XII Fulminata (Armed with Lightning), who have become martyrs for their Christian faith in 320. They were killed near Sebaste, in Lesser Armenia, victims of the persecutions of Licinius, who, after the year 316,

persecuted the Christians of the East. According to bishop Basil of Caesarea, forty soldiers who had openly confessed themselves Christians were condemned by the prefect to be exposed naked upon a frozen

pond near Sebaste on a bitterly cold night, that they might freeze to death. Among the confessors, one yielded and, leaving his companions, sought the warm baths near the lake which had been prepared for any who might prove inconstant. One of the guards set to keep watch over the


martyrs be held at this moment a supernatural brilliancy overshadowing them and at once proclaimed himself a Christian, and placed himself beside the thirtynine soldiers of Christ. Thus the number of forty remained complete. At daybreak, the stiffened bodies of the confessors, which still showed signs of life, were burned and the ashes cast into a river. This celebration overlaid the start of the the agricultural year and it generated a traditional holiday. During this day house cleaning is a must, the unnecessary objects and the garbage are burned, but only with fire brought from the house, so that the warmth of the family invade the nature too. Also, during this day, the Gates of Heaven are opened and

numerous rituals are performed so that warm weather may


come. Some believe that the Martyrs were drowned and flowers rose to the surface. As a result, some desserts are made in the figure 8 to look like garlands. Others believe that the figure 8 denotes a stylized human form of martyrs themselves. In the Muntenia and Dobrogea regions of Romania, the dough is smaller and cooked in water with sugar,

cinnamon and crushed nuts, symbolizing the lake where the Martyrs were cast. Horia Popescu Romania


SPANISH TRADITIONS LA NOCHE DE SAN JUAN IN THE NIGHT OF SAN JUAN It is a festival very old in which they celebrate the arrival of the summer solstice in the northern hemisphere whose rite is leading a fire. The purpose of this ordinance was "to give more power to the Sun" from those days, was becoming more "weak"-the days are getting shorter until the winter solstice. Symbolically, the fire also has a function "cleansing" in the people who watched. This festival is celebrated in many parts of Europe , but is especially strong in Spain, Portugal Norway,

Denmark, Sweden, and Finland ‌

In South America, Brazil have Festas Junin, Bolivia, Chile and Venezuela the night of San Juan. The Night ok San Juan is, likewise, connected to ancient tradition and Spanish legends as Legend of the Enchanted: In essence, the legend recounts the emergency of a beautiful young woman combing her long hair with a comb of gold, about the Night of San Juan and a near a castle, cave or other natural area full of


powerful symbolism. The encounter with her may lead to a viewer's enchantment, which generally tends to be a shepherd or farmer. Meanings The "history" of the enchanted, in itself, is rooted in a time when the knowledge and the very history of the company was transmitted in a human oral and reflect past events difficult to explain today. La Enchanted reminds the nymphs of classical mythology (young female figures of great beauty that appear next to water). Many of them also can sense the

precedents of the fairy tales (young, physical and spiritual beauty are haunted by some evil power and are waiting for a hero brave to break his spell with a beautiful action.) The similarities between the stories suggest a contact culture , perhaps from the prehistory . Ulysses and the Sirens (Attic pottery, British Museum). Symbols Cave - Associated with the earth and the underworld, the meaning symbolic of the caves has traditionally been related to the mysteries of birth and death . As input to the underworld or the world of the dead, were used since the Palaeolithic as burial sites. But the caves are also representations of the generator womb of


Mother Earth, which made them places of birth of the gods, heroes, spirits and other mythical beings. In turn, this confluence of life and death is like the best locations to perform the rites of initiatory death.Its symbolic importance of intercultural and intertemporal is remarkable, since the same Jesus Christ is buried in a cave and Orpheus seeking his beloved Eurydice touring a cave (Hades). Mirror Is related to the moon, another symbol female, and appears in numerous legends and fairy folk character magic and mythology. Raises appearances of either the past or visions of the future .

Comb Anthropologically, the symbol of the comb is closely related to the boat (for rowing). There is a great linear relationship between the two and represent the mutual penetration of the elements water and fire. The comb is an attribute of fabulous beings of feminine nature, as lamias and sirens ; it is the ratio of naked tail comb of fish and the consequent meaning mortuary. Diana Bonilla del Campo テ]gela Arambarri Ateca I.E.S. Santa Clara Santander-Spain


THE NIGHT OF THE MAGIC KINGS In Spain , compared with the recent introduction of Santa Claus in the usual Christmas due to the influence of American culture and foreign countries, it is traditional for Christmas gifts to children they may bring the Kings the night of 5 to 6 January. Before, the children must send a letter to the king asking for the presents they want and indicate the credit for those who deserve to receive gifts. On the night of January 5th children must leave their shoes in the house somewhere. The next day the gifts are there, or

in the case of a wrong, coal in place. On January 6 festive often in Spain, even when regional party

depends on the authorities of each region was established. There is therefore considered a national holiday. Adults also receive gifts. The breakfast is typical of Kings Rosc贸n in many places also taken the day before picnic or dinner. In Spain these roscones


usually contain a Christmas figurine. In some Latin American countries adopted the custom of the Spanish that children (and by extension, older) receive gifts of the Magi, or the day before, that is, on the night of January 5 or the morning of January 6. It is normal for children to write a letter to the king asking for the gifts they want and ensuring their good behaviour during the year since, according to tradition, children who misbehave receive fresh coal instead of gifts. Most postal services accept these

cards. More recently has also begun the practice of writing through e-mail or even directly to their website. Magic children receive like the usual AngloSaxon about Santa Claus it is often wise menappear in gift shops and malls, where children have the opportunity to take a picture sitting on their knees and submit the letter with their requests directly. The representation usually consists of a stage with thrones and the characteristic symbols, such as pictures or drawings of camels, the star, a mailbox and Eastern-looking ornaments. In the thrones is where they feel the kings, is commonly characterized employees. Sometimes


represent the three kings of tradition, but depending on the circumstances or the size of the stage, may include only one. They also include a page, signature character in charge of leading the children from where they expect their parents to kings and to collect the cards.

In some places, the authorities organized the so-called Three Kings on January 5, during which the characters are usually on horseback or in carriages, wearing robes and crowns, instead of the Phrygian

dress completely unknown. The next day, Jan. 6, is a public holiday. That day the children enjoy their gifts. In Spain, the Kings put the gifts which the children have left their shoes. Sweets are also left to give to the Magi and even food or water for the camels, which is the means of transport. Other customs of the January 6 This tradition originated in Spain in the typical twisted roll of kings (also called rosca de Reyes) taken on that day and that hides a little surprise inside. Miguel Crespo Puras Laro GarcĂ­a Bolado I.E.S. Santa Clara Santander-Spain


Bulgarian Customs First is about firedancers. This is a custom that can be seen only in some villages between Strandzha and the Black Sea, around Bourgas. It is observed on the holiday of St.Konstantin and Elena , and sometimes on some of the local village fairs and the church/patr on saint's days. A basic element of the custom is the dance in fire ( glowing embers). The whole village takes part in the celebration but it is only the firedancers that participate in the ritual dance. They are chosen by the saint who is patron of the

holiday. The dancers are able to "see" his face, to "hear" his voice and his spirit is transferred in them and on his behalf they can interpret omens , give advices and scorn people. Fire-dancing is inherited. Only the head firedancer is the one to pass the strength and inspiration to the other fire-dancers. Head firedancer could become only the son or the daughter of the present one and only if he is either too old or after he has passed away.


The head fire-dancer house is s sacred one because there is the so called "stolnina" or "konak"/"rasting place",which is a very small chapel where the icons of st.Konstantin and Elena are kept as well as those of the the Virgin Mary , st.George , st.Pantaleimon, and some wood-cuts from the Holy Sepulcher and red pieces of cloth decorated with a sun. There is also the sacred drum which sets the beat of the dance. It is also believed that the drum has magical powers and it can sure the one who carries it if he happens to

be ill. This drum is not to be used in any other case. On the very day of the holiday after the service in the church, the people make their way to the "konak" led by the head fire-dancer and the priest. There the head fire-dancer censes the icons and the other firedancers and passes to them the spiritual strength and inspiration of St.Konstantin. They start beating the drum and play a special firedancing song on a pipe.


Some of the fire-dancers get "caught" (a state of religious trance) and start dancing with the saint's icon in their hands. After that everyone sets off for the spring which bears the name of the saint and there they set up a big feast with prepared at home boiled mutton. After sunset they all return to the central square where they build up a big fire around which they play a horo to the accompaniment of the pipe and the drum. When the fire goes out and turns into glowing embers , the fire-dancers start dancing on them. The fire-dancer dances bare-footed on the embers and while he is dancing he may see and foretell the future.

Second is about Laduvane. The Laduvane takes place on the New Year's, St. George's day, Midsummer and St. Lazar's day.

With this ritual the young girls foretell who the lad they are going to marry will be and ask Lada, the goddess of love and marriage to show them what he will be like. On this day the girls bring water from the spring or the well in a white cauldron. This water has different names depending in the day in which the ritual is performed quiet, untouched or colorful.


After they bring the water the girls gather in a house and each of them leaves her ring or a bunch of flowers with a ring around them, or a bracelet in the cauldron. They leave the cauldron under the roses or some other kinds of flowers during the night under the stars. In the morning

one of the lasses or a young child dressed as a bride takes the rings and the flowers out of the water and the rest of the girls are singing short songs. They sing about a fore-coming marriage, happiness in the marriage, social status and qualities of the future husband: "a ripe and over-ripe quince" (the girl will be old when she gets married);


"alone you are on a stone" (she will marry an orphan); "a yellow veil gathers splinters" (the girl will get married). Each girl takes some oats from the cauldron and puts it under her pillow. They believe that whoever the boy they dream about that night is that will be the one they are going to marry. Their

health during the next year is foretold by whether or not the water is freezing in the cauldron.The celebration ends with a big horo. And the third is about Kukeri. On New Year's Eve and Zagovezni in Bulgaria special rituals called Mummer's games take place. The Mummer's games are performed by men only. They put on special masks hand-made by each of the participants. Most of the masks are constructed by wood. Different colored threads are glued on it as well as


pieces of multicolored fabrics, mirrors and other shiny elements. The masks representing a ram, a goat or a bull are considered the strangest. Their necessary part of the Mummer's games proves the thesis that the origin of the mummer's games is connected to the ancient Dionysius' games. The impact that the masked mummers make gets even bigger by the sound of the copper and bronze bells that hang on them. Some of the masks have two faces. On one of the sides the nose is snub and the face is good-

humored and on the other the nose is hooked and the face is ominous. Those masks symbolize the good and the bad which coexist in the world and are inevitable. A very important thing for the symbolic of the masks is the color of the decoration. The red is the most used one - a symbol of the fertility of the reviving nature, of the sun and the fire; the black color embodies the earth and her goddess mother and the white is a symbol of water and light

SANDY ANGELOVA Bulgaria


Sânzienele / the Fairies The custom of Fairies and its origins are lost deep within the midst of time. This is a local habit who’s original name was lost. We only managed to save the roman name of Sanziana, which is actually related to the name of Sancta Diana, and the slavonian one, “Dragaica”. The English word for Sanziene is Fairies. The celebration of the Sanziene (held on the 24th of June, the day John the Baptizer was born) is related to the cult of crop gathering, the cult of vegetation and fertility and it holds a fascinating mixture of Christianity, paganism and witchcraft. The Sanziene/ Fairies are also plants with yellow

flowers with a pleasant smell. They grow in fields and at the edge of forests. Accompanied by music and the shouting of the younger men, girls gather these flowers in bouquets and knit them in circular shapes. These bouquets are then brought to the village and are put behind doors windows and balconies.


The flowers are also being spread amongst the vegetables in the garden because it is believed that they will protect the owners and the house it’s self from evil spirits and that they

will also bring luck prosperity and good health. During the Fairies night, old women also go to place known only by them to gather healing plants. Most of these herbs are than sent to the church where they are blessed and therefore are purified by the negative influence of the “iele� (evil fairies who live in the forests).

Only then they will be safe to use for healing. The Fairies were also considered by girls to be a mean through whom they could find out who their husband is going to be, and when will they get married. Also, there is a custom that says that the bouquets that were previously gathered by the girls should be thrown over the house and if they remain there then soon there shall be a wedding. Another tradition says

that before going to sleep, in the night of the Fairies, girls should put under their pillow one of the flowers she has


gathered and she will dream the man she will marry. During the same night, right before sunrise, girls must go to the stables and throw a bouquet at the cattle and if the flowers shall get stuck in a young cow’s horns than the man she will marry is going to be young. If not, the future husband will be an old man. During the same night, at sunset, young men meet outside the village and set big fires around which they sing songs about love and magic. The next day, girls who soon shall be married dress up in white clothes wearing yellow flowers behind their ears, and set a traditional ring dance, to celebrate the upcoming event.

Ovidiu Roșca Romania


In Turkey Bayram Festival.

means

Eid al-Adha (“Kurban Bayramı”, i.e. “Sacrifice Bayram”), Dhu al-Hijjah 10-13 What is Eid al-Adha? At the end of the Hajj (annual pilgrimage to Mecca), Muslims throughout the world celebrate the holiday of Eid al-Adha (Festival of Sacrifice). In 2010, Eid alAdha will begin on November 16th, and will last for three days. What does Eid al-Adha commemorate? During the Hajj, Muslims remember and commemorate the trials and triumphs of the Prophet Abraham. The Qur’an describes Abraham as follows:

“Surely Abraham was an example, obedient to Allah, by nature upright, and he was not of the polytheists.

He was grateful for our bounties. We chose him and guided him unto a right path. We gave him good in this world, and in the next he will most surely be among the righteous.” (Qur’an 16:120-121) One of Abraham’s main trials was to face the command of Allah to kill his only son. Upon hearing this command, he prepared to submit to Allah’s will. When he was all prepared to do it, Allah revealed to him that his “sacrifice” had


already been fulfilled. He had shown that his love for his Lord superseded all others, that he would lay down his own life or the lives of those dear to him in order to submit to God. Why do Muslims sacrifice an animal on this day? During the celebration of Eid al-Adha, Muslims commemorate and remember Abraham’s trials, by themselves slaughtering an animal such as a sheep, camel, or goat. This action is very often misunderstood by those outside the faith. Allah has given us power over animals and allowed us to eat meat, but only if we pronounce His name at the solemn act of taking life. Muslims slaughter animals in the same way throughout the year. By saying the

name of Allah at the time of slaughter, we are reminded that life is sacred.

The meat from the sacrifice of Eid al-Adha is mostly given away to others. One-third is eaten by immediate family and relatives, onethird is given away to friends, and one-third is donated to the poor. The act symbolizes our willingness to give up things that are of benefit to us or close to our


hearts, in order to follow Allah’s commands. It also symbolizes our willingness to give up some of our own bounties, in order to strengthen ties of friendship and help those who are in need. We recognize that all blessings come from Allah, and we should open our hearts and share with others. It is very important to understand that the sacrifice itself, as practiced by Muslims, has nothing to do with atoning for our sins or using the blood to wash ourselves from sin. This is a misunderstanding by those of previous generations: “It is not their meat or their blood that reaches Allah; it is your piety that reaches Him.” (Qur’an 22:37)

The symbolism is in the attitude – a willingness to make sacrifices in our lives in order to stay on the Straight Path. Each of us makes small sacrifices, giving up things that are fun or important to us. A true Muslim, one who submits his or herself completely to the Lord, is willing to follow Allah’s commands completely and obediently.

It is this strength of heart, purity in faith, and willing obedience that our Lord desires from us. What else do Muslims do to celebrate the holiday? On the first morning of Eid al-Adha, Muslims around the world attend


morning prayers at their local mosques. Prayers are followed by visits with family and friends, and the exchange of greetings and gifts. At some point, members of the family will visit a local farm or otherwise will make arrangements for the slaughter of an animal. The meat is distributed during the days of the holiday or shortly thereafter. Eid ul-Fitr (“Şeker Bayramı”, i.e. “Bayram of Sweets” or “Ramazan Bayramı”, i.e. “Ramadan Bayram”), Shawwal 1-3

are kept very short—ten to fifteen minutes. Mostly candies,

chocolates, Turkish coffee and cold beverages are offered to visitors. People who cannot visit their friends and family members in other towns make telephone calls or send cards celebrating the festival. Seker Bayram, or the “sugar festival,” is

celebrated by Muslims at the end of Ramazan, the fasting month for Muslims. It lasts three and a half days. It is a national religious holiday in Turkey. Schools and government offices are


closed during those days. It is traditional to wear new outfits during Bayram (meaning festival), so parents get new clothes for their children. Many children are excited about wearing their new clothes on the first day of the festival. The house is completely cleaned a few days before the festival. The First Day: The first day of Seker Bayram is the most important. Everybody wakes up early and the men go to the mosque for the special Bayram prayer. After returning from the mosque, all of the family members dress up nicely, mostly with new clothes, and another important tradition is practiced: the Bayram visits. Ramazan Visits: Young people visit their elders first. The other relatives,

neighbors and friends are also visited. Due to those visits, the traffic is quite busy on the first day of the festival. Bayram visits Children normally love Bayram visits and would like to visit as many elders as they can because it’s traditional for elders to give pocket money to the children. Children can easily collect pocket money for one month. The best part for the children is that there is no restriction on how much they can spend and how they spend it. Therefore, amusement parks are set


up in almost every town during the festival. Ramazan Tipping: Kapicis (doormen or superintendents of apartment buildings), trash collectors, and Ramazan drummers often knock on doors during the Seker Bayram festival expecting gifts or tips. Cemetery Visits: Another tradition practiced during the festival is visiting the graves of deceased family members. The visits to graveyards start one day prior to the festival and continue during the festival.

Gifts and Congratulations:

If you visit your Turkish friends, a box of candy or chocolate would be the most appropriate gift to take. The phrase for wishing your Turkish friends’ a happy holiday is “Iyi Bayramlar” (eeyee-by-rahm-lahr), which means literally “good festivals” or “I wish you a happy festival.” Ramazan Names: Another tradition in Turkey is to give boys born during Bayram the name “Bayram,” just like giving the name “Ramazan” to boys born during Ramazan.


Another name for the festival is “Ramazan Bayrami.” In Arabic, the holiday is called “Id-ul Fitr.” The name “Seker Bayram” or “sugar festival” probably comes from the tradition of exchanging sweets during the holiday. Typically shops are closed on the first day of the festival, but they open up again on the second day. When you visit Turkish friends or encounter children during Seker Bayram, you’ll often see them kiss your hand and place it on their forehead as they bow to you. It’s a Turkish tradition for children to show respect for elders in that way. They put the back of your hand against their forehead to show you that you have a position “at the top of their head.” The correct

response is to kiss the child on both cheeks as a sign of love and sympathy for them. You’ll then often see the children put out their hands afterward, expecting a bit of pocket change! It’s traditional to give the child a coin or some coins when they do that. The sincerity of the act they just performed is another question entirely!

Yunus Emre Yalçın , Enver Avcıoğlu , Ali Emre Öztürk Yahya Turan Anadolu Öğretmen Lisesi


Polish traditions Poles are a nation that cherishes and enjoys their festivities, traditions and centuriesold customs.

Wigilia Among Poles, wherever they are, the most beloved and beautiful of all traditional festivities is that of Christmas Eve.

It is then that the Wigilia, or Christmas Eve Dinner is served. It is a solemnly celebrated occasion and arouses deep feelings of kinship among family members. For days in advance, Poles prepare the traditional foods and

everyone anxiously awaits the moment when the first star, known as “Gwiazdka”, appears in the sky. For that is when the feast to commemorate the birth of the Christ Child begins. There is always a thin layer of hay under the white tablecloth in memory of the Godchild in the manger. Before sitting down at the table, everyone breaks the traditional wafer, or Opłatek and exchanges good wishes for health, wealth and happiness in the New Year. The Opłatek is a thin, unleavened wafer similar to the altar bread in the Roman Catholic Church.


It is stamped with the figures of the Godchild, the blessed Mary, and the holy angels. The wafer is known as the bread of love and is often sent by mail to the absent members of the family. The dinner itself differs from other evening meals in that the number of courses is fixed at twelve in honour of the twelve disciples. An extra place is set at the table for an unexpected guest. This belief stems from the ancient Polish "A guest at home is God at home." The Wigilia is a meatless meal. A traditional Wigilia menu includes a mushroom soup or red borsh, pickled herring (śledzie), fried fish, pierogi, beans and sauerkraut (groch i kapusta), dried fruit compote, babka,

assorted pastries, nuts and candies. After the meal the members of the family sing Polish Christmas Carols called “kolędy” while the children wait impatiently around the Christmas tree for the gifts to be exchanged.

Polish Christmas Carols are numerous and beautiful, especially when sung in Polish parishes at the Christmas Eve Mass. This Mass is called “Pasterka”, which means the Shepherds


Watch, and there is a popular belief in Poland that while the congregation is praying, peace descends on the snow-clad, sleeping earth and that during that holy night, the companions of men - the domestic animals - assume voices. But only those who are free from any question of guilt may hear them. Christmas Day itself is spent in rest, prayer, and visits to various members of the family.

During the Christmas season a priest visits homes and blesses them to spare them from misfortune.

Fat Thursday

Fat Thursday is a traditional Polish feast marking the last Thursday before Lent and is associated with the celebration of Carnival. Because Lent is a time of fasting, the next opportunity to feast would not be until Easter. Traditionally it is a day dedicated to eating, when people meet in their homes or cafĂŠs with their friends and relatives and eat large quantities of sweets, cakes and other meals forbidden during Lent. Among the most popular all-national dishes served on that day


effigy, drowning it in a river, or both. The effigy can range in size from a puppet to a life-size dummy. are pączki, fist-sized donuts filled with rose marmalade, and faworki, French dough fingers served with lots of powdered sugar.

Drowning Marzanna

of

A folk custom that has survived in Poland is burning or "drowning" an effigy of Marzanna in celebration of the end of winter. Typically it takes place on the day of the vernal equinox.

The rite involves setting fire to a female straw

Symbolically, this ritual represents the end of winter through the burning or drowning of death — by destroying death, the people were ridding themselves of the long, dark days of winter, and welcoming the rebirth that came with spring.

Święconka Another tradition dear to the heart of every Pole is the blessing of the Easter food, or the "Swięconka" when people express their gratefulness for all


God’s gifts of nature and grace.

both

The usual fare on the Easter table includes ham and sausage, cakes of all kinds - particularly babka; eggs - some shelled or some decorated. There is usually a sugar Paschal Lamb too.

The food is brought to the church and blessed by the parish priest on Holy Saturday. After the

blessing, the food is usually set aside until Easter morning when the head of the house shares the blessed egg, symbol of life, with family and friends. Having exchanged wishes, all continue to enjoy a hearty meal.

This centuries old custom is indeed richly symbolic and beautiful. It is one in which the whole family can participate and help prepare. The Easter season in Poland ends on Monday when the traditional "Smigus-Dyngus" custom is observed. It is a humorous Easter time custom. The young


people break the solemnity of Easter by a burst of frivolity.

After getting the girls out of their houses, the boys douce them with water. The girls reciprocate in kind. In cities this custom is practiced with more gentility, by using a sprinkle of water or fragrant cologne.

Sobótka (Noc Świętojaoska – St. John’s Night) A centuries-old celebration taking place during the summer solstice, on June 23 is Sobótka (Noc Świętojaoska). It is a holiday of joy and love, fertility, fire, sun and moon. It is an archetype of the pagan magical

practices that were supposed to clean the ground and water from demons and ensure abundant crops. These actions included adorning houses with green twigs, feasting, singing and dancing by


fires and bathing in a river or lake. One of St. John’s customs still popular today is throwing wreaths into the water. This is an women for men and women waiting for love. A wreath should be thrown into the river so that stagnant feelings for ex-partners could be taken away with its current. A single woman’s wreath should be picked up by a single man. Otherwise its owner will not know love all year round. And if a man does not pick up any wreath, solitude awaits him till the next year.

1st May - Labour Day The 1st of May is considered by workers a day off with a chance to rest and find some peace with their families, an

opportunity to spend some time out of the city and enjoy the first warm days of the year.

Day of Flag

Polish

This holiday has been recently re-instated and was declared official in February 2004 by the Polish Sejm. It awakens patriotism for their country in the soul of the Polish people and there are many concerts and shows on that day in Poland.


All Saints’ Day All Saints’ Day (1st November) is a festival which has been celebrated in Poland for many centuries. It is a national holiday, and a day when people all over Poland visit the graves of loved ones to place candles and flowers on them.

The special candles, which can burn for many hours, are placed there so that departed souls can find their way through the darkness. Cemeteries are lit by many hundreds of these candles and at night the cemeteries can often be seen glowing from long distances. Many Poles travel long distances to

visit family graves and to remember the dead. The holiday is also known as the Day of the Dead.

Stypa A feasting celebration connected with All Souls’ Day is Stypa. It is a gala banquet organized after the death of a loved or well-known person and dedicated to their memory.

During the celebration


the family members recall the merits and achievements of the deceased and exchange their ideas about passing away.

The old custom of “Pępkowe” Young fathers who want to celebrate the enlargement of the family, to express happiness about the birth of their child, and share it with their family members and friends, organize parties known colloquially

as “pępkowe.” The young dad, according to tradition, is endowed by the guests with a small tree that he should plant

and a cigar that he should ritually smoke.

Sto Lat! - May you live a hundred years “Sto lat” is a traditional song sung at birthdays and name days in Poland much like the "Happy Birthday" song in the United States. However, "Sto Lat" is more versatile as it can be also heard at special events and occasions such as anniversaries, patriotic events and award ceremonies. Sto Lat Sto lat, sto lat, niech zyje zyje nam. Sto lat, sto lat, niech zyje zyje nam. Jeszcze raz, jeszcze raz, niech zyje, zyje nam. Niech zyje nam! Sto Lat (English version) Good luck, good cheer, may you live a hundred years.


Good luck, good cheer, may you live a hundred years. Good luck, good cheer, may you live a hundred years. One hundred years! Teamwork by students from Zespół Szkół nr 31 im. J. Kilioskiego in Warsaw, classes: ILB1, ILC1 and IILC2 References: Hryo-Kuśmierek, Renata and Zuzanna Śliwa: Encyklopedia tradycji polskich, Poznao, Poland: PodsiedlikRaniowski i Spółka, 1990; Ogrodowska Barbara: Polish Rituals of the Annual Cycle, Warsaw , State Ethnographic Museum, 2001.


THE CONTEMPORANE OUSNESS OF THE MAJOR ETHICAL SYSTEMS OF ANCIENT REGARDING THE MORAL VALUES, THE MEANING OF LIFE AND HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS


The Spain project meeting: SANTANDER April, 2011


Wellcome !

What do you think about me? What is the truth about me?


Workshop: Ethical ancient systems

Let’s test your character: “I love you, but I can’t just smile!”


Life stories and philosophical ideas.

Learning by visiting: Santa Maria de Lebena Church


Pico de Europa

“Married trees”


Pico de Europa

Santander, next to the Easter Day


At the library

At the final...


REAL HAPPENINGS STORIES

ABOUT

BEING HUMANE


A long time ago when I was walking in the park I saw a little boy crying. I did not have time to check out what was going on because I was already late for dinner and my mum was mad at me. I started to run in the hope that mum would leave some of my favourite salad to me. Then I remembered a deep sadness in the boys’ eyes so I decided to turn back and help him. I noticed his tiny yellow ball on a tree so I climbed the tree and fetched the ball down for him. He was so happy that I stopped caring about the dinner. I felt really good. I think it is important to help people. Natalia Wilczyńska class ILC1 POLAND

One summer holiday I was in the Mazury. When I was walking through the forest I heard a dog howling. I got scared. I thought the dog was dangerous and could have rabies. I headed straight for the place where the strange sound was coming from. When I found the dog I really wanted to help it. One of its paws was broken. I called my parents to come and take me and

the poor dog home. Over the next days I was taking care of the dog. I took him to the vet who put a plaster bandage on his paw, I was giving him food and going out for walks with him. I was, however, afraid that the dog would not recover but tried not to think about it. After a few weeks it turned out that the dog was all right. I was full of happiness and so were my parents. They let me keep the dog at home. After this adventure he became my best friend. I called him Forester. Joanna Krupa class IILC2 POLAND

One day when I was coming back from my friend’s birthday party I saw an accident. A car hit an elderly woman. She fell over with her trolley and all the shopping dropped out. I quickly ran over to her and helped her to get up and pick up the shopping. The driver was horrified by what he had done. Fortunately, it seemed that nothing had happened to that elderly lady but just in case I was wrong I called the ambulance. They arrived promptly and the woman was taken to hospital. The next day I came to her to ask how


she was feeling. She was very grateful for my assistance and we spent the whole afternoon having a pleasant conversation. Klaudia Zielińska class ILBI POLAND

I was once coming back home on a sunny but cold winter day and I saw a little puppy tied to a fence. I thought that it was somebody’s dog and I went home. Then a few hours later I leaned out of the balcony and noticed that this dog was still there. I went outside and took this poor shivering puppy home. At first my parents did not agree with me about having a dog but two days later they did. I rescued this little dog from coldness and loneliness. Martyna Kawka class IILC2 POLAND

It happened last summer while I was coming back from the swimming pool. It was getting late and it was a little dark. The street was empty except one car. I walked slowly to the car because it looked crashed. When I came closer I saw that the windows were smashed

and the front dented. Inside I saw one lady. She was dead so I called the police, but it was too dark to see what had happened to a child in the back seat. It seemed that he was still breathing so I called the ambulance. It arrived ten minutes later. It was too late to help the woman but I saved the child. Scherley Stylianos class ILB1 POLAND

Do a Favour In the old times, there was a village in Reyhanlı.People in that village used to behave badly. They used to be ruthless and selfish. They didn’t used to get on well with eachother. The bad events and quarrels were being happened. There was a family who were a good one . They never used to quarrel. They used to try to have a good relationship with other villagers. The family used to like helping them. Once a upon day, A woman who was travelling ran out of her food. When she realized that there was no food with her, she saw that village. She thought that there would be nice people in the village to ask for help, that’s why she started to walk through the village. She knocked the all doors to ask for some food, but the ruthless villagers didn’t give some food and looked the woman down. They drove her away.


The woman asked for some food from the family who was nice. The family give some food willingly and they treated her kindly. She prayed and said her best wishes and for this family. She had a good hearted, and her prays came true for them. The days passed. One day , It rained a lot, the villagers was drowned. But only the good family survived from the flood. 1. If we do a favour, at last we will have a reward. 2. We can come acrass the good people everywhere. 3. The people who has a goodness inside. They are really happy. 4. To be happy md live happily we must do a favour. Enver Avcıoğlu TURKEY

Zeynep. He managed to talk her. He talked to Zeynep about his feelings.Omar wanted her to marry him, but Zeynep had a condition to marry him. Immediately he ran home, he talked his mother. He said; ‘I love Zeynep. I can’t live without her. I want to marry her. She has only are condition. She wants your heart’. His mother always wanted Omar’s happiness , so she said ‘I will give me my heart willingly’ And then Omar cut his mother took her heart.While he was running to Zeynep enthusiastically, he fell down suddenly. A sound was heard from his mother’s heart. ‘My sweety son, did you hurt yourself’. Moral:

Mother Once a young man, named Omar, used to live in a city. Although Omar was prudent, he could influence everyone’s words easily. While Omar was walking on the road He saw Zeynep. He fell in love with Zeynep at the first sight. Zeynep was a very beautiful young lady Omar decided to meet

Mother’s love has no equals. Aslı Kevser Kulu TURKEY


Greek philosophers ... ...taught us a lot about being good and just, about freedom, knowledge and happiness. Aristotle argued that knowledge comes from experience and the greatest good is happiness, and good and sensible action in the ideal life. Socrates argued that only a conversation can be a source of truth and wisdom. Cyrenaics believed that the pleasure of the moment is the only goal in life. Plato called to live in accordance with the law and talked about the necessity of respecting our leaders. He was a promoter of sound education for the young. Neoplatonism said that one has to attain union with God to be good, which makes me think about the Ten Commandments of God that we use in our everyday lives . I think that today’s people value each pleasurable moment of their lives but they also like to speculate on what will happen in the future and about their later lives . They allow themselves to make rush decisions as suggested by the ancient Greeks.

I think that the thought about life in the moment is the closest to my own views because I’m spontaneous and I do not wonder too much about what will happen tomorrow. Taking advantage of every moment gives us an opportunity to learn, grow, love, evolve. Being happy and content in the moment will keep us from needless worry about the future or hurting other people. Life with too much structure, too much direction, too much pressure inhibits our ability to be alive in the moment. Our heart, body, mind and soul operate optimally when they are free.

Scherley Stylianos class 11B1 – POLAND


Epicurus: the pleasure and wisdom (“Letter to Menoiceus). Epicurus’s Morality can be summed up in these four tips: find that pleasure that is not followed by pain, prevent pain that does not cause any pleasure, saves you accept the pain of a greater suffering in the future or that you will purchase in much more pleasure, watch the pleasure you miss of greater pleasure in the future or that will cause pain.

Epicur’s prefer so-called “stable pleasure”, quiet, durable, free of worries and emotions. Happiness is to live without care and suffering. This ideal is easy to do because our natural needs(hunger, thirst) are not numerous, nor pretentious.

Desires that rage, usually men (wealth, power, glory) are not necessary. Quote: „With bread and water wise its dispute with the gods happyness. „ Epicur. In fact, wisdom is for Epicur „the first and greatest asset” from which comes all the other virtues (prudence, temperance, courage and justice) that can not lead to happiness. He starts from the fact that all beings strive, by nature, to bypass the pain and live the pleasure that leads to happiness. Quote: „Every pleasure is good and pain is bad”. Therefore, pleasure for the wisest becomes the highest good and pain the only evil that must be awared of. What is pleasure? It is a joy to the soul and for the body an pleasure excitement. It is not totally accurate. For Epicur , pleasure is the lack of any sign of pain , overall the result is a deep silence of the soul (Ataraxia). Raducanu Mircea cls. a XII-a G, National College Octav Onicescu – ROMANIA


The moral values of antiquity in our days The moral theories must answer to the question concerning the purpose of human actions. So over time, philosophers have found that happiness is the goal of all our actions. Epicure’s conception resembles that of Aristip without even being identical. Epicure focus on the negative form of pleasure, the absence of pain, while Aristip focus on the positive part of pleasure, on its actual presence. The suppression of pleasure is not pain, as the absence of pain is not pleasure. Aristip’s thinking is attached to the body pleasure, while Epicure’s thinking is’s attached to the being’s consciousness. These moral theories applies in our day to day life, Aristip’s theory being the most common in which most people do not take account of the river that

will follow after pleasure, leaving everything to chance. Epicure’s Theories are rarely found in which people are making things they don’t like so later they can experience the real pleasure later. An example of Aristip’s theory is going to a movie one day knowing that the other day you have an important test at school. You go to the movie without thinking of the consequences that will follow after the test which you didn’t had time to study. Epicure’s example is the opposite, knowing that tomorrow you have a test , you better stay home and study than going to the movies, knowing that to study is something we don’t like we are doing it knowing that we get a big grade and have a bigger pleasure.

Boboc Constantin Eugen, XIIC, National College O.Onicescu Romania


Since times

the

ancient

people have been looking for a recipe for good and happy life. They have been wondering what ingredients are needed to become a good man, what real wisdom and freedom is and what justice means. There have been various ideas over the centuries. Why don’t we take a look at what the greatest Greek philosophers advised? Protogoras claimed that for good and wise life people need rules of some kind. Pythagoras advised vegetarianism as the best way that can lead a human being to become good and righteous. The proof was the fact that without killing animals we live in peace and harmony. In contrast, the sophist called Thrasymachus said that there is nothing to wait for but to be the stronger and take what we need because there is no justice in this world but only the rule of the more powerful ones. He is said to be the first promoter of egoism as the way to achieve happiness. However, another philosopher, Empedocles, thought

that strength is not important at all because everything that happens around us is caused either by love or strife. Socrates advised conversation that can result in reaching wisdom but cynics claimed that to become a better person you need to avoid pleasure and enjoyment. After these ideas, came Plato’s ideas about four main virtues that are wisdom, courage, temperance and justice; whereas, for Aristotle the highest good was happiness, or perfect and reasonable activity in a perfect life. The idea of self-control and calmness was brought by stoicism and afterwards Epicurus argued that to become wise you need to experience things. Neoplatonism closes the list of Geek concepts by showing the union with God as the way to happiness and wisdom. As it was presented Geeks provided us lots of ideas, thoughts and concepts. What’s really interesting most of them are still up-todate because there are many people who consciously or not live in the way advised by the philosophers. Lots


of teenagers want to experience everything like Epicurus. They don’t take any advice from their parents. On the other hand, many older people with life experience try to live in a stoic way. Observing people proves that none of the Greek concepts is the most popular or right. Everything depends on the place, time and very often the age of people. The idea that appeals to me most is the Plato’s concept about four main virtues but I’m aware of the fact that it might change with time and situation.

Milena Cyprynowska IILC1 – POLAND

class


The rules of conduct ... ...proposed by most of the Greek philosophers are correct because the problems touched by them are timeless. We all need common-sense thinking and we have to understand the eternal laws governing the world. Pythagoras, who was an early Greek thinker, believed that after death of the body the human soul doesn’t die but it may live in the body of an animal. That is why he advocated vegetarianism and thought that animals and people are equal and everyone has the right to be happy. Now there are a lot of vegetarians who think the same as Pythagoras and don’t eat meat. I agree with the thinking of Socrates, who believed that wisdom and truth come from conversation so people must talk to each other to prevent wars.. Talking with different people is a remarkable experience as you can learn a

lot from them. I also partly hold with Aristotle who believed that knowledge comes from experience. Man learns most from their experience. We make mistakes and try not to repeat them any more. However, we also gain knowledge in school, from television and books. I am also in agreement with the CARPE DIEM thought of Epicurus reminding us that life is not an eternal right. Nowadays our life is a continuous race. We live in a hurry, we do not have time for anything. We are not nice to each other, sometimes even hostile. We never know what can happen to us, our friends or relatives so I think we should give mutual support to each other in difficult situations, enjoy the smallest trifle and live every day to its fullest. Joanna Krupa and Klaudia Zielińska classes IILC2 and ILBI – POLAND


THE GREAT PARADIGM OF HUMANISMRENASCENCE ENLIGHTEN, HUMAN RIGHTSSTAMP OF MORALITY “I am a man, I consider nothing that is human alien to me" ( "Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto") TERENCE


Temperature is in fire, not in sheet iron, Miracle is in coat, not in crown, Whatever you look for, look for within yourself Not in Jerusalem, Mecca, Pilgrimage. Hacı Bektaş-i Veli , Turkish philosopher

HUMANIST PERSONALITIES TURKEY poems

-

YUNUS

EMRE’s

YUNUS EMRE was akin to Petrarch, also a 14th century poet, and to Erasmus, a century later, who, as a part of the classical or Renaissance humanism, shunned the dogmatism imposed on man by scholasticism, tried to instill in the average man a rejuvenated sense of the importance of his life on earth. Similar to Dante's work, Yunus Emre's poetry symbolized the ethical patterns of mortal life while depicting the higher values of immortal being. Yunus Emre also offered to the common man "the optimism of mysticism"--the conviction that human beings, sharing Godly attributes, are capable of transcending themselves.


Turkey – MEVLANA “We can say that; human from the standpoint of Mevlana is the most important existence. Because divine qualities can appear on human only. First of all human is an artistic work of God. 1 The whole universe is shadow (reflection) of God and He appears through it. But human merely perceives it. Therefore human has a superior position.(like Platon’s Ideas), Mevlana’s view of society is parallel to introspective method and doctrine of unity of existence (Vahdet-i Vucut) that takes part in theories of psychology. Introspective or the method of recognition of himself comes to anagreement with sight of unity of existence in sufism. Religion occupies the most important position in Mevlana’s understanding of society. “Tevhid” is the centre point in the society and the universe for Mevlana. Because the origin of everything is unique. It is necassary

to be united with God. Real Tevhid is this for Mevlana. Those who don’t accept it are within conceit.46 This world is a universe of figures and dreams. Individual that is the least unit of society is a spark of God and is the little pearl of divine light. Therefore human can be seen as the appearance of God. According to Mevlana, to be occupied with God keeps the society alive and to be occupied with other things save for God, causes the destruction of society. Thus we can say that; one of the most important of social dynamics was Love of God in Mevlana’s works. In any case order and justice are always result of Love. Mevlana states the whole existences in universe were alive with Love of God by surpassing social dimension. As would be seen in the foregoing verses, “Mevlana” believed in brotherhood of all humanity and difference among religions would not be related with the God-Like presence. “Mevlana” attached great importance to women, by stating “ As long as you wanted that women should cover themselves with clothes, you would stimulate the desire in everybody to see them. If


heart of a woman is good, like a man, whatever ban you put into practice she will lead to the way of goodness. If your heart is bad, whatever you do, you can never affect her.” Mevlana

advocates equality of a woman with a man.”

TURKEY TEAM


The "Golden Rule" in the religions of the world

Hinduism: One should behave with others in a way that is pleasant for oneself, this is the essence of morality. ( Mahabhrata XIII)

Buddhism:A situation that is not pleasant for me I should regard it as unpleasant for others. How can I demand others a situation that is not pleasant for me? (Samyutta Nikaya)

Judaism: Do not do to others what you don't want them to do to you. ( Rabテュ Hillel,Sabbat)

Christianity: All you want your fellow man to do to you, do the same to them. (Mt.7,12)

Islam: None of you is a believer until he desires for brother what he desires for himself. (40 Hadit)

his

テ]gela Peredo, Andrea Franco, Daniel Mテ。rquez I.E.S. Santa Clara Santander (Spain)


In

all

religious

the

ancient

to

life,

and

ethical

integrity

to

bodily

and

free

traditions of humankind

development

we find the precept,

personality

do not kill o, expressed

that others rights are

positively,

not

respect all

an ethnic or ideological minority.

violated.

to physical or mental

consequences

torture,

commandment

clean,

providing

So let’s remember the ancient

discriminate,

to

exile, even less to kill

"No man has the right this

right

of

life! of

the

injure,

even

less to kill other man.”

again

“ No people, no state,

"everyone has the right

no race, no religion has

Killing? Torture?

Abuse?

Damage? Do

not

yourself:

Paola Pinzón, Elvira Marcu I.E.S. Santa Clara (Spain)

deceive


In ancient

all big

and

community have

right

justice! Of course we

ethics

and

to tell falsehoods to

can hardly distinguish

men.

the relevant from the

religious traditions of

So young people

humanity we listen to Or,

positively

exercise the veracity

orientation. Due to the

expressed: Speak and

when thinking, speaking

massive current pieces

act truthfully!

and acting.

of

this

ancient

of

precept

person,

no

information,

the

ethical guidelines prove

in the think, the speak

to be essential when

and the act.

facts

Do

not deceive

yourself:

without

again. No

ethical

In the truthfully

remember

consequences

essential

an

should

the

to

without

the precept: Don’t lie!

So

learn

irrelevant

are

misled

or

twisted, when interests are

hidden

or

when

institution, no state or

veracity and humanity

tendencies and opinions

no church or religious

there

are worshipped.

is

no

global

Andrea SĂĄnchez, LucĂ­a Ruiz I.E.S. Santa Clara Spain


Lie? Abuse?

Humiliate? Degrade? all

the

ancient

another!

religious

and

ethical

remember

In

So

will

sexuality,

the

and keep other in a

of

this

sexual dependency.

precept

once

traditions of humanity

consequences

we

ancient

find

hear

the

we

precept: do not misuse

again:

Do

not

sexuality!

Or,

No one has the right

yourself:

expressed

positively:

to convert other into a

respect and love one

mere object of their

to

subdue

deceive

That’s why people should learn that sexuality is not a negative, destructive or abusive power in principle, but something creative and constructive. The relationship between men and women should not be dictated by the guardianship or exploitation, but by love, companionship and trust.

Ángela Peredo, Andrea Franco, Daniel Márquez SPAIN


POEM What is to be done, O Moslems? for I do not recognize myself. I am neither Christian, nor Jew, nor Gabr, nor Moslem. I am not of the East, nor of the West, nor of the land, nor of the sea; I am not of Nature’s mint, nor of the circling’ heaven. I am not of earth, nor of water, nor of air, nor of fire; I am not of the empyrean, nor of the dust, nor of existence, nor of entity. I am not of India, nor of China, nor of Bulgaria, nor of Saqsin I am not of the kingdom of ‘Iraqian, nor of the country of Khorasan I am not of the this world, nor of the next, nor of Paradise, nor of Hell I am not of Adam, nor of Eve, nor of Eden and Rizwan. My place is the Placeless, my trace is the Traceless ; ‘Tis neither body nor soul, for I belong to the soul of the Beloved. I have put duality away, I have seen that the two worlds are one; One I seek, One I know J One I see, One I call. He is the first, He is the last, He is the outward, He is the inward; I know none other except ‘Ya Hu’ and ‘Ya man Hu.’ I am intoxicated with Love’s cup, the two worlds have passed out of my ken ; I have no business save carouse and revelry. If once in my life I spent a moment without thee, From that time and from that hour I repent of my life. If once in this world I win a moment with thee, I will trample on both worlds, I will dance in triumph for ever. O Shamsi Tabriz, I am so drunken in this world, That except of drunkenness and revelry I have no tale to tell.

YUNUS EMRE From „Divan-e Shams e Tabriz“


FUNDAMENTAL ETHICAL CODES (JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY, ISLAM, BUDDHISM) – SIMILARITIES AND DISPARITIES


Similarities Between Religious Rules and Ethical Rules Religion’s main purpose is promoting the spiritual conscience and as a main task the creation of a link between human and divine, trying to transmit and interpret ate God’s Thought and Will, indicating and individualizing the Universal Law. The concepts about truth and belief which religion and Church transmits, or better-said impose to a human being from birth, depends on the Age in witch he lives. If religion aspires to direct people towards ,, The right path’’, we should ask ourselves: Does ethics depend on religion, or vice versa? Ethics, by definition (from the ancient Greek ,,ethos’’) represents a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality—that is, concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice, etc. The base of any ethical concept is the notion of good and evil, virtue, but also human vision and the relations between humans.

Indeed the ethics has some standards which are applicable for everyone, while, secular ethics is based on human faculties such as logic, moral or human intuition which depend on the historical period which the human lives in.

On the other hand, Christian ethics is based on the love for human in witch results the love for God. For a Christian the ethical problem means the salvation of the soul, but also the free will that is the capacity and responsibility of taking decisions independently. Ethics is not in a necessary relation with religion. It is true that most of the rules support high ethical standards. However, ethics is addressed equally to atheists and saints, so it can’t be confused with religion. Popa Artur , XI E, National College Octav Onicescu ROMANIA


Between Religions and Ethics- Common Rules At the very bottom of religious rules, lay the 10 commandments. Religion, also having a pedagogical function, contributes to the individual’s development on both the social and intellectual level. And so, it allows him/her to persuade his desire for knowledge, for information, for overcoming the precise existence of the material world and also the ability to enter a spiritual dimension, bonded with divine power, beyond the objective aspects of the surrounding world. The human being, as both a spiritual and material figure, tends to always oscillate between a lay existence and a sacred one. Thus, in reality, you can not find a perfectly rational human being because he tries to respect the religious rule but at the same time, the ethical one, too. Generally, humans act in their advantage, choosing to do good, from an ethical point of view, not a religious one. All these ideas related to “truth” and “faith” that religion

and the Church pass down to the people since the moment of their birth, depend on the age we live in and the level of culture.

Ethical rules stand on the ideas of good and right, to whom the concept of morality is attributed to. Generally, ethics is considered an individual concept, but it be analyzed in rapport to the society. This way, the man shouldn’t act for his personal benefit , but he should conform to those ethical principles necessary for a good working of the society. Ethics applies, in equal amount, both to those who believe in religion and to those who don’t, thus it can never be mistaken for religion and it can’t be fully subordinated to it. Ovidiu Rosca – ROMANIA


The Comparison between Christianity and Islam The Coran is considered to be Allah’s revelation, while the Bible is God’s revelation. God is the creator, the Redeemer and the Sustainer of the sky and the earth, The One who has revealed himself in Jesus Christ. Allah is the god that Mohammed introduced as being the only true God. God: Between God and the man there is a connection bridge through Jesus Christ. God was born (He was embodied) as a man and died (as a man) for us! Allah is separated from creation; according to the Coran there is no connection between the man and God.

God: The man has the free will with the help of Holy Spirit that can decide to live for Jesus

Chris, or to reject the plan of God. God respects this decision of the man. Allah: The man is subjugated by Allah’s will unconditionally. The man himself has no free will, all being decided by Allah, who acts unpredictable and is the main reason for the good and the bad. God: The redemption’s purpose is to forever sharing with God. Allah: The purpose is the complete obedience to Allah. God: The fall of Adam in sin has consequences to all of his descendants. Through Adam’s sin, death entered in the world.

Allah: The Coran does not know about a general fall in sin with consequences affecting all the people. God: The man is bad (The disobedience brought him a sinful nature) and can’t do good in front of God by his own forces. He cannot ransom his guilt (just) by doing good things in front of God.


Allah: The man has to choose the good and stay away from the evil. God: 2000 years ago Jesus Christ was conceived through the Holy Spirit in the womb of Mary; God has took the man’s figure (Luke 1:35;1Tim 3:16) Allah: Jesus was put in Mary’s womb by Allah. Jesus Chris is just a man, not the “son” of Allah. George Alexandru Baicu, XI E, National College O. Onicescu – ROMANIA


Similarities and disparities between Christianity, Islam, Judaism and Buddhism Here we compare four major world faiths: Christianity, Islam, Judaism and Buddhism according to the topics like origin of the name, founder, divisions, followers, holy books and other guidance, nature of God, Jesus Christ, Holy Spirit, important rituals, sin, salvation, heaven and hell. Later on we will find out what these world religions and non-theistic ethical systems have in common. ORIGIN OF THE NAME Christianity comes from the Greek Christos - referring to Jesus Christ. Islam is derived from an Arabic word for 'submission' and also related to the Arabic word salaam, 'peace'. Judaism comes from the Hebrew: Yehudim, 'Judah', and Buddhism from the name of its founder: Siddhartha

Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha. FOUNDER The founder of Christianity is Jesus Christ (c. 4 B.C.-30 A.D.). Islam was founded by Mohammed (570 - 632 A.D.).The creator of Judaism is Abraham (First Patriarch, born c. 1800 B.C.), and Buddhism is based on the teaching of Gautama Buddha who lived some time between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. DIVISIONS There are three main groups in Christianity: Orthodox, Protestant and Roman Catholic. The two main groups in Islam are: Sunni and Shia (The division occured due to a dispute as to the legitimate successor of the prophet Mohammed). There is also a mystical/ascetic movement in Islam known as Sufi. Judaism has several divisions among which the largest are: Orthodox, Conservative and Reform Judaism. Ethnic groupings include Ashkenazi (the majority) and Sephardi


Jews. There are two divisions within Buddhism: Theravada and Mahayana. Within Mahayana, there is Zen Buddhism. Theravada ('way of the elders') is more similar to original Buddhism. Followers Estimates of the number of Buddhist followers by scholars range from 230 million to 500 million, with most around 350 million.There are around 2,100 million followers of Christianity, 1,300 million followers of Islam, and 14 million adherents of Judaism in the world. HOLY BOOKS AND OTHER GUIDANCE The holy book in Christianity is the Bible. Its writers were inspired by God and that is why it is referred to as the word of God. Other guidance is given by the writings of the early church fathers and ecumenical councils, including the Creeds. In Islam The Quran or Koran

was revealed to the prophet Mohammed over a period of about 20 years. The Quran is considered as the final revelation given by Allah to mankind. The Hadith, which is a collection of sayings of the Prophet Mohammed, functions as a supplement to the Quran, giving guidance to Muslims for daily living. Judaism adherents act in accordance with the Hebrew Tanakh, similar to the Christian Old Testament, comprised of the Torah (Hebrew: 'Law'), Nevi'im ('Prophets') and Ketuvim ('Writings'). There is also the Talmud – the collection of ancient rabbinic writings that explains and interprets the Tanah, and includes the Mishnah - a code of Jewish law. Buddhism has no single central text that is universally referred


to by all traditions. The followers of Theravada Buddhism take the scriptures known as the Pali Canon as definitive and authoritative, while the followers of Mahayana Buddhism base their faith and philosophy primarily on the Mahayana sutras. The Pali Canon falls into three general categories: 1) Vinaya Pitaka ("Discipline Basket"), dealing with rules for monks and nuns, 2) Sutta Pitaka (Sutra/Sayings Basket) discourses, mostly ascribed to the Buddha, but some to disciples, and Abhidhamma Pitaka, variously described as philosophy, psychology, metaphysics, etc. The Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that the Mahayana Buddhist tradition holds are original teachings of the Buddha. NATURE OF GOD In Christianity there is one God who exists in three distinct persons (The Trinity): Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Islam has one God (Arabic: Allah), who is not a trinity. The Islamic view of

God is called strict Monotheism. Jews believe in one God (known in English as 'Yahweh' or 'Jehovah'). The Buddhist view of God is that there are many gods, or no gods. A Buddha is someone who has realized the enlightenment that ends the cycle of birth and death and which brings liberation from suffering. JESUS CHRIST In Christianity Jesus Christ is the second person of the Trinity: "...true God from true God". He reconciled man to God, through his death on the cross as a sacrifice for the sins of all mankind. In Islam Jesus Christ is a prophet sent by Allah and born of the Virgin Mary, but not divine. He was not crucified but raised to Heaven by Allah and his mission is to proclaim the Gospel. According to Judaism Jesus Christ is an ordinary Jew, neither the Messiah nor a divine person. He was crucified for his claim to be divine. Buddhism rejects the biblical Jesus.


IMPORTANT RITUALS All Christians observe the sacraments of Baptism and Holy Communion. In Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism, five more are added: Confirmation (Chrismation), Marriage, Penance, Holy Orders and Anointing of the sick. Prayer is also an important part of the faith. There are five important rituals in Islam (known as the pillars of Islam): 1) Shahadah - a profession of faith, 2) Salat - prayer five times daily, 3) Zakat - alms giving, 4) Sawm fasting during the Holy month of Ramadan, 5) Hajj - pilgrimage to the Holy City of Mecca. HOLY SPIRIT In Christianity, the Holy Spirit is the third person of the divine Trinity. The Holy Spirit in Islam is identical with the Angel Gabriel who appeared to the Prophet Mohammed giving him the Quranic text. In Judaism, the Holy Spirit is not a distinct person but a divine power which, for example, was given to the Prophets. There is not any holy spirit in Buddhism.

Jewish rituals include the circumcision of newly born Jewish males, Barmitzvah - a ceremony marking the 'coming of age' of Jewish boys and observation of the Sabbath


(Shabat). As in Christianity and Islam, prayer is important. The Jewish prayer book is called the siddur. Buddhism incorporates a variety of rituals and practices, which are intended to aid in the journey to enlightenment and bring blessings on oneself and others. The practice of meditation is central to nearly all forms of Buddhism.

Tibetan Buddhists practice mantras - sacred sounds that are believed to possess supernatural powers. They are chanted as a part of meditation or during large public rituals for protection from evil and misfortune. Budhists also use Mudras - symbolic gestures, used symbolically in Buddha images and in practice to evoke particular ideas or buddhas in the mind during Buddhist meditation or ritual. The central daily rite of lay Buddhism is the offering of food. Theravada laity make this offering to the

monks. Mahayana laity make it to the Buddha as part of the morning or evening worship. There are also weekly Observance Day rituals at the Theravada monastery when the monks administer the Eight Precepts to the gathered laity, the laity repeating them after the monks. The monks pour water to transfer merit to the laity; the laity pour water to share this merit with their ancestors. There are special rituals to mark, protect, and bless the occasions of major life transitions. Monks preside over ordinations, funerals, and death commemoration rites. Theravada monks also preside over birthday and new-house blessing rites. Ex-monks elders in the lay community perform the rituals for childbirth and marriage. SIN Christians inherit a sinful nature through their common ancestor Adam, who rebelled against God. Jesus Christ atoned for their sins through his death on the Cross. According to Muslims, there is no concept of original sin, nor


vicarious atonement. All humans are born sinless, but human weakness leads to sin. Judaism rejects the doctrine of original sin. Atonement for sins committed is made through seeking forgiveness from God in prayer and repentance. Buddhism teaches that happiness or suffering in this life is the result of our deeds (karma) in past lives, or past actions in our present lives. Karma is an "intentional action, that is, a deed done deliberately through body, speech, or mind." It can either manifest its effects in this very life or in the next life or only after several lives. According to the idea of karma in Buddhism, an individual has free will, but he carries the baggage of deeds done in previous lives.

HEAVEN, HELL, AND SALVATION For Christians, Hell is a place of everlasting punishment for the unrighteous. Heaven is a union with God, life forever in Christ. Catholics also believe in Purgatory, a temporary period of purification. Moral, loving, and faithful Christians who believe in Jesus and adhere to the teachings of the Church

receive eternal life. The concept of an afterlife in Orthodox Judaism is usually referred to as Olam Ha-Ba, the world to come. The Jewish idea of heaven is generally known as Gan Eden, or as the Garden of Eden, and hell is called Gehinnom. All righteous people, not just Jews, get a place in the world to come, but not all places are equal. A


person's status in Olam Ha-Ba depends on actions in this life. Before going to Gan Eden, many people first have to spend time in Gehinnom, which is described by some as a fiery place of harsh punishment and by others as a place where the soul contemplates its past life and repents misdeeds. Except for the worst human beings, the maximum stay in Gehinnom is one year, after which the soul ascends to Gan Eden. The moral foundation in Judaism and Christianity is a list of religious and moral imperatives that were given by God to the people of Israel from Mount Sinai – The Ten Commandments:

(1) I am the Lord your God; You shall have no other gods before me; You shall not make for yourself an idol, (2) Do not take the name of the Lord in vain, (3) Remember the Sabbath and keep it holy, (4) Honor your father and mother, (5) You shall not kill, (6) You shall not commit adultery, (7) You shall not steal, (8) You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor, (9) You shall not covet your neighbor's wife, (10) You shall not covet anything that belongs to your neighbor. In Islam there is hell known as Jahannam and Paradise. Those who observe the Five Pillars of Islam go to Paradise. Jahannam has several levels and a person may not necessarily spend eternity there. In Buddhism, after death, one is reborn in successive incarnations until he/she awakens (as the Buddha did) and becomes liberated from the cycle of life and death (samsara), thus reaching nirvana. Nirvana is not exactly a "state"- it is an awakening to truth. In this "place" one is free from suffering, attachments, and delusions. Although there is a concept of "hell(s)" in Buddhist


cosmology, it is not considered a place of permanent damnation. It is understood more as state of mind that anyone can experience in his/her lifetime. Freedom from suffering and advancing toward enlightenment is possible by practicing the eightfold path. This eightfold path includes: (1) Right view or understanding, (2) Right thought, (3) Right speech, (4) Right action, (5) Right livelihood, (6) Right effort, (7) Right mindfulness and (8) Right contemplation or concentration. Religious groups as well as non-theistic ethical and philosophic systems, like Humanism and Ethical Culture, differ in their concepts of deity, other beliefs, and practices in varying degrees. However, all of the major world religions and philo-sophic systems have an Ethic of Reciprocity. In Christianity and Judaism, this is called "The Golden Rule." It is often expressed as "Do onto others as you would wish them do onto you." Both theistic ethics and secular ethics set up a structure of morals to help people live in a humane secure

and happy society free of war and violence where everyone is equal, has inherent worth, and deserves respect and dignity. Every religion and system of ethics asks people to be good, ethical and moral persons. By corollary, it translates into "love yourselves and love everyone else". The language and style may be different but this is the basic message. References: Kai Nielsen, Ethics Without God, Amherst: Prometheus Books, 1990, Coogan, Michael D. (ed.) The Illustrated Guide to World Religions. Oxford University Press 2003, Harvey, Peter, An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge University Press 1990, Esposito, John L., What everyone needs to know about Islam. Oxford University Press 2002, Cohn-Sherbok, Dan, Judaism: history, belief, and practice. Routledge 2003, Zespół Szkół nr 31 im. Jana Kilińskiego In Warsaw – POLAND


THE DISTORTION OF ORIGINALLY MEANING OF RELIGION – TERRORISM


ISLAM PROHIBITS TERRORISM It is extremely wrong to mention the religion of Islam (means peace) with the concepts such as terrorism, war, violence. It is absolutely obvious that Islam forfids terrorism and objects to violence. Because Islam prohibits any of bullies behaviours and commands to act nicely while spreading it. “We are Best Aware of What they say, and thou( O Muhammed) art in no wise a compeller over them. But warn them by the Qur’an him who fearth My threat.” (QAF:45) “21 . Remind them , for thou art but a remembrancer , 22. Thou art not at all a warder over them . 23 . But whoso is averse and disbelieveth , 24 . Allah will punish him with direst punishment . 25 . Lo! unto Us is their return 26 . And Ours their reckoning .” (Al-Gashiya :21-26) “And is thy lord willed, All who are in the earth would have believed together. Wouldst thou(Muhammad) compel men until they are believers?”( Jonah :99)

“And If ye(Muslims) call them to The Guidance They hear not: thou( Muhammad) seest them looking toward thee, but they see not. Keep to forgiveness (O Muhammad) and enjoin kindness and turn away from the ignorant.” (Al-Araf:198-199) As mentioned above, They had never forced the people for living religion and never used violence towards them. Terrorism is forbidden by all religions of God. The originally message of the religion or idea can be sometimes distorted. Cruaders, which were the formation of Dark period of Christianity was one of its examples.. One of the crusaders, Raymond of Aguiles, boasts of this incredible cruelty: “Wonderful sights were to be seen. Some of our men (and

this was more merciful) cut off the heads of their enemies;


others shot them with arrows, so that they fell from the towers; others tortured them longer by casting them into flames. Piles of heads, hands and feet were to be seen in the streets of the city. It was necessary to pick one’s way over the bodies of men and horses. But these were small matters compared to what happened at the Temple of Solomon, a place where religious services are normally chanted . . . in the temple and the porch of Solomon, men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle reins.”

Crusaders’barbarism was so much that they plundered Constantinopoli was the province of their coreligionists. As mentioned above No divine religions permits violence. It can not be seen even a word support terrorism in the Holy books (Torah, Bible, Qur’an). On contrary, they opposes it severely. Mevlude

Consequences of the Violation of Human Rights and the Distortion of the Religious Meaning It’s known the fact that everybody is born free and equal to others. Both faith and law give us this crucial right, among many others, and it is considered to be a natural one, such as the right to live, for example. The idea of human rights is familiar to us from Ancient times, when people realized its importance.

On one hand, the Bible says that everyone is born free and equal, so there is no reason for anybody to be considered inferior. There are many organizations that fight for equality between people before the law, in case of any injustice. As we all know, women fought to gain their equality before men for thousands of years, and that


happened not too long ago, after centuries of massive discrimination between genders. On the other hand, people take religion in a wrong

way and some of them, if not too many, end up raping, denigrating and even killing in the name of religion, according to them. For example, terrorists claim that they tortured and killed thousands of human beings and still do it in the name of religion, which indicates the fact that the original and sacred meaning of religion has been distorted and misunderstood. There have also

been many conflicts between nations that took off because religion and people started to hate their peers and be xenophobic. In conclusion, people are given the same rights from birth and they are not supposed to be broken. Also religion should be treated

as it is, a sacred entity and people should stop committing crimes and hurting their brothers and sister in the name of faith. Brian Enulescu, clasa XII E National College Octav Onicescu - ROMANIA


THE WAVE (DieWelle) INDEX 1.Introduction 2.Sinopsis 3. What Is The Wave? a) Characteristics b) Analysis of the characters 4.The Third Wave a) Timeline of the experiment b) Focus related to social psychology 5.Survey (autocracy as a form of government) 6.Conclusions 1.Introduction-

The Wave (Die Welle in German) is a German drama based on the experiment known as Third Wave conducted in April 1967. The film puts us in a normal high school situated in Germany today, which project in a week, the teacher who imparts the kind of autocracy will behind his students gradually become a kind of Legionnary. Following

in his footsteps without questioning. Trailer http://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=azjctIF8xV4&feature=relat ed File: P1140188.JPG-MCGDallgowMarie Curie Institute Dallgow-Dรถberitz, where was filmed thefilm 2. SynopsisDuring a week of projects, the teacher Rainer Wenger teaches his students, the issue of autocracy form of government. During class, students are skeptical about the idea that could again be a new dictatorship in modern Germany. Gradually, Professor Wenger begins to impose a new form of being to their students through the motto: `` strength through discipline, strength by the community, forced through the action of force via'' emphasizing pride in it, so that every day students follow a new rule. http://files.psicodisea.webnod e.es/2000000576d12b6e0e0/la-ola-3.jpg The teacher Rainer Wenger at the beginning of the week projects 2. Synopsis Interest in the way of how these classes grew executed, making young people


from other classroom courses were changed to be a course large, leading to fanaticism. The group goes so far as to invent a greeting and a dress uniform. The popular course is decided called "The Wave", and as the days passed, "The Wave" began to be noted by acts of vandalism, all behind the teacher Wenger, who has just lost control of the situation and thus also losing control of his own life. Preparing your greeting representative in one of his classes. 3. What is `` The Wave''? http://caminosquenollevanaro ma.files.wordpress.com/2011/0 4/la-ola.jpg The Wave is a German film drama based on the experiment of the third wave, that was an experiment to show that even in the free and open societies do not are immune to the lure of authoritarian and dictatorial ideologies. The film made in 2008 had a satisfactory success on the big screen all over Germany, after ten weeks on the bill, saw more than 2.3 million people, directed by Dennis Gansel.

3.1 Features of The Wave http://www.elespectador.com/ files/images/febmar2010/85f4d 1b88423eb81c34b46d2b9a159 24.jpg

At the commencement of the teacher Wenger, most students are taking orders as a joke, many laughed. As the days passed, all began to behave like a unit. Wenger, became by request of the students in the movement's leader. Although not approved, the vandalism committed by their students to paint the emblem of The Wave throughout the city. Wenger, also won the class, follow his orders without fault, all students got to sit in place in less than 30 seconds, all in a position of attention throughout the class.'' The `` uniform-wearing all members consists of a simple whitetshirt. That is the basic garment. 3.2 Analysis of the characters http://www.muenchenblogger. de/files/images/die-welle09.preview.jpg Professor Rainer


Wenger http://4.bp.blogspot.com/czpZfUXmtzQ/Tzk_aQT_3JI/AA AAAAAABco/YVWNWFVG8AI/s 400/la_ola+51.JPGKaro http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3 249/3125623157_95f54633a6.j pg Tim http://www.persinsala.it/web/ wpcontent/uploads/2008/11/die_ welle-marco.jpg

Framework for Rainer Wenger : It is admired by students for their teaching methodology. Not like follow the rules. He has a sense of leadership. He does not give importance to what people think of him. 'I like to show that anything is possible if you put in effort and practice dedication. -Get what you want, regardless of the rest, becoming selfish. – When the situation gets out of his hands feel pressured, and enters state of stress. He is firm, authoritative, responsible. He is involved in a scandal over

his project, which leads to a state of madness to go to jail for his experiment with ... Tim- Young can do anything to gain acceptance. -With the wave, feel accepted and integrated into a group, since he had never been in one. Attitudes have maniac-proving it with their behavior in the development of the film. He reflected his insecurity at home, and looking at a house where the wave became his refuge and be understood.Fear and madness to the solution of the wave, which leads to suicide. His way of thinking is so affected with respect to the rejection that comes a moment that becomes so dependent on the wave, that their actions are out of control. Karo- Karo is a girl very confident.- It has very clear goals and objectives in life. 'I like to always be right and that everything be done his way of seeing things. It is the brideframe.- Karo is a popular girl in high school. She is rejected by the wave, because of the reviews that made the group.Looking to fix the conflict that occurs in the wave, and obtain what best for all his


companions, though they do not support it.-Through their actions seeking the truth behind the kind of autocracy. Framework-The Wave meets the needs of his family did not cover, feeling supported by this group. Marco is the boyfriend of Karo. -It is the first to accept the rules of Rainer. 'But when you see how the wave influenced him to the point of beating Karo, is given realize that it's crazy and wants to stop it. 4.The Third Wave 'It was an experiment done to show that even free societies, and open, are not immune to the lure of authoritarian and dictatorial ideologies.-It was made by history teacher Ron Jones, when he taught his students, the history of Nazi Germany. The experiment was performed at Cubberley High School, a school in Palo Alto, California, during the first week of April 1967. -Jones, called the experiment,The Third Wave, due to the popular notion that the third in a series of waves at sea is always stronger. http://www.losconsejeros.com /wp-

content/uploads/2011/09/ronj onesjuergenvogelddpg.jpg http://www.paloaltohistory.co m/resources/cubberley2007467x340.jpg 4.1 Timeline Experiment -The experiment lasted 5 days: 1.Monday : Strength through discipline 2.Tuesday: Strength through community 3.Wednesday : Strength through action 4. Thursday: Strength through pride 5. Friday : Strength through understanding Approach based on social psychology- From the teacher, Rainer Wenger.- From the students. 5. Poll(Autocracy as Form of government) 1 - Do you think what it would be possible be put in place a form of government, like autocracy in today's society? 2 - Do you think it would be better than the current system of government? 3-Given the events of `` The Wave'', have you changed your opinion on the first question? 4 - Do you think they may reach a time when there is no system of autocracy in any country? 5 - Why do you think is better than the power of a country


rests on a more than one person rather than a single? 6. Conclusions The film is a means to understand that we are constantly reverse in a society in which converge a number of concepts that psychology portrays social consciously or unconsciously. With regard to the concept of group, its influence is essential both for people who partake of it as the consequences that carries people outside the group, since in many cases are part of a group or belong to a group that shares similar characteristics without knowing it. In view of the membership of a group there is a serious elements that play an important role in achieving the objectives such asunder the group consisting of mankind, cohesion, the position, social, status, rules, culture, personality and behavior . All these elements will be aware in the individual directly your choice as to know that the group is pursuing goals, by that way, who make up the group, and if you feel part of group. It is also expected that each individual is represented by a group

avoiding guided by mass. On this basis, it could be shown in the movie despite the decision regarding the management of power to lead a group, the decision was very rapid, so that leaves a glimpse that there was a good Individual reflective work since it is guided by the time left. The Wave is definitely a great film that provides insight on the process of power and how this will influence each of the individuals, dragging them to the end of losing their identity as members of this group in particular one week changed their way of life, by an obsessive ideology. As a final thought it may be noted that the ends go hand in hand with complexity, in this case a course which becomes wanting group through unit into something better, resulted in exactly the opposite. What was sought was a self-governing with its own rules, without falling into the errors known as suffered by the German people and the world, but both want to do things right, from time enthusiasm almost trips over the same stone. At a time when the horizon is lost, forget the main reason the union to the


common good. What really summoned the course, learn together in an entertaining way. Yielding almost fanaticism for the unit and completed events very regrettable, the murder of a student, the suicide of another, and the imprisonment of teacher . In short, as society is constantly changing so this involves learning that can be understood best if not overlooked that we interrelated, that my world affects the person or draws around me. Without forgetting that together we can make great projects grow, but also remember that as human branding is also large errors can comment not in a single sphere of existence, but the whole human experience .

COMENIUS PROJECT BETWEEN RELIGIONS AND ETHICS- A COMMON GROPUND This is s research made by students from IES Santa Clara . Santander City. Cantabria. Spain AUTHORS ALFREDO CRESPO AND ALVARO CICERO Group 1ยบH


RELIGIOUS RULES

IN

THE

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS


The main rules of the monotheistic religions can be find in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. These means that from its beginnings – religion – doesn’t matter which of them – has an important ethical dimension.

Thereby, the fundamental rules of all the monotheistic religions are actually the same from which the most important of them all is “do no kill”. We can read this rules in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 3. “EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO LIFE, LIBERTY AND SECURITY OF PERSON”. Christianity became very popular among the slaves because Jesus Christ promised them that everybody will be equal in Heaven after they die. We can find the idea of equality in Epistle for Coloseni,

where Saint Paul, the main ideologue of Christianity writes: “Where there is neither Gentile nor Jew, neither men nor women, Barbarian nor Scythian , bond nor free. But Chris is all and in all” We also find the idea of equality in Islam and Buddhism. With The Universal Declaration of Human Rights the freedom and equality that was promised in Heaven was brought on Earth. Freedom and equality are the most important rights in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.


Further, The interdicts any discrimination.

Declaration type of

Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-

governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. Other articles about freedom or equality:

Article 3. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 6. Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law. Article 7. All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are


entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination Thereby, all monothesitic religions develop the great ideas about the right of life , freedem, equality, noindiscrimination – because all of us are equal in front of God (who can be Jessus Chris, Alah or Budha) whic aree all the great ideas of Enlightement, basis for The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Vlad Manole – the 10th form National College Octav Onicescu ROMANIA

HUMAN ISLAM

RIGHTS

IN

Since God is the absolute and the sole master of men and the universe, and since He has given each man human dignity and honor, and breathed into him of His own spirit, it follows that men are essentially the same. In fact, the only differences between them are such artificial ones as nationality, color, or race. Thus, all human beings are equal and form one universal community that is united in its submission and obedience to God. And at the center of this universal brotherhood is the Islamic confession of the oneness of God that, by extension, includes the oneness and brotherhood of humanity An Islamic state may be established anywhere. While the state is geographically limited, the human rights and privileges granted to humanity by God are not. The Qur'an states that these are universal and fundamental, and that all individuals are to enjoy and observe them under all circumstances-including warregardless of whether he is


living in the geographical confines of an Islamic state or not: O believers, tee you securers of justice, witness for God. Let not detestation for a people move you not to be equitable; be equitable-that is nearer to Godfearing. (5:8) Human blood is sacred in any case and cannot be spilled without justification. Violating this rule is equivalent to killing all of humanity: Whose slays a soul not to retaliate for a soul slain, nor for corruption done in the land, should be as if he had slain mankind altogether. It is not permissible to oppress women, children, old people, the sick or the wounded. Women's honor and chastity are to be respected under all circumstances. The hungry must be fed, the naked clothed, and the wounded or diseased given medical treatment regardless of their pro- or anti-Muslim sentiments and activities. In Islam, human rights are granted by God, not by kings or legislative assemblies, and therefore they can never be taken away or changed, even

temporarily, for any reason. They are meant to be put into practice and lived, not to stay on paper or in the realm of unenforceable philosophical concepts or United Nation declarations. Every Muslim is required to accept them and recognize the people's right to have them enforced and obeyed. The Qur'an states that: Those who do not judge by what God has sent down are the disbelievers (5:44). Human Rights in an Islamic State The Security of Life and Property: In the Prophet's address during his final pilgrimage, he said: "Your lives and properties are forbidden to one another till you meet your Lord on the Day of Resurrection." He also said: "One who kills a man under covenant (i.e., a non Muslim citizen of a Muslim land) will not even smell the fragrance of Paradise." The Protection of Honor: The Qur'an does not allow one's personal honor to be abused: O You who believe, do not let one set of people make fun of another set. Do not


defame one another Do not insult by using nicknames. Do not backbite or spear? ill of one another (49: 1 1-121. Sanctity and Security of Private Life: The Qur'an guarantees privacy Do not spy on one another and Do not enter any houses unless you are sure of their occupant's consent. The Security of Personal Freedom: Islam prohibits the imprisonment of any individual before his guilt has been proven before a public court. This means that the accused has the right to defend himself and to expect fair and impartial treatment from the court. The Right to Protest against Tyranny: This is mentioned clearly in the Qur'an: God does not love evil talk in public unless it is by some one who has been injured thereby. In Islam, as has been stated earlier, an individual's power and authority is a trust from God. This is an awesome responsibility for a person, for he must use this trust in a way that is acceptable to God or else suffer the consequences. This was acknowledged by Abu

Bakr, who said in his very first address: "Cooperate with me when I am right, and correct me when I commit error. Obey me so long as I follow the commandments of Allah and His Prophet, but turn away from me hen I deviate." Freedom of Expression: Islam allows complete freedom of thought and expression, provided that it does not involve spreading that which is harmful to individuals and the society at large. For example, the use of abusive or offensive language in the name of criticism is not allowed. In the days of the Prophet, the Muslims used to ask him about certain matters. If he had received no revelation on that particular issue, they were free to express their personal opinions. Freedom of Association: The formation of associations, parties, and organizations is allowed, on the understanding that they abide by certain general rules. Freedom of Conscience and Conviction: The Qur'an states: There should be no coercion in the matter of faith. Totalitarian societies of all


ages have tried to deprive individuals of their freedom by subordinating them to state authority This condition is equivalent to slavery, the only difference being that physical slavery has been replaced by mechanisms of control that allow the individual no freedom of choice Islam forbids such a practice. Protection of Religious Sentiments: Along with the freedom of conviction and freedom of conscience, Islam guarantees to the individual that his religious sentiments will be given due respect and the nothing will be said or done which may encroach upon his right. Protection from Arbitrary Imprisonment: Islam states that each individual is responsible only for his own actions. Therefore, he cannot be arrested and imprisoned for the offenses of someone else. We read in the Qur'an: No bearer of burdens shall be made to bear the burden of another. The Right to Basic Necessities of Life: Islam recognizes the right of the needy to demand help from

those who are more fortunate: And in their wealth there is acknowledge right for the needy and the destitute. Equality Before the Law: Islam gives its citizens the right to absolute and complete equality in the eyes of the law. Rulers Are Not Above the Law: According to the Islamic concept of justice, absolutely no one is above the law, for all men are equal. This point was made in a very dramatic fashion by the Prophet himself. One day, a woman belonging to a high and noble family was arrested in connection with a theft. The case was brought to the Prophet with the recommendation that she be spared the mandated punishment for theft (amputation of the hand). The Prophet replied: "The nations that lived before you were destroyed by God because they punished the common man for their offenses and let their dignitaries go unpunished for their crimes. I swear by Him Who holds my life in His hand that even if Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad, had committed this crime, I would have amputated her hand."


The Right to Participate in the Affairs of State: In the Qur'an, we find the statement And their business is (conducted) through consultation among themselves (42:38). This procedure is known as shura, which is usually translated as "consultation." In practice, it means that the executive head of the government and the members of the assembly should be elected by free and independent choice of the people. However, the leader is not bound to follow the decision that results from this deliberation.

Lastly, Islam seeks to achieve the above-mentioned human rights and many others through the provision of certain legal safeguards, but primarily through calling upon individuals to transcend their lower animal-like instincts so that they can go beyond mere ties fostered by the kinship of blood, racial superiority, linguistic arrogance, and economic privilege Islam urges man to move on to a plane of existence where, by reason of his inner excellence, he canrealize the ideal of the brotherhood of man.


Project meeting Warsaw Poland October, 2011


RELIGIOUS RULES – ETHICAL RULES

At the very bottom of religious rules, lay the 10 commandments. Religion, also having a pedagogical function, contributes to the individual’s development on both the social and intellectual level. And so, it allows him/her to persuade his desire for knowledge, for information, for overcoming the precise existence of the material world and also the ability to enter a spiritual dimension, bonded with divine power, beyond the objective aspects of the surrounding world. The human being, as both a spiritual and material figure, tends to always oscillate between a lay existence and a sacred one. Thus, in reality, you can not find a perfectly rational human being because he tries to respect the religious rule but at the same time, the ethical one, too. Generally, humans act in their advantage, choosing to do good, from an ethical point of view, not a religious one. All these ideas related to “truth” and “faith” that religion

and the Church pass down to the people since the moment of their birth, depend on the age we live in and the level of culture. Ethical rules stand on the ideas of good and right, to whom the concept of morality is attributed to. Generally, ethics is considered an individual concept, but it be analyzed in rapport to the society. This way, the man shouldn’t act for his personal benefit , but he should conform to those ethical principles necessary for a good working of the society. Ethics applies, in equal amount, both to those who believe in religion and to those who don’t, thus it can never be mistaken for religion and it can’t be fully subordinated to it. Margareta Cupsa National College Octav Onicescu - ROMANIA


The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a basic document in force that all countries must be obedient to. There are several law enforcement agencies to which you refer in case of suspicion of the violation of human rights. Human rights which should be treated as a starting point of all human relationships, according to which we have the right to life, happiness, education, work, freedom of thought and religion are, unfortunately, breached very often. It would seem that such situations occur only in Africa, where many people still live in slavery without a chance for a decent existence. However, it turns out that examples of violations of basic human rights are much closer – in our country. Among the most frequently occurring incidents is the so called phenomenon of “wave” in military units or even schools. It involves physical and mental abuse. Older soldiers with greater experience or upper year students maltreat their younger colleagues. The

victims are closed against their will in cramped and dark rooms, beaten and humiliated in front of other people. The media have also talked about cases of forcing a teenager to commit suicide. In addition, much controversy stems from the presence of minorities in our country. There is racism and intolerance against Roma/Gypsies. There have been instances of brutal beatings of Gypsy women and stealing their belongings. It is also not uncommon to hear people shouting insults at them. We should also mention violations in the workplace. Still, many people work in undignified conditions for little money, they are humiliated and sometimes beaten very brutally. Let us remember that human rights belong to all of us, let us not be indifferent to the situations when they are breached. Violating human rights leads to conflicts, wars and hatred towards one another. Paulina Królak – class IILB1, ZS nr 31 in Warsaw – POLAND


EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW, EQUALITY BEFORE GOD – NONDISCRIMINATION


Links between ethics and religious rules Looking from a larger point of view, ethics represent an ensemble of values which define, into a specific society, the character of a human being regarding to a just behavior, dignified and worthy of respect that should never be broken, otherwise punishments are required. The ethics promote some certain values (as honesty, wisdom, courage, etc.) and in the same time indicate a specific code, an ensemble of rules to which every human must obey, because that provides his acceptance in a society. On the other hand the moral totals all beliefs, attitudes, skills, feelings and rules determined historically and socially, that controls the human behaviour and the relationships between individuals, also the relation between a human being and the community, collectivity (family, groups, class, nation, society), regarding to some categories like the good, the bad, duty, righteousness. All of this are closely related to every human’s consciousness and

their opinions about making things work together. The moral depends on the existential conditions of a certain human community and it can’t have an abstract character, being more exactly described by relativity; however, throughout history, from one type of society to another remains valid moral impreratives (such as “Sa nu ucizi!” – Don’t kill!, “Sa nu furi!” – Don’t steal!, “Sa nu minti!” – Don’t lie!, “Sa-ti respecti cuvantul dat!” – Respect your promises!, etc.), rules stipulated for the first time in the “Decalog”, rules that every Christian must know about and respect for his entire life. Between the religious rules and ethic values there are some differences: the authority of the religious commandments is undeniable, superior to every human knowledge (represented by the God Himself) and it doesn’t have to offer any rational explanations for the imposed rules. The inner consciousness forces every individual to obey to those moral rules without any hesitation or attempts to break them.


The main subject for the religious rules is the believer (faithful) himself, while the main subject that stands for the ethics is the rational human being, that assumes all the positive values. Punishments for breaking the religious rules mostly occur after death (in Heaven of Hell), while those for breaking the ethic values belong to the earthly world (either coming from other individuals, either a human being is punished by his own conscience). Narrowly speaking, the moral is always important for everyone (requiring to understand the habits and traditions specific to a society), because individuals have to respect some unwritten laws, including here honesty, equity, impartiality, goodness, kindness, etc. In conclusion, the religious rules were influenced specifically by ethic values promoted by the biggest philosophical doctrines of Greek Antiquity, or by the

“Decalog” itself. From this point the development of some values like wisdom, honor, moderation started, also numerous philosophical concepts were born, in order to change human’s vision about the importance of a society and the world in which individuals evolve. Florea Mihai – Clasa a XII –a E ROMANIA


MEETING IN SOFIA, BULGARIA – MARCH, 2012


Quotations on Coexistence “It’s coexistence or no existence.” Bertrand Russell “The highest result of education is tolerance.” Helen Keller “If we are to live together in peace, we must come to know each other better.” Lyndon B Johnson “Peace cannot be kept by force, it can only be kept by understanding.” Albert Einstein Notes on pacifism “The only alternative to coexistence is codestruction.” Jawaharial Nehru 1954 “Toleration is the best religion.” Victor Hugo “Tolerance implies no lack of commitment to one’s own beliefs. Rather it condemns the oppression or persecution of others.” John F Kennedy 1960 “Differences can only enrich our experience, and the absence of difference impoverishes us.”

Martha Vancebury and Sylvia W. Silverman “Honest differences are often a healthy sign of progress.” Mahatma Gandhi “The Holy Prophet Mohammed came into this world and taught us: ‘That man is a Muslim who never hurts anyone by word or deed, but who works for the benefit and happiness of God’s creatures. Belief in God is to love one’s fellow men.’” Abdul Ghaffar Khan “Our task must be to free ourselves from this prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living beings and all of nature.” Albert Einstein “Only the unity of all can bring the well-being of all.” Robert Muller A planet of hope “We may have all come on different ships, but we’re in the same boat now.” Martin Luther King, Jr. “Either men will learn to live like brothers, or they will die like beasts.”


Max Lerner The Gifts of the Magi 1949 “You may call for peace as loudly as you wish, but where there is no brotherhood there can in the end be no peace.” Max Lerner The Gifts of the Magi 1949 “Our true nationality is mankind.” H G Wells The Outline of History 1920 “A single twig breaks, but the bundle of twigs is strong.” Tecumseh Shawnee 1795 “The World is my country, all mankind are my brethren, and to do good is my religion.” Thomas Paine “Share our similarities, celebrate our differences.” M Scott Peck “Live and let live.” Scottish proverb “I am not an Athenian, nor a Greek, but a citizen of the world.” Socrates “The age of chivalry has gone; the age of humanity has come.” Charles Sumner “All people are a single nation.” Qu-ran “The earth is but one country and mankind its citizens.” Bahá’u'lláh

“United we stand, divided we fall.” Aesop (620 -560 BC) “My country is the world; my countrymen are mankind.” William Lloyd Garrison The Liberator 1803 “Our understanding of how to live with one another is still far behind our knowledge of how to destroy one another.” Lyndon B Johnson “Like the bee gathering honey from the different flowers, the wise person accepts the essence of the different scriptures and sees only the good in all religions.” Mohandas Gandhi “Peace cannot be kept by force. It can only be achieved by understanding.” Albert Einstein “‘We have grasped the mystery of the atom and rejected the Sermon on the Mount.” Omar N. Bradley, American general (1893-1981) ”If the only tool you have is a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail.” Abraham Maslow ”Human history becomes more and more a race between education and catastrophe.” H. G. Wells


”The world has achieved brilliance without conscience. Ours is a world of nuclear giants and ethical infants.” Omar N. Bradley, American general (1893-1981) “If we wish to create a lasting peace we must begin with the children.” Mahatma Gandhi “Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all.” Aristotle “To train a man in mind and not in morals is to train a menace to society.” Franklin D Roosevelt “The Bible tells us there will be a time for peace. But, so far in this century, mankind has failed to find it.” Ronald Reagan, 1982 “One little person, giving all of her time to peace, makes news. Many people, giving some of their time, can make history.” Peace Pilgrim

“We must adjust to changing times and still hold to unchanging principles.” Jimmy Carter 1977 “There never was a war that was not inward.” Marianne Moore The Peace Prayer. Lead me from death to life, from falsehood to truth. Lead me from despair to hope, from fear to trust. Lead me from hate to love, from war to peace. Let peace fill our hearts, our world, our universe. Peace. Peace. Peace. From the Upanishads “First there must be order and harmony within your own mind.” Confucius “And they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword


against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.” Isaiah 2:4 “At the center of non-violence stands the principle of love.” Martin Luther King, Jr. “Nonviolence which is a quality of the heart, cannot come by an appeal to the brain”. Mahatma Gandhi “To reach peace, teach peace.” Pope John Paul II “Human history becomes more and more a race between education and catastrophe.” H G Wells The outline of history 1920

“Think about the kind of world you want to live and work in. What do you need to know to build the world? Demand that your teachers teach you that.” Kropotkin “Better active today than radioactive tomorrow.” Bumper sticker “If we do not change our direction, we are likely to end up where we are headed.” Chinese Proverb “The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small.” Witter Bynner

Respect and Tolerance Respect and Tolerance are a condition among the people in the society to be able tol ive in it. However effective the written Laws, and rules are, if There is no respect and tolerance among the people , the society is condemned to break up. Even if not, It is difficult to live in that society in peace. If we would like togiue an example from Our country, In Hatay, people from different

religions, languages and races have been living in peace. Nobody make shames to each each other or looks down someone because of their differences. You can hear the sounds both Mosque’s calling to prayer, the bells of churches. These things are faundation of Respect and Tolerance. For sake of respect and tolerance all different cultures come together and share the life in peace.


Hatay is only one of the examples of these things. There are many examples like that in a country or human communities in the world. There must be respect and tolerance as well as Written Laws for living peacefully. From the past to Nowadays wars have been happened.

These reasons are Countries gains and lack of respect and tolerance. Respect and Tolerance is a must tol ive in peace and prosperity fort he societies the nations and the world.

Aziz Yelboğa

FREEDOMS Human rights, which all people have, are essential rights and freedoms. These Human rights can be used without considering race,language and sex discrimination by anyone. Human Rights prouides each person to make a selection and to be freedom to improve their abilities. These freedoms are balanced with being respectful to the other’s rights and having the obligation not to break them. In other words, Each right has also each responsibility.

We can divide the freedom into two as actual, mental. Actual freedom depends on Person’s action and behaviours. He adjusts his behaviours limits which are determined by the morals of society. He lives according to society not individually.Mental Freedom is a world which has no limits and given by God , in the world of Person’s mind. Person can think what she / he wants in this world. For instance He / she can question the religions and argue about phenomenons. Emin Kanşat Turkey


TOLERANCE AND RESPECT Tolerance and respect are the most important values which survives society and provide to live together in peace with the people from different religion and race. Tolerance means to tolerate or put up with differences. Mevlana is the best example to tolerance Mevlana : “Come whatever you are, come Whether you are atheis t, or worship fire, whether you have broken your oath thousand times, our convent is not the convent of despair. Come whatever you are, come again.” In other words tolerance means to love the people and approach understandingly to them and not to break their hearts. If we consider that the situation of world is full of conflicts, war, terraism, we absolutely need more tolerance than we have. Religions beliefs mention about being to tolerance and respecful to each other.

When we have a look at ottoman empires history. Ottoman empire consisted of the people from different culture and races. Ottomans governed the communities with justice and tolerance for a long period. The charches and sinagogs were protected by ottoman Empire. Morover “Respect” is a concept which must be adopted by the Society. Respect is treating another person the same way you’d want to be treated yourself.

Turkish Team


Attitudes towards homosexuals in Poland The Church actively opposes the legalization of same-sex partnerships and condemns anyone who supports such initiatives, according to its view of sexual ethics. Church teachings on sex and marriage are very precise and very strict. Sexual relations between a man and a woman can only take place after marriage and only for the purpose of procreation. For example, in vitro fertilization and the donation of sperm or eggs are both considered deeply immoral. The Church teaches that homosexuality is immoral as it is against natural law and God’s law. While Church leaders in Poland claim that they do not involve themselves in politics, they often encourage believers to vote according to Christian ethics. One of the main Polish political parties running together with right wing fringe

religious and rural parties, the Law and Justice Party (PIS) exhorts to ending all of the corruption and harmful liberalism in the Polish society. Both male and female same-sex sexual activity are legal in Poland, but same-sex couples and households headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for the same legal protections available to opposite-sex couples. As for the social attitudes, LGBT persons in Poland are often discriminated by non-LGBT residents. Poles overwhelmingly oppose gay marriage and the adoption of children by gay couples. Most Poles also oppose gay parades. The majority of the population considers homosexuality an “unnatural” activity. Acceptance of LGBT people in the Polish society increased in the 1990s and early 2000s, mainly amongst younger people and those living in larger cities. There exist gay clubs


all around the country, although again most of them are located in the large urban areas. There are also a number of gay rights organizations, the two biggest ones being Campaign Against Homophobia and Lambda Warszawa. Gay media include several weekly or monthly magazines as well as numerous web portals focused on a broad range of issues, from queer studies to gay dating. Article 32 in chapter 2 of The Constitution of the Republic of Poland claims that ”all persons shall be equal before the law” and “[…] have the right to equal treatment by public authorities.” It also maintains that “no one shall be discriminated against in political, social or economic life for any reason whatsoever.” Article 33 also holds that “men and women shall have equal rights in family, political, social and economic life in the Republic of Poland” and asserts that ”men and women shall have equal rights, in particular, regarding education, employment and promotion, and shall have the right to equal compensation for work of similar value, to social security,

to hold offices, and to receive public honours and decorations.” In spite of all these rights guaranteed by our Constitution, all the three above-mentioned groups (women, migrants and homosexuals) suffer discrimination in Poland. As it appears there are “more equal” among equals. ZS nr 31 im. J. Kilińskiego in Warsaw, Poland:

Magdalena Regulska (class ITOR), Kamil Zawadzki (class I TOR), Paula Jankowicz (class IIILC2), Aleksandra Zeitz (class IILC1), Gabriel Wojciechowski (class IILB1), Paulina Królak (class IILB1), Monika Książek (class IIILB1) under the direction of Florentyna Jarocka-Jerinte


Gender Equality The Bulgarian Constitution and the Labour Code both contain provisions prohibiting discrimination.Discrimination on grounds on gender is also prohibited under the Promotion of Employment Act, the Civil Servants Act, the Social Assistance Act, Defence and Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria Act. Protection against Discrimination Act entered into force in 2004. Bulgaria ratified CEDAW in 2006. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, is often described as an international bill of rights for women.The Employment Promotion Act (2002) forbids discriminatory requirements related to gender, age or nationality when posting job vacancies. In 2004, the activity rate for women was 45.4% and for men 56.1%. Women’s activity rate has been decreasing for the past years. Most occupations generally exercised by women – eg teachers, auxiliary

medical staff, staff in hotels, catering and services, and auxiliary staff – are widely perceived, based on social stereotypes, as ‘female’ work. This type of employment does not offer many opportunities from the point of view of pay range, career development and possibilities to participate in the decision-making process. The number of occupations where men are in the majority exceeds almost seven-fold the number of occupations dominated by women. These ‘male’ profession are also, as a rule, more prestigious. The Bulgarian education system does not show discrimination of a certain gender. Enrollement data does not picture a gender gap. In 2001, 61.7% of the university graduates were women. However, the cut backs of the goverment on public spending, especially concearning education, affect the female population more than male, since mostly women are employed as teachers in this country. http://www.tft.gender.is/bg/page/b u_gender_equality http://www.planetbmagazine.com/ page/unesco.html


Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria Fundamental Principles

Adopted on: 12 July 1991

Article 6 [Human Dignity, Freedom, Equality]

Article 37 [Freedom of Religion and Belief]

(2) All citizens shall be equal before the law. There shall be no privileges or restriction of rights on the grounds of race, nationality, ethnic self-identity, sex, origin, religion, education, opinion, political affiliation, personal or social status, or property status.

(1) The freedom of conscience, the freedom of thought, and the choice of religion and of religious or atheistic views are inviolable. The state shall assist the maintenance of tolerance and respect among the believers from different denominations, and among believers and non-believers. (2) The freedom of conscience and religion shall not be practiced to the detriment of national security, public order, public health and morals, or of the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 11 [Political Parties] (4) There shall be no political parties on ethnic, racial, or religious lines, nor parties which seek the violent usurpation of state power. Article 13 [Religion] (1) The practicing of any religion is free. (2) The religious institutions shall be separate from the state. (3) Eastern Orthodox Christianity is considered the traditional religion in the Republic of Bulgaria. (4) Religious institutions and communities and religious beliefs shall not be used to political ends.

Article 44 [Association] (2) No organization shall act to the detriment of the country's sovereignty and national integrity, or the unity of the nation, nor shall it incite racial, national, ethnic, or religious enmity or an encroachment on the rights and freedoms of citizens; no organization shall establish clandestine or paramilitary


structures or shall seek to attain its aims through violence.

be defaulted upon on grounds of religious or other convictions.

Article 58 [Observing Constitution] (2) Obligations established by the Constitution and the law shall not

http://www.vks.bg/english/vksen_p 04_01.htm


UNIVERSAL AND PARTICULAR NATIONAL CULTURES (RELIGION, ART, MORALITY)


Rhinos written by Eugen Ionescu translated into English by Cristina Constantin Andreea Prodan Maria Dumitrica

Eugene Ionescu is a Romanian and French playwright and dramatist, and one of the foremost playwrights of the Theatre of the Absurd. Beyond ridiculing the most banal situations, Ionesco's plays depict in a tangible way the solitude and insignificance of human existence. Ionesco's earliest works, and his most innovative, were one-act nonsense plays: La Cantatrice

chauve (1950), La Leçon translated as The Lesson (1951), Les Chaises translated as The Chairs (1952). In Rhinocéros he watches his friends turning into rhinoceroses one by one until he alone stands unchanged against this mass movement. It is in this play that Ionesco most forcefully expresses his horror of ideological conformism.

Daisy:Hello Mr. Dudard. Dudard: hey, look, miss Daisy! Daisy:Berenger is at home? Is he feeling better? Dudard: hello, sweet lady! You come often to see Berenger! Daisy:Where is he? Dudard: look! Daisy:Poor him,he doesn`t have anyone around him and now is sick, he should be helped Dudard: you are a good friend, miss Daisy! Daisy: Yes, right, I'm a good mate. Dudard: you have a good heart. Daisy: I’m just a good mate, that’s all. Berenger: Oh, dear miss Daisy! So nice of you to come! You are too kind! Dudard: Right! Yeah, that’s it! Berenger: Miss Daisy do you know that the Logician has become a rhino?


Daisy: I know, I saw him on the street when I came here. He was running fast for someone like his age! Mr. Berenger do you feel better? Berenger: My head still hurts! Having a headache! It’s something horrible! What can you say about this? Daisy: I think you should rest ... you should stay a few days home and rest. Dudard: I hope that I’m not disturbing. Berenger: No, I was talking about the Logician… Daisy: Why would you bother us? Oh, about that? Well, what can I say - I am not saying anything. Dudard: maybe I am out of it. Daisy: what do you want me to believe? I have news to tell you: Botard has become a rhino. Dudard: really! Berenger: This is unacceptable! He was against. Probably you are confusing him. Botard protested against this, this is what Dudard told me a few minutes ago. Am I right Dudard? Dudard: right! Daisy: and I know that he was against. However he became a rhino, twentyfour hours after Mister Papillon. Dudard: So he changed his point of view! Anyone has the permission to progress. Berenger: Alright, but, this means that we can expect everything to happen. Dudard: as you were saying: he is a brave man, isn’t he? That’s what you said. Berenger: This is hard for me to believe. Somebody must have lied to you. Daisy: But I saw him with my own eyes. Berenger: Then, he is the one that lied to you. He acted. Daisy: but he had a honest air. The most honestly air in the world. Berenger: Has he given you an argument? Daisy: He said: "You must be in step with time" - Those were his last words of man. Dudard: I was sure that I will meet you here, miss Daisy. Bereger: I don’t know how to thank you. Daisy: Do you want to stay with us at the table? Dudard: I wouldn’t want to bother. Daisy: Oh, but why are you talking like this, Mr Dudard? You know very well that it is a pleasure to stay with us. Dudard: you know that I don’t like to bother people. Berenger: But of course Dudard that your presence is always welcome. Dudard: I’m a bit late. I have a meeting. Berenger: But just now you said that you have all the time…


Daisy: You know, to me it was hard to find something to eat. Stores are devastated: they took everything. Many shops are closed. "For reasons of change", as it was written on the door. Berenger: They should be closed in enormous special lairs. And they should impose forced living. Dudard: I think this projects are impossible. The first one who will oppose will be the Society for Animal Protection. Daisy: On the other hand, we all have one known among rhinos, one relative, friend, and that makes things complicated. Berenger: Having said that, we are all in the same boat. Dudard: everyone is unitive. Berenger: But how could somebody become a rhino? This is misguided. Daisy: Do you see that we used? Nobody wonders when the herd of rhinos are roaming in the city freely. People are wary of the way, and then resumed their walk, and they see each of their business as if nothing had happened. Dudard: it’s a good attitude. Berenger: Oh, no, I can’t fit in with this. Dudard: I wonder if the experience should be tempting. Berenger: The man is superior to the rhino. Dudard: I don’t support the contrary. I don’t approve it either. I don’t know, only my experience can prove it. Berenger: Dudard, you are weak too. But this is a fleeting weakness, you will see, you will regret this. Dudard: I have compunction! The duty imposes me to follow my bosses and friends for better or worse. Berenger: But you are bound to them by marriage. Dudard: I have given up marriage. I would rather have an universal family instead of a smaller one. Daisy: We are very sorry for you, Dudard, but we can't help you with anything. Dudard: my duty is not to abandon anyone, so I will do my job. Brenger: On the contrary, your duty is to … you don’t know what your real duty is… your real duty is to oppose to them with lucidity and determination. Dudard: I will keep my mind clear. I will keep my mind clear. If it’s to criticise we will criticise from the inside not from outside. I won’t abandon them, I won’t abandon them. Daisy: He has a good soul. Berenger: His soul is too good. You have a big heart. We can see that you are human. (The phone rings.) Berenger: Yes, listen, it is the call bell of the authorities, I know it. A long sound! I have to answer, it can’t be anybody else. Hello! Can you hear? Bellows! Listen!


Daisy: what may have happened? Berenger: Now they are playing pranks on us! Daisy: stupid jokes. Berenger: see, I told you! Daisy: You didn't tell me anything Berenger: I was expecting this; it is something in the course of nature Daisy: You don't predict and expect anything. You don't ever predict anything. You predict only events that have already happened. Berenger: yes I do, predicting, predicting Daisy: It is not funny. It's evil. I don't like someone to sneer at me. Berenger: they wouldn’t dare to sneer at you. It’s me they are sneering at. Daisy: And as I am with you, of course I collect myself the sneering. But what did we do to them? (Phone rings). Remove it from the socket. Berenger: the Telecommunications don’t allow us to do that. Daisy: You don't have the courage to do anything? You don't have the courage to take my defense? The sound stops. Berenger: let’s turn on the radio, to hear the news. Daisy: Yes, we must know in what world we are! The issue becomes serious! I don't like it! And I will not admit! Berenger: (very nervous) stay calm! Calm! Daisy: They filled the radio! Berenger: Calm! Let’s stay calm! Calm! Daisy: There isn't a joke! They were taken really seriously. Berenger: the only thing that exists is them. The only thing that exists is them. The authorities are now with them. Daisy: There's no one outside them. Berenger: We are the only ones. We are now alone. Daisy: Just as you wanted. Berenger: no, you wanted this! Daisy: you! Berenger: no, you! Daisy: It is an earthquake! Berenger: no. they are our neighbours! You are not letting us work! It’s forbidden to disturb the peace of the inhabitants! You mustn’t make noise! Daisy: no one listens to you! Berenger: don’t be afraid my love! We are together. Are you ok with me? Isn’t my presence enough for you? I’ll know how to remove all the anxiety from you. Daisy: Maybe it's all our fault. Berenger: don’t think about this. We need to beware of remorse. The guilt is dangerous. Let’s live our life and be happy. We have the duty of being happy. If


you don’t hurt them, they won’t hurt you either. They will let us go. Calm down. Calm down. Calm down. Take a seat. Ok. Enough. Calm down. Do you want a glass of brandy? It will make you feel better. Daisy: I have a headache. Berenger: well, anyhow, I swear I will not abdicate. I won’t abdicate. Daisy: My poor you, I will stand next to you until the end. Berenger: could you? Daisy: I will keep my word. Trust me. Hear? they are singing. Berenger: they are not singing, they are bellowing. Daisy: They are singing! Berenger: it’s like I tell you: they are bellowing. Daisy: You're crazy. They are singing. Berenger: that means that you are unmusical. Daisy: You don't know what music means, my dear. In addition, Look, they are playing and dancing. Berenger: is this what you call dancing? Daisy: They are dancing in their own way. They are really beautiful. Berenger: they are bounders. Daisy: I don't want you to talk bad about them. That hurts me. Berenger: I’m sorry. We are not going to fight because of them. Daisy: They are gods. Berenger: you are exaggerating, look at them closely. Daisy: Don't be jealous, dear - forgive me too! Berenger: I can see that our judgements are over against. We shouldn’t talk about this. Daisy: Come on, don't be petty, really. Berenger: don’t be a bullhead. Daisy: together, it is no longer possible. Berenger: A man can’t be that ugly. And I’m not a part of the handsome men! Believe me Daisy! Daisy! Daisy! Where are you? You can���t do this! Daisy! Daisy, come back! I am not giving up that easy! You can’t beat me! I won’t come after you, I do not understand you! I swear to stay as I am, a human being. I will protect myself against the entire world, I will protect myself, I will protect myself! I am the last man and I will stay like this until the last breath! I’m not giving up!


Romanian Team

ORHAN PAMUK

Orhan Pamuk was born 7 June 1952 in Istanbul into a prosperous, secular middle-class family. His father was an engineer as were his paternal uncle and grandfather. It

was this grandfather who founded the family's fortune. Growing up, Pamuk was set on becoming a painter. He graduated from Robert College then studied architecture at Istanbul Technical University and journalism at Istanbul University. He spent the years 1985-1988 in the United States where he was a visiting researcher at Columbia University in New York and for a short period attached to the University of Iowa. He lives in Istanbul. Pamuk has said that growing up, he experienced a shift from a traditional Ottoman family environment to a more Western-


oriented lifestyle. He wrote about this in his first published novel, a family chronicle entitled Cevdet Bey Ve Oğulları (1982), which in the spirit of Thomas Mann follows the development of a family over three generations. His second novel, Sessiz Ev (1983; The House of Silence, 1998), uses five different narrator perspectives to describe a situation in which several family members visit their ageing grandmother at a popular seaside resort with Turkey teetering on the brink of civil war. The period is 1980. The grandchildren's political discussions and their friendships reflect a social chaos where various extremist organisations vie for power. Pamuk's international breakthrough came with his third novel, Beyaz Kale (1985; The White Castle, 1992). It is structured as an historical novel set in 17th-century Istanbul, but its content is primarily a story about how our ego builds on stories and fictions of different sorts. Personality is shown to be a variable construction. The story's main character, a Venetian sold as a slave to the young scholar Hodja, finds in Hodja his own reflection. As the two men recount their life stories to each other, there occurs an exchange of identities. It is perhaps, on a symbolic level, the European novel captured then allied with an alien culture. Pamuk's writing has become known for its play with identities and doubles. The issue appears in his

novel Kara Kitap (1990; The Black Book, 1995) in which the protagonist searches the hubbub of Istanbul for his vanished wife and her half-brother, with whom he later exchanges identities. Frequent references to the mystic tradition of the East make it natural to see this in a Sufi perspective. Kara Kitap represented a definite break with the governing social realism in Turkish literature. It provoked debate in Turkey not least through its Sufism references. Pamuk based his screenplay for the film Gizli Yüz (1992) on the novel. Yeni Hayat (1994; The New Life, 1996) is a novel about a secret book with the capacity to irrevocably change the life of any person who reads it. The search for the book provides the structure of a physical journey but bordered by literary references, thought experiments in the spirit of mysticism, and reminiscences of older Turkish popular culture, turning the plot into an allegoric course of events correlated with the Romantic myth of an original, lost wisdom. According to the author, the major theme of Benim Adim Kırmızı (2000; My Name is Red, 2002) is the relationship between East and West, describing the different views on the artist's relation to his work in both cultures. It is a story about classical miniature painting and simultaneously a murder mystery in a period environment, a bittersweet love story, and a subtle


dialectic discussion of the role of individuality in art. Pamuk has published a collection of essays, Öteki Renkler : Seçme Yazılar Ve Bir Hikâye (1999), and a city portrait, İstanbul : Hatıralar Ve Şehir (2003; Istanbul : Memories and the City, 2006). The latter interweaves recollections of the writer's upbringing with a portrayal of Istanbul's literary and cultural history. A key word is hüzün, a multi-faceted concept Pamuk uses to characterise the melancholy he sees as distinctive for Istanbul and its inhabitants. Pamuk's latest novel is Kar (2002; Snow, 2005). The story is set in the 1990s near Turkey's eastern border in the town of Kars, once a border city between the Ottoman and Russian empires. The protagonist, a writer who has been living in exile in Frankfurt, travels to Kars to discover himself and his country. The novel becomes a tale of love and poetic creativity just as it knowledgeably describes the political and religious conflicts that characterise Turkish society of our day. In his home country, Pamuk has a reputation as a social commentator even though he sees himself as principally a fiction writer with no political agenda. He was the first author in the Muslim world to publicly condemn the fatwa against Salman Rushdie. He took a stand for his Turkish colleague Yaşar Kemal when Kemal was put on trial in 1995. Pamuk himself was charged after having mentioned, in a Swiss

newspaper, that 30,000 Kurds and one million Armenians were killed in Turkey. The charge aroused widespread international protest. It has subsequently been dropped. Literary Prizes and Awards: Milliyet Roman Yarışması Ödülü (1979, shared with Mehmet Eroğlu), Orhan Kemal Roman Ödülü (1983), Madaralı roman Ödülü (1984), the Independent Award for Foreign Fiction (1990), Prix de la Découverte Européenne (1991), Prix France Culture (1995), Prix du Meilleur Livre Étranger (2002), Premio Grinzane Cavour (2002), the IMPAC Dublin Award (2003), Ricarda-HuchPreis (2005), Der Friedenspreis des Deutschen Buchhandels (2005), Prix Médicis étranger (2005), Prix Méditerranée Étranger (2006). Works in Turkish Cevdet Bey Ve Oğulları. – İstanbul : Karacan Yayınları, 1982 Sessiz Ev. – İstanbul : Can Yayınları, 1983 Beyaz Kale. – İstanbul : Can Yayınları, 1985 Kara Kitap. – İstanbul : Can Yayınları, 1990 Gizli Yüz : Senaryo. – İstanbul : Can Yayınları, 1992 Yeni Hayat. – İstanbul : İletişim, 1994 Benim Adım Kırmızı. – İstanbul : İletişim, 1998 Öteki Renkler : Seçme Yazılar Ve Bir Hikâye. – İstanbul : İletişim, 1999 Kar. – İstanbul : İletişim, 2002 İstanbul : Hatıralar Ve Şehir. – İstanbul : Yapı Kredi Kültür Sanat Yayıncılık, 2003


Works in English The White Castle / translated from the Turkish by Victoria Holbrook. – New York : Braziller, 1991 ; London : Faber & Faber, 2001. – Translation of Beyaz Kale The Black Book / translated by: Güneli Gün. – New York : Farrar, Straus, 1994 ; London : Faber & Faber, 1994. – Translation of Kara Kitap The Black Book / translated by: Maureen Freely. – New York : Knopf, 2006 ; London : Faber & Faber, 2006. – Translation of Kara Kitap The New Life / translated by Güneli Gün. – New York : Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1997 ; London : Faber & Faber, 1997. – Translation of Yeni Hayat My Name is Red / translated from the Turkish by Erdağ M. Göknar. – New York : Knopf, 2001 ; London : Faber & Faber, 2001. – Translation of Benim Adım Kırmızı Snow / translated from the Turkish by Maureen Freely. – New York : Knopf, 2004 ; London : Faber & Faber, 2004. – Translation of Kar Istanbul : Memories and the City / translated from the Turkish by Maureen Freely. – New York : Knopf, 2005 ; London : Faber & Faber, 2005. – Translation of İstanbul : Hatıralar Ve Şehir Works in French La maison du silence / trad. du turc par Münevver Andaç. – Paris :

Gallimard, 1988. – Traduction de: Sessiz Ev Le livre noir / trad. du turc par Münevver Andaç. – Paris : Gallimard, 1994. – Traduction de: Kara Kitap Le château blanc / trad. du turc par Münevver Andaç. – Paris : Gallimard, 1996. – Traduction de: Beyaz Kale La vie nouvelle / trad. du turc par Münevver Andaç. – Paris : Gallimard, 1998. – Traduction de: Yeni Hayat Mon nom est Rouge / trad. du turc par Gilles Authier. – Paris : Gallimard, 2001. – Traduction de: Benim Adım Kırmızı Neige / traduit du turc par JeanFrançois Pérouse. – Paris : Gallimard, 2005. – Traduction de: Kar Works in Swedish Den vita borgen / översättning från turkiskan av Kemal Yamanlar i samarbete med Anne-Marie Özkök. – Stockholm : Tiden, 1992. – Originaltitel: Beyaz Kale Den svarta boken : roman / översatt av Jan Verner-Carlsson. – Stockholm : Tiden, 1995. – Översättning från den norska utgåvan med titeln: Svart bok och den engelska utgåvan med titeln: The black book. – Originaltitel: Kara Kitap Det nya livet : roman / översatt från turkiskan av Dilek Gür. – Stockholm : Rabén Prisma/Arleskär, 1996. – Originaltitel: Yeni Hayat Det tysta huset : roman / översatt från turkiskan av Dilek Gür. –


Stockholm : Norstedt, 1998. – Originaltitel: Sessiz Ev Mitt namn är röd / översättning: Ritva Olofsson. – Stockholm : Norstedt, 2002. – Originaltitel: Benim Adım Kırmızı Snö / översättning Inger Johansson. – Stockholm : Norstedt, 2005. – Översättning från den engelska utgåvan med titeln: Snow. – Originaltitel: Kar Istanbul - minnen av en stad / översatt av Tomas Håkanson. – Stockholm : Norstedt, 2006. – Originaltitel: İstanbul : Hatıralar Ve Şehir

Das schwarze Buch / Aus dem Türk. von Ingrid Iren. – München : Hanser, 1995. – Originaltitel: Kara Kitap Das neue Leben / Aus dem Türk. von Ingrid Iren. – München : Hanser, 1998. – Originaltitel: Yeni Hayat Rot ist mein Name / Aus dem Türk. von Ingrid Iren. – München : Hanser, 2001. – Originaltitel: Benim Adım Kırmızı Schnee / Aus dem Türk. von Christoph K. Neumann. – München : Hanser, 2005. – Originaltitel: Kar Der Blick aus meinem Fenster : Betrachtungen. – München : Hanser, 2006

Works in German Die weisse Festung / Aus dem Türk. übertr. von Ingrid Iren. – Frankfurt am Main : Insel, 1990. – Originaltitel: Beyaz Kale

FERZAN ÖZPE TEK

One of the most successful and award-winning contemporary Italian filmmakers, Ferzan Ozpetek (b. 1959, Istanbul) creates films that display a unique thematic focus while remaining ambitious in scope

and richly rewarding in their technical achievement. Effortlessly elegant, his aesthetic rarely calls attention to itself; his films masterfully illuminate various strains of society and strands of


storytelling, and his actors shine in beautifully written, multifaceted parts that embrace an unforced multiculturalism. Ozpetek's films are often rooted in the tradition of the sophisticated melodramas of the 1950s, pivoting around seemingly ordinary and content people whose lives become unmoored—often by a sudden death—leading to the discovery of previously unacknowledged passions and possibilities. The filmmaker's signature tracking camera stunningly unites disparate time periods (as in Facing Windows

and Harem) and distant locales (Italy and Turkey), and creates a visual connection between Ozpetek's central characters and the extended families they discover, whether in close friendships (Saturn in Opposition), in communal living (His Secret Life), or in caring for those in need (Sacred Heart, Facing Windows). His is a humanistic cinema in which the kindness of strangers is the most readily available because—as the Sister Sledge song puts it—"We are family."

Austin Gay & Lesbian International Film Festival Award

Category/Recipient(s)

aGLIFF Award

Best Feature for:Le fate ignoranti (2001).

Bangkok International Film Festival Award

Category/Recipient(s)

Golden Kinnaree Award

Best Film for:La finestra di fronte (2003).

Berlin International Film Festival Award

Category/Recipient(s)

Golden Berlin Bear

for:Le fate ignoranti (2001).

Copenhagen International Film Festival Award

Category/Recipient(s)

Golden Swan

for:La finestra di fronte (2003).

David di Donatello Awards Award

Category/Recipient(s)


David

Best Director (Migliore Regista) for:Cuore sacro (2005).

MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATĂœRK

He was born in 1881 (probably in the spring) in Salonica, then an Ottoman city, now in Greece. His father Ali Riza, a customs official turned lumber merchant, died when Mustafa was still a boy. His mother Zubeyde, a devout and strong-willed woman, raised him and his sister. First enrolled in a traditional religious school, he soon switched to a modern school. In 1893, he entered a military high school where his mathematics teacher gave him the second name Kemal (meaning perfection) in recognition of young Mustafa's superior achievement. He was thereafter known as Mustafa Kemal. In 1905, Mustafa Kemal graduated from the War Academy in Istanbul

with the rank of Staff Captain. Posted in Damascus, he started with several colleagues, a clandestine society called "Homeland and Freedom" to fight against the Sultan's despotism. In 1908 he helped the group of officers who toppled the Sultan. Mustafa Kemal's career flourished as he won his heroism in the far corners of the Ottoman Empire, including Albania and Tripoli. He also briefly served as a staff officer in Salonica and Istanbul and as a military attache in Sofia. In 1915, when Dardanelles campaign was launched, Colonel Mustafa Kemal became a national hero by winning successive victories and finally repelling the invaders. Promoted to general in 1916, at age 35, he liberated two major provinces in eastern Turkey that year. In the next two years, he served as commander of several Ottoman armies in Palestine, Aleppo, and elsewhere, achieving another major victory by stopping the enemy advance at Aleppo. On May 19, 1919, Mustafa Kemal Pasha landed in the Black Sea port of Samsun to start the War of Independence. In defiance of the Sultan's government, he rallied a


liberation army in Anatolia and convened the Congress of Erzurum and Sivas which established the basis for the new national effort under his leadership. On April 23, 1920, the Grand National Assembly was inaugurated. Mustafa Kemal Pasha was elected to its Presidency. Fighting on many fronts, he led his forces to victory against rebels and invading armies. Following the Turkish triumph at the two major battles at Inonu in Western Turkey, the Grand National Assembly conferred on Mustafa Kemal Pasha the title of Commander-in-Chief with the rank of Marshal. At the end of August 1922, the Turkish armies won their ultimate victory. Within a few weeks, the Turkish mainland was completely liberated, the armistice signed, and the rule of the Ottoman dynasty abolished. In July 1923, the national government signed the Lausanne Treaty with Great Britain, France, Greece, Italy, and others. In midOctober, Ankara became the capital of the new Turkish State. On October 29, the Republic was

proclaimed and Mustafa Kemal Pasha was unanimously elected President of the Republic. Atat端rk married Latife Usakligil in early 1923. The marriage ended in divorce in 1925. The account of Atat端rk's fifteen year Presidency is a saga of dramatic modernization. With indefatigable determination, he created a new political and legal system, abolished the Caliphate and made both government and education secular, gave equal rights to women, changed the alphabet and the attire, and advanced the arts and the sciences, agriculture and industry. In 1934, when the surname law was adopted, the national parliament gave him the name "Atat端rk" (Father of the Turks). On November 10, 1938, following an illness of a few months, the national liberator and the Father of modern Turkey died. But his legacy to his people and to the world endures.


Francisco de Goya: Considered one of the great masters of painting in Spain,he was a painter and engraver. Born in a small Aragonese town, Fuentedetodos, on March 30, 1746 and died in Bordeaux, France on April 16, 1828. He began his formal education at age 14. In 1789 Goya was appointed painter to King Charles IV and in

1799 was the firstpainter. The horrors of war left a deep impression on him, personally I behold the battles between French soldiers and Spanish citizens during the years of the Napoleonic occupation.

268 x 347 cm Oil on canvas Exhibited at the Prado Museum, Madrid. Spain Representation of the executions of patriots from Madrid by Napoleon's army in retaliation to the uprising of May 2, 1808 against the French occupation of Spain


Pablo Picasso 1881-1973 Born in Malaga, Spain

Spanish painter Pablo Picasso painted mural (1937) of bombing of Basque city of Guernica by German airforce during Spanish Civil War. Depicts victims of war, suffering women, children, and horse. Perhaps greatest painting about war ever made. Focuses on victims. Timeless and universal in its themes. The fact that both Picasso and Goya were direct witness of war and its effects over civilians such as famine, misery and hate, pushed these great painters to fight against War and defende peace and freedom as universal values. Picasso´s famous Guernica mural is known al around the World and it is a symbol for the fight for freedom, for peace and therespect of life and tolerance. Picasso wished to share a message for all minkind in which a cruel attack such as Gernica bombings should never happan again. The same intent was in

Goya´s mind when working in a series of works known as The Dissasters of War. He wanted to show how big power of destruction and deep hate emerged during War times and his intent was as much as Picasso did, to send all peoples on Earth a clear and strong message to defened and always fight to build a human society in which values such as tolerance, freedom, right to live and rejecting all types of violence and of course any kind of War beteen nations and peoles

Comments authored by Marina Marín, Carlos Serrano, Denisse Aguirre IES Santa Clara. Santander. Spain


UNIVERSALITY OF POLISH CULTURE WORLD FAMOUS POLES John Paul II (1920-2005)

Probably the most famous Pole ever, Pope John Paul II was born Karol Jozef Wojtyła in the small town of Wadowice in Poland. By being elected pope by the Catholic Church in 1978, he became the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. John Paul II was acclaimed as one of the most influential leaders of the 20th century. He was instrumental in ending communism in his native Poland and eventually all of Europe. John Paul II significantly improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism, Islam, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion. He was one of the most-travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate. 19 December 2009, John Paul II was proclaimed venerable by his successor Pope Benedict XVI and was beatified on 1 May 2011.

Lech Walesa

This feisty, moustachioed electrician from Gdańsk shaped the

end of the 20th century as the leader of the Solidarity movement that led Poland out of communism. Walesa's contribution to the end of communism in Europe, and hence the end of the cold war, stands beside those of his fellow Pole, Pope John Paul II, and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. On 9 December 1990 Wałęsa won the presidential election, to become the first democratically elected president of Poland. During his presidency, Wałęsa saw Poland through privatization and transition to a free-market economy (the Balcerowicz Plan), Poland's 1991 first completely free parliamentary elections, and a period of redefinition of Poland's foreign relations. He successfully negotiated the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Polish soil and won a substantial reduction in Poland's foreign debts. Wałęsa supported Poland's entry into NATO and into the European Union (both these goals would be realized after his presidency, in 1999 and 2004 respectively).


Fryderyk Chopin (1810-1849)

A Polish composer of the 19th century whose adult life centered mainly on Paris. A Romantic composer who wrote almost entirely for the piano, Chopin changed the world of keyboard music forever. His over 200 works include Mazurkas, Sonatas, Ballades, Scherzo, Etudes, Nocturnes, Waltzes, Polonaises, Preludes and 2 piano concertos. He didn't give titles to his works but identified them by genre and number. Many of his pieces are widely known today as they have been featured in lots of films, TV programs, advertisements and on the radio - not just classical stations. One of his best known works; however, is known as “The Minute Waltz".

Nicolaus 1543)

Copernicus

(1473-

Copernicus is said to be the founder of modern astronomy. Born on 19 February 1473 in Toruń, Poland, Nicolaus Copernicus was destined to become, through the eventual publication of his heliocentric planetary theory 70 years later, one of the seminal figures in the history of scientific

thought. His heliocentric model, with the Sun at the center of the universe, demonstrated that the observed motions of celestial objects can be explained without putting Earth at rest in the center of the universe. His work stimulated further scientific investigations, becoming a landmark in the history of science that is often referred to as the Copernican Revolution. Among the great polymaths of the Renaissance, Copernicus was a mathematician, astronomer, jurist with a doctorate in law, physician, quadrilingual polyglot, classics scholar, translator, artist, Catholic cleric, governor, diplomat and economist.

Maria Skłodowska-Curie (18671934)

Maria Skłodowska-Curie was a Polish physicist and chemist famous for her pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first person honored with two Nobel Prizes - in physics and chemistry. She was the first female professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris. Her achievements included a theory of radioactivity (a term that she created), techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the


discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world's first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms, using radioactive isotopes. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and Warsaw, which remain major centres of medical research today.

Henryk 1916)

Sienkiewicz

(1846-

Polish novelist, a storyteller, and winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1905. His strongly Catholic worldview deeply marked his writing. In Poland, he is best known for his historical novels "With Fire and Sword", "The Deluge", and "Fire in the Steppe" (“The Trilogy”) set during the 17thcentury Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, while internationally he is best known for “Quo Vadis”, set in Nero's Rome. “Quo Vadis” has been put on the stage and filmed several times, Sienkiewicz's works have been published in 50 languages.

Roman Polański

One of the most famous Polish directors and an Oscar winner. The story of Roman Polanski's life is as tortuous and full of incident and tragedy as one of his dark films. Polanski survived the Nazi atrocities committed in the Kraków ghetto, but lost his mother in a concentration camp gas chamber. He spent a large part of his life in the US and made several important films with top American actors, such as “Chinatown”(1974) (with Jack Nicholson, Faye Dunaway, and John Huston), and “Rosemary’s Baby” (with Mia Farrow,1968). In 1969 he experienced another personal tragedy when his pregnant wife, Sharon Tate, was murdered by the Manson Family. In 1978 he fled to France where he has directed Frantic (1988), “Death and the Maiden” (1994), “The Ninth Gate” (1999), “The Pianist” (2002), “Oliver Twist” (2005) and “Carnage”(2011). The project team from Zespół Szkół nr 31 im. Jana Kilińskiego in Warsaw, Poland


POLICIES FOR THE PRESERVATION OF THE CULTURAL IDENTITY IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD


Polish policy regarding the preservation of cultural identity in a globalised world

No matter how globalised the world is the Polish have always had and will preserve their own Polish cultural identity owing to:  cooking Polish meals,  reading, writing and speaking the native language,  keeping the national heritage alive by belonging to Polish cultural organizations and taking part in activities deepening the knowledge about the Polish culture e.g. watching films, reading newspapers, exploring classic titles for stories and novels and works by contemporaneous authors, meeting Polish artists, attending concerts, art shows, pow-wows or dramatic performances, both traditional and contemporary,  learning about the history of Polish culture and issues confronting people in modern times,  celebrating Polish holidays and following Polish customs. Polish cultural heritage (material and spiritual achievements of previous generations as well as the achievements of our time) has been declared as protected by the constitutional obligation of the

Polish state and every citizen. Article 6, paragraph 1of the Constitution says “The Republic of Poland shall provide conditions for equal access to cultural goods which are the source of the identity of the Polish nation, its duration and development” and according to article 86 “everyone is obliged to care for the environment and is responsible for causing its deterioration.” In 2004 The National Culture Development Strategy 2004-2013 was adopted by the Ministry of Culture. It defines the mission of Polish cultural policy as “the sustainable development of culture as the highest value transmitted over generations, defining the Polish historical and civilization heritage in its entirety, the value conditioning the national identity and providing continuity to tradition and regional development.” The strategic aim of the Strategy is balancing cultural development in the regions, while the main policy targets are:  enhancing effectiveness of culture management;  implementing innovative solutions in the system of cultural activity and culture proliferation;


reducing regional disproportions in cultural development;  improving participation and leveling chances of access to the artistic education, goods and cultural services;  improving conditions of artistic activity;  effective promotion of artistic output;  preserving the cultural heritage and active monument protection;  reducing the civilization gap through modernization and deve-lopment of cultural infrastructure. The period the Strategy is to remain in force has been extended to 2020. The cultural institution acting in accordance with the strategy for sustainable development, whose primary objective is to implement the State’s policy concerning the protection of cultural heritage and its preservation for future generations is the National Heritage Board of Poland established by the Minister of Culture and National Heritage. The Board’s activities encompass in particular:  documentation of the cultural heritage through registering the historical monuments – 

their values and condition they are in; archiving documental resources that relate to the protection of historical monuments;  formation of the rules for the protection of historical monuments through recognizing the threats and elaborating the standards of conduct as well as the implementation of standards for conservation works;  education and promotion of heritage, which means popularization of knowledge about historical monuments, sites and museum objects and formation of social conditions enabling the effective protection of them. The Board is also present at an international forum by cooperating with similar institutions in other countries whose aims are to propagate the highest standards of cultural management. Globalisation facilitates communication between countries and often provides them with new interesting ideas and solutions; however, it does not interfere with a country’s willingness to keep up its cultural identity.

Aleksandra Kejne, Julia Balińska, Sandra Stolare wska, Katarzyna Hajdas from Zespół Szkół nr 31 im. Jana Kilińskiego in Warsaw, Poland


Minorities in Bulgaria Ethnic groups in Bulgaria today are linguistically, culturally, and emotionally linked to other countries, as well as to communities Ethnic Bulgarians, on their part, have their own minorities outside the Bulgarian state – in the Ukraine, Moldova, Romania, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Albania, Turkey, etc. Some of these ethnic Bulgarian minority groups are successors of Bulgarian emigrants, who had left the country, for political or economic reasons, in the time of the Ottoman rule (in the modern terminology, the predecessors of these ethnic Bulgarians would have been called refugees), for example, the Bulgarian Catholics in Romanian and Serbian Banat, the Bulgarians in Bessarabia (Moldova and the Ukraine), Tavria (the Ukraine), etc We should mention here that some non-Bulgarian ethnic communities living in other states are connected with the Bulgarian cultural tradition and way of life – these are ethnic Turks from Bulgaria, now living in Turkey, or Bulgaria’s Jews, now living in Israel. On the whole, it could be asserted that the Bulgarian people is more or less tolerant to its minorities. More than once have large groups of people, driven out of other countries, been given asylum in Bulgaria – such were the Sefarade Jews in the 15th century, the Russian Kazaks of the Old Rite in the 17th century, and later the

Armenians fleeing from the outrages in Turkey, the White Guards fleeing from Russia, etc. During World War II, when the Jews were being killed in the Holocaust everywhere in Europe, the fourtyeight thousand Jews living in Bulgaria’s pre-war territories, were not sent to the death camps, in spite of the anti-Jewish legislation effective in the country. Bulgaria refused to deport its citizens. Some minorities suffered heavy economic blows in the context of the policy of eliminating private ownership followed by the authorities Some of the minority groups had their organizations and periodicals, but the latter were not expected to promote the preservation of minority languages and cultures, but rather to work for their “internationalization”, that is assimilation. The period of the so-called “revival process” (with two peaks – in 19721974, and 1984-1985), the forcible renaming of the Muslim population (Turks, Bulgarians, Tartars, Roma), was accompanied by acts of repression, some were killed or sentenced. In the long run, however, the process led in 1989 to a wave of refugees unseen in the Balkans since World War II and cynically termed “the big trip” because of the tourist passports issued to the ethnic Turks at that


time. The ethnic Turks left Bulgaria in huge numbers. At the same time, following W.W. II until as late as the political changes in 1989-1990 the carelessness of the Bulgarian state with respect to the ethnic Bulgarian population in other countries was next to total. Subsequent to the political transformations, the government turned their attention to the minority issue and undertook a number of steps, though not very systematic and consistent. Under pressure by the Muslims, a regulatory base and an administrative mechanism were established for the restoration of their names.

Since the Bulgarian authorities make no obstructions any more, some of the Turkish emigrants have returned, but others have emigrated. The Constitution, passed by the Grand National Assembly in 1991, says that no political parties based on ethnicity and religion shall be formed. Since no personal identification documents contain references to nationality, the only application of this article is that parties are not allowed to write down in their documents that they are ethnicity-based, they could not deny either admittance to a Bulgarian citizen on account of his/her ethnic or religious background.

Bulgarian Team: Tina Georgieva Tividosheva , Gabriela Tomi Markova, Viktoriya Hristova Todorova 1st School, Sofia, Bulgaria

Policies for the preservation of the cultural identity in a globalized world Culture is what defines human life itself. “Human kind lives in art and rationality” remarked Aristotel in the very first pages of his Metaphysics. Indeed, it is impossible for us, people, to live without culture. The very plurality of cultures rooted this common necessity. For Thomas de Koninck, the etymology of the word “culture”

reveals at least three capital notions: the place where we “live”; the concept of care, training, concern, watching something and the idea of “cult”, respect, consideration. In truth, we all live in cultures, obviously in more senses of the word “live”, as demonstrated by any attempt to deepen the famous phrase of Holderlin (…) “man dwells poetically”: there are


languages and symbols in the bosom of which we are held and we express our thoughts and choices, but also the lives in what they have deeper, that invisible place we call imaginary and which is the emotional essence. Themes of care, taking care and building the soul, illustrated by Socrates, is central to the Platonic philosophy and, frankly, to any philosophical traditions to this day. On the other hand, we all ascend one or more worship of a “god” or another (that may alo be, of course, and an idol like money or power): the problem is to know which to give the highest honors to, what is preferably to cultivate in this significance. Given the overwhelming role that cultures has in our lives and on the

other hand the profound changes of our world cultural policies and strategies should be developed which take into account the fact that cultural policy is an important component of public policies In the development of cultural policies and strategies it is required a cultural pluralist vision of culture; the culture appears as a factor of social and community development, factor of quality of life, way of life of individuals and societies, culture is the expression of identity in a world of diversity and differences . At the same time it boosts the structure of society and human personality having an important role in achieving social integration and rejection of all forms of exclusion and marginalization. Vlad Manole Romania

Globalization and the cultural policies and strategies

The cultural policies and strategies must start from the knowledge and evaluation of the changes made by the globalization. In the literature we find multiple theories regarding the impact of globalization upon the culture. Globalization as cultural (heterogenizarea) , (increasing of the variety and diversity of the cultural products , „the consumer is King”) Globalization as cultural mixing (threatening of the local cultures by

the west models/american – for example: Mc Donald phenomenon) Globalization as cultural hybridization ( the mixture of cultures has a result of global „mélange”) These theories do not selfexclude, but the fulfill eachother. Globalization represents a developing oprtunity, enriching and diversification of the cultural life, but also a threat for the cultural national or comunity identities. On the one hand, globalization determines one grade of mixing and


harmony of the legislation. On the other hand, globalization has as an effect the appearance of „hybrid� forms of creative practics and cultural expressions.At the same time,the globalization can encourage (heterogenizarea) , cultural diversity,specificity; so the globalization has an important role

in rediscovering the importance of civilisations and traditional cultures,of comunity values,of multiculturarity. In the process of european integration, the diversity of practics and traditions leads to european spiritual enriching. Rares Popa Romania


LAST MEETING OF THE PROJECT – BUCHAREST, ROMANIA MAY – JUNE 2012


Coordinators of the product: Tania Nicolau Laura Burcuș Doina Dincă

NATIONAL COLLEGE ”OCTAV ONICESCU” – BUCHAREST


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