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R1/R2 ASSOCIATED FIRE CODES LAFC 2014 ACCESS and EGRESS 505.1 Address identification. New and existing buildings shall have approved address numbers, building numbers or approved building identification placed in a position that is plainly legible and visible from the street or road fronting the property. These numbers shall contrast with their background. Where required by the fire code official, address numbers shall be provided in additional approved locations to facilitate emergency response. Address numbers shall be Arabic numbers or alphabetical letters. Numbers shall be a minimum of 4 inches (101.6 mm) high with a minimum stroke width of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). Where access is by means of a private road and the building cannot be viewed from the public way, a monument, pole or other sign or means shall be used to identify the structure. Address numbers shall be maintained. 505.1.1 Size. Additional requirements of address size shall be as follows: 1. The height in inches of any number or letter therein shall be the sum of one-tenth (1/10) of the distance in feet of the number from the boundary of the property (upon which the building, structure, or parking lot is situated) butting the street, plus two (2), providing that every number shall not be less than 4 inches (100 mm) in height. 2. The overall width of any figure in or comprising the number or letter shall be one-half (1/2) of its height. The width of any portion of a figure in or comprising the number or letter shall be one-tenth (1/10) of its height. 505.1.2 Location. Design (including shape and style) as well as location of the street address numbers shall be such that they are legible and easily readable. Irrespective of whether the street address number was established before or after June 1, 1973, the Chief shall have the authority to prescribe a street address number larger in size than the dimensions stated in Section 505.1.1 when it is determined that due to lighting conditions, building location, shadows, background, or other reasons, street address numbers of minimum dimensions will not be easily readable from the street or approach to the entrance. A street address number of unusual design or placement may not be employed without prior written approval of the Chief. 506.1 Where required. Where access to or within a structure or an area is restricted because of secured openings or where immediate access is necessary for life-saving or fire-fighting purposes, the fire code official is authorized to require a key box to be installed in an approved location. The key box shall be of an approved type listed in accordance with UL 1037, and shall contain keys to gain necessary access as required by the fire code official. 506.1.1 Locks. An approved lock shall be installed on gates or similar barriers when required by the fire code official. [B] 1011.1 Where required. Exits and exit access doors shall be marked by an approved exit sign readily visible from any direction of egress travel. The path of egress travel to exits and within exits shall be marked by readily visible exit signs to clearly indicate the direction of egress travel in cases where the exit or the path of egress travel is not immediately visible to the occupants. Intervening means of egress doors within exits shall be marked by exit signs. Exit sign placement shall be such that no point in an exit access corridor or exit passageway is more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) or the listed viewing distance for the sign, whichever is less, from the nearest visible exit sign. 1011.1.1 Location. Exit signs, or directional exit signs, or both, shall be provided at every exit door, at the intersection of corridors, at exit stairways or ramps and at such other locations and intervals as are necessary to provide the occupants with knowledge of at least two means of egress.


[B] 1011.3 Illumination. Exit signs shall be internally or externally illuminated. Exception: Tactile signs required by Section 1011.4 need not be provided with illumination. [B] 1011.5 Internally illuminated exit signs. Electrically powered, self-luminous and photo luminescent exit signs shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 924 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and Chapter 27 of the California Building Code. Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times. [B] 1011.6 Externally illuminated exit signs. Externally illuminated exit signs shall comply with Sections 1011.6.1 through 1011.6.3. [B] 1011.6.1 Graphics. Every exit sign and directional exit sign shall have plainly legible letters not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high with the principal strokes of the letters not less than 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) wide. The word “EXIT” shall have letters having a width not less than 2 inches (51 mm) wide, except the letter “I,” and the minimum spacing between letters shall not be less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Signs larger than the minimum established in this section shall have letter widths, strokes and spacing in proportion to their height. [B] 1011.6.2 Exit sign illumination. The face of an exit sign illuminated from an external source shall have an intensity of not less than 5 foot candles (54 lux). [B] 1011.6.3 Power source. Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times. To ensure continued illumination for a duration of not less than 90 minutes in case of primary power loss, the sign illumination means shall be connected to an emergency power system provided from storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Section 604. Exception: Approved exit sign illumination means that provide continuous illumination independent of external power sources for a duration of not less than 90 minutes, in case of primary power loss, are not required to be connected to an emergency electrical system. 1011.7 Floor-level exit signs. Where exit signs are required by Chapter 10, additional approved low-level exit signs which are internally or externally illuminated photo luminescent or self-luminous shall be provided in all interior corridors of Group A, E, I and R-2.1 occupancies and in all areas serving guest rooms of hotels in Group R, Division 1 occupancies. Exceptions: 1. Group A occupancies that are protected throughout by an approved supervised fire sprinkler system. 2. Group E occupancies where direct exits have been provided from each classroom. 3. Group I and R-2.1 occupancies which are provided with smoke barriers constructed in accordance with Section 407.4 4. Group I-3 occupancies. The bottom of the sign shall not be less than 6 inches (152 mm) or more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the floor level and shall indicate the path of exit travel. For exit and exit-access doors, the sign shall be on the door or adjacent to the door with the closest edge of the sign or marker within 4 inches (102 mm) of the door frame. Note: Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143, this California amendment applies to all newly constructed buildings or structures, subject to this section, for which a building permit is issued (or construction commenced, where no building permit is issued) on or after January 1, 1989. 1011.8 Path marking. When exit signs are required by Chapter 10, in addition to approved floor-level exit signs, approved path marking shall be installed at floor level or no higher than 8 inches (203 mm) above the floor level in all interior-rated exit corridors of unsprinklered Group A, R-1 and R-2 occupancies. Such marking shall be continuous, except as interrupted by door-ways, corridors or other such architectural features, in order to provide a visible delineation along the path of travel.


Note: Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143, the California amendments of this section shall apply to all newly constructed buildings or structures, subject to this section, for which a building permit is issued (or construction commenced, where no building permit is issued) on or after January 1, 1989. [B] 1029.1 General. In addition to the means of egress required by this chapter, provisions shall be made for emergency escape and rescue openings in Group R-2 occupancies in accordance with Tables 1021.2(1) and 1021.2(2) and Group R-3 occupancies. Basements and sleeping rooms below the fourth story above grade plane shall have at least one exterior emergency escape and rescue opening in accordance with this section. Where basements contain one or more sleeping rooms, emergency escape and rescue openings shall be required in each sleeping room, but shall not be required in adjoining areas of the basement. Such openings shall open directly into a public way or to a yard or court that opens to a public way. Exceptions: 1. Basements with a ceiling height of less than 80 inches (2032 mm) shall not be required to have emergency escape and rescue openings. 2. Emergency escape and rescue openings are not required from basements or sleeping rooms that have an exit door or exit access door that opens directly into a public way or to a yard, court or exterior exit balcony that opens to a public way. 3. Basements without habitable spaces and having no more than 200 square feet (18.6 m2) in floor area shall not be required to have emergency escape and rescue openings. [B] 1029.2 Minimum size. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet (0.53 m2). Exception: The minimum net clear opening for grade floor emergency escape and rescue openings shall be 5 square feet (0.46 m2). [B] 1029.2.1 Minimum dimensions. The minimum net clear opening height dimension shall be 24 inches (610 mm). The minimum net clear opening width dimension shall be 20 inches (508 mm). The net clear opening dimensions shall be the result of normal operation of the opening. [B] 1029.3 Maximum height from floor. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall have the bottom of the clear opening not greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor. [B] 1029.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and rescue openings and any exit doors shall be maintained free of any obstructions other than those allowed by this section and shall be operational from the inside of the room. Bars, grilles, grates or similar devices are permitted to be placed over emergency escape and rescue openings provided the minimum net clear opening size complies with Section 1029.2 and such devices shall be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool, special knowledge or effort, or force greater than that which is required for normal operation of the escape and rescue opening. Where such bars, grilles, grates or similar devices are installed, smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.11 regardless of the valuation of the alteration. The release mechanism shall be maintained operable at all times. Such bars, grills, grates or any similar devices shall be equipped with an approved exterior release device for use by the fire department only when required by the authority having jurisdiction. Where security bars (burglar bars) are installed on emergency egress and rescue windows or doors, on or after July 1, 2000, such devices shall comply with California Building Standards Code, Part 12, Chapter 12-3 and other applicable provisions of Part 2. Exception: Group R-1 occupancies provided with a monitored fire sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.8 and designed in accordance with NFPA 13 may have openable windows permanently restricted to a maximum 4-inch (102 mm) open position. [B] 1029.5 Window wells. An emergency escape and rescue opening with a finished sill height below the adjacent ground level shall be provided with a window well in accordance with Sections 1029.5.1 and 1029.5.2.


[B] 1029.5.1 Minimum size. The minimum horizontal area of the window well shall be 9 square feet (0.84 m2), with a minimum dimension of 36 inches (914 mm). The area of the window well shall allow the emergency escape and rescue opening to be fully opened. [B] 1029.5.2 Ladders or steps. Window wells with a vertical depth of more than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be equipped with an approved permanently affixed ladder or steps. Ladders or rungs shall have an inside width of at least 12 inches (305 mm), shall project at least 3 inches (76 mm) from the wall and shall be spaced not more than 18 inches (457 mm) on center (o.c.) vertically for the full height of the window well. The ladder or steps shall not encroach into the required dimensions of the window well by more than 6 inches (152 mm). The ladder or steps shall not be obstructed by the emergency escape and rescue opening. Ladders or steps required by this section are exempt from the stairway requirements of Section 1009. 1030.1 General. The means of egress for buildings or portions thereof shall be maintained in accordance with this section. [California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, ยง3.11(a) through (d)] Exits, Aisles, Ramps, Corridors and Passageways. (a) No person shall install, place or permit the installation or placement of any bed, chair, equipment, concession, turnstile, ticket office or anything whatsoever, in any manner which would block or obstruct the required width of any exit. (b) No person shall install, place or permit the installation or placement of any combustible material or equipment in or exposed to any exit. Exceptions: (1) Furniture or equipment constructed of wood or other material of similar combustibility may be permitted in an exit or exposed to an exit when approved by the enforcing agency. (2) When approved by the enforcing agency, combustible materials may be permitted in exit foyers and lobbies. (c) No person shall install, place or permit the installation or placement of any storage material of any kind in any exit regardless of the required width of such exit. Exception: Personal material located in metal lockers in Group B and E occupancies as defined in California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Part 2. (d) Aisles shall not be occupied by any person for whom seating is not available.

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 906.1 Where required. Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in the following locations. 1. In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I, L, M, R-1, R-2, R-2.1, R-3.1, R-4 and S occupancies. Exception: In Group R-2 occupancies, portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6 where each dwelling unit is provided with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum rating of 1-A:10-B:C. 2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment. 3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed. 4. On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 3315.1. 5. Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906.1. 6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official. 7. Large and small family day-care homes shall be equipped with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum 2A:10-B:C rating. 8. Where required by California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1,


§3.29(a) through (d)] Portable Fire Extinguishing Equipment. (a) General. Portable fire extinguishers conforming to the requirements of California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3, shall be installed and maintained in accordance with guides established therein. (b) Special Coverage. Additional Class A, B and C units of adequate extinguishing potential shall be provided for any other hazard, as determined by the enforcing agency. (c) Group A Occupancies. (1) One additional Class 2–A unit shall be provided in Group A Occupancies as follows: (A) On each side of the stage or platform. Exception: Platforms 1000 square feet or less in area need have only one such extinguishing unit. (B) On each side of every fly gallery. (C) In basements beneath the stage or platform. (D) In every hallway or passageway leading to a dressing room. (E) In every property room, carpenter shop, or similar workroom. (2) Not less than one 10–B:C unit (not less than 4–B:C for existing extinguishers in existing occupancies) shall be provided: (A) For each motor and fan room. (B) Adjacent to each switchboard on the stage or platform. (C) For each motion picture machine in projection rooms. Exception: One 20–B:C unit (not less than 8– B:C for existing extinguishers in existing occupancies) in each projection room may be accepted as providing substantially equal protection. (3) The enforcing agency may allow modifications or deviations relative to the number and location of portable fire extinguishers as required by this section provided such authority finds that the basic intent of this section and the ease of accessibility to extinguishers is otherwise achieved. (d) Group R-2.1, R-3.1 and R-4 Occupancies. In Group R-2.1, R-3.1 and R-4 occupancies, a continuously attached garden hose, equipped with a water flow control nozzle, may be provided in lieu of one or more required fire extinguishers when acceptable to the enforcing agency. The location and length of such hose shall be as designated or approved by the enforcing agency. NOTE: It is recommended that, wherever possible, portable fire extinguishers be located adjacent to manual fire alarm sending stations. [California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §567.1] Operating Conditions. Portable extinguishers shall be maintained in a fully charged and operable condition, and kept in their designated places at all times when they are not being used. 906.2.2 Maintained ready for use. Portable fire extinguishers shall be maintained in a fully charged and operable condition and kept in their approved locations when not in use. 906.2.3. Accessibility. Portable fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located where they will be readily accessible and immediately available at all times. When it is not practical to install extinguishers in a plainly visible location, signs or other approved identification shall be provided to indicate the location. 906.2.4 Installation. Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed on hangers, in approved brackets, or set in cabinets unless the extinguishers are of the wheeled type.

906.2.5 Mounting height.


Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that the top of the extinguisher is not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor. Extinguishers having a gross weight greater than 40 pounds (18 kg) (except wheeled-type) shall be so installed that the top of the extinguisher is not more than 31/2 feet (1065 mm) above the floor. In no case shall the clearance between the bottom of the extinguisher and the floor be less than 4 inches (100 mm). 906.2.6 Temperature. Portable fire extinguishers should not be located where ambient temperatures exceed 120°F (49°C). 906.2.7 Service required. Fire extinguishers shall be subject to annual maintenance inspections and subject to internal inspection as required in California Code of Regulations Title 19, Section 575. 906.3 Size and distribution. The size and distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.3.1 through 906.3.4. 906.3.1 Class A fire hazards. Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards, the minimum sizes and distribution shall comply with Table 906.3(1). 906.3.1 Class A fire hazards. Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards, the minimum sizes and distribution shall comply with Table 906.3(1). Minimum rated single extinguisher Maximum floor area per unit of A Maximum floor area for extinguisher Maximum travel distance to extinguisher

2-Ac 3,000 square feet 11,250square feet 75 feet

2-A 1,500square feet 11,250square feet 75 feet

4-Aa 1,000square feet 11,250square feet 75 feet

906.5 Conspicuous location. Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily accessible and immediately available for use. These locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel. 906.6 Unobstructed and unobscured. Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the locations of extinguishers. 906.7 Hangers and brackets. Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions. 906.8 Cabinets. Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall not be locked. Exceptions: 1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access. 2. In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys. 906.9 Extinguisher installation. The installation of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.9.1 through 906.9.3. 906.9.1 Extinguishers weighing 40 pounds or less.


Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor. 906.9.2 Extinguishers weighing more than 40 pounds. Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor. 906.9.3 Floor clearance. The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire extinguishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm). 906.10 Wheeled units. Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a designated location.

ELECTRICAL 605.1 Abatement of electrical hazards. Identified electrical hazards shall be abated. Identified hazardous electrical conditions in permanent wiring shall be brought to the attention of the responsible code official. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances and other equipment that is modified or damaged and constitutes an electrical shock or fire hazard shall not be used. 605.2 Illumination. Illumination shall be provided for service equipment areas, motor control centers and electrical panelboards. 605.3 Working space and clearance. A working space of not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided in front of electrical service equipment. Where the electrical service equipment is wider than 30 inches (762 mm), the working space shall not be less than the width of the equipment. No storage of any materials shall be located within the designated working space. Exceptions: 1. Where other dimensions are required or allowed by the California Electrical Code. 605.3.1 Labeling. Doors into electrical control panel rooms shall be marked with a plainly visible and legible sign stating ELECTRICAL ROOM or similar approved wording. The disconnecting means for each service, feeder or branch circuit originating on a switchboard or panelboard shall be legibly and durably marked to indicate its purpose unless such purpose is clearly evident. 605.4 Multi-plug adapters. Multi-plug adapters, such as cube adapters, unfused plug strips or any other device not complying with the California Electrical Code shall be prohibited. 605.5 Extension cords. Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be a substitute for permanent wiring. Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be affixed to structures, extended through walls, ceilings or floors, or under doors or floor coverings, nor shall such cords be subject to environmental damage or physical impact. Extension cords shall be used only with portable appliances. 605.6 Unapproved conditions. Open junction boxes and open-wiring splices shall be prohibited. Approved covers shall be provided for all switch and electrical outlet boxes.

FIRE SEPARATIONS 603.4 Portable unvented heaters.


Portable unvented fuel fired heating equipment shall be prohibited in occupancies in Groups A, E, I, R-1, R-2, R2.1, R-3, R-3.1 and R-4. Exception: Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be allowed in accordance with Section 603.4.2. 603.4.1 Prohibited locations. Unvented fuel-fired heating equipment shall not be located in, or obtain combustion air from, any of the following rooms or spaces: sleeping rooms, bathrooms, toilet rooms or storage closets. 603.4.2 Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances. Portable gas-fired heating appliances located outdoors shall be in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1 through 603.4.2.3.4. 603.4.2.1 Location. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be located in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1.1 through 603.4.2.1.4. 603.4.2.1.1 Prohibited locations. The storage or use of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances is prohibited in any of the following locations: 1. Inside of any occupancy when connected to the fuel gas container. 2. Inside of tents, canopies and membrane structures. 3. On exterior balconies. Exception: As allowed in Section 6.19 of NFPA 58. 603.4.2.1.2 Clearance to buildings. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be located at least 5 feet (1524 mm) from buildings. 603.4.2.1.3 Clearance to combustible materials. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located beneath, or closer than 5 feet (1524 mm) to combustible decorations and combustible overhangs, awnings, sunshades or similar combustible attachments to buildings. 603.4.2.1.4 Proximity to exits. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located within 5 feet (1524 mm) of exits or exit discharges. 603.4.2.2.4 Guard against contact. The heating element or combustion chamber of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be permanently guarded so as to prevent accidental contact by persons or material. 603.4.2.3 Gas containers. Fuel gas containers for portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall comply with Sections 603.4.2.3.1 through 603.4.2.3.4. 603.4.2.3.1 Approved containers. Only approved DOTn or ASME gas containers shall be used. 603.4.2.3.2 Container replacement. Replacement of fuel gas containers in portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be conducted while the public is present. 603.4.2.3.3 Container capacity. The maximum individual capacity of gas containers used in connection with portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not exceed 20 pounds (9 kg). 603.4.2.3.4 Indoor storage prohibited. Gas containers shall not be stored inside of buildings except in accordance with Section 6109.9.


703.1 Maintenance. The required fire-resistance rating of fire-resistance-rated construction (including walls, firestops, shaft enclosures, partitions, smoke barriers, floors, fire-resistive coatings and sprayed fire-resistant materials applied to structural members and fire-resistant joint systems) shall be maintained. Such elements shall be visually inspected by the owner annually and properly repaired, restored or replaced when damaged, altered, breached or penetrated. Where concealed, such elements shall not be required to be visually inspected by the owner unless the concealed space is accessible by the removal or movement of a panel, access door, ceiling tile or similar movable entry to the space. Openings made therein for the passage of pipes, electrical conduit, wires, ducts, air transfer openings and holes made for any reason shall be protected with approved methods capable of resisting the passage of smoke and fire. Openings through fire-resistance- rated assemblies shall be protected by self- or automatic-closing doors of approved construction meeting the fire protection requirements for the assembly. 703.1.3 Fire walls, fire barriers and fire partitions. Required fire walls, fire barriers and fire partitions shall be maintained to prevent the passage of fire. All openings protected with approved doors or fire dampers shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 80. 703.2 Opening protectives. Opening protectives shall be maintained in an operative condition in accordance with NFPA 80. Where allowed by the fire code official, the application of field-applied labels associated with the maintenance of opening protectives shall follow the requirements of the approved third-party certification organization accredited for listing the opening protective. Fire doors and smoke barrier doors shall not be blocked or obstructed, or otherwise made inoperable. Fusible links shall be replaced promptly whenever fused or damaged. Fire door assemblies shall not be modified. 703.2.1 Signs. Where required by the fire code official, a sign shall be permanently displayed on or near each fire door in letters not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high to read as follows: 1. For doors designed to be kept normally open: FIRE DOOR—DO NOT BLOCK. 2. For doors designed to be kept normally closed: FIRE DOOR—KEEP CLOSED. 703.2.2 Hold-open devices and closers. Hold-open devices and automatic door closers, where provided, shall be maintained. During the period that such device is out of service for repairs, the door it operates shall remain in the closed position. 703.2.3 Door operation. Swinging fire doors shall close from the full-open position and latch automatically. The door closer shall exert enough force to close and latch the door from any partially open position. 703.2.4 Obstructions to fire assemblies. No person shall wedge, block, obstruct, or otherwise cause or allow the impairment of the operation of a fire assembly. 703.2.5 Removing wedges. Any person in charge or control of a building shall remove any block, wedge, or other device which is known by such person to be causing a self-closing fire assembly door to remain in an open position. 703.2.6 Fire assembly labels. All fire assembly doors shall have a label or other identification showing the fire protection rating. Labels shall be approved and shall be permanently affixed at the factory. No person shall remove or otherwise obliterate the label or other identification showing the fire protection rating. 704.1 Enclosure.


Interior vertical shafts including, but not limited to, stairways, elevator hoist ways, service and utility shafts, that connect two or more stories of a building shall be enclosed or protected as required in Chapter 11. New floor openings in existing buildings shall comply with the California Building Code. 704.2 Opening protectives. When openings are required to be protected, opening protectives shall be maintained self-closing or automaticclosing by smoke detection. Existing fusible-link-type automatic door-closing devices are permitted if the fusible link rating does not exceed 135°F (57°C).

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS and EQUIPMENT 901.1 Scope. The provisions of California this chapter shall specify where fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation, inspection, operation, testing and maintenance of all fire protection systems. 901.6 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Fire detection, alarm, and extinguishing systems, mechanical smoke exhaust systems, and smoke and heat vents shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times, and shall be replaced or repaired where defective. Nonrequired fire protection systems and equipment shall be inspected, tested and maintained or removed. All fire alarm systems, fire detection systems, automatic sprinkler or extinguishing systems, communication systems, and all other equipment, material or systems required by these regulations shall be maintained in an operable condition at all times in accordance with this code and California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1. Upon disruption or diminishment of the fire protective qualities of such equipment, material or systems, immediate action shall be instituted to effect a reestablishment of such equipment, material or systems to their original normal and operational condition. 901.7 Systems out of service. Where a required fire protection system is out of service, the fire department and the fire code official shall be notified immediately and, where required by the fire code official, the building shall either be evacuated or an approved fire watch shall be provided for all occupants left unprotected by the shutdown until the fire protection system has been returned to service. Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with at least one approved means for notification of the fire department and their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the protected premises and keep watch for fires. 901.6.2 Records. Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall be maintained on the premises for a minimum of three years and shall be copied to the fire code official upon request. 903.1.1 Alternative protection. Alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the fire code official. 903.1.2 Spare sprinklers heads. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided with spare sprinklers heads as follows: 1. For systems with not over 300 sprinklers, provide six spare sprinkler heads. 2. For systems with 301 to 1,000 sprinklers, provide 12 spare sprinkler heads. 3. For systems with over 1,000 sprinklers, provide 24 spare sprinkler heads. These spare sprinkler heads shall correspond to the type and temperature ratings of the sprinkler heads in the system. These sprinkler heads shall be kept in a cabinet mounted in the vicinity of the sprinkler control valve or other approved location if the control valve is outside the building. A wrench suitable for the removal and installation of all sprinkler heads used shall be kept in the cabinet.

903.3.2 Quick-response and residential sprinklers.


Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and their listings: 1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing care recipient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with the California Building Code. 2. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing treatment rooms in ambulatory care facilities. 3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R occupancies. 4. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13. 903.3.3 Obstructed locations. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3- foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers. Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904. 903.3.5.1.2 Residential combination services. A single combination water supply shall be allowed provided that the domestic demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R. 903.3.9 Access aisles and operating clearances. A minimum operating clearance of 18 inches (457 mm) shall be provided around automatic sprinkler and standpipe control valves and Fire Department inlet connections. 903.5.1 Damaged heads.\ Sprinkler heads shall be replaced if painted, corroded, damaged, or otherwise determined to be ineffective. 912.3 Access. Immediate access to fire department connections shall be maintained at all times and without obstruction by fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other fixed or moveable object. Access to fire department connections shall be approved by the fire chief. 912.3.2 Clear space around connections. A working space of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided and maintained in front of and to the sides of wall-mounted fire department connections and around the circumference of free-standing fire department connections, except as otherwise required or approved by the fire chief.

STORAGE and HOUSEKEEPING 304.1 Waste accumulation prohibited. Combustible waste material creating a fire hazard shall not be allowed to accumulate in buildings or structures or upon premises. [California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1,ยง3.07(a)] Clearances. (a) General. No combustible material shall be placed or stored within 10 feet of any building or structure. 304.1.1 Waste material. Accumulations of wastepaper, wood, hay, straw, weeds, litter or combustible or flammable waste or rubbish of any type shall not be permitted to remain on a roof or in any court, yard, vacant lot, alley, parking lot, open space, or beneath a grandstand, bleacher, pier, wharf, manufactured home, recreational vehicle or other similar structure.

304.1.2 Vegetation.


Weeds, grass, vines or other growth that is capable of being ignited and endangering property, shall be cut down and removed by the owner or occupant of the premises. Vegetation clearance requirements shall be in accordance with Section 322 and Chapter 49. (3) Remove that portion of any tree which extends within 10 feet of the outlet of any chimney or stovepipe. (4) Cut and remove all dead or dying portions of trees located adjacent to or overhanging any building. (5) Maintain the roof of any structure free of leaves, needles, or other dead vegetative growth. 304.2 Storage. Storage of combustible rubbish shall not produce conditions that will create a nuisance or a hazard to the public health, safety or welfare. 304.2.2 Approved storage of hazardous refuse and recycling materials. Hazardous refuse, recycling materials shall be stored as follows: 1. In approved noncombustible containers or bins equipped with tightly fitting cover. 2. In approved noncombustible outdoor storage bins located a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building or building opening. Exception: Approved noncombustible storage bins may be located adjacent to a minimum one hour one hour wall and a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building opening. [California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, ยง3.19(b) and (c)] Housekeeping. Every building or portion of a building governed by California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1 regulations shall be maintained in a neat orderly manner, free from any condition that would create a fire or life hazard or a condition which would add to or contribute to the rapid spread of fire. Provisions shall be made for the proper storage and disposal of waste materials and rubbish consistent with the following: (b) All combustible waste material and rubbish shall be stored in approved containers or shall be stored in a manner approved by the enforcing agency as being consistent with standard fire prevention practices until such waste material and rubbish is removed from the premises or otherwise disposed of in a proper manner. (1) Containers with a capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet (40 gallons) (0.15 m3) shall comply with the provisions of California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Part 9, and Section 304.3. (2) Wastebaskets and linen containers in Group I-2 and I-3 occupancies shall comply with the provisions of California Code of Regulations Title 24, Part 9, Section 808. 304.3.4 Capacity of 1 cubic yard or more. Dumpsters with an individual capacity of 1.0 cubic yard [200 gallons (0.76 m3)] or more shall not be stored in buildings or placed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of combustible walls, openings or combustible roof eave lines unless the dumpsters are constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials with a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation. Exceptions: 1. Dumpsters in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3. 315.3 Storage in buildings. Storage of materials in buildings shall be orderly and stacks shall be stable. Storage of combustible materials shall be separated from heaters or heating devices by distance or shielding so that ignition cannot occur. 315.3.1 Ceiling clearance. Storage shall be maintained 2 feet (610 mm) or more below the ceiling in non-sprinklered areas of buildings or a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) below sprinkler head deflectors in sprinklered areas of buildings. 315.3.8.2 Materials which may swell or expand. An unobstructed clearance of at least 2 feet (610 mm) shall be maintained between stored materials, which may swell or expand with the absorption of water, and building walls. 315.3.12.2 Prohibited storage.


The storing or keeping of any combustible merchandise, materials, or equipment in any subfloor area, attic, boiler room, mechanical room, heating equipment room, water heater closet or electrical panel room in a manner which would create or constitute a fire hazard is prohibited. 315.3.12.3 Space under stairways. There shall be no enclosed usable space under stairways in an exit enclosure (enclosed stair shafts serving three or more stories), nor shall the open space under such stairways be used for any, purpose. Exception: Space under exterior stairways and interior stairways shall not be used for any purpose except when the usable space under stairs is enclosed and walls and soffits are protected on the enclosed side as required for one-hour fire-resistive construction in accordance 322.1.1.3 Chimney clearance. Remove any portion of a tree which extends within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the outlet of a chimney or stovepipe. 322.1.1.4 Overhanging branches. Keep all trees, shrubs, and other growing vegetation or portions thereof adjacent to or overhanging any building or structure free of dead limbs, branches and other combustible matter. Maintain 5 feet (1524 mm) of vertical clearance between roof surfaces and portions of trees overhanging any building or structure. 4704.7 Flammable and combustible liquids in dwellings. Flammable and combustible liquids in dwellings shall comply with Sections 4704.7.1 through 4704.7.2. Storage of flammable and/or combustible liquids in dwellings shall be in approved containers and shall be restricted to private garages, carports, or other locations approved by the chief. 4704.7.1 Class IA in dwellings. The storage and use of Class IA liquids in dwellings is prohibited. Exception: Not more than 2 gallons (7.57 L) of flammable aerosol containers. 4704.7.2 Maximum quantities. The maximum quantities stored in dwellings shall not exceed 10 gallons (38 L) for Class IB or IC liquids, 15 gallons (56.78 L) for Class II liquids, and 60 gallons (227 L) for Class III liquids.

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