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2014

Typographic Calendar


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+ CENTURY

GOTHIC

SOL HESS

1886–1953 USA For 50 Years Sol Hess was art director of Lanston Monotype Machinery Co., where he succeeded his friend and collaborator F W Goudy. He started with the company in 1902 after a three-year scholarship couse at Pennsylvania Museum School of Industrial Art, and as a type designer there he redrew and readapted all their typographical materials. His forte was the development of type families, and during his years with Lanston monotype he carried out commissions for many leading American companies, including Curtis Publishing, Crowell-Collier, Sears Roebuck, Montgomery Ward, Yale University Press and World Publishing Company.

Designer: Sol Hess

Century Gothic Regular fonts maintains the basic design of 20th Century but has an enlarged ‘x’ height and has been modified to ensure satisfactory output from modern digital systems. A design based on 20th Century, which was drawn by Sol Hess between 1936 and 1947. The Century Gothic Fonts Regular design is influenced by the geometric style sans serif faces which were popular during the 1920’s and 30’s. Century Gothic Fonts Regular is useful for headlines and general display work and for small quantities of text, particularly in advertising.


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+ MT BELL

RICHARD

Designer: Richard Austin

1768–1830 GB

In 1931 Monotype made this facsimile of the typeface cut originally for John Bell by Richard Austin in 1788, using as a basis the matrices in the possession of Stephenson Blake & Co. Used in Bell’s newspaper, “The Oracle,” it was regarded by Stanley Morison as the first English Modern face. Although inspired by French punchcutters of the time, with a vertical stress and fine hairlines, the face is less severe than the French models and is now classified as Transitional. Essentially a text face, Bell can be used for books, magazines, long articles etc.

AUSTIN

Born in London, RIchard Austin trained as a wood-engraver with Thomas Bewick. In 1788 he joined the British Letter Foundry of publisher John Bell as a punch-cutter. Influenced by Bell’s enthusiasm for contemporary French types, Austin, a skillful cutter, produced a very sharply serifed letter which Stanley Morison was to call the first English modern face. the type retains some oldstyle characteristics and should more properly be called a late transitional. Austin went on to cut true moderns and later, in 1819, after starting a foundry of his own, he outlined the dangers of such designs being taken to extremes.


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30 31

FRANKLIN

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GOTHIC BOOK

MORRIS

FULLER BENTON

1872–1948 USA Morris Fuller Benton is accredited with being the most prolific type designer in American history, with an output twice as great as that of Frederic Goudy (although in fairness Goudy did not start his career until a later age). A factor in his relative anonymity was his position as an in-house designer, but in a position that suited his retiring character: when pressed he would put his successes down to ‘Lady Luck’. Benton has been credited with inventing the concept of the type family and although this is not the case he did do his best work expanding faces into families and adapting existing type styles for ATF. Between 1900 and 1928 he designed 18 variations on Century, including the popular Century Schoolbook.

Designer: Morris Benton

Franklin Gothic, one of the most popular sans serif types ever produced, was designed by Morris Fuller Benton in 1902 for American Type Founders. In 1979, under license with ATF, Vic Caruso began work on more weights of the design for ITC. This version adheres closely to the subtle thick and thin pattern of the original design; the slightly enlarged x-height and condensed proportions of the new version result in greater economy of space. This typeface is a standard choice for use in newspapers and advertising. In 1991, David Berlow completed the family for ITC by creating compressed and condensed weights. ITC Franklin Gothic Compressed is designed especially to solve impossibly tight copyfitting problems, while maintaining high legibility standards. ITC Franklin Condensed provides medium weights of narrow proportions. It is frequently seen in newspapers, advertisements, posters, and anyplace with space restrictions.


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CENTURY

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SCHOOLBOOK Designer: Morris Benton

Another version of the Century family was produced when Ginn & Company, a textbook publisher, commissioned American Type Founders to design a typeface with maximum legibility. Morris Benton researched the subjects of eyesight and legibility, then created Century Schoolbook, which was released between 1918 and 1921. Century Schoolbook is still seen in elementary school texts, and can be used for text work where legibility is a primary consideration.


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+ PRO MINION

Designer: Robert Slimbach

ROBERT

SLIMBACH

b. 1956 USA

Robert Slimbach, who was born in Evanston, Illinois, received his training and early experience of type design in the drawing office of Autologic in California. In 1987, after two years of self-employment, which saw him contribute ITC Slimbach and ITC Giovanni to the International Typeface Corporation, he joined Adobe Systems. Since then, he has been designing and developing typefaces for the Adobe Originals program. Slimbach’s typefaces offer type users a rich palette of designs, mostly for text use, based on his enthusiasm for classic letter forms. In 1999 he received the Prix Charles Peignot from the Association Typographique Internationale for excellence in type design.

Minion Pro is an Adobe Original typeface designed by Robert Slimbach. The first version of Minion was released in 1990. Cyrillic additions were released in 1992, and finally the OpenType Pro version was released in 2000. Minion Pro is inspired by classical, old style typefaces of the late Renaissance, a period of elegant, beautiful, and highly readable type designs. Minion Pro combines the aesthetic and functional qualities that make text type highly readable with the versatility of OpenType digital technology, yielding unprecedented flexibility and typographic control, whether for lengthy text or display settings. The full Minion Pro family contains three weights and two widths, each with optical size variants, and each supporting a full range of Western languages, including Greek and Cyrillic. With its many ligatures, small caps, oldstyle figures, swashes, and other added glyphs, Minion Pro is ideal for uses ranging from limited-edition books to newsletters to packaging.


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ADOBE

GARAMOND

PRO

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Designer: Claude Garamond Revival: Robert Slimbach

An Adobe Originals design, and Adobe’s first historical revival, Adobe Garamond is a digital interpretation of the roman types of Claude Garamond and the italic types of Robert Granjon. Since its release in 1989, Adobe Garamond has become a typographic staple throughout the world of desktop typography and design. Adobe type designer Robert Slimbach has captured the beauty and balance of the original Garamond typefaces while creating a typeface family that offers all the advantages of a contemporary digital type family. With the introduction of OpenType font technology, Adobe Garamond has been reissued as a Pro type family that takes advantage of OpenType’s advanced typographic capabilities. Now this elegant type family can be used with even greater efficiency and precision in OpenType-savvy applications such as Adobe InDesign.


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+ PRO MYRIAD

CAROL TWOMBLY

b. 1959 USA Carol Twombly studied design at the Rhode Island School of Design, where she became interested in type design and typography. She received an MS from Stanford University in the graduate programme of digital typography under Charles Bigelow, and later joined the Bigelow & Holmes Studio. In the Morisawa Typeface Design Competition in 1984 she won first prize for Mirarae, a latin design which has since been licensed and released. A member of the Adobe type studio since 1988, Twombly has designed many successful display and text typefaces for the Adobe Originals library. In 1994 she was the first woman to receive from ATypI the Prix Charles Peignot for outstanding contributions to type design.

Designers: Robert Slimbach + Carol Twombly

An Adobe Originals design first released in 1992, Myriad has become popular for both text and display composition. As an OpenType release, Myriad Pro expands this sans serif family to include Greek and Cyrillic glyphs, as well as adding oldstyle figures and improving support for Latin-based languages. The full Myriad Pro family includes condensed, normal, and extended widths in a full range of weights. Designed by Robert Slimbach & Carol Twombly with Fred Brady & Christopher Slye, Myriad has a warmth and readability that result from the humanistic treatment of letter proportions and design detail. Myriad Pro’s clean open shapes, precise letter fit, and extensive kerning pairs make this unified family of roman and italic an excellent choice for text typography that is comfortable to read, while the wide variety of weights and widths in the family provide a generous creative palette for even the most demanding display typography.


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30 31

+ PERPETUA ERIC

GILL

Designer: Eric Gill

Type designer Eric Gill’s most popular

1882–1940 GB Roman typeface is Perpetua, which was Arthur Eric Rowton Gill, letter-cutter, sculptor, woodengraver and type designer, was one of the most prominent and controversial figures of his day. Born in Brighton, Gill studied at Chichester School of Art before being apprenticed to an ecclesiastical architect in London. Whilst there he attended the classes of the calligrapher Edward Johnston at the Central School of Arts and Crafts. Thus he became involved in the small world of scribes and illuminators and the Arts and Crafts Movement, embarking on a career as a stone cutter and letterer. Gill designed his first typeface at the invitation of Stanley Morison of the Monotype Corporation. The drawings for the type, Perpetua, were begun in 1925. Gill Sans, designed during the same period, was based on the same sources as the Johnston Sans Serif. Gill had painted san-serif lettering on the Douglas Cleverdon’s Bristol Bookshop in 1927 and it was this that suggested the idea of a Gill sans serif to Morison. Joanna was cut by the Caslon foundry; one of its first uses in 1931 was for Gill’s own Essay on Typography. These three typefaces are from his most creative period.

released by the Monotype Corporation between 1925 and 1932. It first appeared in a limited edition of the book The Passion of Perpetua and Felicity, for which the typeface was named. The italic form was originally called Felicity. Perpetua’s clean chiseled look recalls Gill’s stonecutting work and makes it an excellent text typeface, giving sparkle to long passages of text; the Perpetua capitals have beautiful, classical lines that make this one of the finest display alphabets available


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GILL

+ SANS Designer: Eric Gill

Designed by Eric Gill and released by the Monotype Corporation between 1928 and 1930, Gill Sans is based on the typeface Edward Johnston, the innovative British letterer and teacher, designed in 1916 for the signage of the London Underground. Gill’s alphabet is more classical in proportion and contains his signature flared capital R and eyeglass lowercase g. With distinct roots in pen-written letters, Gill Sans is classified as a humanist sans serif, making it very legible and readable in text and display work. The condensed, bold, and display versions are excellent for packaging or posters.


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SUN MON TUES WED THUR FRI SAT

+ PRO ADOBE

CASLON Designer: William Caslon Revival: Carol Twombly

William Caslon released his first typefaces in 1722. Caslon’s types were based on seventeenth-century Dutch old style designs, which were then used

extensively in England. Because of their remarkable

practicality, Caslon’s designs met with instant success. Caslon’s types became popular throughout Europe

and

the

American

colonies;

printer

Benjamin Franklin hardly used any other typeface. The first printings of the American Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were set

in Caslon. For her Caslon revival, designer Carol Twombly studied specimen pages printed by William Caslon between 1734 and 1770. The OpenType Pro

version merges formerly separate fonts (expert, etc.), and adds both central European language support

and several additional ligatures. Ideally suited for text in sizes ranging from 6- to 14-point, Adobe Caslon

Pro is the right choice for magazines, journals, book publishing, and corporate communications.


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HELVETICA

MAX MIEDINGER

Designer: Max Miedinger Revival: D. Stempel AG

1910–1980 CH The history of Helvetica includes a number of twists and turns. There are, in fact, two versions Max Miedinger, born in Zurich, was an in-house of Helvetica. The first one is the designer with the Haas foundry in Munchenstein, original design, which was created Switzerland. His most famous typeface is by Max Miedinger and released by Helvetica, currently one of the most widely used Linotype in 1957. And secondly, in sans serifs, which was designed in 1956. Edward 1983, D. Stempel AG, Linotype’s Hoffman of Haas had asked Miedinger to adapt daughter company, released the the existing Haas Grotesk to bring it in line with Neue Helvetica® design, which was current taste. Haas Grotesk had its origins in the a re-working of the 1957 original. 19th-century German grotesques like Berthold’s The outcome was a synthesis of Akzidenz-Grotesk. The type, which was created aesthetic and technical refinements from Miedinger’s china-ink drawings, seemed and modifications that resulted in like a new design in its own right, rather than an improved appearance, legibility and old one with minor retouching as had been the usefulness. original plan. Although designed for the home market, the then-called Neue Haas Grotesk proved popluar farther afield. When Stempel AG in Germany released the face in 1961 they called it Helvetica, the traditional Latin name for Switzerland, in order to capitalize on the fashion for Swiss typography. Additional weights were added to the Helvetica family over the years. In 1983 Linotype released a new, more extensive version, Neue Helvetica, in 51 weights.


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+

GOUDY OLD STYLE

FREDERIC

GOUDY

Designer: Frederic Goudy In 1915, Frederic W. Goudy designed

1865–1947 USA Goudy Old Style, his twenty-fifth

Frederic Goudy, one of the best-known and most prolific of type designers, designed, by his own reckoning, 123 faces. Born in Bloomington, Illinois, he worked in various cities before founding the Booklet Press in Chicago in 1895 with equipment bought from Will Bradley. The sale of a set of capitals of his own design to the Bruce Type Foundry, Boston, encouraged him to become a freelance lettering artist. Goudy’s breakthrough with type design came in 1911. He designed Kennerley Old Style for the publishers Mitchell Kennerley on the understanding that he could sell it to the trade. He set up the Village Letter Foundry to cast and sell Kennerley and a titling font, Forum. These established his reputation, and American Type Founders commissioned Goudy Old Style, regarded as one of his finest designs.

typeface, and his first for American Type Founders. Flexible enough for both text and display, it’s one of the most popular typefaces ever produced, frequently used for packaging and advertising. Its recognizable features include the diamond-shaped dots on i, j, and on punctuation marks; the upturned ear of the g; and the base of E and L. Several years later, in response to the overwhelming popularity of Cooper Black, Lanston Monotype commissioned Frederic W. Goudy to design heavy versions of Goudy Old Style. Goudy Heavyface and Goudy Heavyface Italic were released in 1925. The huge success of Goudy’s typefaces led to the addition of several weights to many of his typefaces; designers working for American Type Founders produced additions to the family. In 1927, Morris Fuller Benton drew Goudy Extra Bold.


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This calendar was created with an idea meant to take you back to the time of old supper clubs, motels with ‘color tv’, old gas stations, mom + pop diners, and liquor stores. The signs that shout out this era have always been of interest to me with their geometric shapes, unique letter styles, bright colors, spotlight bulbs, and neon outlines that appear when the moon comes up at night. Film photography has always been one of my passions, but polaroids especially are one that I hold near and dear. That idea of instant photography in a time where there was no digital cameras to immediately look at your photos must have been such an exciting part of the time period. For whatever reason, these white-framed, tangible images are just one of many nostalgic elements of the mid-century that simply make me happy. When given an opportunity in design to put my own spin into my work, I do a lot to tie in some sort of retro/ vintage elements. My research/inspiration can come anywhere from a LP album cover, to a pattern on a vintage dress, to retro signage. Over the years, I’ve collected many items + decor from the modern midcentury that also help me to pick up on ideas and ways to design. I think that the past is something we will always look back on, and will forever be cycling back around as a repurposed trend of some kind.

nos•tal•gia n. 1. a wistful or sentimental longing for places, things, acquaintances, or conditions belonging to the past.


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DESIGN Nicole Lacriola

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REFERENCES

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TYPEFACE HISTORIES adobe.com itcfonts.com (Helvetica Neue) ascenderfonts.com (Century Gothic)

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TYPEFACE DESIGNER BIOS An A-Z of Type Designers By Neil Macmillan

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DESIGNER PHOTOS Linotype Ascender Fonts (Bell) Identifont (Slimbach)

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TITLE PAGE IMAGES Photography by Nicole Lacriola

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INFLUENCES Thinking withType by Ellen Lupton Follow the design standard you’ve already developed for your piece when designing the new pages, but keep its structure clear and simple to provide graphic separation from the actual calendar pages.


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Typographic Calendar