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ARCHITECTURE STUDIO: AIR JOURNAL 2013 Khadija Lotia- 539447

Parametric Modelling12

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Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................4 Part A: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST

1: Case for Innovation A1: Architectural Discourse .............................................................08

A2: Computational Architecture .....................................................16 A3: Parametric Modelling .................................................................24 A4: Algorithmic Challenges ..............................................................30 A5: Conclusion ...................................................................................32 A6: Learning Outcomes ....................................................................34

Part B: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST TWO

1: Case for Innovation B1: Design Focus ................................................................................36

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B2: Case Study 1 ...............................................................................38 B3: Case Study 2 A ...........................................................................42 B3: Case Study 2 A ...........................................................................46 B4: Technique Development ...........................................................48 B5: Prototypes ....................................................................................54 B6: Initial Technique Proposal ..........................................................58 B4: Technique Development Revisited 1 .......................................60 B4: Technique Development Revisited 2 .......................................64 B6: Final Technique Proposal ...........................................................68 B7: Algorithmic Challenges .............................................................70 B8: Learning Objectives and Outcomes .......................................72


Part C: GATEWAY PROJECT

1: Project Proposal C1: Moving Forward ..........................................................................076

C1: Design Concept ..........................................................................082 C2: Prototypes ....................................................................................086 C2: Tectonic Elements........................................................................088 C2: Final Definition ............................................................................092 C2: Joints and Materials.....................................................................096 C3: Final Model Construction............................................................100 C3: Final Model Images.....................................................................102 C4: Algorithmic Explorations ............................................................110 C5: Design Feedback ...................................................................... 112 C5: Learning Objectives and Outcomes ........................................116 References...........................................................................................118

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Introduction

INTRODUCTION

My name is Khadija Lotia. I am in my thrid year of the Bachelor of Environments majoring in Architecture at the University of Melbourne. Originally from Pakistan, I moved to Australia over six years ago and completed my high schooling in a small country town in rural Victoria. Architecture had been my area of interest since early on in high school, but there was not much exposure or options to study or learn it in the a small rural town. Once I started university, I was automatically exposed to new programs. Virtual Environments served as a good base subject to begin with as it allowed me to develop basic drawing, modelling and technical skills. Since I started this course I

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have learnt how to use a variety of architectural programs including Sketch Up, Rhino, AutoCAD, the Adobe Create Suite and am currently trying to learn Revit. At university, I have used computer tools more so for communication and presentation purposes, never for the generation of a design, which is why I feel Architectural Studio Air will be an interesting challenge. Although I have not had prior experience with Grasshopper but I am looking forward to discover what the program has to offer and to understand how it aids architectural processes. From this subject, I hope to further my skills in digital media especially 3D modelling as well as studying and researching more about parametricism.


HEAD SPACE PROJECT

ARCHITECTURAL STUDIO: EARTH

ARCHITECTURAL STUDIO: WATER

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PART A EXPRESSION OF INTEREST 1.0:CASE FOR INNOVATION

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A.1 Architecture as Discourse

Co-De-It Parametric Lamp Design2

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A1: ARCHITECTURAL DISCOURSE

“Architectural discourse is concerned with the articulation of problems and policies and their resolution and implementation through the formulation of solutions1”

Before exploring the meaning of what architectural discourse is, it is important to establish the context the term architecture is being used. For this propose, rather than thinking of architecture merely as a profession that allows designing and construction of buildings it is more suitable to think of it as a technical response to support societal requirements, cultural values, political constructs. As explained by Statinslav Roudavski 2013, in “Understanding the Course: Architecture as a Discourse” the form and language of architecture between a group or a particular culture is referred to as architectural discourse2. It operates at the intersection of production and representation and largely based on

form as well as with the functional performance of architecture allowing for exploration with digital design tools and a technical dimension to architectural practice. Using technologies allows the instigation of innovation and thus if a project needs to be innovating in order to spark interest/discussion and therefore engage with discourse. The outcome of an architectural discourse may be the generation and institutionalisation of new meanings and new values instigating change rather than mere development or elaboration. Looking at existing projects allows for us to see what is currently happening in the architectural community.

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A.1 Architecture as Discourse

PRECEDENTS

U.S PAVILION Innovative ideas hold the capacity to contribute to the wider architectural discourse as a result having a broader significance in the architecture realm. One such example is of the Manhattan Dome, 1960, by Buckminister Fuller3. His idea of doming cities to cut off people from all external elements and allowing the cities to have free climate control was so innovative and radical at the time that not only did it receive attention at the time, it inspired various other projects overtime. It can be definitely be said that it had a significant contribution on architectural discourse. Buckminister took his own ideas forward in 1967 when he designed the U.S Pavilion4. The large light weight geodesic dome encloses space whilst reaching high up in the air much like Fuller’s Manhattan Dome idea. The surface is made by

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carefully calculated triangular surface mesh giving the weightless illusion. The use of geodesic patterns on surfaces is a good starting point for parametric modelling as it allows a better understanding of how the structural composition of individual components can provide an aesthetically pleasing result. In parametric design, the formulation being used allows the construction to have so precise and intricate connections between elements and subsystems. Another project that has been inspired by the Manhattan Dome is the Ordos Museum located in Ordos, China6. MAD architects wanted to create a design that like Fuller’s dome, enclosed and protected Chinas history and culture within a modern structure. The shell shape creates visual interest with its horizontal layers.


US Pavillion, Buckminister Fuller, 19673

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A.1 Architecture as Discourse

PRECEDENTS

SERPENTINE PAVILION In 2002, Toyo Ito collaborated with Cecil Balmond to create the Serpentine Pavilion which has been called one of the most successful installations. This pavilion was placed next to the Serpentine Gallery in Hyde Park London7. As the Wyndham Gateway Project is also an installation the use of this project as a precedent gives validation to how projects do not have to be permanent to contribute to architectural discourse. Considering this pavilion as discourse not allows spectators to engage with its visual culture but allows them to appreciate the use of technology that aids in allowing the structure and facade to join together in an innovative manner and uniquely to become one holistic entity.

unambiguous, precise, list of simple operations applied mechanically and systematically to a set of tokens or object configurations, acts as the prime organizing agent such that as the square expands it is rotated simultaneously. The open interior exterior relationship in this installation is made possible because the panels between the lines range from solid to open to glazed. Despite the visual variation in the facade of the pavilion there is a sense of control which can be seen, this is due to the use of parametric modelling10. Together, Ito and Balmond managed to refine architectural thinking at the point in time as well as whatever architecture was to bring in the future, contributing to architectural discourse.

Ito and Balmond managed to use a random arrangement of intersecting triangular shapes or lines creating an underlying pattern. An algorithm, an

The concept of using a base grid and then distorting it like done in Ito’s Pavilion was seen again in Alvar Siza’s pavilion of 2005.

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Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, Balmond and Ito, 20024

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A.2 Computational Architecture

Computational Parametric Design5

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A2: COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE Designing requires both the analytical as well as the creative side of the human brain, however humans are not as rational as computers which are great analytical engines and are able to deduce logical conclusions11. In the digital age of today, architects have found a new way to represent, express and generate buildings through the aid of computers and digital technology. The terms Computerisation and Computation to describe the twoapproaches to Computational Design are terms used by Terzidis. Computerization, the more common method whereby entities or processes that are already conceptualized in the designer’s mind are entered, manipulated, or stored on a computer system. It is about automation, mechanization, digitalization, and conversion. It involves the digitalization of entities or processes that are preconceived, predetermined, and well defined12.

geometries like curves to be built or modelled. CAD and CAM programs have allowed the conception, the development and the representation of a new language of architecture which is thriving world wide. New technologies like CATIA (computer aided three dimensional interactive application) are now emerging in the building industry. With the rediscovery of complex curving shape, digital architecture has become a significant part of the cultural design discourse.

Computation allows for complex forms to be achieved via a set of calculated algorithms, increasing architectural possibilities as well as production. Evidence and performance oriented designing allows a direct relation between what can be designed and what can be built so it is possible to visualize what a building will look like before its built allowing for changes to made easily before production. It also means that requirements of the building in terms of financial, technical, structural, According to Terzidis, computation technical and social can be checked contrasts with computerisation as it before moving to the next design process13. about the exploration of indeterminate, vague, unclear, and often ill-defined Computation technology also enables processes; because of its exploratory integration of conception and production nature, computation aims at emulating in a way that has never been seen in or extending the human intellect. It is history before as it provides an escape about rationalization, reasoning, logic, form precedential architecture. The algorithm, deduction, It involves problem result is a new perspective of thinking solving, mental structures, cognition, that ignores historical style conventions simulation, and rule-based intelligence. and instead favouring experimentation Today, NURB based software allow allowed by digital generation.

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A.2 Computational Architecture

PRECEDENTS VOLTADOM VoltaDom, by Skylar Tibbits - for MIT’s 150th Anniversary Celebration & FAST Arts Festival (Festival of Arts, Science and Technology) is an installation that populates the corridor spanning building 56 & 66 on MIT’s campus14. This project demonstrates the use of computational design quite effectively. Here the its use has enabled the architect integrate complex design information with building construction and computercontrolled manufacturing and fabrication. A convergence of computation and materialization is demonstrated here o emerge, bringing the virtual process of design and the physical realisation of architecture much closer together, more so than ever before. Sometimes during

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the course of the parametric modelling, the connection of the project to its feasibility and fabrication is lost, however in this project, computation provides a powerful agency for both informing the design process through specific material behaviour and characteristics. Computational design and integrated materialization processes allow for uncovering the inherent potential of materials and thus are opening up a largely uncharted field of possibilities for the way the built environment in the 21st century is conceived and produced. Like this projects, the Wyndham Gateway Project should be able to effectively merge the power of computational design, with materialization engineering and manufacturing.


VoltaDom, Skylar Tibbits, 20116

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A.2 Computational Architecture

PRECEDENTS

VOUSSOIR CLOUD This project is called Voussoir Cloud, 2008, is a site specific installation created by IwamotoScott Architects and Buro Happold for the Southern California Institute of Architecture gallery, Los Angeles15. As soon as I saw this project, I was intrigued by it. The feature of the project or its main component no doubt are the concave panels that have either one curve or curves which have been so well put together that the structure seems light weight and balanced. As the size of each of the petal/ panel is dependent upon the size of the void it is attached to, a Rhino script had to be created to allow for experimentation and visualization before the construction actually began16. It would have been impossible to create a structure with 2300 petals unless it was

Voussoir Cloud, IwamotoScott Architects, 20087

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know exactly how each piece would fit with the next. The careful development for this Voussoir Cloud enables the light to come through as the panels have been so well connected. It is clear that a computational approach to architecture has been used here, this is the same approach used by designer s and architects like Daniel Davies. It is more beneficial for projects as it provides architects with the freedom of experimentation. Things can be tried a thousand different times, with a visual representation of what projects will look like after each and every alteration. This would by far me a more suitable approach to take whilst designing for the Wyndham Gateway project as it is more flexible and will allow a experimentation before coming up with a final form as ongoing changes can be easily made.


Voussoir Cloud, IwamotoScott Architects, 20087

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A.3 Parametric Modelling

Parametric Modelling8

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A3: PARAMETRIC MODELLING

Since the inception of design software on computer systems in the 1940′s, great revolutions in design have taken place17. Parametric design is no t a new concept, it has been used for centuries for the purposes of building18, the only difference between then and now is that parametric definition was simply a mathematical formula that required values to be substituted for a few parameters in order to generate variation within the same family of entities and now it is used to imply that the entity generated can be easily changed19. Before delving further into the discussion of parametric design, it is important to define what architects and scholars mean by the word parametric. There are no clear cut definitions of what the word means, whilst Woodbury recognises that it has helped introduce fundamental change20, it is a difficult word to describe the word

in one statement. Weissten explains it as “a set of equations that express a set of quantities as explicit functions of a number of independent variables known as ‘parameters’”21. This is where the use of computers comes in, parametric design can be seen as a technique that provides precise tools for control,as well as an environment that stimulates creativity. In other words,generating a parametric model (which contains all the data and geometrical relationships susceptible to be adjusted and/or updated into different versions) it’s like designing multiple possibilities at once, including 22 unexpected ones . According to Kolarevic, “In parametric architecture, it is the parameters of a particular design that are declared, not is shape”23. Parametric designing has many benefits which is why architects prefer using it, these will be discussed and elaborated further in the following few pages.

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A.3 Parametric Modelling

PRECEDENTS

DALIAN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE CENTRE The architect Coop Himmelblau is not foreign to the concept of parametric design, and his new Dalian International Conference Centre is no exception. Built in 2012, Dalian China, this Centre is to function as a theatre and Opera House24. Architecture has a complex social component to it which should be addressed25. This building does this by reflect the promising modern future of Dalian and its tradition as an important port, trade, industry and tourism city. One of the most attractive features of this building is the metal skin on the outside with a glass skin on the inside to create a hybrid membrane that responds to different functions26. Using a parametric

program, the architects were able to create window openings that, like a brisesoleil, control sun exposure while admitting natural light. A system of louvres is angled to receive and channel prevailing winds. The air is guided through the building by openings in the faรงade. The architects set the dimensional parameters of the panelled aluminium cladding, and the program triangulates the skin into an elegant quilt of differently sized facets. This concept of a new aesthetic emerging from environmental considerations should be explored for the Wyndham Gateway project as it might open up a host of new possibilities that were not considered before.

Dalia International Conference Centre, Coop Himmelblau, 20129

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Dalia International Conference Centre, Coop Himmelblau, 201210 pg 23


A.3 Parametric Modelling

PRECEDENTS

P-WALL Andrew Kudless’s P_Wall, commissioned in static form, P Wall nonetheless has been by SFMOMA for this exhibition and its inspired by experiments of earlier, 20th permanent collection, marks a radical century architects including Antoní Gaudí. reinvention of the gallery wall27. Even though the P-Wall is not a physical The gallery wall has become the star of the building or even a sculpture, its space it sits in because of the unmistakable significance in architectural exploration corporeal quality it exudes. The piece is is still valid and relevant. A wall like this notable for its cloud-like surface, which one cannot possibly be created using 2According to the architects, the wall was dimensional computer modelling tools, an exercise in generating differentiate stressing the importance of parametric patterns based on gray scale values, modelling programs. Although ideas like which were used to make form moulds. this wall could be imagined before, they These were filled with plaster, which, could never be fabricated and brought after hardened and reactive to various to life until the invention and use of 3-D gravitational conditions, resulted in the computer modelling systems like Rhino definitive bubble cast28. It can be said and Grasshopper that we are familiarizing that the effort to capture dynamic forces ourselves with today.

P-Wall, MATSYS, 200911

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P-Wall, MATSYS, 200911

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A.4 Algorithmic Explorations

Figure 5: Grid Shell

Figure 2: Arc

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Figure 4: Circular Patterns

Figure 3: Triangulated Algorithms


A4: ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

Here I have included some of my most interesting and favourite algorithmic explorations from Week 1 till Week 5. The advantages of algorithmic modelling have been discussed throughout the journal but their benefits will be further argued as it has helped the generation of new creative ideas. Using algorithms allowed me to discover forms that are defined by simple rules and incremental creation. I have included these particular designs because they represent the techniques that I would like to take further, or explore more during the course of Studio Air. The idea of merging

curvilinear forms with geometrical and rectilinear shapes is fascinating and exciting for me and it is something that I am interested in including in the final Gateway Project Installation. This concept of parametricism is still new, but I have been trying to test my knowledge of it to the maximum. I have tried to take the tutorial material forward by trying to amalgamate different functions and algorithms together. As can be seen in Figure 1, I have combined lofting function with mesh and in Figure 2, I have again attempted to combine lofting with the arc commands.

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A.4 Algorithmic Explorations

Figure 6: Lofting Iterations pg 28


A4: ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS What I like most about parametric modelling is not having a preconceived notion about what a certain algorithmic function will produce. The newly understood power of codes and algorithms has allowed to breed new forms rather than to specifically design them. Once you start playing with merging functions and work flows, the result is always unique.

Being able to play on Grasshopper until you reach a final result, gave me freedom of experimentation. I was never afraid of trying something new because I knew I could go back. Multiple patterns were tried out in the designs shown in Figure 6 before I settled on this particular one. It also helped me realise that there are multiple approaches that can pose as solutions for one particular problem.

Using simple algorithmic functions in an organized fashion allows the creation of complex and detailed designs as seen in the grid shell mesh in Figure 5 as well as simple geometries like the triangulated algorithms Figure 4.

This idea in turn also links with being able to produce many iterations of the same product with literally “a click of button� (Figure 6). This is consistent with the benefits of parametric modelling previously discussed in the journal.

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A5: Concsulsion

Parametric Modelling12

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A5: CONCLUSION

The speed at which architecture has been developing within the field of parametric design has been phenomenal. Parametric approach has now made its way into urbanism by addressing the ways in which design systems can control local dynamic information to effect and adjust larger urban life-processes through merging computational intelligence into the generation and performance of urban spaces, uses, activities, interfaces, structures and infrastructures. The Gateway project offers the perfect opportunity to engage and build on the concepts and learnings of parametric modelling to create “ an exciting, eye catching installation� which adds to the urban affect of Wyndham City. Using a parametric approach will be highly beneficial for the Wyndham project. Firstly it will enable Physical demonstration of the new possibilities of architecture that will help upgrade the condition and aesthetics of Wyndham street scrapers. As now we are generating our designs on

the computer itself we will be able to gain an in-depth understanding of the unique formal and organisational opportunities. Parametric modelling will also award us more freedom. Designs can be changed or altered slightly and different iterations can be tested with ease. My design proposal will be innovative because I will try to produce a visual arts component that is inventive and progressive for its time contributing to architectural discourse. Innovation also stresses that the design proposal become part of its surrounding context, which my proposal will aim to do not only in terms of environment but in terms of social and cultural as well. The knowledge of contemporary practices and theories in architecture learnt thus far will be demonstrated through a final product that links Wyndhams community values of progression and growth with the international debate on the future of design and pushing Wyndham to the forefront of current architectural discourse.

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A6: Learning Outcomes

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Parametric Design 13


A6: LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the start of the semester, I came in with only limited knowledge that I had gained during virtual environments about the theory and practice of parametric modelling. Although the Head Space project was a great foundation to 3D and parametric modelling, our design ideas were still generated in the form of sketches and models. Although the design of the project was altered when it was transferred on the computer, the generative process did not occur using computational techniques. If I could go back, I strongly feel that the knowledge gained about parametricisim would have been able to be put into good use. Especially for Virtual, my head space project would have greatly benefitted, if i had explored my creativity using software like Grasshopper and Rhino. This would not only have allowed me more time to actually experiment but also would have enabled me to connect with my project on a deeper level.

I feel like I am at the start of a challenging but exciting journey with parametric modelling with Grasshopper. At the moment, I have just learnt the basics but I look forward to testing my capabilities over the course of the next eight weeks. There are still a variety of techniques to be learnt and a large amount of knowledge to be gained. Over the course of the Studio Air Course in the next few weeks, we will get the opportunity to further study Rhino and Grasshopper through the combination of lectures, studio, Ex Lab video tutorials and design challenges. I hope to continue using these programs after the course finishes for other studio work and even for actual projects so that I can get the most out of these programs. Digital media in architecture influences the fields of construction and design. Emerging digital technology, like parametric modelling, has given architecture a new tool for conceptual design which has the potential to open up new horizons in architecture .

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PART B EXPRESSION OF INTEREST DESIGN APPROACH

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Parametric Lamp14

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B1: DESIGN FOCUS

As mentioned previously in the journal, one of the main purposes of the Gateway project is to showcase the City of Wyndham as a forward and modern town. Parametric approach allows for this to be done as it gives the opportunity to highlight and demonstrate the new architectural possibilities which contribute to architectural discourse. Instead of picking up one particular stream and narrowing down or limiting options for experimentation or discovery, this task required the groups to look at different areas they were interested in to establish the potential track to head on for the rest of the course. After research, the design focus for this section was narrowed down to be on creating designs that combine free forms with mathematical formulas. This idea

broadly fits into the category of patterning which allows the amalgamation of using mathematical definition to create visually interesting skins that enhance buildings. An example of this technique in Melbourne, close to home include the RMIT Art and Design Centre. Despite the critique of this building, it is visually interesting and eyecatching which is what the Wyndham City installation is supposed to be. Another great example is the Foreign Architects Office Spanish Pavilion which also uses careful mathematical consideration combined with parametric modelling to erect a building where each individual component fits within the other so well, making it function well as a holistic entity. Other examples will be discussed later in the journal.

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B2: Case Study 1

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Parametric Design15


B2: CASE STUDY 1.0

Shown below are some of the most interesting experiment sequences on Grasshopper. By amalgamating the lofting command with surface dividing the expressions functions has revealed a possibility of creating a perforated or patterned surface as a potential installation for the Wyndham Gateway. However it is still early to make definite decision, with further experimentations more possibilities will be unravelled. EXPERIMENT ONE A simple surface was lofted divided into grids to create circular patterns. The amount of divisions was played around with to create the patterns seen.

EXPERIMENT TWO This experiment pushed the design space a little further, as curves were used to loft a surface which was then exploded to create interesting patterns. The sequence of curves to loft were later changed to achieve different results each time. EXPERIMENT THREE Using the same formulas but increasing or decreasing the y and z values produces a different or varying result. EXPERIMENT FOUR Using different formulas coupled with changing the values of y and z whilst keeping the same lofted sequence allowed the circles to join in different patterns.

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B2: Case Study 1

1. Loft Curves Divide Surface Expression

5. Loft Curves Expression (x/y^2) Numbers (10,10)

2. Add Point Charge Expressions (x^y) Number Slider( 10)

6. Loft Curves Expression (x/y^2) Surface Divide (2,2)

3. Change Curves to Loft Expressions (x^y) Number Slider (2)

7. Delete Curve Expression (x+y) Surface Divide (10,10)

4. Change Curves to Loft Expressions (x^y) Number Slider (10)

8. Loft Curves Expression (x+y) Surface Divide (2,2)

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EXPERIMENT ONE

EXPERIMENT TWO


9. Delete Evaluate Loft Curves Expression (x^2)

13. Add Curves Expressions (z+y) Number Slider (10,10)

10. Loft Curves Divide (10,10) Surface Divide (10,10)

14. Change Curves Expressions (z+y) Number Slider (20,20)

11. Change Curves Add z component Expression (z/y)

15. Expressions (z/y^2) Number Sliders (5,10)

16. Loft Curves Expressions (z/y^2) Number Slider (5,5)

12. Loft Curves Expression (z/y) Number Slider (10,10) EXPERIMENT THREE

EXPERIMENT FOUR

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B3: Case Study 2

de Young Musuem, Herzog and De Mueron, 200516

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B3: CASE STUDY 2.0 (A)

For Case Study 2.0 the selected project was the De Young Museum by Herzog & De Mueron. Built in 2005, this project is well suited as an example to manipulate and experiment with in Grasshopper because it uses a simple technique of a patterned skin for its exterior which is currently the area of interest. The dissection of their algorithmic definitions will allow further learning and a more in-depth understanding of the project was created and give tips on how to approach the design for the Gateway project. The design intent of this project was to integrate the building with its surrounding Golden Gate park29. This has been done superbly by using the organic texture and earthy tone of the copper skin which will

turn into a green patonia in 15 or so year. Besides that the tower twists to align with San Francisco streets further adding to the connection with the surrounding in a way that enhances it simultaneously. This idea will also be used in the Wyndham Gateway Project of thinking not only about the impact of the project in the present but how it will perform and grow in the future. Another design intention was to have the building be light and unusual30 which has been successfully achieved through a quilt of rasterized pattern made of 7,200 panels that were punched and embossed to suggest light filtering through a canopy of leafy trees. This idea of playing with light effects will also be something utilised in the Gateway installation.

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B3: Case Study 2

B3: CASE STUDY 2.0 (A) RECONCTRUCTING THE de YOUNG MUSEUM

1

2

4

3

5

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EXPERIMENTING WITH THE de YOUNG MUSEUM

1

2

4

3

5

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B3: Case Study 2

FINAL REVERSE ENGINEERING MODEL

1

2

3

4

5

6

FINAL REVERSE ENGINEERING ITERATION

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B3: CASE STUDY 2.0 (B) For Case Study 2, the group chose the REEF Pavilion. The design intent for this project was to combine the atmospheric, cloudy elements of the sky with those of the deep-sea floor31. It was realized that the most important feature contributing to the design intent was the use of the circular pipe like patterning on the curved surface. Reverse engineering was used to recreate the surface within the parametric realm. The first step was to create the curved surface on which the pattern would sit. Curves were laid out in pattern

that resembled the REEF project and then lofted. This surface was then divided into boxes using the Divide surface and Surface Box commands. A BREP component was then separately created that resembled the element used by IwamotoScotts REEF. This was then added to the rest of the definition and using number sliders, the height, and number of the BREPS were adjusted until the most appropriate or the closet to real result was achieved. The final definition was quite successful as its end result as quite close to the original. Divide Surface

Curve Loft

Curve

Brep Surface Box

Domain2

Morph

Domain2 Divide

FINAL REVERSE ENGINEERING DEFINITION

REEF, IwamotoScott, 200717

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B4: Technique Development

B4: TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

For this matrix, a number of Grasshopper definitions were tried explored. As mentioned in Kalay’s reading, “Architecture’s New Media”, “Search” is a process engaged in when the final solution cannot be determined in advance. It is conducted by finding or developing appropriate solutions and then testing them against their constraints and goals. In this matrix, we decided tried to develop lots and lots of varied results that would eventually help us get to the final outcome which could be used for further development and refinement.

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The iterations were started with the definition created in the Case Study 2. Initially minimal changes were made to the definition like adding Mirror Box, increasing/decreasing the divisions between the lofted surface, towards the end though, the definitions got more complicated, adding piping, morph boxes and more Breps. However, with Grasshopper, these changes were not that difficult to manage. Also, regardless of however complicated the definition was, each change or variation in the definition would add produce a visually interesting iteration


1. Divide( 7, 13) Surface Divide (6,10) Surface Box (10,10)

6. Divide( 16, 12) Surface Divide (0,10) Surface Box (10)

2. Add Mirror to Morph Box Divide( 6, 12) Surface Divide (8,10) Surface Box (19,10)

7. Divide( 16, 60) Surface Divide (0,0) Surface Box (30)

3. Mirror to Morph Box Divide (10,10) Surface Divide (10,10)

4. Remove Mirror Add Explode Add Circle CRN Add Expression to Loft Formula (z+y), z=10, y=2 Divide (5,9) Surface Divide (0, 0) Surface Box (13)

5. Divide (6, 4) Surface Divide (10,10) Surface Box (10)

8. Remove Morph Box Add Face boundary to Surface Box Divide( 16, 60) Surface Divide (0,0) Surface Box (30)

9. Delete Morph Box Add Face boundary to Surface Box Divide( 10, 10) Surface Divide (10, 10) Surface Box (55)

10. Divide( 9, 13) Surface Divide (10, 10) Surface Box (10)

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B4: Technique Development 11. Remove Face Boundary Add Explode Add Expression function (z^2) to Loft when z= 10 Add Circle CRN Divide and Surface Box 10, 10), Surface Divide 10

12. Remove Loft and Explode Move Expression function to Surface Divide Expression Formula (z-y) whenz=8, y=7 Divide 5, 9 Surface Divide (0,0) Surface Box (13)

13. Unflatten and Unexpression the Surface Divide Delete Morph & Brep Add Explode Add Circle CRN Add Expression (z+y) when z=1 and y=7 Divide (1, 1) Surface Divide (8, 8) Surface Box (14)

14. Delete Explode Delete Circle CRN Delete Expression function Add Face Boundary to Surface Box Divide (3, 4) Surface Divide (5, 10) Surface Box (20)

15. Add Face Boundary to Surface Box Divide (12, 1) Surface Divide (12,12) Surface Box (55)

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16. Divide surface Cull pattern Panel(true) Voronoi Slider (31.750)

17. Panel(false, true)

18. Surface box Face boundary Slider(60) Geometry Bounding box Box morph

19. Geometry

20. Slider(100)


21. Slider (3) Surface divide

22. Slider(9) (15)

23. Surface box. Geometry Bounding box, Dispatch Panel( false, true, true, false) Panel(false,true,true,false) Panel(false,true,true,false) Panel(false,true,true,false) Panel(false,true,true,false)

24. Pipe Curve*2 Surface box Morph (1)-bake

25. Morph(2)-bake

26. Dispatch-bake

27. Face boundary-bake

28. Morph(1)-flatten

29. Pipe Slider(3) Morph geometry

30. New Domain divide (grid 1), Surfacebox (with loft) Morph (with new geometry), Brep Explode component(explode) List 4 Items, Points on Curves (0, 1,,1,0) Polylines, Loft, Box Morph on to pipe surface

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B4: Technique Development

31. Pipe radius 15

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33. Points on Curves (1, 1,,1,0)

34. Height of Surface Box of pipe (51.787)

35. Pipe radius (30) Domain divide of pipe surface (U: 2, V8) at Surfacebox

pg 52

36. New Domain divde of pipe surface (U:13, V:24) Iostrim Area Evaluate (X: area > Y:300) Dispatch(A) Morph (A) Height of Surface Box of pipe (-71.840)

37. Height of Surface Box of pipe (-100) Domain divide of pipe surface (U: 5, V5) Height of Surface Box for pipe (-71.840) Height of Surface Box for Brep (-500)

38. Height of Surface Box of Brep (-4.002) Points on Curves (0, 0,,1,0.93)

39. Domain divide of pipe surface (U: 10, V5) at Surfacebox Height of Surface Box of pipe (-23.203) Height of Surface Box of Brep (207.263) Points on Curves (0, 0, 0.48, 0.86) 40. New Domain divide (grid 1) Surfacebox (with loft) Morph Brep Explode component (explode) List 4 Items Points on Curves (0, 1,,1,0) Polylines Loft BBox


41. Domain divide of pipe surface (U:20, V1) at Surfacebox Height of Surface Box of pipe (61.278) Morph A’s Points on Curves (0047, 0.04,0,0.63)

42. Y(100) of Evaluate Morph A’s Points on Curves (1,1,1,1) Morph B’s Points on Curves (0.5, 0.5,0.5,0.5)

43. 2 more List item at Morph A &B each. Morph A’s Points on Curves (0.09,0.10,1,1,0,1) Morph B’s Points on Curves (0,1,0,1,0,1) Height of Surface Box of pipe (6.252)

44. Domain divide of pipe surface (U:20, V:4) at Surfacebox Morph A’s Points on Curves (0.29, 0.80, 0.25, 0.78, 0, 1) Morph B’s Points on Curves (0.57, 0.30, 0,21, 1, 0, 1)

45. Domain divide of pipe surface (U:20, V:3) at Surfacebox Morph A’s Points on Curves (0.42, 0, 0.62, 1, 1, 1) Y(184) of Evaluate

46. New Domain2 Divide Domain2 Surface Box (loft surface from old curves) Morph with new geometry Brep Brep Component (Explode) 6 List Iteam Polylines loft C

47. Y(300) of Evaluate Morph B’s Points on Curves (0.62, 0, 1, 0.27, 0.93, 0) Domain divide of pipe surface (U:6, V:1) at Surfacebox

48. 6 List Items of loft C (1, 0, 0.15, 0.07, 0, 0) Off Preview of Morph A &B

49 2 more list items at loft C. Domain divide of loft C (U:15, V:15)

50. Domain divide of loft C (U:10, V:10) 8 Items of Loft C (all at 0.5)

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B5: Prototypes

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B5: PROTOTYPES

After the experimentation with our initial grasshopper definition in the 50 iteration matrix, as a group collective, we decided to narrow our selection to the piping definitions. As new iterations were created and new definitions were played with, it was realized that the design focus changed from patterning to sectioning. It was felt that the patterning technique which was initially being explored was constraining and restricting room for experimentation. Having to use a surface on which to place 2D surface patterns was not challenging or exciting enough so with continual experimentation, the design evolved from patterning to sectioning. This provided with the platform to push the definition more. For the next stage- Prototypes- iteration numbers 30 till 36 provided to be most striking as they look visually interesting yet challenging at the same time making

them exciting for experimentation. As all of these consist of individual components that are joint together in the middle with a spine, simple card and clay models were made to replicate the components and to check how each component will interact with the next one. By just looking at the 3D model, we decided to analyse how it is that the individual petal like components of the design will work together. Provided are photographs of some of the project prototypes. Obviously material choices heavily impact the overall design scheme and have a significant affect on its visual appearance. After experimentation with the prototypes it was realized just how tricky the model would be to fabricate so materials will have to be thought out carefully. More material and compositional decisions have been discussed below in section B6.

pg 55


B5: Prototypes

PRECEDENTS In order to better understand how structures work in MUSEUM real life, research GUGGENHIUM was done to look at existing projects. By studying current and contemporary architectural works an understanding of material performance con be gained. As seen in the photographs, the materials used in each of the projects alter how the design is visually perceived. No doubt the actual design of the project matters as well, but the eyes are automatically drawn to projects that are bright in colours or make use of shinier, more reflective materials. These projects have been attached here because elements of each of them can be made use of in the

Bloom Installation18

pg 56

development of the Wyndham Gateway Project. The Bloom Installation specifically is quite an interesting project. From the triangular protrusions to the curving metal surface, the installation is bold and instantly eye catching. The Bloom installation is also quite interesting with the way in which twists around the path. The neat connections between each triangular surface in Project Distortion and the connection with the landscape as seen in the Blaze Installation as it turns around the path is what should be aimed for are the factors which need to be thoroughly considered for the Gateway Project

Project Distortion19

Blaze Installation20


Bloom Installation21 pg 57


B6: Technique Proposal

pg 58


B6: INITIAL TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL

Research and further exploration and development lead to the decision of using the following design as the basis for the installation for the Wyndham City Project. The analogy for this particular definition was chosen to be moving from the dense to sparse, which is reflected in the flower like component that moves from busy and short in the centre to long, thin and spread out as one moves out the middle. The over arching concept however lies in the trajectory of a bullet which moves through air with in a spiral and twisted path or pattern. Currently, there have been group discussions about having a metal installation that arches over from one site to the other with metal plated for the individual components, held together by steel beams and angle brackets to a metal ridge. Thin metal plated would be light and malleable enough to be cut into shape whilst simultaneously be rigid and

strong enough to hold their shape and be welded into position. However these are primary thoughts subject to change with in-depth and further analysis. However there are still issues in the design that need to be sorted or dealt with. The current definition shows that each component joins in the centre with a point connection. There isn’t an actual spine attaching all the layers of components together. A centre component will have to be added in the middle to allow for the fabrication to actually be possible and the project buildabilty can be increased. Once all the issues have been nutted out, this project will definitely be unique enough to contribute to the Wyndham City experience. Its innovativeness will force those driving past to note the project, in turn earning Wyndham the recognition the residents of Wyndham are looking for!

pg 59


B4: Technique Development

The Dynamic Shape Shifting Helix Bridge22

Helix Bridge by West 8 Urban Architects 24

pg 60

Re-projection: Hoosac, 201023


B4: TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT REVISITED 1

As a group, we were unsatisfied with the Technique Proposal presented last week. As a collective, it was thought that the direction we were heading in was not well thought out and the concept was not clear or well-defined. At this stage, it was decided that we would take a few steps back and try to re-work and re-think a new concept which would be interesting and do the Wyndham Project justice. By going over the brief and the element matrix presented in section B4 of the journal, a new concept was developed. This time it was clearer and more succinct. The concept was to create movement visually and evoke the perception of speed while passing through or passing by the structure. This was done through two different techniques which were explored to represent this through changes in height, size and geometry to suggest speed, using twist and progression of lines to generate a fluid movement.

as candidate solutions for exploration. Through the exploration of the different shapes, circular geometry was chosen to be the most appropriate as curvature relates better to movement and fluidity compared to the linear, square and rectangular geometries. Experimentation using different Grasshopper techniques was used to create different possibilities in the search of dynamic form before choosing the solution for further development. Further explorations were done in terms of how materials, lighting, colours and tilting of angles affect the desired effect of movement through speed.

The use of translucent lines that reflect under sunlight enhances the effect of fluidity and amplifies the effect of movement in the day. Colored LED lights are installed on the circular structure to light up the project at night. The change in angle of tilt, size and spacing of the circular structures influences the projection of the lines. These create an effect of dynamic movement with the use of lines and the The first technique used was to capture play of colours to capture the movement movement through speed and trace fluid of speed. movement to create a visual image and give an impression of dynamism without The precedents shows how twisting actually creating a kinetic model. Lines influenced the form, tilting angles of were used to create a progression from geometry and the use of light enhances each individual geometry. the effect of fluidity through movement. With the intention of creating a visual Iterations and Prototypes for Technique 1 image, different shapes were chosen are shown below on pages 62 & 63)

pg 61


B5: Technique Development

B5: TECHNIQUE 1 EXPLORATION MATRIX

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B4: Technique Development

Nakagin Capsule Tower25

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pg 64

Edith Cowan University26


B4: TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT REVISITED 2 The second technique explored was inspired by the concept of a black hole. Similar to how black holes have a focal point and suck objects in, the Wyndham project should function as a transitional space between two paradigms and be able to pull people through from one side of the structure to another and create a memorable journey for its users.

variation in heights or density will allow for a similar effect as the Nakagin Tower.

EDITH COWAN UNIVERSITY The way in which the lines tilt towards the entrance of the building direct the eyes straight to the main focal point. It almost seems like the wooden beams on the edge of the fence are being attracted towards one point. This structure also shows how NAKAGIN CAPSULE TOWER movement can be created with straight The Nakagin Capsule, is one of the buildings structural members. created during architectures metabolist movement. The Nakagin Capsule BREAKWATER BEACON TOWER Tower realizes the ideas of metabolism, This tower dramatically spires to the top exchangeability, recyclability as the almost randomly irregular in shape at the prototype of sustainable architecture and base, with a transition to a regular shape gives an insight into modular design32. as the tower narrows and reaches its apex. For this project, it has been chosen as a The manner in which the tip of the tower precedent because the building facade tapers gives the effect of a black hole shows how even with using boxes, a sense in this building, the idea of almost being of movement or fluidity can be achieved. sucked towards the focal point- the other By simply altering the direction of the same end of the tower. This depicts the idea of sized boxes, a dynamism can be felt. This creating movement within the structure, is the kind of experience is trying to aim as one perceives they are in motion whilst for. By using a pattern of gradation and stationary.

pg 65


B6: Technique Development

B6: TECHNIQUE 2 EXPLORATION MATRIX

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B6: Technique Proposal

Final Technique Proposal Model

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Final Technique Proposal Vector Drawing

pg 68


B6: FINAL TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL

The main design concept for this project was to create visual movement in a structure so that it evokes the perception of motion or speed in the viewers mind. In this project this has been done through the changes in height and shape of the design. As mentioned before, the The perforated metal surface will allow for users to experience selected views and playful sunlight. The central idea was that the project should be able to create an experience for the user rather than for the design to just be a structure. As explained by Statinslav Roudavski 2013, in “Understanding the Course: Architecture as a Discourse” architectural discourse allows to build vision and to map the world in some way33, so by using parametric tools in an innovative manner, the hope is to spark a discussion of this project and

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therefore put Wyndham on the map as at the fore front of architectural progress and help create the international fame that the people of Wyndham are looking for. Kalay (2004 pp 17-19), in “Architecture’s New Media”, describes two methods for search processes, producing candidate solutions for consideration and choosing the right solution for further development34. Using this theory as the basis for experimentation allowed for different iterations to be created using different Grasshopper techniques in search for a dynamic form before choosing the most appropriate solution to take forward for further development. This model was fab-labbed, using a card cutter. A 250 gsm paper was used to cut out the cones. Cardboard ribs were used as supporting members.

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B7: Algorithmic Sketches

pg 70


B7: ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

Since the beginning of the semester, the progression with Rhino and Grasshopper is definitely noticeable. Although the programs and the concept of parametric modelling is still relatively new the idea of experimenting with different definitions is not as daunting anymore. It is still fascinating how little effort it takes to create multiple iterations within the same project. More interestingly how careful and accurate. This particular structure For the algorithmic exploration it was thought that it might be more beneficial to try and create a new definition from scratch. However because of limited knowledge, when dead ends were

reached, external research had to be conducted to complete the definition. This exercise was useful because it encouraged the use of logical thinking and independent research also helps more in learning. In this definition a combination of Perpendicular Frames, Circles, Rotate, Polygon, Multiplication and Division were used to create multiple iterations. The shape of the polygons and the distance between them was altered with use of number sliders. The degree of rotation around a set point in the centre was also adjusted to create a sense of movement within the circular structure.

pg 71


B8: Learning Objectives and Outcomes

VoltaDom, Skylar Tibbits, 20116

pg 72


B8: LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES The mid semester presentations proved to be quite useful as helpful feedback was received on where to go with the concept from here till the end of the semester. The concept of creating a black hole like structure which pulls users in to create a transitional and memorable space from one to the other, was taken on well with the panel. However, the general consensus was that the structure designed was more for spectators rather than those who have to pass through it. The panel encouraged the research of the concept of and theory behind the black hole to see how elements interact with it to see what we can add to our design concept. They also encouraged us to look further into the effects of different environmental influences on the structure. All the feedback has been taken on board and will be researched and experimented with in Part C, the Project Proposal. This phase of the Studio Air course has lead to a more in-depth understanding of the effects of ‘air’ and the atmosphere of on projects. A common mistake is to only consider what the project will look or behave like as it is conceptualized at present. It is too easy to forget the

affect time and atmosphere have on it and how the capacities and aesthetics change with the passage of time. During the Design Approach period, it was learnt how it is possible to design keeping the time parameter in mind and how designs can be deliberately designed to act or respond a certain way in the future. The concept of parametric modelling can be difficult to understand as traditional 2-D drawing has been the main of representation used by architects so far. However, with improvements in technological innovations in this new age of experimentation, in order to keep up it has become imperative to understand new methods of computational architecture. This ‘Design Approach Phase’ of the Studio Air course has been allowed the understanding of computational geometry and parametric modelling; it has also helped in understanding the process of analytical diagramming and design fabrication. Obviously, being equipped with the knowledge of tools like Rhino and Grasshopper will prove to be useful and beneficial as we head out into the architectural industry.

pg 73


PART C: GATEWAY PROJECT PROJECT PROPOSAL

pg 74


pg 75


C.1 Design Concept

Final Technique 2 Proposal Model (Mid Semester)

pg 76


C1: MOVING FORWARD

As mentioned in the previous section of the journal, the mid semester presentations were quite helpful as they provided us with potential direction to move forward. It seemed that the concept of a black hole was taken on well by the panel. However, it was pointed out that there was a disparity between the ideas being verbally presented and the final model that had been produced. The model did not back up the idea of creating visual movement in the structure so that it could evoke the perception of speed in the viewers mind. All the feedback has been carefully considered and will be addressed in the following sections of the journal. In order to make the design approach more innovative and more powerful, it became clear that thorough research will need to be conducted on what

black holes are and how they behave within the atmosphere. Having all that background knowledge will influence the design decisions eliminating the discrepancy between the thoughts and the execution and enable the creation of a final structure that will pull users in to create a transitional and memorable space from Melbourne to Wyndham City. In the course so far, the ideas generated have all been experimental and have been free from the constraints of the site. However, from now on, consideration will need to be given to the site and the brief which will dictate and limit many design decisions. Having the brief to refer back to will provide a context and backdrop to practice the skills learnt so far in parametric modelling and will allow for a meaningful design outcome.

pg 77


C.1 Design Concept

Wyndham City 29

Proposed Site for Gateway Project pg 78


C1: WYNDHAM Some of the most important points to be innovative manner, the hope is to spark a considered, extracted directly from the discussion of this project and therefore put brief include: Wyndham on the map as the fore front of architectural progress and help create •Inspires and enriches the municipality the international fame that its people are •The installation need not be literal looking for. It will also enable the creation or didactic in its references, as it may of a Gateway that enhances the journey capture a more abstract, aspirational between Melbourne and Wyndham, intent and feeling. forcing the users to reconsider it as a • It may be a structural or landscape community as well as in the context of response, or a balance of the two, Melbourne as a whole. however, it is a requirement that the gateway will make a significant impact. Before any further conceptual progress, it •It will have longevity in its appeal, was important to pin point exactly where encouraging ongoing interesting the on site the project would be located. The Western Interchange by encouraging Princess Freeway between Sites B and C further reflection about the installation starts from Geelong passes through outer beyond a first glance. Melbourne towards Wyndham eventually •An exciting, eye catching installation heading to Melbourne CBD. Obviously, as the purpose of the project is to serve as After reading the brief, it became evident a gateway to Wyndham, it is significant that in order to develop and implement to have that interaction with the users, a technique that addresses all the above allowing them to pass through it. The mentioned points, the Gateway must not structure thus would need to be located in only be a structure, it should be able to the middle of the road rather than simply create an experience for the user which placed on the side. However, we did not sparks his/her curiosity in Wyndham. want to limit the structure to only those Architectural discourse allows to build passing through it, we wanted it to be a vision and to map the world in some visual structure for the third party as well so way, so by using parametric tools in an it needed to be visible from all other roads.

pg 79


C.1 Design Concept

C1: TRIAL ITERATIONS

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C1: TRIAL PROTOTYPES

Taking the feedback on board from the mid semester feedback session, the group decided to take a few steps back and attempt to make new prototypes and iterations in correspondence with the concept of black holes. However, as these were created, the disconnection between what was being thought and what was delivered became more obvious. It was almost like we were trying to impose the concept of black holes onto tunnel like shapes. The iterations and the prototypes were helpful for this realisation but unsuccessful in delivering the effect we were trying to create. The last iteration (Number 15) was intriguing and was thought of as a good starting point for the final design idea. However, it was understood that because of the lack of knowledge, the group had in regards to black holes, a convincing design outcome could not be created. So, for the next phase of the design development, detailed research was conducted on black holes.

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C.1 Design Concept

Black Hole30

Looking into a black hole

Black Holes loose mass and shrink overtime

Pulling matter and particles through after they cross the event horizon Figure 1: Black Hole Summary Diagrams

pg 82

Emitting energy and radiation

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Pushing matter and particles to a different universe through the singularity


C1: DESIGN CONCEPT: BLACK HOLES By conducting an in depth analysis of how black holes behave and perform, the group was able to decide which concepts would be interesting to incorporate in the Gateway Project. The research has been included in this part of the journal. Steven Hawking described black holes as regions of space where the pull of gravity is so intense that not even light can escape35. They provide short cuts for space travel, which otherwise would be pretty slow and tedious, and provide a passage from one universe to another, in principle, making it possible to dive from one space through the hole and to emerge in another place and time. This is the affect we are trying to create with the Gateway project. To create a portal which transfers users from one paradigm to another, namely Wyndham to Melbourne. The structure will also provide an interesting diversion from the boring high-way. One of the major components of the black hole includes a boundary, called the event horizon. It is only after a person crosses this point, that the affect of the black hole can be felt. Here the gravity is

just strong enough to drag the light back, and prevent it from escaping. From the outside, one cannot tell what is inside a black hole. In order to fully experience the structure, is to go inside. There is a common misconception that black holes are conical in shape, this is not the case. They are spherical rings. However, as particles escape from a black hole, it loses mass, and shrinks and eventually disappears. When drawn out over a period of time in 3-D, the shape of the cone can be created. The singularity is the focal point at the centre of the black hole. Once an object crosses the event horizon, it is directed automatically to this point. In order to summarize all the points mentioned above, an object, when it enters the event horizon, is pulled or drawn into the black hole. At this point, energy and radiation is emitted and the black hole looses its mass and shrinks. The object is then ejected out of the black hole into another universe through the singularity. This can be seen in Figure 1. How the group incorporated these theories into the final structure have been explained on page 93.

pg 83


C.1 Design Concept

PRECEDENTS It is always beneficial to analyse the works of others not only for inspiration but also to understand how they incorporated certain techniques and ideas and how they have been implemented. It also allows for the analysis of contemporary architectural discourse. Some precedents in particular were looked at to aid in the design process. MAXIMILIAN’S SCHELL (2005) Architects Benjamin Ball and Gaston Nogues have created a vortex-shaped, temporary outdoor installation in the Los Angeles exhibition space of Materials & Applications. The original design intent of the architects was to ‘reconstruct a featherweight rendition of ‘the deadliest force in the Universe’36 . Hovering over M&A’s courtyard, Maximilian’s Schell functions as a shade structure whilst the interior creates an outdoor room for social interaction and contemplation. The project is a spectacle the size of an apartment building constructed in tinted Mylar resembling stained glass. This project allows the consideration of using non-conventional materials to produce evocative results. It also depicts the ability of the structure to play with sunlight and

pg 84

the affects of shadows which is something to be incorporated into the group’s design technique. ANISH KAPOOR “HALO” (2006) Halo is a shallow circular cone of stainless steel, 10 feet in diameter37. Its surface is pleated in a radial pattern such that emphasises the centre point of the circle. The surfaces of the mirror produce reflections of the surroundings. This project creates an affect of warped reality and a sense of confusion which the group thought would be an interesting addition to the Wyndham Gateway Project. BLACK HOLE (2013) Fabian Oenfer, is a photographer who created a series of images in his project, “Black Hole”38. In this project, he shows paint modelled by centripetal force. In this simple setup, various shades of acrylic paint are dripped onto a metallic rod, which is connected to a drill. When switched on, the paint starts to move away from the rod. This project is particularly interesting as it shows how a simple idea can result in creating amazing looking structures. The fluidity and movement in this project is what we aim to emulate in our structure.


Maximilan’s Schell, Gatson and Nogues, 2005 31

Halo, Anish Kapoor, 2006 32

Black Hole Project, Oenfer, 2013 33

pg 85


C.2: Tectonic Elements

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pg 86


C2: MATERIAL TESTING From the previous iterations, once satisfied with the general folded shape of the parametric model, some material experiments were conducted to test how the design would react or transform based on the particular materials characteristic. Some of the most interesting experiments have been included here. These forms were cast into moulds made by aluminium sheets and moulded by hand into the crown like shape. A plastic mould was initially used. However, the plastic melted under the high temperatures of wax and jelly. The aluminium mould was then used as it held its shape. JELLY: Just for fun, the experimentation began with using strawberry jelly. Although the mixture was not difficult to create and pour into the mould, it was quite challenging to get it out of the mould once set. As can be seen in Image 1, the texture of the jelly made it very hard for the form to hold its shape. Rather as soon as it was taken out of the mould, it sumped back into a blob.

to the properties of wax, it needed to stay extremely hot to stay in liquid form so that it could be poured in the mould. The wax was quite brittle as well, so it started to break/chip off causing the model to fail. CONCRETE: The mixture was a combination of cement, aggregates and water. As it was taken out of the mould, it automatically started to break and chip suggesting that it did not have enough strength to hold. However, once it was completely dry, the actual form was pretty strong. This suggests that there might have been something wrong in making the mixture. Perhaps too much water was added. PLASTER: The plaster worked really well. The smooth finish and the crisp lines created were, what was required. The mixture was simple to create by just mixing in water with the pottery plaster powder. The overall quality of this model was quite successful.

WIRE MESH: Out of all the material models. This was the most successful. It WAX: Difficulty was faced in the process had crisp lines and allowed the creation of trying to create the wax model. Due of a structure that would hold its shape.

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C.2: Tectonic Elements

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C2: FORM FINDING The form of the folded arch (Iteration 1) was thought to be the most successful from all the iterations that were created. The form was inspired by the theory of black holes. Although they tend to be circular or spherical, it was thought that by creating linear lines, the structure would create hierarchy drawing the eyes of the users straight from the entrance to the exit making the exit a focal point. Much like the theory of the event horizon and point of singularity in the black hole. Having a wider entrance and a narrower exit, allowed the structure to exude almost a sense of engulfment of the car and the user. Once the group was satisfied with the general exterior form, the process of experimentation began. The first few iterations were primarily just to try out

different surface treatments that could be applied to the structure, however, by doing that, the sense of the focal point or the crispness of the linearity was being lost. So, instead of surface treatments, perforations were thought to be more appropriate to be placed on the folded surface. Parametric modelling was of particularly great use during this phase. This part of the design development was an iterative process. From the parametric iterations, physical sketch models were created. Once we were satisfied with the physical model, the prototype was fed back into grasshopper. This phase in the design development was a feedback process where we transferred between physical and computer modelling.

pg 89


C.2: Tectonic Elements

Prototype One

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pg 90

Prototype Two


C2: PROTOTYPES Prototypes were sent to the fablab for testing which made it possible to check whether the fabrication documents would be sufficient to assemble the final model. The materials were also tested along with the process of unfolding the digital models, nesting it and creating tabs. This meant that the process could be a lot quicker when it came to the construction of the final model.

size of each panel was also too large for construction. More panels would need to be added so that the width of each panel could be reduced. Another issue was with the way the file was printed at the fablab. Mount board was used with the lazer cutter for the prototype. This led to burn marks on the board which looked messy and gave an unprofessional finish. The mount board was also really thick for neat assembly. Due to the weight The prototype was quite useful as several of the board, the structure was unable to problems were brought forward and hold itself, making it collapse. encountered during its construction. Firstly, it was realized that the measurements As parametric definition for the model was and scaling of the model had been mis clearly structured, it was not difficult to go calculated. The length to width ratio was back and make adjustments to it based not proportional to that of the road. The on all the learnings from the prototypes.

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C.2: Tectonic Elements

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C2: FINAL DEFINITION

The adjustments from the prototype were implemented onto Grasshopper. The first issue addressed was the size of the structure. The width of the structure was made to be 10mm wide, the opening 25m high and the exit 14m high. The length of the tunnel was 100m. To make the structure dramatic and eyecatching, the structure needed to be quite prominent and sizeable because the cars would be travelling at high speeds. As mentioned earlier in the journal, the design outcome has been inspired by the principles of the event horizon and singularity. The linear panels produce a sense of hierarchy

and a focal point as the user moves from a wider entrance towards a narrower exit. A greater effect is achieved through the linearity as it directs the user towards the end, making them feel as if they are being pulled to the other side. This coincides with the black hole as an object is pulled from the event horizon and pushed through the singularity to another time and universe. As particles escape a black hole it slowly loses its own mass and shrinks. This can be seen in the Gateway project through the decrease in height of the structure from the beginning to the end.

Final Rendered Model, Front VIew

pg 93


C.2: Tectonic Elements

Final Digital Model, Perspective

Final Digital Model, West Elevation

pg 94

Final Digital Model, East Elevation


C2: FINAL DEFINITION

Triangles are chosen as the shape for the perforations added on the surface of the panels. By pointing them towards the front, opposite to the direction of the travelling car, an illusion of speed is created, further emphasising the pull to the end. As objects pass through black holes, energy as x-rays and gamma rays is released. The folding of the triangular flaps is representative of this release of energy. The angle of the flaps decrease towards the back to represent the shrinking of the structure.

The cars that will pass through the structure function as objects or particles that pass through the black hole. Mirrors are placed underneath the triangular flaps enabling the lights from the car to bounce and reflect off the mirrors representing the loss of radiation. The mirrors will also reflect the surrounding landscape, which will invoke a sense of confusion or warped reality in the user’s mind as they pass through the structure. To view the experience movies created by the group, refer to the Group 7 Wiki on the Learning Management System. i

pg 95


C.2: Tectonic Elements

1:50 Connection Joint Model

Triangular Perforation

Steel Bracket

Bolts and Screws

Triangular Perforation

Metal Sheet

Metal Sheet

Connection Detail 1 Triangular Perforation Angle Bracket

Bolts and Screws Metal Sheet Angle Bracket

Bolts and Screws

Steel Bracket

Connection Detail Section

pg 96

Connection Detail 2


C2: JOINTS AND MATERIALS

The core construction element for this structure is the triangular perforation detail which has been repeated with slight dimensional variation throughout the design. In order to test how this would work in real life, a 1:50 connection detail was constructed. The main questions to be addressed included if the joints provide sufficient structure and rigidity? After much deliberation and discussion, as well as careful research, it was mutually agreed amongst the group that metal sheets would be the best choice for the construction of this project because it would be strong and rigid enough for the structure of this size. It would also provide the smooth and clean finish wanted. The metal would be painted black to fit in with the effect to be achieved and to contrast with the reflected mirror. The reflective mirror surface would be achieved by using a reflective paint. Of course, it was imperative to consider how the materials would be carried to the site.

Having each perforation as a separate panel would be the best solution to this, as it would allow easy transportation as well as simple construction. There are three main types of connections within the structure which are repeated. The first one is between the two perforated panels connected by using I shaped steel brackets(Connection Detail 1). The second connection is between each linear strip achieved by connecting metal angle brackets fastened by a flange and secured with nuts and bolts (Connection Detail 2). The last connection is between the flap of the perforation and the surface of the panel. As the perforation is fabricated off-sight, the triangles will be cut-out and welded onto the surface off-site as well. The panels will then be brought to the site and constructed there. Assembly schedule has been presented in the next part of the journal .

pg 97


C.3: Final Model

Site Plan 1:1000

In context to the site, the aim of this project was to create a structure that could signify the journey towards Wyndham, providing the users with an unforgettable experience. Placing the project on the Northbound side of the Princess Freeway will allow the users travelling from the Geelong or outer Melbourne to feel the dramatic entrance into Wyndham. They will be able to recognise and acknowledge the transition from Melbourne general to Wyndham fulfilling the concept of the shift between one paradigm to another of the black hole.

pg 98


C3: FINAL MODEL 1)FABRICATE: The first step in the process of construction would be to cut metal sheets according to each individual panel to size and create triangular perforations on it’s surface. Once the triangles are cut out, they are welded back onto the surface to create the flap. FABRICATE

TRANSPORTATION

SITE WORKS

ASSEMBLY

2)TRANSPORTATION: The panels would be stacked onto a truck and transferred to the site. The size of the individual panel has been thought out according to the dimensions of a truck to allow for easy transportation. 3)SITE WORKS: The site would be excavated and leveled in preparation for construction. Strip footings will be added onto the sides of the road so that the structure can be bolted or screwed into it for additional support. 4)ASSEMBLY: Step 1: The triangular perforations would be painted with the reflective mirror paint Step 2: The panels on the two sides of the structure would be bolted to the ground and the strip footing first. Step 3: An arch would first be constructed, connecting all the individual panels in one row with the help of a steel rib. Step 4: Using a crane, the arch would be connected to the panels attached to the ground. Step 5: The process would be repeated until the entire structure is completed. pg 99


Model Making Process 600.00 600.00

pg 100

2: 300 GSM Black Card SHEET 1: 300 GSM Black Card

18

19 31 15 19

14

SHEET 2: Fill in - Material Type and Thickness

900.00

SHEET 2: 300 GSM Black Card

Xuchang Zhao

1

C.3: Final Model

31

Nesting File for FABLAB


C3: FINAL MODEL CONSTRUCTION The assembly for design projects would obviously be quite different if it was to be constructed in real life as compared to building a scale model. Limited resources, and time constraints means that materials and construction processes need to be improvised and adjusted to available equipment. For the final model, black card was used to depict steel and silver reflective paper was used to show silver reflective paint. The steps for constructing the model have been discussed below.

card cutter was used instead of the lazer cutter this time. 3) Whilst the file was at the Fablab, in order to save time, it was decided that the silver triangles could just be cut using the paper cutter. A separate file was created for this. 4) Once the panels were cut and ready, the assembly process began. Each strip was cut out, and stuck to the adjoining one.

5) The silver triangles were then popped 1) The first and most important part of the out and stuck onto the panels after which fabrication was to actually unfold the 3-D each of the triangular perforations was model from Grasshopper and Rhino and flipped outwards. to nest it onto a page template so that it could be sent to the fablab. This was 6) Once all the strips were joined and the actually quite a tedious process as each triangles were stuck on, the most crucial panel was a separate component. Tabs part of the model making came. It was needed to be created for every single realised that in order for the model to strip so that each could be connected become the shape it was supposed to, with the adjoining easily. some sort of support would be required. Malleable aluminium wire was used at the 2) A decision was made to use 300 gsm entrance and exit of the structure. It was black card for the fabrication as the moulded into the same shape and glued structure is to be constructed out of black onto the structure. painted metal, . This would be the perfect thickness as it would hold its weight whilst 7) A base was made out of 3 mm box still being able to be manipulated. The board, and the model was stuck onto this.

pg 101


C.3: Final Model

C3: FINAL MODEL

Final Model Images during daytime Scale 1:200

pg 102


pg 103


C.3: Final Model

C3: FINAL MODEL

Final Model: Perspective during the day showing the reflection of the landscape in the mirrored surface

pg 104


Final Model: Photomontage depicting the reflected landscape

pg 105


C.3: Final Model

C3: FINAL MODEL

Final Model Images showing the effect of the car moving through the structure at night

pg 106


Final Model Night Perspective

pg 107


C.3: Final Model

C3: FINAL MODEL

Final Model Images during the Night Scale 1:200

pg 108


The design developed well over the last few weeks of the course and the final outcome proved to be quite successful. All the goals and the effects that the group had hoped to achieve were fulfilled.

original and unique design proposal. The proposal meets the requirements of the Wyndham City Council brief,providing a sol tu ti on for all the criteria. This has been done with the application of new parametric technologies. The hope is to captivate the This structure is innovative because the publics interest and spark their curiosity of group has used an interesting conceptual Wyndham making it a significant part of narrative of the black hole to create an Melbourne.

pg 109


C.4: Algorithmic Explorations

pg 110


C4: ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

Presented here are some of the design explorations developed during the last phase of the semester. It is easy to see the improvement in Grasshopper skills when compared against the first set of iterations created for Algorithmic Explorations for Part A. The iterations have become more experimental and more complex making them visually more interesting. . To simplify, for this definition, the four main components were Polygon, Perpendicular Frames, Interpolate Curve and Piping. The way in which the curve folds on itself make the geometry look like a knot. As one of the many advantages of parametric modelling, a variety of iterations were created quite quickly just by either moving

the number slider or by mixing, adding or deleting components. This exploration definition is the favourite so far as it shows a higher level of understanding of the program and reflects the learnings of the entire semester. Now that there is a sense of familiarity with the program, it is easier and more fun to experiment. Rather than thinking about what to do and how to do it, it has been understood that sometimes, the better and more efficient result is produced by letting go. By just playing around with different functions and components . However, this level of comfort is reached only with passage of time as has been learnt over the course of this semester.

pg 111


C.5: Design Feedback

Final Model Scale 1:200

pg 112


C5: DESIGN FEEDBACK The final presentation went well. The design outcome met most of the criteria we had initially set out to achieve. There were some pitfalls in the design which were brought out by the constructive criticism given by the panel. They gave advice on how the structure could be improved to increase the effect that the group was trying to create. The panel understood the concept of using the car as the particle that is pulled through the entrance and pushed out the end. However, the main criticism received was that the length of the structure was too short to fully display this effect. Although this was a deliberate attempt by the group because as the structure was inspired by the black hole, we wanted the structure to function as an instantaneous portal between Melbourne

and Wyndham. However the panel suggested that the length of the structure, 100m, did not give the users enough time to fully experience and enjoy the structure because of its elaborate nature. This has been elaborated further in the following section. The judges really liked the narrative of the black hole and felt that they could relate to the story line that was presented, but at points because of the lack of experiential images it was difficult to imagine what the structure would look like when being used. This has been addressed by adding more photographs that depict the Gateway in use. Overall the presentation provided us with the opportunity to rethink some of our design strategies and edit the design to make it better.

pg 113


C.5: Design Feedback

C5: CONSTRUCTION ADJUSTMENT

Edited Construction Detail

In the final presentation, the critics mentioned that the construction detail presented would not work in real life. There would be no need for the flange in the angle bracket for support. They suggested that a continuous rib instead of angle brackets should be used to connect the two perforated panels. This pg 114

would not only connect the two panels it will also provide the overall structure with rigidity and support to hold itself up. It was also suggested that instead of using I-brackets to connect strips of individual panels, they could just be welded together. Adjustments were made to the detail drawing to account for these changes,


C5: DEFINITION ADJUSTMENT

Altered Final Model Front View

Altered Final Model Perspective View

Altered Final Model East Elevation

Going by the feedback after the presentation, the group decided to adjust the digital model. The drawings presented here are of the new edited form which is based on critics advice. The first and most important change made was the elongation of the form. The length of the tunnel was multiplied by a factor of four so that ‘effect’ of being

pulled through would come across more strongly. The density of the triangles was also increased from the entrance to the exit in order to exaggerate the mirrored effect. The triangles are now made to be larger and more dramatic at the start and smaller near the end. To enhance the effect further, the flaps now go inwards, and close gradually towards the end. pg 115


C.5: Learning Objectives and Outcomes

Final Model Scale 1:200

pg 116


C5: LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES Architecture Studio Air has sparked the learning of three dimensional modelling. Studios in the degree so far, have mainly focused on conception of ideas and experimentation through hand-drawing. Although computer drawings are used, these are only for presentation rather than experimentation. The way that this studio has been structured has exposed and forced students into learning new approaches to architecture in terms of parametric modelling, teaching skills that had not been required before, adding to our skill set. Starting with discussions on parametric modelling, computational architecture and looking at precedents in Part A, gave me an insight into the current trends within the architectural realm. In Part B the matrix explorations provided a great introduction to digital modelling that was then used for the development of the final design outcome. This phase also required the reverse engineering of an existing project, which was no doubt beneficial as it depicted how players in the industry are currently using parametric modelling. The final part of the course, Part C was the most crucial. The final design proposal was constructed during this phase where we were required to apply all our experimentations and put them into a realistic proposal. For this we had to consider how a structure would be fabricated and built in real life. Another main component of this subject was the group work. I was lucky enough to have a hardworking group, which meant that the group dynamics was amiable and cooperative. Group work allows you

the opportunity to learn and builds up skills that you do not have. Skills like time management, organisation, compromise and adjustment are further enhanced in order to work together. Each person in the group had their own strengths and weaknesses and we made sure that the the tasks were divided accordingly. This subject has depicted exactly how true the saying “practice makes perfect is�. It must be stated the subject has been demanding and difficult. There have been various times of frustration and stress because of not having any prior knowledge of the programs being used. However, by watching the Ex-Lab video tutorials, and additional research a lot of the content was self learnt. This was a new experience in itself We were expected to familiarise ourselves with new emerging technologies and programs. In order to achieve greater results, one had to push themselves harder than ever before. After the work during the semester, I feel like I am more comfortable creating, manipulating and designing using parametric modelling then I was at the start of the semester. It will still take losts more practice before proficiency can be gained in digital modelling. Emerging digital technology, like parametric modelling, has given architecture a new tool for conceptual design which has the potential to open up new horizons in architecture. It is these horizons that I hope to explore with the innovative approaches and thinking to architecture which I have learnt in Studio: AIR. pg 117


Reference List

REFERENCE LIST 1)

Dobson, J. & Martin, M. n.d, “A Framework for architectural discourse”, last viewed 9 March 2013, < http://www.ncl.ac.uk/kite/assets/downloads/discourse1.htm>

2)

Statinslav, R. (2013), “Lecture 2: Architecture as Discourse”, University of Melbourne

3) EcoRedux, “Dome Over Manhattan”, last viewed 9 March 2013, <http://www.ecoredux.com/ archive_project03_01.html> 4) ArchDaily, “Buckminister Fuller”, last viewed 10 March 2013, <http://www.archdaily.com/tag/ buckminster-fuller/> 5) Schumacher, P., (2008), Parametricism as Style- Parametricist Manifesto, last viewed 27March,<http://www.patrikschumacher.com/Texts/Parametricism%20as%20Style.htm> 6)

DesignBoom, “MAD architects: Ordos Museum Completed” last viewed 11 March 2013,< http:// www.designboom.com/architecture/mad-architects-ordos-museum-completed/>

7) Serpentine Gallery, “Serpentine Pavilion”, last viewed 8 March 2013, <http://www.serpentin egallery.org/2002/06/serpentine_gallery_pavilion_20_3.html> 8)

Williams, R. (2005), ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Con cepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 103

9)

Serpentine Gallery, “Serpentine Pavilion”, last viewed 8 March 2013, <http://www.serpentine gallery.org/2002/06/serpentine_gallery_pavilion_20_3.html>Wilson 11

10)

Alemany, M. and Sousa, J., (2003), “Parametric Design as a Technique of Convergence”, 8th Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia Conference / CAADRIA pg 158

11)

Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 3

12) Terzidis, K. (2003). “Expressive Form: A conceptual approach to computational design”. Spon Press. 13)

Kolarevic, B. (2003), “Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing” (NewYork; London: Spon Press), pp. 4

14)

SJET, “VoltaDom”, last viewed 5 May 2013,<http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html>

15) Alan S U, “Voussoir Cloud/IwamotoScott”, last viewed 7 May 2013, <http://www.alanslu.com/ Voussoir-Cloud-IwamotoScott> 16)

IwamotoScott, “Voussoir Cloud”, last viewed 16 March 2013, <http://www.iwamotoscott.com/>

17)

Askew, A. (2012), “Introduction to Parametric Design”, last viewed 28 March 2013, < http://anthonyaskew.wordpress.com/2012/02/29/an-introduction-to-parametric-design/>

pg 118


18)

California Council, “Parametric Design: A Brief History”, last viewed 28 March 2013, < http://aiacc.org/2012/06/25/parametric-design-a-brief-history/>

19)

Yessios, C. (2003), “Is there more to come?”, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manu facturing, ed. Branko Kolarevi, New York: Spon Press, pp. 260

20)

Woodbury, R. & Burrow, N. (2006). ‘Whither design space?’, Artificial Intelligence for Engineer ing Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, 20 , 2, pp. 65

21)

Weisstein, E. (2003), CRC Conscise Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Second, Florida: Chapman & Hall/ CRC. doi 10.120/9781420035223-18

22)

Alemany, M. and Sousa, J., (2003), “Parametric Design as a Technique of Convergence”, 8th Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia Conference / CAADRIA pg 158

23)

Kolarevic, B. (2003), “Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing” (New York; London: Spon Press), pp. 10

24) Coop Himmelblau “Dalian International Conference Center in “The Architect”, last viewed 3 March 2013, http://www.coop-himmelblau.at/architecture/news/dalian-international-confer ence-center-in-architect-magazine 25)

Schumacher, P. (2011) ‘Introduction : Architecture as Autopoietic System’, in The Autopoiesis of Architecture (Chichester: J. Wiley, 2011), pp.4

26) The Magazine of the American Institute of Architects, “Dalian International Conference Cen ter”, last viewed 4th April 2013, http://www.architectmagazine.com/cultural-projects/da lian-international-conference-center.aspx 27)

MATSYS, “P-Wall (2009)”, last viewed 15th April 2013, <http://matsysdesign.com/2009/08/11/p_ wall2009/>

28)

Architeizer, “Five Parametric Projects”, 15th April 2013, <http://matsysdesign. com/2009/08/11/p_ wall2009/>

29) Society for Environmental Graphic Design, “de Young Museum”, last viewed 9 April 2013, < http://www.segd.org/design-awards/2008-design-awards/de-young-museum-signage-and- environmental-graphics.html> 30)

San Francisco, “de Young Museum”, last viewed 10 April 2013, < http://www.sftravel.com/de_young_museum_san_francisco.html >

31) Youth Architects Program International, “MoMo Reef PS1”, last viewed 25th April 2013, <http:// www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/yap/2007_iwamotoscott 32) Architecture By Me, “Kaust Beacon Tower”, last viewed 2 May 2013, < http://www.architec ture-balar.com/2012/12/kaust-beacon.html> 33)

Statinslav, R. (2013), “Lecture 2: Architecture as Discourse”, University of Melbourne

34)

Kalay E. Yehuda (2004), “Architectures Nre Media:Principles, Theories and Methiods of Com puter Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5-25

pg 119


Reference List 35) Brookhaven National Laboratory, “Blackholes”, last viewed 23rd May 2013, < http://www.bnl. gov/rhic/blackHoles2.asp> 36) Ball-Nouges Studio, “Maximilans Schell”, last viewed 23rd May 2013, <http://www.ball-nogues. com/#project-105> 37)

Howard E Fineman, “Peabody Essex Museum,” last viewed 23rd May 2013, < http://howarde fineman.photoshelter.com/image/I0000jw8rg7STG.s>

38)

Fabian Oenfer Photography, “Black Hole, Paint in Motion”, last viewed 23rd May 2013, < http:// www.fabianoefner.com/64838/1159918/projects/black-hole>

pg 120


IMAGES 1: Clothiod A Lamp, last viewed 10 March, <http://www.alienology.com/catalog/?p=295> 2: 3D Dreaming, Parametric Lamp, last viewed 6 March, <http://www.3d-dreaming.com/2011/11/ workshop-parametric-light-pattern.html> 3:ArchDaily, “Buckminister Fuller”, last viewed 10 March 2013, <http://www.archdaily.com/tag/ buckminster-fuller/> 4: Serpentine Gallery, Serpentine Pavillion, last viewed 8 March, <http://www.serpentinegallery. org/2002/06/serpentine_gallery_pavilion_20_3.html> 5: Found, Parametric Design, last viewed 15 March, <http://ffffound.com/image/ac5d6fa30c9fe81968 33760ddf236150b154550e> 6: SJET, “VoltaDom”, last viewed 5 May 2013,<http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html> 7: IwamotoScott, Voussoir Cloud, last viewed 16 March, <http://www.iwamotoscott.com/> 8: Obleo, Stadium Elastique, last viewed 20 March, < http://obleo.net/tag/parametric-modeling/> 9: Coop Himmelblau “Dalian International Conference Center in “The Architect”, last viewed 3 March 2013, http://www.coop-himmelblau.at/architecture/news/dalian-international-confer ence-center-in-architect-magazine 10: The Magazine of the American Institute of Architects, “Dalian International Conference Cen ter”, last viewed 4th April 2013, http://www.architectmagazine.com/cultural-projects/da lian-international-conference-center.aspx 11: MATSYS, “P-Wall (2009)”, last viewed 15th April 2013, <http://matsysdesign.com/2009/08/11/p_ wall2009/> 12: Obleo, Top Down Bottom Up, last viewed 31 March, <http://obleo.net/2009/07/from-top-down-tobottom-up/grasshopper-tutorial2/> 13: Digital Crafting, Parametric Design, last viewed 21 March, < http://www.digitalcrafting. dk/?cat=11&paged=2> 14: LucasArch, Parametric Lamp, last viewed 11 April, < http://www.lucasarchs.com/experiments/ parametric-lamp/> 15: Maytian, “Parametric Design”, last viewed 24th April 2013, < http://mayation.wordpress.com/tag/ parametric-design/> 16: Youth Architects Program International, “MoMo Reef PS1”, last viewed 25th April 2013, <http:// www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/yap/2007_iwamotoscott 17: 20. Scene 4 Magazing, San Francisco: Above, Below and In Between, last viewed 11 March, < http://www.scene4.com/archivesqv6/apr-2012/0412/jonrendell0412.html>

pg 121


Reference List 18. Inhabitat, Bloom, last viewed 27 March, <http://inhabitat.com/bloom-toy-encourages-crowds-tocome-together-and-make-intricate-art-in-public-spaces/> 19. Evob, Project Distortion, last viewed 27 March, <http://www.evolo.us/architecture/project-distortion-reality-altering-parametric-installation/> 20. DesignBoom, Blaze Installation, last viewed 27 March, <http://www.designboom.com/design/ mcchesney-architects-blaze-installation/> 21. Inspired, Metal Flower Installation, last viewed 27 March, <http://inspir3d.net/2012/05/01/metalflower-installation-tracks-the-heat-of-the-sun/> 22: Ecoficial, “Solar Power Shape Shifting Bridge”, last viewed 4 May 2013, < http://www.ecoficial. com/solar-powered-shape-shifting-bridge-also-purifies-the-air-1631/> 23: Tobis Putrih, “Re-Projection:Hoosac”, last viewed 4 May 2013, < http://www.flickr.com/photos/ lknosp/5223351749/> 24: Jadscape, “World’s First Helix Bridge”, last viewed 4 May 2013, < http://landscapeisjad.blogspot. com.au/2010/05/worlds-first-helix-bridge-vlaardingse.html> 25: Gizmodo, “Nakagin Capsule Tower”, last viewed 2 May 2013, < http://www.gizmodo.com. au/2008/12/nakagin_capsule_tower_looks_to_be_from_the_future_but_probably_wont_make_it_ there-2/> 26: Edith Cowan University, “Chancellory Building”, last viewed 2 May 2013, < http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ homepage/9/> 27: Architecture By Me, “Kaust Beacon Tower”, last viewed 2 May 2013, < http://www.architecturebalar.com/2012/12/kaust-beacon.html> 28: SJET, “VoltaDom”, last viewed 5 May 2013,<http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html> 29: First National, “Wyndham City Council”, last viewed 23rd May 2013, < http://www.westwoodfn. com.au/?pageCall=content&contentTypeID=540MenuItemID=36302> 30: Brookhaven National Laboratory, “Blackholes”, last viewed 23rd May 2013, < http://www.bnl.gov/ rhic/blackHoles2.asp> 31: Ball-Nouges Studio, “Maximilans Schell”, last viewed 23rd May 2013, <http://www.ball-nogues. com/#project-105> 32: Howard E Fineman, “Peabody Essex Museum,” last viewed 23rd May 2013, < http://howarde fineman.photoshelter.com/image/I0000jw8rg7STG.s> 33: Fabian Oenfer Photography, “Black Hole, Paint in Motion”, last viewed 23rd May 2013, < http:// www.fabianoefner.com/64838/1159918/projects/black-hole> pg 122


pg 123

Cfi 539447 khadija lotia (issuu)  
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