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àH$meH$ : Am°`H$m°g \$m°a BH$m°bm°{OH$b g{ìh©gog 210, {gÕmW© Q>m°dg©, g. Z§. 12/3 ~r, H$moWéS>, nwUo - 411038. \$moZ : 020-25451875 email : oikos@oikos.in web : www.oikos.in

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àXe©Zm'V _moR>r g§Yr {_imbr. gwédmVrnmgyZM Amåhr "Xoer PmS§ 'M dmnam`Mr Ago R>adbob§ hmoV§M. Ë`mÑï>rZo àH$ënmV AmIUrhr H$am`Mmo. bdmgm _Ü`o {VWë`mM O§Jbr PmS>m§À`m {~`m Jmoim H$éZ amondm{Q>H$m H$am`Mm à`ËZhr Pmbm. nU ho gd© {R>H$mUr eŠ` hmoV Zgo. _J emoYm-emoY. Xoer PmS>m§Mr amon§ {_idÊ`mgmR>r Iyn Zg©ar qhS>bmo. nU Xoer-ñWm{ZH$ PmS>§ V`ma H$aUmao H$moUrM ZìhV§ Ag§M åhUmd§ bmJob. emoYyZ emoYyZ \$ma Va 15-20 OmVr gmnS>ë`m. AJXr dZImË`mH$S>ohr {Zb{JarM {_iV Ago. `m nmíd©^y_rda "{H$gmZ'_Ü`o _moR>çm AmH$mamMo àXe©Z _m§S>Ê`mMr g§Yr {_imbr. _J df©^a AmYrnmgyZ {Za{Zamù`m ^mJmV OmD$Z, {VWë`m Zg©arVyZ {\$ê>>Z, amon§ CnbãY Ho$br. ZJa, Am¡a§Jm~mX, _hm~ioída, H$moH$U Ago {\$abmo. H$mhr amondm{Q>H$m WmoS>çm à_mUmV Agm à`ËZ H$aVhr hmoË`m. àXe©ZmV OdiOdi 7-8 hOma amono nhm`bm d {dH$m`bm R>odbr. àXe©ZmV {dH«$s Iyn H$_r Pmbr nU "ñWm{ZH$ PmS>o bmdm' hm g§Xoe _hmamï´>^a nmohmoMdÊ`mMm à`ËZ Ho$bm. `m gJù`mVyZM {S>g|~a 2004 _Ü`o AmUboë`m, {dH«$sVyZ Caboë`m amonm§Zm KoD$Z Zg©arMm OÝ_ Pmbm. Iyn {R>H$mUr "ñWm{ZH$ PmS>o' hm {df` ~mobbmo. nona_Ü`o {b{hb§, nÌH§$ dmQ>br, 500-600 Zg©atZm nÌH§$ nmR>dbr. EH$m ZdrZ {df`mbm Vm|S> \w$Q>b§. A{YH$ OmJê$H$VoZo PmS§ {ZdS>Ê`mMo d Vr bmdÊ`mM§ AmdmhZ H$aUo, bmoH$m§er ~mobUo, AJXr dmX KmbUo, Ago ~aoM CÚmoJ `m {Z{_ÎmmZo Ho$bo. AmO Ag§ dmQ>V§` H$s ho à`ËZ ~è`mn¡H$s `eñdrhr PmboV. `m EH$m _moR>çm àXe©ZmÀ`m _m§S>Ur_wio, bmoH$m§er ~mobÊ`m_wio AOyZ AZw^d Am{U AmË_{dídmg {_imbm. gmYmaU 2005 Z§Va H$mhr _hÎdmMo ~Xb Am_À`m H§$nZrV

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nÕV XmoÝhr g_OV Job§. AmngyH$M Ho$bob§ H$m_ ~amo~a Amho H$m, `mo½` doioV Am{U XamV hmoV§ Amho Zm `mMm A§XmO Ambm. Ho$bobr àH$ënmMr AmIUr àË`j O{_Zrda CVadVmZm `m gdm©Mr _XV Pmbr. `m Vm§{ÌH$ H$m_m~amo~aM ì`dgm`mMr Am{W©H$ ~mOy, Ë`mVbo {hemo~, {Za{Zamio H$a, [aQ>Z© ho nU gm§^mimd§ bmJV§M. `m gJù`mVyZ ì`dgm`, Am{U Amåhrhr KS>V Jobmo. {Za{Zamù`m O{_Ztda, ^mJm§_Ü`o, amÁ`m§_Ü`o `m {Z{_ÎmmZo ^Q>§H$Vr gwéM hmoVr. e§^amhÿZ A{YH$ OmJm§da OmD$Z Amë`m_wio hiyhiy gd}jU, AmIUr H$am`bm bmJUmam doi H$_r hmoV Jobm. Iyn ^mJm§_Ybr O¡d{d{dYVm, ^yê$no, hdm_mZ `m§Mm A§XmO, Aä`mg hmoV hmoVm. `m Xaå`mZ ñWm{ZH$ PmS>m§{df`r H$m_ H$aVmZm CUrd ^mgV hmoVr Vr gd© PmS>m§Mr _m{hVr d \$moQ>mo Agboë`m EImÚm nwñVH$mMr. PmS>m§Mr {ZdS> H$am`bm Or nwñVH§$ dmnabr OmVmV Ë`mV gm_mÝ`V: naXoer PmS>m§MrM _m{hVr AgVo. Oa Amnbr PmS§ OmñVrV OmñV dmnabr Omdr Agm hoVy Agob Va Á`m§Zm PmS>m§Mr \$ma _m{hVr Zmhr Aem§gmR>r EImX§ gmon§ manual {_imb§ Va Vo PmS> bmdVmZm `mo½` {ZdS> H$é eH$Vrb, `m CÔoemZo _mM© 2006 _Ü`o 'Grow Natives' gr.S>r. àH$m{eV Ho$br. `m_Ü`o 300 ñWm{ZH$ PmS>m§Mr \$moQ>mogH$Q> _m{hVr g§H${bV Ho$br Amho. PmS>m§Mr {ZdS> H$aVmZm Á`m ^mJmV PmS>o bmdm`Mr AmhoV Ë`m ^mJmÀ`m hdm_mZmZwgma `mo½` PmS>m§Mr `mXr {_iÊ`mMr gmo` gr.S>r._Ü`o Amho. VgoM ~mJoH$aVm, Am¡fYmH$aVm, Hw§$nU åhUyZ, añË`mH$S>obm `mo½` Aem {Za{Zamù`m Cn`moJm§H$aVm PmS>m§Mr {ZdS> H$aVm `oD$ eH$Vo. `m gr.S>r.H$aVm Iyn _m{hVr EH$Ì Ho$br, \$moQ>mo {_idÊ`mgmR>r {Za{Zamù`m F$Vy§_Ü`o, {d{dY àXoemV

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~XbÊ`mMr! ho gd© H$m_ H$aV AgVmZm Amåhm§bm Iyn _Om `oVoM, nU gVVÀ`m ^Q>H§$VrV ZdrZ àXoe, PmS§, àmUr nmhVmZm Iyn {eH$m`bmhr {_iV§. Joë`m 10 dfm©V BVŠ`m O{_Zr, àXoe nmøbo, Iyn àH$maÀ`m _mUgm§Zm ^oQ>bmo, {ZgJm©Mr {d{dY éno AZw^dbr. H$mhr AZw^d {b{hbo, H$mhr _Zmda H$moabo Jobo. `m OS>UKS>UrV, ^Q>H§$VrV Oo {dMma Ambo Vo {b{hbo. VoM AmVm nwñVH$énmZo àH$m{eV H$aV AmhmoV. `m_wio AmnU gd©M {ZgJm©À`m A{YH$ Odi OmD eHy$. `m àdmgmV ^oQ>boë`m {H$Ë`oH$ OmJm, O§Jbo, AmoT>o, PmS>o, Am_Mr H$m`_Mr {_Ì Pmbr. _mUgm§~amo~aM ho {ZgJm©Mo KQ>H$, F$Vy, KQ>Zm H$mhrVar {eH$dV Joë`m. _Ü`o EH$m§Zr {dMmabo H$s Vw_M§ gJù`mV AmdS>V§ O§Jb Hw$R>b§? Ia§ gm§Jm`Mo Va EH$ Zmhr`o. Amåhr {OWo OmVmo Ë`m O{_Zrer EH$ ZmVo V`ma hmoVo. _J Vo gømÐr_Ybo {Z{~S> AaÊ` Agob, EImXm JdVmi _mi Agob qH$dm IimiV dmhUmam AmoT>m... _J J_VrZo Amåhr åhUVmo "BWoM H$m`_M§ amhÿ'. `m àdmgmV ^oQ>boë`m, Amåhmbm KS>dboë`m, Am_À`m ~amo~arZo H$m_ H$aUmè`m _mUgm§Mo Am{U Z¡g{J©H$ KQ>H$m§Mo Amåhr Zoh_rM F$Ur amhÿ. Am_Mo ho AZw^d, {dMma Ogo gwMbo Vgo _m§S>bo. H$go dmQ>VmV Oéa H$idm ! YÝ`dmX ! Ho$VH$s - _mZgr


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`m nwñVH$m_wio EH$ ZmdrÝ`nyU©, {ZamimM {df` _amR>r dmMH$m§g_moa `oVmo Amho. `m nwñVH$mMo àH$meZ Mmby O_mÝ`mV Am¡{MË`nyU© Amho, ho _wÔm_ gm§{JVbo nm{hOo. _Ü`_dJm©Mo g~brH$aU Pmë`mZo gd©gm_mÝ` _Ü`_dJu`mMr Ñï>r ñdV:Mo Ka Am{U A§JU Amobm§Sy>Z, JmdmÀ`m, ehamÀ`m gr_m ^oXyZ Ë`mnbrH$S>o nmohmoMbr Amho. BWo Zm§XVmo {ZgJ© - ñdÀN>§X {ZgJ© (Wilderness) ! ehamÀ`m ~O~Onwarbm Am{U ~mOmarH$aUmbm d¡VmJboë`m _mUgmbm {ZgJm©Mm Amgam ¿`mdmgm dmQ>bm Va Zdb Zmhr. _J H$moUmbm amoOÀ`m YH$mYH$sV EImXr {Zdm§V OmJm emoYmdrer dmQ>ob, Va H$moUmbm Mma {Xdg {ZgJm©À`m gm{ÞÜ`mV Kmbdmdogo dmQ>Vrb, Va H$moUmbm EImXo \$m_© hmD$g ~m§YyZ {ZgJm©Mr OmZ nhMmZ AmUIr dmT>dmdrer dmQ>ob. `m gd© à`ËZmV {ZgJm©Mr IarIwar AmoiI Pmbr Va gmoÝ`mhÿZ {ndio (qH$dm nmZmhyZ {hado)! Mmby O_mÝ`mVë`m gd©gm_mÝ` _mUgmÀ`m `m gd© JaOm AmoiIyZM _mZgr Am{U Ho$VH$sZo `m nwñVH$mMr AmIUr aMZm Ho$br Amho. BWo AdVr^modVrÀ`m {ZgJm©Mm n[aM` Va AmhoM nU Ë`mM§ A§Va§J CbJS>Ê`mgmR>rhr n«`ËZ Amho. {edm` Amnë`m ^modVr {ZgJ© H$gm \w$bdmdm `mMohr emóewÕ _mJ©Xe©Z Amho. Ë`mgmR>r naXoer PmS>o-dZñnVr ZH$moV, ñWm{ZH$M hì`mV hm Ë`m§Mm g§Xoe

AmYw{ZH$VoM§ dmU ë`mboë`m _mUgmbm A§V_w©I H$aUmam Amho. _mÂ`m Ñï>rZo gdm©V _hÎdmMr Jmoï> åhUOo ho nwñVH$ Z¡g{J©H$ nwZé‚mrdZmMr {Xem XmI{dVo. XoemVë`m Odinmg 50 Q>¸o$ O{_Zrda {ZgJm©Mm {dÜd§g Pmë`m_wio AmO {ZgJm©À`m nwZé‚mrdZmMr AmË`§{VH$ {ZH$S> {Z_m©U Pmbr Amho. {H$Ë`oH$m§Zm Vr OmUdV Agob, Ë`mgmR>r ñdV: hmbMmb Ho$br nm{hOo, Agohr dmQ>V Agob. Z¡g{J©H$ nwZé‚mrdZ åhUOo Zo_Ho$ H$m` Am{U Vo H$go H$amdo hohr `m nwñVH$mV gm§{JVbobo Amho. `m gdmªZm Ë`m§Zr ñdV: Ho$boë`m nwZé‚mrdZmÀ`m à`ËZm§Mr, Ë`mV {_imboë`m AZw^dm§Mr OmoS> {_imë`m_wio nwñVH$mMr a§OH$Vm Am{U Cn`wº$Vm \$maM dmT>br Amho. EHy$U eharH$aUmÀ`m {di»`mV gmnS>boë`m _mZdr _Zmn`ªV Am{U earamn`ªV {ZgJm©VyZ `oUmar VmOr PwiyH$, VmOm dmam nmohmoMdyZ, Ë`mbm Zdr MoVZm XoÊ`mMo H$m_ ho nwñVH$ H$aVo. _amR>r gm{hË`mV EH$m _hÎdnyU© {df`mMr ^a KmVë`m~Ôb bo{IH$m§Mo _Z:nyd©H$ A{^Z§XZ!

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10

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O§Jbm§{df`tMo J¡ag_O d AkmZ Aem H$maUm§_wio Joë`m H$mhr XeH$m§V O§Jbm§Mm AVmoZmV èhmg Am{U Zme Pmbm Amho. O§JbjoÌ gw_mao 22% BVHo$M Cabo Amho. àË`j O§Jb åhUVm `oB©b Aer [hadmB© Va gw_mao 11%M am{hbr Amho Am{U _mZdr {da{hV hñVjon {eIa n[ag§ñWm (Šbm`_°Šg BH$mo{gpñQ>_) {e„H$ am{hbr`o \$º$ 4-5 Q>¸o$ ^y^mJmda! _hmË_m Jm§YrOr åhUV AgV H$s, "{ZgJ© gdmªÀ`m JaOm nwadÊ`mg g_W© Amho, nU H$moUmMrhr hmd nwar H$aÊ`mg Zmhr.' `oWo Va gdmªMr hmd nwady nmhUmè`m ^ñ_mgwamMm-M§JidmXmMm à^md gd©Ì {Xgy bmJbm Amho. Aem {dnarV n[apñWVr_Ü`o {e„H$ AmhoV Ë`m O§Jbm§Mo Am{U Z¡g{J©H$ n[ag§ñWm§Mo Ho$di OVZ H$aUo, AË`mdí`H$ Agbo Var, nwaogo Zmhr. Ë`mgmR>r n`m©daUr` nwZé‚mrdZmMr H$mg YaÊ`mMr AmË`§{VH$ JaO Amho. Ë`mgmR>r H$m` H$m` Am{U H$go H$go H$m_ H$amdo bmJob Ë`mMm EH$ dñVwnmR>M øm nwñVH$m_Ü`o {Xbobm {XgVmo. O§Jb {Z_m©U H$aUo AeŠ`àm` Amho, Varhr Ë`mÀ`m OdinmgMr n[ag§ñWm {Z_m©U H$aÊ`mgmR>r d¥jbmJdS> Am{U dZñnVrdY©ZmMr {ZVm§V Amdí`H$Vm Amho. Ë`mgmR>r ñWm{ZH$ dZñnVr OmVtMrM {ZdS> H$aUo H$go n`m©daUr` g§VwbZmgmR>r `mo½` Amho `mMr g§~§{YV joÌmVrb {H$Ë`oH$ ^ë`m^ë`m§Zmhr Zgbobr OmUrd "ñWm{ZH$ d¥j dmT>dy`m.....'


`m boImV H$éZ XoÊ`mV Ambr`o. n¥Ïdrdarb {ZgJ©-g§ñWm§À`m CËH«$m§VrMm YmdVm AmT>mdm KoUmè`m n{hë`m boImnmgyZ Vo "{ZgJ©nyaH$ OrdZe¡br' Aem boImn`ªV ho nwñVH$ Iyn H$mhr gm§JyZ OmVo. AmogmS> Am{U COmS> O{_Zrda H$m_ H$am`bm gwédmV H$er H$amdr, Ë`m_Ü`o `oUmè`m AS>MUtda _mV H$er H$amdr ho bo{IH$m§Zr AZoH$ àH$ënm§_Ü`o Ho$boë`m H$m_mÀ`m AZw^dmÀ`m AmYmao N>mZ {deX Ho$b§`. \$m_© hmD$g n`m©daUnyaH$ Varhr gm¢X`©dY©H$ Am{U Cn`wŠVhr H$go H$aVm `oVo ho g{dñVa g_OyZ XoÊ`mV Amb§`, Ë`mMà_mUo N>moQ>rer ~mJgwÕm H$er {ZgJ©gw§Xa hmoD$ eH$Vo ho gmoXmhaU gm§{JVb§`, _¥Xg§YmaU Am{U Obg§YmaU `m§Mo _hÎd gm§JUmao Am{U àmË`{jH$ {eH$dUmao boI \$maM _hÎdmMo AmhoV. EHy$U H$m` H$s O_rZ, Ob, O§Jb Am{U Ord{d{dYVm (~m`moS>m`ìh{g©Q>r) OnÊ`mÀ`m Amnë`m OrdrVH$m`m©Mm bo{IH$m§Zr KoVbobm AmT>mdm OZVoÀ`m Om{Udm OmJ¥VrMo _hV²H$m`© Va H$aobM, nU `m joÌm_Ü`o H$m`© H$aUmè`m Am{U H$é BpÀN>Umè`m§Zm Am{U g§ñWm§Zm Cn`wº$ Am{U àoaUmXm`r R>aob Aer ImÌr dmQ>Vo. nwZíM A{^Z§XZ, Am{U ew^oÀN>m! lr. X. _hmOZ

nwañH$ma 11


g¥ï>rMr {Z{_©Vr

12


EImÚm Mm§XÊ`m amÌr gnmQ> dmid§Q>r àXoemV C^§ amhÿZ qH$dm EImÚm nd©V {eIamdéZ AdH$memH$S>o nm{hb§ H$s Ë`mÀ`m AVr {dembVoMr H$ënZm AmnU H$é bmJVmo. na§Vw AmnU ~Ky eH$Vmo VodT>m ^mJ hm emókm§Zr H$ënZm Ho$boë`m AdH$memMm AË`§V bhmZgm ^mJ Amho ! Am{U Ë`mM bhmZem ^mJmVrb EH$ {hñgm Agbobr Amnbr n¥Ïdr hr OUy H$mhr g_wÐH$mR>À`m aoVrVrb EH$ H$U Agmdm EdT>rM Amho Am{U AmÎmmn`ªVÀ`m g§emoYZmZwgma Ag§ {XgV§ H$s n¥Ïdr hr Ho$di EH$_od OmJm Amho {OWo _Zwî` d BVa Ordg¥ï>r AmZ§XmZo amhÿ Am{U OJy eH$Vo. H$Xm{MV ^{dî`mVhr Vr EH$_odM amhrb. ho gd©kmV gË` nwÝhm C„oI H$aÊ`mMo H$maU n¥Ïdrdarb Ordg¥ï>rMm PnmQ>çmZo hmoV Agbobm èhmg. AZoH$ Ord OmVr Xw{_©i hmoV hiyhiy Zï> hmoV AmhoV Ë`m_wio EH§$Xa OrdZYmaoÀ`m gbJVonUmdaM KmV hmoV AmhoV. 1990 Vo 2000 À`m Xaå`mZ hm doJ à{Vdfu 1,00,000 OmVr EdT>m dmT>bm. àË`oH$ gOrdmbm n¥Ïdrdarb OrdZYmam AI§{S>V gwé R>odÊ`mgmR>r EH$ {d{eï> H$m`© {_imb§ Amho. àË`oH$OU `m gmIirVrb H$S>r AgyZ BVam§er OmoS>bm Jobm Amho. `mVrb EH$ Oar H$S>r {ZIibr Var g§nyU© Omi§M H$mob_S>Ê`mMr eŠ`Vm Amho. Am{U XwX£dmZo _Zwî` hm EH$Q>mM àmUr `m OrdZYmaoÀ`m èhmgmbm H$maUr^yV Amho. Ho$di _Zwî`M hm èhmg Wm§~dy eH$Vmo hohr Ia§M Amho. `mH$aVm {d{dY Cnm``moOZm Va H$am`bm hì`mVM nU Ë`mM~amo~arZo øm gd© Jw§VmJ¨wVrÀ`m gmIù`m§Mr, dmVmdaUmMr, Ordg¥ï>rMr, CËnÎmr H$er Pmbr ho g_OyZ KoU§ _hÎdmM§ dmQ>V§. Amnbr n¥Ïdr gwédmVrbm AmJrMm Vá Jmoim `m ñdénmV hmoVr. AmJ OgOer H$_r Pmbr VgVgo `m W§S> hmoUmè`m Jmoù`m^modVr T>Jm§Mo AmdaU V`ma hmoD$ bmJbo. H$moQ>çdYr dfmªÀ`m `m W§S> hmoÊ`mÀ`m

à{H«$`oV hiyhiy n¥ÏdrMm ImMIiJo Agbobm n¥ð>^mJ V`ma hmoD$ bmJbm. `mZ§Va eoH$S>mo dfoª g§VVYma nmD$g nS>V am{hbm Am{U `m _moR>më`m Ii½`m§_Ü`o nmUr gmMyZ g_wÐ V`ma Pmbo. `m nmdgm_wioM n¥ð>^mJmMr Yyn hmoD$Z Vohr nXmW© (matter) `m g_wÐmVM gmMy bmJbo. `m KZ{_{lV Ðd nXmWm©bm emók 'soup' Ago g§~moYVmV. gy`©àH$me Am{U drO `m§À`m Ë`mdarb à{H«$`o_wio {d{dY g§`wJm§Mm OÝ_ Pmbm. Ë`mVM "H$m~©Z'Mr {Z{_©Vr Pmbr. `mZ§Va eoH$S>mo df] Jobr, nmD$g H$_r hmoV Jobm Am{U ZdZdrZ g§`wJm§Mr {Z{_©Vr hmoD$ bmJbr. Voìhm A_mo{Z`m, hm`S´>moOZ gë\$mB©S>, [_WoZ Am{U nmÊ`mMr dm\$ ho dmVmdaUmMo _w»` KQ>H$ hmoVo. Ë`mV Zm`Q´>moOZ Am{U Am°pŠgOZ nyU©nUo J¡ahOa hmoVo. Voìhm Á`m àmW{_H$ Ordm§Mr {Z{_©Vr Pmbr Vo Am°pŠgOZ{dZmM JwOamU H$arV hmoVo. hiyhiy H$mhr Ordm§Zr gy`©àH$memV "àH$meg§íbofU' à{H«$`oÛmao AÞ V`ma H$am`bm gwédmV Ho$br Am{U `m à{H«$`oV "Am°pŠgOZ'Mr {Z{_©Vr Pmbr. na§Vw Varhr hm àmUdm`y BVa Am`Z©, gë\$a B. H$Um§er g§`moJ nmdV gë\$mB©S>g², gë\o$Q>g² B. énmV g_wÐ VimV gmR>V am{hbm. n¥ÏdrÀ`m Jmä`mV YJYJV Agbob§ Ðì` eoH$S>mo dfmªZr CÐoH$ hmoD$Z g_wÐm~mhoa Amb¨ Am{U àW_ Am°pŠgOZ dmVmdaUmV _wº Pmbm. gOrdhr hiyhiy ídgZmH$aVm Am°pŠgOZ dmné bmJbo Am{U H$m~©Z S>m`Am°ŠgmB©S gmoSy> bmJbo. Ë`m_wio àH$meg§íbofUmH$aVm dmnaë`m OmUmè`m H$m~©Z S>m`Am°ŠgmB©S>À`m à_mUmV g_Vmob amIbm OmD$ bmJbm. BVa gOrdm§À`m CËnÎmr~amo~aM àH$meg§íbofUmMm doJ dmT>bm Am{U dmVmdaUmVrb A_mo{Z`mMo à_mU H$_r hmoD$ bmJbo. hm`S´>moOZ, Am°pŠgOZ~amo~a g§`moJ nmdyZ dm\o$Mo à_mU dmT>bo Am{U Zm`Q´>moOZ VgmM amhÿZ Ë`mMo dmVmdaUmVrb à_mU dmT>V Jobo. Aem arVrZo

g¥ï>rMr {Z{_©Vr 13


H$moQ>çdYr dfmªÀ`m AË`§V hiy d AMyH$ à{H«$`m§Z§Va gÜ`mMr dmVmdaU {Z{_©Vr Pmbr Ë`mV gmYmaU 20% Am°pŠgOZ d 80% Zm`Q´>moOZ d BVa dm`y AmhoV. hm Omo g_Vmob {Z_m©U Pmbm Vmo ghOr {Z_m©U Pmbm ZgyZ Ë`m_mJo hr àM§S> _moR>r à{H«$`m Amho. Am{U Ë`m_wioM AmO n¥Ïdrda gd© VèhoMo OrdZ gmÜ` hmoV Amho. hm AMyH$ g_Vmob Oa T>mgibm Va Ë`m_wio PmS>o, àmUr, njr, H$sQ>H$ `m¨~amo~aM _Zwî`mMo ApñVÎdhr YmoŠ`mV `oUma Amho. Ho$di Joë`m eVH$mnmgyZ hm H$moQ>çdYr df] amIbobm g_Vmob T>ibm OmV Amho. Am{U `mMm n[aUm_ åhUOoM Xadfu EH$ bmI `m JVrZo Zmhrem hmoV OmUmè`m OmVr... Extinction! `mVrb àË`oH$ Ord, Ë`mÀ`m ^modVmbÀ`m Z¡g{J©H$ à{H«$`m ho gJio V`ma ìhm`bm `m n¥ÏdrZo 450 H$moQ>r EdT>r df] IM© Ho$br AmhoV. `m 450 H$moQ>r dfmªVrb XoIrb n{hbr 350 H$moQ>r df] hr Ho$di dmVmdaU, ObMH«$, _mVrMr aMZm B.

OrdZ- AmYma AgUmè`m aMZm~Õ g§ñWm V`ma hmoÊ`mV Jobr AmhoV. eodQ>À`m 50 H$moQ>r dfmªVM Ho$di EH$noer` Vo ~hþnoer` Ord CËH«$m§V hmoV AmOMr pñWVr Ambr Amho. _wÔm Agm Amho H$s, Jobo 450 H$moQ>r df] ~ZV Ambobr hr gOrd-{ZOudm§Mr g¥ï>r Oa EH$Xm T>mgibr Va Vr nwÝhm pñWa ìhm`bm H$Xm{MV VodT>mM H$mi Omdm bmJob. `m Jw§VmJw§VrÀ`m à{H«$`m Am{U bmJbobr dfª bjmV KoD$Z AmnU A{YH$ OmJéH$nUo Amnë`m {ZgJm©Mr OnUyH$ H$é`mV. AÝ`Wm _mZdOmVrda Zmhrgo hmoÊ`mMr nmir `m`bm doi bmJUma Zmhr!

AdH$memV D$Om© (Energy) Am{U nXmW© (matter) {d{dY ê$nmV ApñVÎdmV AmhoV. na§Vw hr D$Om© Am{U nXmW© ho AË`§V {dñH$irV Aem AdñWoV AmhoV Á`mbm B§J«OrV Entropy Ag§ åhUVmV. na§Vw `m Entropy _YyZM hr Energy Am{U matter EH$Ì hmoD$Z Ë`mMo dm`y, Ob, qH$dm KZ Aem "{ZOr©d' nXmWmª_Ü`o énm§Va hmoVo qH$dm AJXr gyú_ OrdmUy Vo _hmH$m` d¥j, àmUr, njr B. gMoVZ Ordm§_Ü`ohr ho énm§Va Agy eH$Vo. J«h d VmaoXoIrb `mM Energy Am{U matter À`m g§KQ>ZmMo EH$ àH$Q>rH$aU _mZbo OmVo. `m gd© g§KQ>ZmMm _w»` ñWm`r ^md åhUOo "CËH«$m§Vr'. `m gOrd, {ZOr©d énm§_Ü`o gVV ~Xb hmoV AgVmo. na§Vw hm ~Xb AË`§V gmdH$me hmoVmo Am{U ~XbmMr à{H«$`m Ñî` ñdénmV {Xgm`bm H$mhr eVHo$ Omdr bmJVmV. Ooìhm gOrdm§Mm A§V hmoVmo Voìhm nwÝhm EH$Xm ho Energy Am{U matter ho Amnbr Entropy hr pñWVr YmaU H$aVmV Am{U nwT>À`m CËH«$m§VrÀ`m à{H«$`obm H$ƒm _mb nwady bmJVmV.

14

g¥ï>rMr {Z{_©Vr


{ZgJ© nwZé‚mrdZ Amnë`mH$S>o \$ma bhmZnUmnmgyZM "O§Jbr', "amZQ>r' ho eãX AË`§V ZH$mamË_H$ nÕVrZo dmnabo OmVmV, q~~dbo OmVmV. na§Vw hm O§JbrnUm, amZQ>rnUm AmnU AmÎmmM Onbm Zmhr Va H$mhr H$mimVM `m eãXm§Mo AW© H$ënZoVM J¥hrV Yamdo bmJVrb. n¥Ïdrbm hm O§JbrnUm, {ZgJ©, n`m©daU V`ma H$am`bm H$mhr H$moQ>r df] bmJbr AmhoV. Vmo amZdm AmnU AJXr ghOM Xwb©{jV H$aVmo. {deofV: h„r Va bmoH$ {ZgJm©À`m Odi OmD$Z amhm`M§ åhUyZ Hw$R>oVar ehamnmgyZ Xya O_rZ {dH$V KoVmV Am{U n{hë`mM dfr© {VWb§ JdV, H$mQ>oar PwSw>no-Pmù`m ho "amZQ>r' Amho; Ë`mMm H$mhr Cn`moJ Zmhr Ag§ åhUyZ gam©g H$mTy>Z Q>mH$VmV. VwaiH$ _moR>o d¥j

AgVrb Va Vo R>odVmV. nU Vohr Oa ~m§YH$m_mÀ`m AmS> `oUma AgVrb Va H$mT>bo OmVmV. hm AmVVm`rnUm Zm {ZgJm©bm _mZdVmo Zm Amnë`mbm. _J nwÝhm Zì`mZo Ë`m O{_Zrda {hadmB© {Z_m©U H$aÊ`mMm CnH«$_ gwé hmoVmo. ~a§ Amnë`mH$S>À`m ~è`mMem O{_Zr `m _yi Z¡g{J©H$ pñWVrÀ`m (climax) {H$VrVar nQ> èhmg Pmboë`m AmhoV. `m_wio Aem O{_Ztda Amho Vmo amZdm Zï> H$éZ nwÝhm {hadmB© {Z_m©U H$aU§ åhUOo CbQ>m KmgM hmoVmo. H$moUË`mhr {R>H$mUMr gdm}ƒ Z¡g{J©H$ pñWVr (climax ecosystem) hr {VWë`m hdm_mZ d ^m¡Jmo{bH$ aMZo_wio R>aVo. ^maVmV hr pñWVr CÎm_ àH$mao {e„H$ AgUmao àXoe Ho$di 4 Q>¸o$M AmhoV. Caboë`m 96 Q>ŠŠ`mda _mUgmMo gm_«mÁ` Amho. Am{U `m 96 Q>ŠŠ`m§V dÝ`Ordm§Mm dmQ>m dmT>dm`Mm à`ËZ Z

{ZgJ© nwZé‚mrdZ 15


H$aVm AmnU Caboë`m 4 Q>ŠŠ`m§daXoIrb "{ZgJ© n`©Q>Z' `m Jm|S>g ZmdmImbr AmKmV H$aV AmhmoV. EImÚm A^`maÊ`mV OrnÀ`m AdVr^modVr {Z{d©H$ma ZOaoZo H$Mam ImV qhS>Umar Vr "amZSw>H$a§' nm{hbr H$s A§Jmda ehmam `oVmo... AmnU `m qhò àmÊ`m§À`m Z¡g{J©H$ A§V^y©V Om{Udmhr (natural instincts) nma KmbdyZ Q>mH$ë`m AmhoV. H$Xm{MV H$mhr OUm§Zm hr Jmoï> Iyn N>moQ>rer dmQ>ob nU AemM AZoH$ N>moQ>çm N>moQ>çm Jmoï>tM§ {_iyZ ~ZV§ EH$ {ZgJ©MH«$ qH$dm AÞgmIir Am{U AÞOmb (food web). `m {ZgJ©MH«$m_Yrb EImXm KQ>H$ Oar H$mogibm Var Am»I§ {ZgJ©MH«$ T>mgim`bm doi bmJV Zmhr Am{U AemM AZoH$ N>moQ>çm-_moR>çm Jmoï>r T>mgiÊ`mMo Ñî` n[aUm_ åhUOo n¥ÏdrMr Vmn_mZdmT>, hdm_mZ~Xb dJ¡ao dJ¡ao.. Ia§Va `mVrb ~è`mMem Jmoï>r AmnU embo` nmR>çH«$_mVyZ {eH$bmo AmhmoV. na§Vw Ë`mM§ àË`j OrdZmV amonU, ì`mdhm[aH$ Cn`moOZ (application) H$g§ Am{U Hw$R>§ H$am`M§ ho _mÌ AmnU {eH$V Zmhr. Iyn Ceram H$m hmoB©Zm nU hr Jmoï> Amnë`m Ü`mZmV Amë`mZo AZoH$ g§ñWm AmVm embo` ñVamda `m Jmoï>tMm A§V^m©d H$arV AmhoV. Ia§Va ho amonUhr A{Ve` gmon§ Amho. {ZgJm©VrbM H$mhr {Z`_m§H$S>o Oam gOJ Ñï>rZo nm{hb§ Va `m gJù`m Z¡g{J©H$ àíZm§da ghO CÎma gmnS>V§. _mdimVbm EImXm ñWm{ZH$ eoVH$arhr ghO ~mobyZ OmVmo,""_mUgmMr Hw$èhmS> AZ² Jwam§Mm dmda Wm§~dm _J amZ ghOM dmT>§b H$s...'' Vg§ nm{hb§ Va hr Ñï>r Amnë`m àË`oH$mH$S>o Agob XoIrb nU VmËnwaË`m Cn^moJmgmR>r AmnU {VÀ`mH$S>o gmoB©ñH$a H$mZmS>moim H$aVmo. Vg§ Z Ho$ë`mg Amnë`m gd`rÀ`m d dmT>V OmUmè`m gwIgmo`tda JXm `oD$ eH$Vo. na§Vw EH$ Jmoï> Amnë`m bjmV `oV Zmhr

16

{ZgJ© nwZé‚mrdZ

Vr åhUOo hr JXm AmnU Amnë`mM nwT>À`m {nT>çm§da T>H$bV AmhmoV! CXmhaUmXmIb `m {ZgJm©bm AmnU gmoÝ`mM§ A§S>§ XoUmar H$m|~S>r åhUy `m. AmVm Amnë`m Mmby {nT>rH$aVm JaOoÀ`m {H$VrVar nQ> nwT>o OmD$Z bmJUmè`m EofmoAmam_mH$aVm H$m|~S>rM _mam`Mr H$s {Vbm Yï>nwï> H$éZ nwT>À`m AZoH$ {nT>çm§H$aVm {Ma§VZ gmoÝ`mM§ A§S>§ {_idyZ XoÊ`mMr gmo` H$am`Mr... hm gmamgma {dMma g¥ï>rVrb gdm}ƒ {dH${gV _|Xy bm^boë`m _mUgmZoM H$am`Mm Amho. hm {dMma H$gm H$am`Mm `mH$aVm H$mhr emókm§Zr AbrH$S>oM n`m©daU emómda AmYmarV EH$ ^¸$_ nm`m V`ma Ho$bm Ë`mMo Zmd Amho - "{ZgJ© nwZé‚mrdZ' qH$dm 'Ecological Restoration'. n«Ë`j O{_ZrdaM {ZgJm©VboM {Z`_ dmnéZ H$_r IMm©V, H$_rV H$_r D$Om© IM© H$éZ d Amnë`m O{_Zrì`{V[aº$ BVa O{_Ztda, {ZgJm©da AWdm Z¡g{J©H$ g§gmYZm§da Kmbm Z KmbVm ho nwZé‚mrdZ H$g§ H$am`M§, H$moUr H$am`M§ `m gd© Jmoï>r AmnU ~KyM na§Vw Ho$di O{_Ztda H$m_ H$éZ ^mJUma Zmhr `mH$aVm doJdoJù`m ñVam§da AàË`j[aË`mhr H$m_ H$amd§ bmJob. `mVrb T>mo~i Q>ßno Imbrbà_mUo Agy eH$VmV 1. nwZé‚mrdZ åhUOo Z¸$s H$m`? Vo àË`j O{_Zrda am~dUo. 2. n`m©daU g§ajUmW© _mZ{gH$VoV d OrdZe¡brV ~Xb KS>dyZ AmUUo. 3. embo` {ejUmV {dÚmÏ`mªZm {ZgJm©er ñdV:bm OmoS>Ê`mMr gd` bmdUo d Ë`mH$S>o gOJVoZo ~Km`bm {eH${dUo. 4. _hm{dÚmb`rZ {ejUmV n`m©daUmM§ ì`mdhm[aH$ Cn`moOZ, Ë`mMo AW©emómer Agbob§ ZmV§ CbJSy>Z XmIdUo.


5. gaH$maV\}$ Z¡g{J©H$ g§gmYZ§ d D$O}À`m dmnam~m~V H$m`Xo d {Z`_mV ~Xb H$aUo. 6. amï´>r`, Am§Vaamï´>r` ñVamdahr ho ~Xb H$aUo. nwZé‚mrdZ åhUOo H$m` Va EImÚm {R>H$mUMr "hdm_mZ d ^m¡Jmo{bH$ ñWmZmZwgma ñdm^m{dH$ pñWVr' JmR>Uo. `mH$aVm AmYr hr Z¡g{J©H$ pñWVr _m{hVr AgU§ JaOoM§ Amho. AmYr C„oI Ho$ë`mà_mUo Aer pñWVr gwIén AgUmao Ho$di 4% àXoe Amnë`mH$S>o {e„H$ AmhoV. Cd©[aV ^mJmdaÀ`m {ZgJm©Mm hm H$_r-A{YH$ à_mUmV Zï Pmbobm Amho. H$mhr {R>H$mUr hm èhmg AJXr Q>moH$mbm OmD$Z IS>H$M CKS>m nS>bm Amho. Ë`mdarb PmS>moam, àmUrOrdZ, _mVr, nmUr B. g§gmYZhr OdiOdi bmon nmdbr AmhoV. Va H$mhr {R>H$mUr C§M O§Jbm§EodOr PwSw>nr O§Jb d Ë`m AZwf§JmZo _yiMo a{hdmgr àmUr, njr ~XbyZ doJirM {d{dYVm {XgV Amho. Aem d `mÀ`m AbrH$S>MrnbrH$S>Mr pñWVr AgUmè`m, gd©M O{_Zr nwZé‚mr{dV H$aVm `oU§ eŠ` Amho. Amnë`m O{_Zrda AmnU H$m` nwZé‚mr{dV H$am`M§ ho H$g§ R>adm`M§? àË`oH$ àXoemVrb hr ñdm^m{dH$ Z¡g{J©H$ pñWVr (climax) hr {VWë`m hdm_mZmZwgma, nmD$gnmÊ`mZwgma, ^m¡Jmo{bH$ VgoM ^m¡{VH$ aMZoZwgma, g_wÐmnmgyZÀ`m A§VamZwgma d C§MrZwgma R>aVo. `m_wioM Amnë`mH$S>o {d{dY Z¡g{J©H$ àXoe AmhoV. Á`mbm AmnU gXmh[aV O§Jb, ewîH$ nmZPS>r O§Jb, dmid§Q>r àXoe, ZÚm§Mr Imoar, JdVmi àXoe B. åhUVmo. ho àXoe H$mhr hOmamo hoŠQ>a åhUOoM ~a§M _moR§ joÌ\$i ì`mnVmV. Ë`m_wio øm _moR>çm joÌ\$imÀ`m n[agamVhr

ñWm{ZH$ ~XbmZwgma V`ma hmoUmao H$mhr bhmZ nU d¡{eîQ>çnyU© Z¡g{J©H$ KQ>H$ ~Km`bm {_iVmV. CXm. AmoT>o, Amohmoi, CnZÚm, ZÚm, nmUWir B. VgoM H$mhr _mZd{Z{_©V KQ>H$hr AmT>iVmV CXm. Ka§, eoVr, dñVr, añVo, H$maImZo B. Jobr eoH$S>mo dfª _mUyg ho _moR>çm joÌ\$imMo àXoe ñdV:À`m OJÊ`mH$aVm AZwHy$b H$éZ KoV Ambm Amho. Omoda _mUgmMr JaO d g§»`m _`m©{XV hmoVr Vmoda ho Z¡g{J©H$ àXoe ~è`mn¡H$s EH$g§Y hmoVo. Ë`m§À`m Cn`moJmgmR>r ì`dñWmnZmMr \$maer JaO ZìhVr. nU OgOer hr JaO dmT>V Jobr VgVgo ho _moR>o Z¡g{J©H$ àXoe VwQ>V Jobo. eha§ dmT>br. H$maImZXmar dmT>br. JaOoM§ M¡ZrV énm§Va Pmb§. `m M¡ZrH$aVm H$ƒm _mb nwadÊ`mH$aVm {ZgJm©Mm Ho$di JmoXm_ åhUyZ dmna H$aÊ`mV Ambm. na§Vw `m JmoXm_mMm H$m`_ñdénr Cn^moJ KoÊ`mgmR>r Ë`mMm gmR>m {Q>H$dmdm bmJob hr gmYr JmoîQ> AmnU {dgabmo Am{U `m EH$g§Y Z¡g{J©H$ àXoem§À`m EodOr AmVm EH$g§Y èhmg Pmbobo nÅ>o {Xgy bmJbo. Ë`mMm n[aUm_hr AmnU ^moJVM AmhmoV. _wÔm Agm Amho H$s, dmT>Ë`m JaOo~amo~a Z¡g{J©H$ g¨gmYZm¨M§$ ì`dñWmnZ JaOoM§ Amho. AÝ`Wm Amnë`mM nwT>À`m {nT>rbm Ë`mMr àM§S> Pi nmohmoMUma Amho. Va gdm}ƒ Z¡g{J©H$ pñWVr Agbobo àXoe AmVm VwH$S>çmVwH$S>çmV {dIwabobo {XgVmV Am{U BVaÌ _Yë`m n[agamVhr Z¡g{J©H$ d _mZd{Z{_©V Ago XmoÝhr KQ>H$ VwH$S>çm-VwH$S>çmVM {XgVmV. H$mhr àXoem§_Ü`o Z¡g{J©H$ KQ>H$ OmñV à_mUmV {XgVmV, Va H$mhr àXoemV _mZd{Z{_©V. `m àXoem§Zm B§J«OrV EH$ N>mZ g§~moYZ Amho Vo åhUOo "b±S>ñHo$n' (landscape). `m b±S>ñHo$n_Yrb Z¡g{J©H$ VwH$S>o dmT>dU§, Vo EH$_oH$m§er OmoS>U§, _mZd{Z{_©V VwH$S>ohr {ZgJm©er

{ZgJ© nwZé‚mrdZ 17


OwidyZ KoVrb AemàH$mao {dH${gV H$aU§ åhUOoM nwZé‚mrdZ. ho nwZé‚mrdZ Imbr {Xboë`m Q>ßß`m§à_mUo H$aVm `oB©b `mVrb n{hbm Q>ßnm åhUOo Amnbr O_rZ H$moUË`m àH$maÀ`m Z¡g{J©H$ àXoemV Amho `mM§ AW©nyU© _hÎd OmUU§. Ë`m àXoemVrb Ë`mVë`m Ë`mV amIboë`m, Onboë`m àXoemMm g§X^©ñWi (reference site) åhUyZ Aä`mg H$aU§. OdinmgÀ`m gaH$mar O§Jbm§Mm qH$dm XodamB©gma»`m dfm©Zwdfª amIboë`m O§Jbm§Mm g§X^©ñWi åhUyZ Mm§Jbm Cn`moJ hmoD$ eH$Vmo. BWbr n[ag§ñWm qH$dm Z¡g{J©H$ pñWVr ~KyZ Amnë`m O{_Zrda gmYmaU H$m` àH$maMr O¡d{d{dYVm d {ZgJ©MH«§$ ~Zy eH$Vrb `mMr H$ënZm `oVo. `m Aä`mgmÀ`m AmYmao d BVa CnbãY _m{hVrÀ`m AmYmao AmnU nwZé‚mrdZmM§ A§{V_ Ü`o` ZOaog_moa R>ody $eH$Vmo. Xwgam Q>ßnm åhUOo àË`j O[_ZrM§ n`m©daUr` gd}jU. åhUOoM O{_ZrdaÀ`m gd© VwH$S>çm§M§, Z¡g{J©H$ d _mZd{Z{_©V, gm_Ï`© OmUU§. BWë`m PmS>m§Mr, nú`m§Mr, àmÊ`m§Mr `mXr ~ZdU§. `mVrb àË`oH$ OmVr H$m` gy{MV H$aVo ho OmUyZ KoU§. Amnë`mM O{_ZrV EImXr OmJm Aerhr Agy eH$Vo H$s {OWo AË`§V Xw{_©i Agm d¥j Amho qH$dm EImXm ~ma_mhr Pam Amho qH$dm EImÚm Xw{_©i nú`mMm EH$_od Amgam Amho. `m d Aem AZoH$ Jmoï>tM§ {ZarjU H$aU§ Amdí`H$ Amho. `m_wio nwZé‚mrdZmgmR>r Amnë`mH$S>o {H$Vr d H$moUË`m àH$maMr g§gmYZ§ AmhoV, ho bjmV `oV§. {Vgam Q>ßnm åhUOo AmamIS>m (planning) ~Z{dÊ`mMm. `mV O{_ZrÀ`m èhmgmÀ`m pñWVrà_mUo doJdoJio Q>ßno Agy eH$VmV. CXm. A{Ve` COmS> _miamZmda _yiM§ O§Jb Ano{jV Agob Va

18

{ZgJ© nwZé‚mrdZ

gwédmVrbm Ho$di g§ajU XoD$Z {VWo JdV, PwSw>n§ dmT>dmdr bmJVrb. ~amo~arZo H$mhr _mVr d nmUr g§YmaUmMr H$m_§ H$éZ O{_ZrVrb Amobmdm {Q>H$dyZ Yamdm bmJob. AmoT>çmdaVr ~m§Y KmbyZ AmoT>çmH$mR>Mo nÅ>o amIyZ Ë`mVrb Amgao dmT>dyZ AmoT>çmM§ nwZé‚mrdZ H$amd§ bmJob. `m nwZé‚mrdZmÀ`m {d{dY V§Ìm§~amo~a Z¡g{J©H$ pñWVrbm AZwf§JyZ bmJdS>hr _hÎdmMr Amho. `m gd© Jmoï>t_wio O{_ZrdaM§ ñWm{ZH$ hdm_mZ (microclimate) gwYméZ hiyhiy ZdZdrZ Amgao V`ma hmoVmV, OrdZMH«§$ gwé hmoVmV Am{U {ZgJm©Mm Amnë`m _yi pñWVrH$S>o OmÊ`mMm àdmg gwé hmoVmo. {ZgJ© nwZé‚mrdZmMr Imbrb gy̧ Ü`mZmV R>odë`mg AmnU Amnbm {ZgJ© Z¸$sM A~m{YV R>ody eHy$... 1. O{_ZrÀ`m gdm}ƒ pñWVrMr (climax ecosystem) OmU AgUo. 2. O{_ZrMm b±S>ñHo$n_Yrb H$m`©^mJ (role) _m{hVr H$éZ KoUo. EImÚm g§X^©ñWimMm Aä`mg. 3. O{_Zrbm nyU©V: g§ajU XoUo (O¡[dH$ Hw§$nU _hÎdmM§!) 4. O{_ZrdaÀ`m {deof _hÎdmÀ`m (ecologically sensitive) OmJm§Zm {d{eï> _hÎd d bj XoUo, CXm. Pao, Xw{_©i PmS>o, nú`m§À`m OmJm B. 5. _mVrMr Yyn Wm§~dUo, CXm. XJS>m§À`m Amoir, g_Vb Ma, ~m§Y. 6. O{_ZrVrb Amobmdm dmT>dUo, CXm. JdV amIUo, eoVr_mb ngaUo, Vir H$aUo. 7. O{_ZrdaMm gd© àH«$maMm O¡d^ma (biomass) amIUo d dmT>dUo.


8. AmoT>çm§M§ nwZé‚mrdZ : ~m§Y-~§{XñVr, H$mR>m§Zm g§ajU, AmoT>çmVrb Amgao ~ZdUo. 9. ñWm{ZH$ dZñnVtMr Xadfu {d{eï> H«$_mZo bmJdS> : H$UIa Vo d¡{eîQ>çnyU© OmVr. 10. dÝ` Ordm§H$aVm {deof Amgao, CXm. Vir, XJS>-Am|S>Š`m§À`m amer, Hw§$nU, \w cnmIam§H aVm PmSo . 11. ñWm{ZH$ OmVrÀ`m {~`m§Mm àgma‹ 12. O{_ZrVrb gyú_ Ordm§_Ü`o (microbes) dmT>. CXm. eoU, Jmo_yÌ, Hw$Obobm O¡{dH$ H$Mam Q>mH$Uo. b±S>ñHo$nÀ`m Ñï>rZo {dMma Ho$bm Va `m gd© ñWm{ZH$ Cnm`m§~amo~aM Oam _moR>çm AmdmŠ`mZo AmamIS>m ~Zdmdm bmJob. `mV _w»` C{Ôï> ho O{_ZrdaMo ho Z¡g{J©H$ VwH$S>o, Oo H$Xm{MV H$mQ>oar PwSw>no, Pmù`m, EImXm _moR>o d¥j Agbobm àXoe, AmoT>çmH$mR>Mo O§Jb B. énmV Agy eHo$b, Vo gd© VwH$S>o OmoS>U§, `mV EH$g§YVm AmUU§. `mV Amohmoi, AmoT>o, ZÚm Va ho H$m_ Z¸$sM H$é eH$VmV. EImÚm nmUbmoQ> joÌmVrb S>m|Ja _mÏ`mnmgyZ gwé hmoUmao AmoT>o, CnAmoT>o, Ë`m§Mo XmoÝhr H$mR>mdarb h[aV nÅ>o ho gJio EH$_oH$m§er OmoS>bo Va EH$ _moR>§ Omi§M V`ma hmoV§. `m Omù`m_wio _mÏ`mnmgyZ Xarn`ªVMo gd©M ^y-àH$ma EH$_oH$m§er OmoS>bo OmD$ eH$VmV. `m~amo~arZo `m b±S>ñHo$n_Yrb _mZd{Z{_©V KQ>H$m§Mrhr VmH$X dmT>dVm `oVo. CXm. eoVmMo ~m§Y, añË`mÀ`m ~mOy øm {d{eï> bmJdS> H$éZ XmoZ Z¡g{J©H$ VwH$S>o OmoS>Umao _mJ© (corridor) ~Zy eH$VmV. `m~amo~arZo n«Ë`oH$ ^y-àH$mamà_mUo (_mWm, CVma, Xar B.), Ë`mÀ`m gÚpñWVrà_mUo nwZé‚mrdZmH$aVm H$mhr Cnm`hr H$aU§ JaOoM§ Amho. àË`j O{_ZrdaM§ H$m_hr {VVH§$M _hÎdmM§ Amho.

~è`mMXm O{_ZtÀ`m h[aVrH$aUmMr n{hbr nm`ar åhUOoAmho Vmo PmS>moam gm\$gw\$ H$aUo AerM AgVo. _mUgm§Zm Cn`moJr ZgUmè`m H$mQ>oar dZñnVr, Pmù`m, O§Jbr d¥j ho ZH$mogo g_Obo OmVmV Am{U H$mnbo OmVmV. Z§Va Ë`m OmJr ehamVrbM Amnë`m n[aM`mÀ`m dZñnVr bmdë`m OmVmV. Ia§Va `m gd© àH$mamV AmnU O{_ZrdaÀ`m {d{dY g§gmYZm§M§ ZwH$gmZM H$aV AgVmo. amZQ>r Pmù`m Á`m AZoH$ gyú_Ord, H$sQ>H$, njr, àmUr VgoM {d{eï> dZñnVtMm Amgam AgVmV, Ë`mM Zï> Ho$ë`mZo AmnU Cabmgwabm H$ƒm _mbhr KmbdyZ ~gVmo. Ë`m_wio _mVr g¡b hmoD$Z {VMr Yynhr gwé hmoVo. nmÊ`mÀ`m dmQ>m ~XbVmV. Amnë`m gmoB©Zwgma añVo H$mT>bo OmVmV. B_maVtH$aVm gnmQ>rH$aU Ho$b§ OmV§ na§Vw `m gJù`mZo O_rZ A{YH$m{YH$ ApñWa (unstable) hmoV OmVo d Vr pñWa H$aÊ`mH$aVm Amnbm IM©hr dmT>V OmVmo Am{U `m àH$maÀ`m H$m_m§_wio ñWm{ZH$ n`m©daUmM§ ZwH$gmZ hmoD$Z hiyhiy _Kmer C„oIbobo _moR>o Z¡g{J©H$ àXoe OmñVrV OmñV I§{S>V hmoVmV. hoM Q>miÊ`mH$aVm Hw$R>ë`mhr O{_ZrMm, àH$ënmMm {ZgJm©À`m A§Jm§Zr {dMma H$am`bm hdm. O{_ZrdaÀ`m g§gmYZm§À`m XyaXeu qH$dm emídV dmnamH$aVmhr {ZgJ©nyaH$ {Z`moOZ AË`§V Cn`moJr R>aV§. Aem àH$maÀ`m {Z`moOZm_wio BVa Ordg¥ï>r~amo~aM AmnU Amnë`mM nwT>À`m {nT>çm§H$aVm {Ma§Ordr d Amamo½`Xm`r {ZgJm©Mr gmo` H$é eHy$. O{_Ztda àË`jarË`m H$m_ H$aUmè`m àË`oH$mZoM Oa `m nwZé‚mrdZmMr H$mg Yabr Va AmnU Amnb§M ^{dî` H$mhr A§er Var Z¸$sM ~Xby eHy$.

{ZgJ© nwZé‚mrdZ 19


ñWm{ZH$ d¥j dmT>dy `m...

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_mobo_À`m (Jmodm) Jƒ O§JbmVyZ OmVmZm AMmZH$ EH$ Am°ñQ´>o{b`Z ~m^yi {XgVo. Aao! hm d¥j BWo? H$gm H$m`? VmpåhUrS>m|JadmS>rÀ`m gXmh[aV PmS>rVyZ ~mhoa nS>Vm nS>Vm naV VoM... Am°ñQ´>o{b`Z ~m^yi. naV hm d¥j BWo H$m? _hm~ioídaMo XmQ> O§Jb, Ë`mMm ^éZ am{hbobm dmg KoD$Z añË`mda `oVmo Am{U AMmZH$ ~moJZdobrM§ H¥${Ì_ gm¢X`© {XgV§. añË`mH$S>obm BVH$s CÎm_ XmQ> dZamB© AgVmZm Amnë`mbm gwemo{^H$aUmH$aVm Aer H$mJXr \w$b§ H$m AmdS>VmV? Ë`mM añË`mH$S>obm EH$X_ EH$ aoZ Q´>r bmdbobm {XgVmo. {haS>m-Om§^imÀ`m dZmV ho PmS> H$m? naV VmoM àíZ. R>mogoKa Y~Yã`mMm {ZVm§V gw§Xa n[aga Am{U EH$ ^mJ \$º$ {Zb{JarÀ`m d¥jm§Zr ì`mnbobm. Ë`mImbr BVa Hw$R>brhr dZñnVr YS> CJdV Zmhr. naV {Zb{JarM§ PmS> OmñV nmUr emofUma§ åhUyZ à{gÕ. _J VoM H$m bmdb§? Amnë`mH$S>o PmS>m§Mr H$_VaVm Amho H$m? {d{dYVm Zmhr H$m? gw§Xa \w$b§ ZmhrV H$m? _J hr naXoer PmS>oM {OH$S>o-{VH$S>o H$m bmdbr OmVmV? Amnë`m ñWm{ZH$PmS>m¨Zm BWo àmYmÝ` Zmhr H$m? ho àíZ gVV nS>VmV. _ZmVë`m _ZmV, {dMma Ho$bm H$s CÎma§hr gmnS>VmV. Zm{dÝ`mMm Ü`mg, A{V n[aM`mV Adkm, ^anya dmTy>Z 'Fast results', Zd§ naXoer exotic PmS> éOdë`mMm Jd©, Ago {Za{Zamio ^md{ZH$, ì`mdhm[aH$ n¡by CbJS>bo. nU Ë`mV gdm©V _hÎdmMm nU Xwb©{jV n¡by åhUOo "Amnë`m {ZgJ©-g§dY©ZmV ho `mo½` Amho H$m?' hmM Xwb©{jbm Jobm Amho. Jobr AZoH$ dfª ZdrZ dZñnVr naXoemVyZ AmUë`m OmV AmhoV. Ë`m§Mr bmJdS> bmIm|À`m g§»`oZo hmoV Amho. gømÐrÀ`m EImÚm S>m|Jaam§JoVM 80-90 hÿZ A{YH$ d¥j OmVr AmT>iV AgVmZm Ho$di øm 5-10 naXoer OmVr "O§Jb' {Z_m©U H$am`bm bmdë`m OmV AmhoV. EH$Va O§Jb Ag§ V`ma H$aVm `oV Zmhr

Am{U naXoer dZñnVtZr Va {~bHw$bM Zmhr. \$ma \$ma Va EImÚm ~mJo_Ü`o dZñnVtM§ gm¢X`© åhUyZ qH$dm OmVtMm Aä`mg åhUyZ naXoer PmS>§ R>rH$ nU {ZgJm©M§ g§dY©Z H$aÊ`mgmR>r åhUyZ Z¸$sM ZH$mo. `m {df`mda Á`oð> dZñnVrVk, {ZgJ©Vk ~mobV AgVmV. nU Varhr AOyZhr gw~m^yi bmdbrM OmVo. `mV Xmof gdmªMmM Amho. AmnU AkmZmZo, Xwb©j H$éZ, _m{hVr AgyZhr _wÔm_, Aem naXoer dZñnVr bmdVM amhmVmo. Zg©ardmbo hr ZdZdrZ PmS§ V`ma H$éZ nwadV amhVmV. dZImV§ Zì`m H$ënZm bT>dV amhV§ Am{U _J dZImV§, Am{H©$Q>oŠQ>, ZJanm{bH$m, ~m§YH$m_ImV§, H¥${fImV§, añVodmbo, ~mJm V`ma H$aUmao, CÚmZ {d^mJ, g§ñWm, n`m©daUmgmR>r H$m_ H$aUmao, O{_ZrMo _mbH$-{dH$gH$, JmdH$ar, amOH$maUr.... gd© gd© hr naXoer, Anm`H$maH$ PmS>§ bmdVM amhVmV. AMmZH$ EImXr _hmZJanm{bH$m 1 H$moQ>r PmS>§ bmdÊ`mMm g§H$ën gmoS>Vo qH$dm EImXr ñd`§godr g§ñWm S>m|Ja {hadm H$aÊ`mMm àH$ën hmVr KoVo. ^mdZm CÎm_ Amho, ewÕ Amho nU PmS>m§Mr {ZdS> ñWm{ZH$M hdr. ZmhrVa EImX§ {had§, p½bar{gS>r`mM§ dmid§Q> V`ma hmoV§ Oo Ë`m n[agamer, VoWrb dÝ`Ordm§er \$Q>Hy$ZM dmJV§. Ë`m§Zm Amnb§g§ H$aV Zmhr. AmVm hm àíZ Z¸$sM nS>ob H$s naXoer PmS>m§da BVH$m amJ H$m ~ao? AZoH$ dZñnVrVkm§Zmhr dmQ>V§ H$s "PmS> ho PmS> Amho, Hw$R>b§hr PmS> gmaI§M.' EH$m AWm©Z§ ~amo~a Amho H$maU OJmVrb gd© PmS>§ ñdV:M§ AÞ ñdV: V`ma H$aVmV Am{U àmUdm`y gmoS>VmV. nU Ë`m§M§ H$m`© BWoM g§nV Zmhr. {ZgJ© gmIirV Ë`m§Zm _hÎdmM§ Am{U _mZmM§ ñWmZ Amho. ho ñWmZ d `m dZñnVtMm g¥ï>rVrc BVa KQ>H m§er

ñWm{ZH$ d¥j dmT>dy `m... 21


Agcocm nañnag§~§Y H$moUrhr VÁk ZmH$mé eH$V Zmhr. eodQ>r AmnUm gdmªZm {ZgJm©{df`H$ ào_ Amho Am{U Vmo dmMdU§ JaOoMo Amho ho nU gd©_mÝ` Amho. PmS§ bmdVmZm Vr Hw$R>o Am{U H$emgmR>r bmdVmo `mà_mUo OmVtMr {ZdS> ìhm`bm hdr. ehar ^mJmV ~mJoV EImXo naXoer PmS> Ogo H$s Jwb_moha, JJZOmB© bmdU§ R>rH$ Amho. nU EImX§M! Ë`m§MrM gd©Ì bmJdS> ZH$mo. S>m|Jamda, Jmdm~mhoa, \$m_©hmD$gda Va Z¸$sM ZH$mo. Am¡fYr VobmH$arVm {Zb{JarMr bmJdS> Ho$br Va EH$doi R>rH$ Amho nU O§JbmV Ë`m§Zm ñWmZ Zmhr. eoVr H$aU§ Am{U {ZgJ© g§dY©ZmH$aVm PmS>§ bmdU§ ho XmoZ ñdV§Ì _wÔo AgmdoV. ~è`mM naXoer dZñnVr H$mhr dfm©VM ~ogw_ma ngé bmJVmV Am{U Amnë`m ñWm{ZH$ PmS>m§Mr OmJm A{YH$M ì`mny bmJVmV. Ë`m§Mm A{YH$ ObX ~rO àgma Am{U CJdU hmoV Agë`mZo H$m°g_m°g, gw~m^yi, Am°ñQ´>o{b`Z ~m^yi `m§MoM EHo$ar nÅ>o V`ma hmoVmV Am{U Ë`m§À`mnwT>o {VWo Z¡g{J©H$nUo CJdUmè`m 15-20 nŒH$maÀ`m ñWm{ZH$ dZñnVtÀ`m OmVr hiyhiy Zï> hmoVmV. `mMr AZoH$ CXmhaU§ AmOy~mOybm {XgVmV. AmO añË`m§À`m ~mOyZo gw§Xa, _mohH$ ^Jì`m a§Jm§Mr CYiU H$aUma§ H$m°g_m°g {OWo {XgV§ {VWoM 2-5 dfmªnydu gmoZH$s, VoaS>m, Hw$Sy>©, Q>mH$im B. ñWm{ZH$ dZñnVr hmoË`m. AemarVrZo H$m~y Zgboë`m, doJmZo dmT>Umè`m `m naXoer dZñnVr `oWrb O{_ZrV, hdm_mZmV éOë`m Var {ZgJ© gmIirV éiV ZmhrV Am{U hmM Ë`m§Mm gdm©V _moR>m VmoQ>m d YmoH$m Amho. Amnë`m XoemV O¡d{d{dYVo{df`H$ IynM g¡b YmoaU Amho.

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ñWm{ZH$ d¥j dmT>dy `m...

naXoemV _mÌ ~mhoéZ EH$hr Ord-O§Vy, amon, ~r Ý`m`bm nadmZJr ZgVo. Amnë`m XoemVhr Ago H$m`Xo {ZgJm©À`m OnUyH$sH$aVm ìhm`Mr JaO dmQ>Vo. naXoer dZñnVr Z¸$sM ZH$moV nU Ë`m§À`m `mo½` H$ënZmH$m`Xo Z¸$sM ñdrH$mam`bm hdoV.

PmS>moam (Clusters) EImÚm àXoemVb§ _yiM§ O§Jb Zï> Pmb§ H$s {e„H$ amhVmo "PmS>moam'. åhUOoM H$mhr PwSw>n§ EH$Ì AgUmè`m Pmù`m. `m§Zm B§J«OrV åhUVmV 'clusters'. ~è`mMXm hm PmS>moam AgVmo H$mQ>oar, H$ad§X, ~m^ir, {hda, Xwa§Jr, ZonVr B. PmS>m§Zr `wº$ Ë`m_wio ~è`mMXm Xwb©{jbm OmVmo. na§Vw hm AgVmo AË`§V _hÎdmMm n`m©daUr` Amgam. ~mH$sMm àXoe CKS>m-~moS>H$m Agë`mZo \$º$ `m PmS>moè`m^modVrM {XgVo {d{dY Ordm§Mr Ymdni. njr, H$rQ>H$ ~m§YVmV `mV KaQ>r. ZdrZ PmS>m§À`m ~rOm§Zm éOm`bm BWoM {_iVmo Amgam. {d{dY njr-àmÊ`m§À`m {dð>oVyZ dmT>V amhVmo BWbm {~`m§Mm I{OZm. Am{U _J H$mhr H$mimVM BWo ~hé bmJVmV AZoH$ N>moQ>çm-_moR>çm dobr-PwSw>n§-d¥jm§À`m OmVr Am{U Ë`m§À`mer g§~§{YV njr-àmUr. Ë`m_wio amIm`bmM hdm hm PmS>moam !


ñdJu` gømÐr gømÐrVbo C§MrdaMo gnmQ> Q>ßno (High elevation plateaus) åhUOo OUy _oKm§M§ gm_«mÁ` Agbobo ñdJu` àXoe ! Om§ä`mMo gnmQ> H$mVi, _YyZM WmoS>r\$ma A§OZr, XmVnmS>r, ^mo_m B. PmS>r, nd©V H$ñVwamM§ gwaob JmU§ Am{U T>J Am{U T>J ! gßQ>|~a_Ü`o `m H$mVimM§ {MÌM nmbQ>V§ gd©Ì nm§T>am-Om§^im, Vm§~S>m-Jwbm~r a§J.. H$mVimbm OUy H$mhr EH$ a§JrV {Od§VnUmM `oVmo. Eadr H$mio qH$dm {hado AgUmao ho H$mVi AMmZH$nUo Ago H$mhr gOVmV H$s Ë`m§À`mH$S>o Xwb©j H$éZ nwT>o OmVmM `oV Zmhr. doJdoJù`m A±Jëg_YyZ \$moQ>mo H$mTy>Z Pmbo Var _Z H$mhr ^aV Zmhr... {VWyZ nm`M {ZKV Zmhr. `m H$mVim§da _Yo _Yo H$mhr N>moQ>r N>moQ>r nmdgmir Vir V`ma hmoVmV. Ë`mV {d{eï> àXoe{Zð,> C§MrXe©H$ nmU-dZñnVr {XgVmV. Ë`m AmagnmZr Vù`m§Odi ZwgV§ ~gyZ ahmd§, \w$b§ ~KV ahmd§.. dmVmdaUmV EH$ doJimM CËgmh, AmZ§X AgVmo. _YoM EImXr hbH$s nmdgmMr ga Am{UH$M ~hma AmUVo. Post monsoon hm {gPZM CÎm_ ! gJir PmS>§ H$er {ZpíM¨VnUo àH$meg§íbofU H$aV AgVmV. ^anya nmUr, ^anya gy`©àH$me.. H$emV CJmM H$mQ>H$ga H$amdr bmJV Zmhr. CnbãY gÎd§ dmnéZ bJoM \w$bVmVhr. {H$Q>H$m§er _¡Ìr H$am`bmhr CËgwH$.. Ë`mH$aVm {H$Vr a§J, {H$Vr J§Y, {H$Vr ZIao V`m§Mo. nm§T>ao E[aAmoH$mobm°Z, Om§^io `wQ´>rŠ`wbmar`m, Jwbm~r ~mbg_, {ndù`m gmoZH$s, {\$H$Q> Jwbm~r A°Zmo{Q>g, H$mVim§da EH$ gwaoI JmbrMm A§Wabm` Ag§ dmQ>V§. `m N>moQ>çm dZñnVtMr ~w{Õ_Îmmhr ^mar ! à{VHy$b n[apñWVr `oUma ho AmoiIyZ, CnbãY doimVM namJr^dZ H$adyZ KoD$Z {~`m V`ma H$aVmV. {VWoM em§VnUo AmS>ì`m hmoVmV. EH$m {nT>rMm A§V hmoVmo. na§Vw {~`m§À`m énmVbr nwT>Mr {nT>r dmQ> nhmVo nwT>À`m nmdgmMr....

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Amnbr ^y_r... Amnbr PmSยง...

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CÎmw§J {h_mb`mVrb JJZmbm {^Sy> nmhUmao XodXma, ^yO©nÌ... {haì`mH§$M gømÐrÀ`m KmQ>_mÏ`mdaMo gXmh[aV Yyn, A§OZr... aUaUË`m amOñWmZmV df©^a N>m`m XoUmao IoOS>r, ~m^yi... X»IZÀ`m nR>mamMr emo^m dmT>dUmao nig, nm§Jmao... Ho$di {H$ZmanÅ>rerM XmoñVr H$aUmar Ima\w$Q>r... ^maVmÀ`m {d{dYVoMm A{d^mÁ` A§J Agbobr hr Amnbr ñWm{ZH$ dZñnVr g§nXm ! `m g_¥ÕVoVyZM V`ma hmoVmV {H$VrVar Ordm§Mo Amgao, Ë`mVyZM {Z_m©U hmoVmV AZoH$ Z¡g{J©H$ OrdMH«$m§Mo AmYma Am{U ~iH$Q> hmoVmV BVa Z¡g{J©H$ g§gmYZm§Mo ómoV... V`ma hmoVo EH$ n[anyU© n[ag§ñWm. Aem `m ñWm{ZH$ dZñnVtMr OmonmgZm åhUOoM {ZgJm©Mr OmonmgZm. EImÚm àXoemV Á`m dZñnVr _ybV: ZmhrV Ë`m "naXoer' qH$dm 'Exotic'! øm OmVr ~è`mMXm _mUgmÀ`m hñVjonm_wio Zì`mZo AmUë`m OmVmV. Ë`m {ZgJ©V: {VWo CJdV ZìhË`m åhUyZ Ë`m§Zm naXoer qH$dm 'Non-native' åhUVmV. øm naXoer dZñnVr ~è`mMXm Amnë`m Xoer O§Jbm§Mr A§Va©MZm {~KS>dVmV. ñWm{ZH$ dZñnVter ñnYm© H$aVmV. n`m©daUmÀ`m Ñï>rZo hm EH$ YmoH$m Agy eH$Vmo. Amnë`mH$S>o Aem àH$maMm XrK©H$mbrZ emór` Aä`mg Oar Pmbm Zgbm Var H$mhr AënH$mbrZ emór` {ZarjUmVyZ ho gy{MV hmoV§ H$s `m dZñnVr AmOy~mOyÀ`m ^mJmVrb PmS>m§À`m dmT>rda n[aUm_ H$aVmV. _w»`V: èhmgmMr à{H«$`m gwé Pmboë`m àXoemV Ë`m MQ>H$Z ngaVmV. ñWm{ZH$ PmS>m§Mo n`m©daUr` Cn`moJ AZÝ`gmYmaU AmhoV. hr PmS§ Amnë`m ñWm{ZH$ njr, àmUr, H$sQ>H$m§H$aVm Mm§Jbm Amgam {Z_m©U H$aVmV. ñWm{ZH$ àmUrOrdZmMm Vo _w»` AmYma d AÞómoV AmhoV. OrdgmIirVrb hr EH$ _hÎdmMr H$S>r Amho. _mVrMr àVdmar gwYmaUo, ^yObgmR>m dmT>dUo Aem {hVH$a n[aUm_m§~amo~aM

àXyfUmMm$Ìmg H$_r H$aÊ`mVhr Ë`m§Mm _hÎdmMm dmQ>m AgVmo. na§Vw `m gd© Jmoï>tH$S>o S>moignUo Z nm{hë`mZo naXoer d¥jm§Mm \¡$bmd hmoV Amho. ho bjmV Amë`mZ§Va `m "OwÝ`m d¥jm§Mr Zdr AmoiI' H$éZ KoÊ`mMo, Ë`m§Zm OnÊ`mMo, éOdÊ`mMo à`ËZ gwé Pmbo AmhoV. {Za{Zamù`m O{_Ztda n`m©daU ì`dñWmnZmM§ H$m_ H$aV AgVm§ZmM Ag§ bjmV Amb§ H$s Amnë`m O{_ZrV {dZmgm`mg dmT>Umè`m ~hþn`moJr dZñnVr {Z`moOZnyd©H$ bmdë`m Va Ë`mÀ`m n`m©daUr` \$m`Úm§~amo~aM BVahr _Zwî`n`moJr \$m`Xo AmhoV. na§Vw hr bmJdS> H$aVmZm {d{dY _wÔo bjmV ¿`m`bm hdoV. ñWm{ZH$ PmS>m§À`m ~m~VrV gJù`mV _hÎdmMm _wÔm åhUOo `m PmS>m§Mr aMZm àXoemZwgma ~XbVo. OmñV nmdgmÀ`m àXoemVrb dZñnVr H$moaS>çm àXoemV dmTy> eH$V ZmhrV. CXm. gømÐrÀ`m KmQ>_mÏ`mda A{V nmdgmV dmT>Uma§ "A§OZr' ho PmS> _amR>dmS>çmÀ`m JdVmi àXoemV Mm§Jë`m arVrZo dmTy> eH$V Zmhr. Vg§M {VH$S>M§ H$Sy>qZ~ OmñV nmdgmV {Q>Hy$ eH$V Zmhr. H$moH$UmVbm ^anya CËnÞ XoUmam d CÎm_ Md AgUmam hmnyg Am§~m, Xoe-ImZXoemVhr bmdbm Va VodT>§M CËnÞ d Ano{jV Md XoD$ eH$Uma Zmhr. nU Varhr Amnë`mH$S>o Vmo AÅ>mhmgmZo bmdbm OmVmo. Ia§Va Ë`mÀ`m dmT>rgmR>r bmJUmar n`m©daUr` JaO CXm. OmñV nmD$g, OmñV AmЩVm, bmb _mVrVrb KQ>H$ nyd}H$S>Mo àXoe H$go ^mJdy eH$Uma? g§H$[aV OmVr, H$b_r OmVr Ë`m§Zm ^anya IV§ XoD$Z Oar dmT>dë`m Var Ë`mnmgyZ Ho$di WmoS>çm H$mimH$aVm \$m`Xo {_iy eH$VmV {edm` Vo Iyn OmñV I{M©H$hr hmoV§. Ë`mnojm ñWm{ZH$ PmS>m§nmgyZ {_iUma§ CËnÞ ho XrK©H$mb pñWa Agy eH$V§. {edm` hr PmS>§ {ZgJm©MmM EH$ ^mJ Agë`mZ§ AË`§V H$_r g§gmYZmV AmnU Vr Mm§Jbr dmT>dy eH$Vmo.

Amnbr ^y_r... Amnbr PmS>o... 25


`mdéZ ho ñnï> hmoV§ H$s bmJdS>rH$aVm "H$moUV§hr' Xoer PmS> Z {ZdS>Vm "n`m©daUmÀ`m Ñï>rZo `mo½` Aer ñWm{ZH$ PmS>§' {ZdS>m`bm hdrV. H$a§O, Om§^yi, qnni, nig, ~hmdm, {egy, EoZ, H$X§~, ~Hw$i `mgmaIr ghO {_iUmar d gd©Ì ghO AmT>iUmar PmS>§ Va AmnU Z¸$sM bmdy eH$Vmo. na§Vw EH§$Xa _hmamï´>mMr O¡d{d{dYVm ~KVm Aem ghO {_iy eH$Umè`m PmS>m§Mr g§»`m IynM H$_r Amho. _hmamï´>mV EHy$U 3881 OmVrÀ`m gnwîn dZñnVr AmhoV. Ë`m _hmamï´>mV Ë`m Ë`m {R>H$mUÀ`m hdm_mZ, nmD$g, Vmn_mZ, C§Mr d O_rZ `m KQ>H$m§Zwgma ngaë`m AmhoV. _hmamï´>mÀ`m {d{dY O¡d -^m¡Jmo{bH$ àXoem§À`m _m{hVrdéZ ho ñnï> hmoV§ H$s EImÚm {R>H$mUM§ dZñnVr OrdZ {d{dY KQ>H$m§_wio H$g§ ~XbV§. na§Vw `mVrb nwT>Mm _wÔm Agm H$s Oar àË`oH$ {d^mJmVrb dZñnVtÀ`m OmVtMr aMZm gmYmaU R>abobr Agbr Var O{_ZrÀ`m n[apñWVrZwgma (site specificity) Vr ~XbV ahmVo. åhUyZM "gÚ' n[apñWVrZwgma "H$moUVr' ñWm{ZH$ PmS>§ "H$Yr' bmdmdrV ho _hÎdmM§ R>aV§. gÜ`mMr O{_ZrMr pñWVr nm{hbr Va Ag§ bjmV `oV§ H$s {dX^©, ImZXoe, _amR>dmS>m `m ^mJmVrb PmS>m§Mr aMZm ~arMer gmaIr Amho. nyd}H$S>rb `m ^mJm§Mm Iyn OmñV èhmg Pmbm Amho. AWm©V OmñV nmD$g nS>Umè`m npíM_oH$S>À`m Z¡g{J©H$ ^mJm§dahr ~amM VmU dmT>Vmo Amho. na§Vw _wimV gnmQ>M AgUmè`m `m ghO gmÜ` ^mJm_Ü`o XwJ©_ S>m|Jami ^mJm§à_mUo Z¡g{J©H$ Amgao {Z_m©U hmoD$ eH$V ZmhrV. Ë`m_wio BWë`m n[ag§ñWm `m AË`§V ZmOyH$ (fragile) AgVmV. (qH$dm hmoË`m Ag§ åhUm`bm haH$V Zmhr) EH$Xm BWbr ñWm{ZH$ d¥jg§nXm VwQ>br H$s BVa g§gmYZm§Mmhr èhmg gwé hmoVmo. _mVrMr Yyn

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Amnbr ^y_r... Amnbr PmS>o...

hmoD$Z IS>H$ CKS>m nS>Vmo. AmoT>çm§daM§ AmÀN>mXZ Zmhrg§ Pmë`mZo Ë`m§M§ {MaH$mbËd g§nwï>mV `oV§. n[aUm_r nmÊ`mMr Q>§MmB© {Z_m©U hmoVo. AË`§V H$_r nmD$g Am{U CîU d H$moaS§ hdm_mZ `m_wio `m ^mJmVrb g§gmYZ¨mM§ nwZé‚mrdZ H$aU§ AdKS> Jmoï> hmoVo. _wÔm Agm H$s, _wimVM _mVr Am{U nmUr `m§Mm VwQ>dS>m Agboë`m ^mJm§_Ü`o ñWm{ZH$ PmS§ bmdVmZmgwÕm Vr `mo½`arVrZo d H«$_mZo bmdbr nm{hOoV. Z¡g{J©H$ AZwH«$_mà_mUo (Natural succession) Oa PmS>§ bmdbr Va Vr OmonmgU§ ho H$_r I{M©H$ hmoV§. Ë`mà_mUo AmYr JdV§, PwSw>n§, _J _moR>r PmS>§ Agm H«$_ R>adVm `oD$ eH$Vmo. OoWo bmJdS>r`mo½` O_rZ Amho d nmÊ`mMrhr H$_VaVm Zmhr Aem {R>H$mUr AmnU Amnë`m hoVyà_mUo `mo½` Aer ñWm{ZH$ PmS>§ bmdy eH$Vmo. ñWm{ZH$ dZñnVtÀ`m JwUY_m©Zwgma Ë`m§Mr OmonmgZm Am{W©H$ÑîQ>çm {H$\$m`Vera R>é eH$Vo. CXm. Am¡fYr dZñnVr, OimD$ bmHy$S>, ~m§YH$m_mgmR>rM§ bmHy$S>, Hw§$nUmH$aVmÀ`m {d{dYn`moJr dZñnVr, Mmam dZñnVr, H$sQ>H$ZmeH$m§H$aVm dZñnVr. AemàH$mao dZñnVrMr bmJdS> Ho$ë`mZ§Va ~mOmamer gVV g§nH$m©V amhÿZ Ë`mVyZ WoQ> \$m`Xm hmoD$ eH$Vmo. `mVhr Ho$di EH$mM OmVrÀ`m dZñnVrMr bmJdS> (monoculture) Z H$aVm {d{dY OmVtMr bmJdS> Ho$br Va ~mOmamVrb A{ZpíMV MT>CVmam§Mm CËnÞmda \$magm n[aUm_ hmoUma Zmhr. `m{edm` `m dZñnVtÀ`m bmJdS>rVyZ {_iUmam \$m`Xm EH$m doJi²`m Ñï>rH$moZmVyZhr nmhVm `oVmo. g_Om EH$m Hw$Qw>§~mbm bmJUmè`m ~hþVm§e JaOm `m bmJdS>rVyZ nwadVm Amë`m Va AmnU Ë`mda Ho$bm OmUmam IM© dmMdy eH$Vmo. Oam ñd`§nyU©VoMr dmQ> Yé`m ! CXm. H$sQ>H$ZmeH§$ {dH$V Z AmUVm H$sQ>H$ZmeH$m§MoM JwUY_© Agbobr PmS§ O{_ZrdaM CJdy eH$Vmo. Hw§$nUmbm Am¡fYr dZñnVr bmdyZ S>m°ŠQ>aMm IM© Q>miy eH$Vmo. Ë`m~amo~arZo Kambm g§ajU XoD$Z


Ë`mMr emo^mhr dmT>dy eH$Vmo. nag~mJ {dH${gV Ho$br Va nm¡{ï>H$ ^mOrnmbm, \$i§ XmarM {_iy eH$VmV. `m gJù`mH$aVm `mo½` dZñnVr H$moUË`m, Ë`m O{_Zrda Hw$R>o d H$em bmdm`À`m B. {df`r _m{hVr KoUoXoIrb _hÎdmMo Amho. gd©Ì ghO AmT>iUmè`m H$mhr PmS>m§Mr Cn`moJmZwgma `mXr gw§Xa \w$bUmar PmS>§ : nig, nm§Jmam, ~hmdm, H$mQ>o gmda, dmag gmdbr H$aVm PmS>§ : Am§~m, ~Hw$i, Om§^yi, Zr_, nw̧Ordm, H$X§~, gánUu B_maVr bmHy$S> : EoZ, {eg_, {~Om, \$Ug, Am§~m, YmdS>m

Am¡fYr : {haS>m, ~ohS>m, Amdim, Q>oQy>, {edU, Hw$S>m Hw§$nU : {ZaJwS>r, ASw>igm, _|Xr, H$mo`Zob, {ZdSw>§J, gmJaJmoQ>m, {Mbma, Hw§$Vr. darb `mXrV {Xbobr PmS hr gmYmaUV: gd©Ì AmT>iUmar åhUyZ {Xbobr AmhoV. na§Vw `m~amo~arZo O{_ZrÀ`m ñWmZmZwgma Ë`mV AOyZhr ~è`mM dZñnVtMr ^a nSy> eH$Vo. _yiÀ`m PmS>moè`m~amo~arZo `m AZoH${dY dZñnVtMr bmJdS> Ho$ë`mg {ZgJ© g§dY©Zmbm hmV^ma bmJy eH$Vmo.

JmdH$ar ~hþVm§e JaOm nwadÊ`mH$aVm JmdmÀ`m AmOy~mOyÀ`m amZmda Adb§~yZ AgVmo. Omon`ªV amZm§Mr pñWVr ~ar hmoVr Am{U bmoH$g§»`mhr H$_r hmoVr Vmoda O§Jbm§M§ \$mag§ ZwH$gmZ Z hmoVm `m gd© JaOm ^mJdë`m OmD$ eH$V AgV. na§Vw Joë`m eVH$mV Amnë`m O§Jbm§Mm _moR>çm à_mUmV èhmg Pmbm Amho... hmoV Amho. `mMr H$maU§ gd©kmV AmhoV. ~è`mM {R>H$mUr H$moigm d bmHy$S> `mH$aVm _moR>çm à_mUmV EH$mM doir hr O§Jb§ O_rZXmoñV Ho$br Jobr. `mV WmoS>çm H$mimH$aVm ^anya \$m`Xm Pmbm _mÌ `m O§Jbm§nmgyZ {_iy eH$Umè`m {MaH$mb \$m`ÚmdaM Hw$èhmS> KmVbr Jobr. Aem n[apñWVrV Amnë`m gd© JaOm Ë`mM O§JbmVyZ nwadÊ`mMm AÅ>mhmg Ho$ë`mZo Ë`mdaMm VmU dmT>V Amho. `mH$aVm O§Jbm§M§ ì`dñWmnZ H$aU§ JaOoM§ Amho. Ë`mMrM n{hbr nm`ar åhUOo Amnë`m JaOoMr PmS>o bmdUo. Hw$Qw>§~mMr EImÚm Jmoï>rMr df©^amMr JaO "_moOyZ' Ë`mà_mUo bmJdS>rMo d Ë`mnmgyZ {_iUmè`m CËnÞmMo {Z`moOZ H$aVm `oVo. Xadoir ho CËnÞ n¡emVM Agob Ago Zmhr Va Ë`mMm CÔoe Amnë`m JaOm ^mJdU§ hm Agob. hr PmS>§ AmnU eoVmÀ`m ~m§Ymda, daH$g O{_ZrV Vg§M A§JU, nagmVhr bmdy eH$Vmo.

Amnbr ^y_r... Amnbr PmS>o... 27


dZ単nVtMr {d{dYVm

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dZñnVr åhQ>b§ H$s Amnë`mbm Ë`mVrb d¥j, dobr, PwSw>n§ EdT>oM àH$ma _m{hVr AgVmV. na§Vw dZñnVremómMm Aä`mg Ho$bm AgVm Ag§ g_OV§ H$s, dZñnVt_Ü`o {d{dY àH$ma AWdm JQ> Va AgVmVM VgoM àË`oH$ JQ>mV AZoH$ OmVr AgVmV. Ë`m§À`m `m {d{dYVoMm Aä`mg H$aU§XoIrb EH$ _Zmoa§OH$ Jmoï> Amho. dZñnVr XmoZ JQ>mV [d^mmJë`m OmVmV \w$bUmè`m dZñnVr d Z \w$bUmè`m dZñnVr. Z \w$bUmè`m dZñnVr åhUOo e¡dmb, H$dH$, ~«m`mo\$mB©Q>g² Am{U Q>o[aS>mo\$mB©Q>g². e¡dmb (Algae) hr nmÊ`mV dmT>Umar dZñnVr åhUOo OUy H$mhr {haì`m noetMm g_yhM {XgVmo. H$dH$ (Fungi) åhUOo Amnë`mH$S>rb {d{dY Ai¨~r (Mushrooms). ~«m`mo\$mB©Q>g² (Bryophytes) åhUOo _m°ggma»`m dZñnVr Va Q>o[aS>mo\$mB©Q>g² (Pteridophytes) åhUOo ZoMo dJ©. gnwîn AWdm \w$bUmè`m dZñnVtMo XmoZ JQ> hmoVmV. AZmd¥Îm~rOr (Gymnosperms) Am{U Amd¥Îm~rOr (Angiosperms). Amd¥Îm~rOr gnwîn `m CîU H${Q>~§Yr` àXoemV gdm©{YH$ ghOnUo AmT>iVmV Va AZmd¥Îm~rOr dZñnVr `m g_erVmoîU H${Q>~§YmV OmñV dmT>VmV. CXm. nmB©Z, ñàyg, B. Amd¥Îm~rOr dZñnVr (Á`m§M§ ~r \$imÀ`m AmdaUmV ~§X AgVo) OJmVrb gdm©V CËH«$m§V Pmboë`m dZñnVr AmhoV. ZXr, Zmbo, nd©V, JdVmi àXoe, g_wÐ {H$Zmao, O§Jb§ B. gd© {R>H$mUr Ë`m AmT>iVmV. ^maVmV `m àH>>maÀ`m EHy$U 17,500 OmVr, PwSw>nrdmid§Q>r dZ§ Vo gXmh[aV KmQ>_mÏ`mdarb O§Jb§ Aem gd© àH$maÀ`m hdm_mZmÀ`m àXoemV AmT>iVmV. hr PmS>§ gdm©V OmñV dmnabr OmVmV Ë`m_wio Vr gd© àH$mamV OmñV _m{hVrMr d à{gÕ AmhoV. `m PmS>m§nmgyZ _mUgmbm {d{dY àH$maMr CËnmXZo {_iVmV. CXm. Am¡fY§,

bmHy$S>, B_maVr bmHy$S>, dZCnO-NTFP (Non Timber Forest Produce) - qS>H$, a~a, Vob, _oU B. Amnë`m amoOÀ`m gd©gmYmaU JaOm `m PmS>m§_wioM ^mJdë`m OmVmV. Amnë`mbm gH$mir CR>ë`m~amo~a bmJUmè`m X§V_§OZ (Qy>WnoñQ) >nmgyZ Vo Mhm-H$m°\$s.... ImÚnXmW©, Amnbo H$nS>o, KamgmR>r bmJUmao gm{hË`, {IS>Š`m, Xma§, nS>Xo B. gd©M `m PmS>m§nmgyZ {_iV§. Aem PmS>m§Mr `mXr H$am`Mr åhQ>br Va Vr Z g§nUmar hmoB©b. ZwgVr Am¡fYr PmS>m§Mr g§»`mM 4000 Vo 5000 Amho. Ë`m~amo~arZo a~a, Vob, OimD$ bmHy$S>, Mmam B. {_iUmè`m PmS>m§Mrhr Ë`mV ^a nS>ob. AbrH$S>o Va `m PmS>m§nmgyZ {_iUmè`m O¡d^mamnmgyZ D$Om© V`ma H$aÊ`mMo à`ËZhr Mmby AmhoV. EH§$Xa H$m` Va hr Or {d{dYVm Amnë`mbm dZñnVt_Ü`o {XgVo Vr Hw$R>ë`m Zm Hw$R>ë`m àH$mao _mUgmÀ`m Cn`moJmMr Amho. _mUgmÀ`m ~amo~arZo hr {d{dYVm n`m©daUmÀ`m Ñï>rZohr {VVH$sM qH$~hþZm A{YH$ _hÎdmMr Amho. hdm_mZ, nmUr, nmD$g, ^m¡Jmo{bH$ àXoe `mZwgma àË`oH$ {R>H$mUMr {d{dYVm n`m©daU g§VwbZmMo H$m_ gma»`mM àH$mao d {Za§Va H$aV AgVo. `mVrb gdm©V _hÎdmMr JmoîQ> åhUOo BVa gd© gOrdm§Zm OJÊ`mgmR>r bmJUmam àmUdm`y V`ma H$aUo. àmUdm`y V`ma H$aÊ`mMr hr _hÎdmMr Jmoï> gd©àW_ dZñnVr¨ZrM H$éZ XmIdbr Am{U AOyZhr Ho$di dZñnVrM àH$meg§íbofU øm à{H$`oZo AÞ d àmUdm`y V`ma H$aVmV. AÞ V`ma H$aÊ`mM§ V§Ì OJmV Xwgè`m H$moUË`mhr Ordmbm AdJV Zmhr. `m_wio dZñnVr hm Amnë`m OrdZmMm VgoM BVa Ordg¥ï>rMm _yb^yV AmYma AmhoV. `m~amo~arZo AOyZhr _hÎdmMr H$m`ª `m dZñnVr H$aVmV. CXm. gm¡aD$Om© dmnéZ

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_moR>çm à_mUmV g|{Ð` _mb (O¡d_mb) V`ma H$aUo, AÞÐì` nwZ{Z{_©V H$aUo, O{_ZrMr Yyn Wm§~dUo Am{U gJù`mV _hÎdmM§ åhUOo hdm ewÕ amIUo d Vmn_mZ _`m©{XV R>odUo.

Mmam : JdVm§À`m ~amo~arZo AZoH$ PwSw>nm§Mm, d¥jm§Mm nmbmhr Mmam åhUyZ dmnaVm `oVmo. C§~a, \$Ug, AmgmUm, Ym_U, eodJm, Om§^yi, ~ohS>m, EoZ, dS> B. PmS>m§Mr H$modir nmZ§ Mmam åhUyZ dmnabr OmVmV.

^maVmV, _hmamï´>mV ghO AmT>iUmè`m gnwîn dZñnVtMm Oam AmnU Aä`mg Ho$bm Va Imbrb {d{dY Cn`moJm§H$arVm Vr dmnaVm `oVmV Ago {XgVo-

n`m©daUr` nwZé‚mrdZ : ñWm{ZH$ dZñnVtMm _hÎdmMm ^mJ åhUOo `m dZñnVr {VWë`m AÞ gmIirVrb _hÎdmMm Xwdm AgVmV. Ë`m_wio èhmg Pmboë`m àXoemV _yiMr pñWVr nwZé‚mr{dV H$aÊ`mH$aVm `m Xoer PmS>m§Mm Iyn Mm§Jbm Cn`moJ hmoVmo. `m dZñnVr Yyn Wm§~dÊ`mH$aVm, _mVrMr àV gwYmaÊ`mH$aVm, Amobmdm dmT>dÊ`mH$aVm Vg§M MQ>H$Z AmÀN>mXZ V`ma H$aÊ`mH$aVmhr dmnaVm `oVmV. `m Cn`moJmH$aVm dmnam`À`m dZñnVr àXoemZwgma ~XbVmV. Varhr dS>mÀ`m OmVrVrb PmS>§, AmnQ>m, H$m§MZ, Ym`Q>r, H$ad§X, VmoaU, {edU, ~hmdm, EoZ, YmdS>m, B. PmS>§ gd©gmYmaUnUo gd© àXoemV bmdVm `oVmV.

Am¡fYr : Am¡fY§ hr _mUgmÀ`m OrdZmVrb gdm©V _hÎdmMm ^mJ. àË`oH$ PmS>mMm H$mhr Zm H$mhr Am¡fYr Cn`moJ AgVmo. na§Vw ghO dmnaVm `oVrb Aer PmS>§ åhUOo - Amdim, {haS>m, ~ohS>m, ASw>igm, {ZaJwS>r, doI§S>, Zr_, Yyn, ZmJMm\$m, AOw©Z, aº$amo{hS>m, aº$M§XZ, M§XZ, grVm AemoH$, bmoY« B. gw§Xa PmS>§ : {h_mb`mVrb nmB©Z, ñàyg, AmoH$ Vo dmid§Q>mVrb H$mQ>oar PwSw>n§ gd©M n¥Ïdrbm `m Zm Ë`m àH$mao gO{dV AmhoV. nig, nm§Jmam, gmda, ~hmdm, H$X§~, Vm_U, gánUu, B. gmaIo _moR>o d¥j, amZOmB©, OmB©OwB© gmaIo dob, VoaS>m, ~oJmo{Z`m gmaIr N>moQ>r PwSw>n§ B. gwemo{^H$aUmH$aVm ghO dmnaVm `oVmV. B_maVr bmHy$S> : ~m§YH$m_, \${Z©MaÀ`m Ñï>rZo _hÎdmMm ^mJ. gmJ, YmdS>m, dmdi, EoZ, ~m^yi, Am§~m, Ym_U, ~rOm, {eg_ B. OimD$ bmHy$S> : Amnë`mH$S>o AOyZhr ~arMer OZVm B§YZ åhUyZ bmH$S>mda Adb§~yZ Amho Am{U Ë`m_wioM O§Jbm_Ü`o VmoS> ~è`mM à_mUmV hmoD$Z Ë`m§M§ ZwH$gmZ dmT>VM Amho. `mH$aVm Mm§Jbm Cî_m§H$ Agbobr PmS>§ eoVmÀ`m ~m§Ymda bmdyZ Ë`m§À`m \$m§Úm H$mnyZ dmnaU§ gdm©V `mo½`. CXm. ^|S>, nig.

30

dZñnVtMr {d{dYVm

Aem `m gd© A§Jm§Zr Cn`wº$ Aem dZñnVtÀ`m {d{dYVoMm AmnU gdmªZrM nwañH$ma H$am`bm hdm. AÝ`Wm, _mUgmÀ`m {dH$gZerb H$m_m§_wio `m {d{dYVoMm _moR>çm à_mUmda Zme hmoV Amho. Amnë`mbm Oa `m {d{dYVoMm {Ma§VZ Cn^moJ ¿`m`Mm Agob Va {VM§ g§dY©Z H$aU§ JaOoM§ AmhoM. Ë`m~amo~arZo Ë`m§Mr `mo½` n«H$mao {d{dYVm amIyZ, EHo$ar nÅ>o Z ~ZdVm bmJdS> H$aU§ JaOoM§ Amho. Amnë`m JaOm ^mJdÊ`mH$aVm _yiÀ`m O§JbmVrb {d{dYVoMm Zme H$aU§ `mo½` Zìho Am{U Amnë`m {hVmM§hr Zìho. Amnbr hr {d{dYVm OnÊ`mH$aVm d dmT>dÊ`mH$aVm àË`oH$mZoM Ë`m§Zm S>moignUo OmUyZ KoD$`m d Ë`m§Mr OmonmgZm H$é`m!


{~`m§Mm I{OZm `m Z^mZo `m ^wB©bm XmZ Úmdo Am{U `m _mVrVwZr M¡VÝ` `mdo... - Zm. Ym|. _hmZmoa nmD$g `oVmo Am{U COmS> dmQ>Umè`m _miamZmVyZhr {hado A§Hw$a ~hé bmJVmV. Am{U ~KVm ~KVm ^wB©Mm àË`oH$ H$mZmH$monam {haì`m a§JmZo _mIyZ {ZKVmo.. hm M_ËH$ma hmoVmo Var H$gm ! EadrMr hr H$mir-nm§T>ar AMmZH$ h[aV hmoVo H$er, hm {Od§VnUm `oVmo Var H$gm... àË`oH$ _mVrV AgVmo {~`m§Mm I{OZm ! n{hë`m nmdgmÀ`m

gat~amo~a hm gwá I{OZm hiyhiy àH$Q> hmoD$ bmJVmo. hm I{OZm \$ma Imob O{_ZrV ZgVmo Va O{_ZrÀ`m gJù`mV daÀ`m WamVM AgVmo. añVm H$mT>boë`m EImÚm S>m|JamMr H$S> nm{hbr H$s Amnë`mbm O{_ZrMm N>oX (profile) {Xgy eH$Vmo. gJù`mV daÀ`m WamV AgVo _D$ _mVr. `m WamMr C§Mr 2 B§M Vo 1 \y$Q> Vo 10 \y$Q> Vo {H$Vrhr Agy eH$Vo. na§Vw \$º$ daÀ`m \w$Q>^amVM AgVmo hm {~`m§Mm I{OZm ! n{hë`m nmdgm_wio `m I{OÝ`mMr H$dmS>o CKS>VmV. JdVmMr nmVr, N>moQ>çm PwSw>nm§Mr, dfm©`y dZñnVtMr (seasonal herbs) nmZ§ O{_Zrda {Xgy bmJVmV. hiyhiy XmoZ VrZ _{hÝ`mV Vr Mm§Jbr XmoZ VrZ \w$Q>m§n`ªV dmT>VmV. _J `m N>moQ>çm dZñnVtZm \w$b§ `oVmV... {d{dY

{~`m§Mm I{OZm 31


H$sQ>H$ Ë`mH$S>o AmH¥$ï> hmoVmV. Ë`mMm n[aUm_ åhUOo namJr^dZ Am{U \$iYmaUm. \$imV ~r V`ma hmoV§ Am{U `m N>moQ>çm dfm©`y dZñnVtM§, JdV§mM§ OrdZMH«$ {VWoM g§nV§. nmdgmim géZ {hdmim gwé Pmbobm AgVmo. ho V`ma Pmbob§ ~r {VWë`m _mVrVM nSy>Z ahmV§. nwT>À`m nmdgmMr dmQ> nhmV. {hdmim CÝhmù`mV \$iUmar PmS>§hr Amnmnbo XmZ `m I{OÝ`mbm XoV amhVmV. na§Vw ho ~r {ZgJ©V:M JiyZ nS>V Agë`mZ§ Vo O{_ZrÀ`m gJù`mV daÀ`m WamVM ahmV§. `m gJù`m N>moQ>çm dfm©`y dZñnVrhr nmdgmZ§Va {VWoM AmS>ì`m hmoVmV. hm gd© g|{X´`$ _mb (organic matter) gwH$Vmo Am{U CnbãY Amobmì`mZwgma Ë`mMr Hw$OÊ`mMr à{H«$`mhr gwé hmoVo. ho gd© O{_ZrÀ`m daÀ`m WamVM KS>V Agë`mZo {VWoM nmofH$VÎd§hr gmMV OmVmV Am{U hm daMm _mVrMm Wa (Top soil) A{Ve` _hÎdmMm ~ZVmo. O{_ZrVrb ImbMo Wa ho Ho$di I{ZÁ` (mineral) AgVmV. Ë`mV da C„oIbobm O¡{dH$ _mb H$_r à_mUmV AgVmo. Va àË`oH$ àXoemVrb _mVrVrb hm I{OZm hdm_mZmà_mUo d _mZdr hñVjonmÀ`m à_mUmZwgma ~XbV AgVmo. H$moH$U, gømÐr `m OmñV nmdgmÀ`m àXoemV dmT>Umè`m dZñnVr nyd}H$S>À`m H$_r nmdgmÀ`m àXoemV AmT>iV ZmhrV. VgoM Xoe, ImZXoe, _amR>dmS>m `m H$moaS>çm ^mJmVhr H$mhr d¡{eîQ>çnyU© dZñnVr AmhoV. H$mhr dZñnVr gmYmaUV: gd©Ì AmT>iVmV. nmdgmim gwé Pmbm H$s `m dZñnVr hiyhiy S>moH§$ da H$mT>m`bm bmJVmV. Q>mH$im, Hw$Sy>©, XyYr, AmKmS>m, nwZZ©dm, VoaS>m, {dîUyH«$m§V, JmOa JdV B. dZñnVr ~è`mM {R>H$mUr ghO `oVmV. `mM§ _w»` H$maU åhUOo {ZgJm©Mm èhmg ! {OWo {OWo

32

{~`m§Mm I{OZm

_yiM§ O§Jb OmD$Z CKS>o àXoe V`ma Pmbo AmhoV, Aem gd© àXoem§V `m dfm©`y dZñnVtMr {d{dYVm gdm©{YH$ {XgVo. `mCbQ> Oo àXoe g§a{jV AmhoV Aem {R>H$mUr `m Zoh_rÀ`m dZñnVtì`{V[aº$ BVa H$mhr d¡{eîQ>çnyU© OmVr {XgVmV. `m OmVtMr g§»`mhr H$_r AgVo. `m I{OÝ`mV dfm©`y dZñnVt~amo~a _moR>o d¥j, PwSw>n§, dobr B.À`m {~`mhr AmT>iVmV. `m I{OÝ`mbm Zdm OÝ_ {_imbm VaM Ë`m O§JbmM§ ^{dî` A~m{YV amhmÊ`mMr eº$s dmT>V AgVo. `m_wioXoIrb Aem g§a{jV àXoemVrb I{OZm A{YH$ _m¡ë`dmZ R>aVmo. Vmoo AmnU Z¸$sM amIm`bm hdm. na§Vw ~è`mM àXoemV _wÔm_ bmdë`m OmUmè`m dUì`m§_wio `m I{OÝ`m§M§ IƒrH$aU hmoV§. Amnë`mH$S>o ~è`mMXm EH$mM àH$maM§ JdV Omo_mZ§ `md§ åhUyZ O{_ZtZm AmJ bmdbr OmVo. Ë`m_wio hm gJim I{OZmM OiyZ OmVmo. H$UIa, AmJrVyZ ñdV:bm dmMdy eH$Umè`m H$mhr JdVm§M§ ~r \$º$ {e„H$ ahmV§ Am{U VodT>§M CJdyZ `oV§. Ë`m_wio _moR>çm à_mUmV JdV {_iV§, nU {ZH¥$ï> XOm©M§ Am{U BVa AZoH$ Mm§Jbm MamD$ XOm© Agboë`m dfm©`y dZñnVr _mÌ J_mdë`m OmVmV. Ë`m~amo~arZo Ë`m§À`mer g§b¾ Agbob§ H$rQ>H$-àmUr-njr `m§M§ OrdZhr YmoŠ`mV `oV§ Am{U Ë`m {R>H$mUMr Z¡g{J©H$ pñWVr, n[ag§ñWm AOyZM ImbmdVo. Ë`m_wio OmiU§, dUdm bmJU§ hr AË`§V YmoH$mXm`H$ Jmoï> Amho ho gdmªZr bjmV ¿`m`bm hd§. na§Vw `mdaXoIrb H$mhr Cnm` AmhoV. nwZé‚mrdZmÀ`m (restoration) H$mhr V§Ìm§À`m ghmæ`mZo EImÚm O{_ZrVrb J_mdbobm I{OZm naV {_idVm `oU§ eŠ` Amho. `mH$aVm gJù`mV _hÎdmM§ åhUOo "g§ajU'. H$moUË`mhr O{_Zrbm _mUyg d Jwam§nmgyZ nyU©V: g§ajU {Xb§ Va {VÀ`mVbm gwá I{OZm


hiyhiy OmJ¥V hmoD$ bmJVmo. `m~amo~arZo O{_Zrda A{YH$m{YH$ go¨{X´` _mb, H$mS>r-H$Mam, eoU-_yÌ B. AmUyZ Q>mH$ë`mg {VMr gwnrH$Vm, ~rOm§Hw$aU j_Vmhr dmT>rg bmJVo. VmaoM§ Hw§$nU, XJS>mMr Vmb, H$mQ>o B.À`m ghmæ`mZo N>moQ>çm-N>moQ>çm ~§{XñV OmJm ~ZdyZ (enclosures) {VWo ho à`moJ H$aU§ gmon§ AgV§. `mVrb J_VrXma JmoîQ> åhUOo g§ajU {Xë`mZ§Va hm I{OZm Xadfu H$mhr à_mUmV ~XbV OmVmo. {ZH¥$ï> JdVm§Mr OmJm hiyhiy CËH¥$ï> JdV KoD$ bmJVmV. hiyhiy Ë`mV

AmaÊ`mÝZ

dÝ`Ordm§Mo Mm§Jbo Amgao (habitats) V`ma hmoD$ bmJVmV... EH§$Xa n[ag§ñWoMr gwÑT>VoH$S>o dmQ>Mmb gwé hmoVo... Agm hm {~`m§Mm I{OZm {ZgJ© gj_rH$aUmVrb n{hbmd{hbm Am{U AË`§V _hÎdmMm nm`m Amho. AmnU gdmªZrM ho OmUyZ Ë`mM§ g§dY©Z H$am`bm hd§!! nyd© àH$m{eV : X¡{ZH$ _hmamï´> Q>mBåg², 19 Owb¡ 2011

(Forest Food)

Amnë`mH$S>À`m O§Jbm_Ü`o 50% hÿZ A{YH$ dZñnVr ImÊ`m`mo½` AmhoV. AmOhr gømÐr, gmVnwS>mVë`m XyaJm_r ^mJmV ñWm{ZH$ bmoH$ OodUmV `m dZñnVtMm ~è`mn¡H$s dmna H$aVmZm AmT>iVmV. `m dZñnVtMr nm¡{ï>H$ _yë`§hr Iyn OmñV AmhoV. nydu Ooìhm ho ñWm{ZH$ bmoH$ nyU©nUo `mM dZñnVtda Adb§~yZ hmoVo Voìhm Ë`m§Mo AmOmahr H$_r hmoVo, Ag§ VoM gm§JVmV. {MMmS>uÀ`m \$im§Mr ^mOr _mog_mV Im„r H$s df©^a {nÎmmMm Ìmg hmoV Zmhr åhUVmV. gømÐrÀ`m H$mogiUmè`m nmdgmù`mV Hw$Sw>©À`m nmZm§Mr ^mOr {Z`{_V Im„r Va W§S>r dmè`m_wio gm§Yo YaV ZmhrV åhUVmV. `m Jmoï>tMr Zm Hw$R>o Zm|X Amho, Zm Hw$Ur `mMr XIb KoV§`. dmT>Ë`m OmJ{VH$sH$aUm~amo~a dm§Jr-~Q>mQ>o JmdmV nmoMbo Am{U hQ>Ë`m amZì`m~amo~a `m O§Jbr ImÚ dZñnVr H$_r Pmë`m. `mH$aVm Ë`m§Mr bmJdS> H$éZ _mÌ ^mJUma Zmhr Va O§Jb amIU§M JaOoM§ !

{~`m§Mm I{OZm 33


{ZgJ©nyaH$ \$m_© hmD$g

34


eãXe: "eoVKa' åhUOo eoVmVrb Ka! `m eãXmZoM EH$ Ñí` S>moù`mg_moa `oV§. H$m¡bmé N>namM§, PmS>rV bnbob§, D$~Xma Ka! AmOy~mOybm {hadmJma {ZgJ©, nú`m§Mo AmdmO, nmD$g-YwH§$, _mVrMmPmS>rMm ^éZ am{hbobm dmg, Zrad em§VVm... EHy$U H$m` {ZgJ©nyU© dmVmdaUmV, ehamÀ`m JO~OmQ>mnmgyZ Xya Ag§ ñdßZdV Ka. XmoZ {Xdg BWo em§VVoV KmbdyZ naV ehmamVë`m àXyfUmV `oU§ {Odmda `oB©b Aer OmJm ! ehamVë`m JXu_Ü`o, {g_|Q>À`m O§Jbm_Ü`o, Ja_ S>m§~ar añË`m§_YyZ, dmhZm§À`m AmdmOmV {ZgJ© gmnS>VM Zmhr. gVV dmT>Ë`m JaOm, ~XbVr OrdZe¡br, C§MmdUma§ amhUr_mZ Am{U ho gd© {_idÊ`mgmR>r bmJUmam n¡gm, Omo gVV OmñVrM bmJVmo. hr gd© H$gaV H$aVmZm {ZgJm©Mm Hw$R>bmM VwH$S>m ehamV amhV Zmhr Am{U ehar _mUyg Z¡g{J©H$ dmVmdaUmnmgyZ Iyn Xya OmVmo. _J gwê> hmoVo Vr {ZgJm©bm KamV AmUÊ`mMr YS>nS>. EImX§ {ZgJ©gw§Xa {MÌ qH$dm J°barV EH$ Hw§$S>r, eŠ` Agë`mg N>moQ>rer ~mJ... `mda {ZgJm©M§ ApñVËd g§nV§. nU _Zmbm em§VVm {_iV Zmhr. Aemdoir XmoZ {Xdg EImÚm S>m|JamV OmD$Z amhÊ`mMr BÀN>m Z Pmë`mg ZdbM. Aemdoir 'Nature resort' qH$dm _J EImXr 'Farm house plot scheme' _XVrbm `oVo. Aer O_rZ KoU§ ho H$mhr dfmªnyduM§ Iyn AdKS> H$m_ AmVm gmon§ hmoD$ bmJb§ Amho. "eoVKa' ho Ho$di H${d-H$ënZoVrb {díd Z amhVm Iyn ehadmgr`m§H$aVm gË` Pmb§ Amho. "eoVKa'-ehambm H§$Q>miboë`m Ordm§Zm Amgam XoUmar EH$ Mm§Jbr H$ënZm. BW§ `oD$Z {ZgJm©À`m gm{ÞÜ`mV amhÊ`mMr doJir OrdZe¡br AZw^dÊ`mMr CÎm_ g§Yr {_iVo. Ia§Va BVH$s g§wXa

H$ënZm! nU dmñVd {MÌ H$m` {XgV§? ehamVyZ ~mhoa nS>Umè`m Hw$R>ë`mhr añË`mda Aem `moOZm§À`m nmQ>çm§nbrH$S>o H$mhr {XgV Zmhr. H$m` ZgV§ `m Om{hamVt_Ü`o? {hado S>m|Ja, YwH§$, dmhUmao AmoT>o, S>moH$mdUmar amZ\w$b§ Am{U Ë`mV Q>moboO§J, gd© gwIgmo`tZr `wº$ Ag§ MH$mMH$ '\$m_© hmD$g'. _J drO, nmUr, añVo, Šb~ hmD$g `m gmo`tMo gw§Xa \$moQ>mo `m {hadmB©da {MH$Q>dbo H$s Mm¡H$Q> nyU©. ehamÀ`m ^modVmbMo gd© S>m|Ja hiyhiy `m `moOZm§Zr Am{U Q>moboO§J _hmbm§Zr ì`mny bmJbo AmhoV. Hw$R>o Jobr Vr {Z^©` haU§, _moH$ir hdm, Zrad em§VVm Am{U ñ\${Q>H$mgmaIo AmoT>o? `m gdmªÀ`m Odi OmÊ`mÀ`m ZmXmV VoM hadyZ Jobo H$s H$m` ! Amnë`mbm Agbobr {ZgJm©Mr Am§V[aH$ AmoT> Ë`m {ZgJm©À`mM {damoYmV CR>br H$s H$m`? H$m {ZgJm©À`m Odi OmÊ`mMm hì`mg Ho$bm Am{U {ZgJm©MrM ZmgmS>r Ho$br? dada nm{hb§ Va dmQ>ob H$s Ag§ H$g§ hmoB©b ? _moR>§ Ka ~m§Yb§ åhUyZ H$m` Pmb§ ? Ë`m^modVr PmS>§ bmdyZ, {hadi bmdyZ {hadmB© CËnÞ H$éZ S>m|Ja naV {hado H$aVm `oVrbM ! nU BWo àíZ \$º$ {hadmB© {XgÊ`mMm Zmhr`o Va Ë`mnwT>o OmD$Z {dMma ìhm`bm hdm Amho. _wimVM ehamVrb VUmdmMo OrdZ, {ZgJ©{da{hV àXoe Am{U àXyfU `m§nmgyZ _wº$Vm åhUyZ `m eoVKam§Mr bmoH${à`Vm Amho. nU ho Ka Oa ehamVrbM gwIgmo`tZr ^abob§ Agob, {VWohr Q>r.ìhr.MmM AmdmO Agob Va `m gd© gwIgmo`r nwadÊ`mV Ë`mM§ Z¡g{J©H$ ñdén hadyZ OmV§ Am{U ho gd© AmR>dS>çmVrb qH$dm _{hÝ`mVrb \$º$ 2 {Xdgm§gmR>rM.

{ZgJ©nyaH$ \$m_© hmD$g 35


naV \$m_© hm¡g EHo$H$Q>çm§Mr ZgVmV Va Vr EH${ÌV ñH$r_ AgVo. Jmdm§Vrb bmoH$m§H$Sy>Z O{_Zr {dH$V KoD$Z {dH$gH$ Ë`m§Mr AmIUr H$aVmV. àË`oH$ OmJoÀ`m VwH$S>çmbm añVm, drO, nmUr, nwadÊ`mMr `moOZm AmIVmV Am{U _J ~è`mM OUm§Mr gmogm`Q>rM V`ma hmoVo. \$m_© hmD$gMm àH$ën Z¡g{J©H$ dmVmdaUmVM Agy eH$Vmo. ehamnmgyZ Xya S>m|JamV {OWyZ CÎm_ Ñí` {XgVrb Aem {R>H$mUrM ho eŠ` hmoV§. åhUOo nwÊ`m-_w§~B©~m~V ~mobm`Mo Pmbo Va gømÐr AWdm H$moH$UmV hr `moOZm AgVo. ho ^mJ {VWë`m O¡dd¡{dÜ`mH$aVm, ^anya nmdgmH$aVm Am{U ZmOyH$ n[ag§ñWoH$aVm à{gÕ AmhoV. nU BWo àíZ \$º$ gømÐrMm Zmhr. _moR>çm à_mUmdarb ~Xbm§_wio hmoUmè`m {ZgJm©À`m ZwH$gmZrMm Amho. eoVr`mo½` O_rZ, {hado S>m|JaCVma, ñdÀN> AmoT>o `m§M§ énm§Va {g_|Q>, S>m§~a `m§Zr AmÀN>mXboë`m ^mJm§_Ü`o hmoV Amho. {ZgJm©bm, _mVrbm ~Zm`bm hOmamo dfª bmJVmV. nU Ë`mM§ Iam~ {XgUmè`m B_maVr-~§Jë`m§_Ü`o énm§Va \$ma nQ>H$Z hmoV§. `m ~Xbmbm gm_moa§ Om`bm, Ë`mà_mUo ~Xbm`bm {ZgJm©bm doi {_iV Zmhr Am{U hiyhiy VoWrb _mVr, PmS>§, àmUr Xw{_©i hmoD$Z Zï> hmoD$ bmJVmV. ho gJi§ bjmV KoVm "{dH$mg' hm {ZgJ© Am{U _mUyg `m§À`mgmR>r `mo½` H$s A`mo½`? `mM§ CÎma AWm©VM, A{Z`§{ÌV {dH$mgm_wio {ZgJm©Mm Zme hmoU§ A`mo½` Amho, hoM `oV§. Ago ho \$m_© hmD$gMo àH$ën Z¸$s ZwH$gmZ H$m` H$aVmV ho OmUyZ KoU§ _hÎdmM§ R>aob. Aem àH$ënmgmR>r hmoUmè`m 'Development' _wio S>m|Jam§Mo CVma ~XbVmV, PmS>§ VmoS>br OmVmV, ñ\$moQ>m§_wio nmÊ`mMo ómoV ~XbVmV, AmoT>o Va ZmhrgoM Ho$bo OmVmV. `m gdm©Mm EH${ÌV n[aUm_ Z¡g{J©H$ gmYZg§nÎmr d dÝ`OrdZmda hmoVmo Am{U ehar OrdZe¡br \$m_©hmD$gda ZoÊ`mÀ`m AÅ>mhmgmZo WmoS>çmM H$mimV {VWo EH$

36

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gmogm`Q>r AWdm Cneha V`ma hmoV§ d \$m_©hmD$gMm _yi {dMma Zmhrgm hmoVmo. OmJm KoVë`mda gd©àW_ VoWrb gd© PmS>moam, "amZQ>r', "H$mQ>oar' `m ZmdmImbr VmoS>bm OmVmo. `mV Xw{_©i Am°{H©$S> AgVmV. EImX§ _moR>§ PmS>§hr AgV§. `mZ§Va _moR>r `§Ì dmnéZ CVma gnmQ> Ho$bo OmVmV, AmoT>o ~wOdVmV. _J añË`m§H$aVm Iyn _moR>çm à_mUmda ImoXmB© Ho$br OmVo. `mnwT>o drO, nmUr nmohmoMdÊ`mgmR>r `§ÌUm, _J n§MVmam§{H$V Šb~hmD$g C^mabo OmVo. ho gd© Pmb§ H$s gwé hmoVo Ka ~m§YÊ`mMr à{H«$`m. {g_|Q>, bmoI§S>, {dQ>m Aem ~m§YH$m_ gm_mZmZo ~m§Ybob§ Q>moboO§J Ka BW§ C^§ amhV§. H$mhr Kam§À`m Hw§$nUmH$aVmM BVH§$ gm_mZ dmnaVmV H$s Ë`mVyZ 2-3 N>moQ>r Ka§ hmoVrb. `m gd© IQ>mQ>monmV ^modVmbMm n[aga COmS> Pmbobm AgVmo. _J {hadmB© CËnÞ H$aÊ`mM¨ H$m_ gwé hmoV§. `mV AJ«oga AgVo Vr eoH$S>mo \w$Q>m§da ngabobr {hadi (lawn). `m {hadirbm df©^a Am{U Am`wî`^a amoO nmUr Úmd§ bmJV§. ^modVr gw§Xa \w$bm§Mo VmQ>do, Am§~m-{M¸y$Mr PmS>§, gwé-gw~m^yi{Zb{Jar-Jwb_mohamMo nÅ>o V`ma hmoVmV Am{U _J WmoS>r PmS>r, {hadmB© {_imë`m_wio AmYr niyZ Jobobo nU eham§_Ü`ohr _mUgm§À`m gm{ÞÜ`mV amhUmao qeOra, ~wb~wb, _¡Zm, H$mdio ho njr naVy bmJVmV. _mUgmbm ~wOUmao _yiMo bmdè`m, ^oH$a, JéS>, amZSw>¸$a Zmhrgo hmoVmV. gmn, qdMy MwHy$Z AdVaVmV Am{U _mabo OmVmV. Ë`m§À`mM amZmV _yiMo àmUr naHo$ hmoVmV. àmÊ`m§Zm VmaoM§, XJS>mM§ Hw§$nU AmS>d§ `oV§. gm\$g\$mB©gmR>r JdV H$mTy>Z Q>mH$ë`mZ§ Ë`mÀ`m {~`m§da `oUmao, Ë`m§Mr nmVr KaQ>çmgmR>r dmnaUmao, Ë`mdarb {H$S>o ImUmao njr-àmUr {ZKyZ OmVmV. AmYr H$ad§XrÀ`m OmirV KaQ>§ H$aUmam njr {VWo


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{ZgJ©nyaH$ \$m_© hmD$g 37


Aem àH$ënm_Ü`o gd©M OmJm {dH$mgmgmR>r Z dmnaVm H$mhr Q>¸o$ ^mJ hm nyU©nUo {ZgJm©H$aVm, _mZdmÀ`m hñVjonmnmgyZ Xya R>odU§ Iyn JaOoM§ AgV§. _moR>çm OmJodarb Aem àH$ënmV {ZXmZ 15% ^mJ hm {ZgJm©H$aVm amIbm Omdm. hm ^mJ gd© g^mgXm§Zr {_iyZ amImdm, Ë`mM§ g§dY©Z emór` Ñ[ï>H$moZmVyZ H$amd§. AemàH$mao {ZgJm©Mm `mo½` g_Vmob amIë`mZoM "\$m_© hmD$g' g§H$ënZm {ZgJ©nyU© d {hadr amhrb. `mZ§VaMm nwT>Mm Q>ßnm åhUOo àH$ënmMr AmIUr. `mV gJù`mV {dÜd§g H$aUmam KQ>H$-añVo. Ë`m_wio H$_r bm§~rMo añVo, OmñVr nm`dmQ>m, EH${ÌV dmhZ§ bmdÊ`mMr gmo` Ag§ {Z`moOZ Ho$ë`mg H$_r hmZr hmoD$ eH$Vo. VgoM añVo H$mT>VmZm _Ü`o Ambobm PmS>moamd¥j-dobr _wimnmgyZ H$mTy>Z añË`mÀ`m H$S>oZo bmdë`mg Xw{_©i OmVtMo g§dY©Z Va hmoB©bM Am{U añË`m§Zm Mm§Jbr gmdbr, O¡{dH$ q^V {_iy eHo$b. Ë`m~amo~a añVm ImoXVmZm gJù`mV daMr 1 \w$Q>mVbr _mVr Or gdm©V gwnrH$ AgVo Vr ~mOybm H$mTy>Z R>odmdr. {VMm Cn`moJ Z§Va ~mJH$m_mV, PmS§ bmdVmZm hmoVmo Am{U ~mhoéZ nwÝhm _mVr AmUmdr bmJV Zmhr. àË`oH$ ßbm°Q>bm doJi§ Hw§$nU AgÊ`mMr JaO Ia§ Va ZgVo. ZwgV§ OmJm Hw$R>n`ªV Amho ho H$iÊ`mH$aVm d AdmñVd gwajoÀ`m H$maUm§H$aVm 8-10 \w$Q>r Hw§$nU H$aUo åhUOo Ë`mH$aVm dmnaÊ`mV `oUmè`m gmYZg§nÎmrMm ({g_|Q>, bmoI§S>, Vmam, XJS> B.) ZmeM. Ë`mEodOr PwSw>nm§Mo O¡{dH$ Hw§$nU OmJmhr XmIdob Am{U àmUr-nú`m§Zm Amgam XoB©b. `m H$aVmÀ`m OmVr Xoer Am{U Am¡fYr Agë`mg Vmohr

38

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âbmoam åhUOo H$m` Va EImÚm àXoemV AmT>iUmè`m EHy$U EH$ dZñnVtMr gyMr. CXm. OiJmd {OëømV AmT>iUmè`m gd© dZñnVtMr BË`§^yV _m{hVr 'Flora of Dist. Jalgaon' _Ü`o AgUma. `m J«§Wm_Ü`o Ë`m ^mJmVrb àË`oH$ dZñnVrMo ~mø énmMo dU©Z, \w$bU§, \$iU§, h§Jm_, ñWm{ZH$ Zmd, emór` Zmd, aoIm{M̧, N>m`m{M̧ B. {ddo{MV Ho$bob§ AgV§. na§Vw ho âbmoam dZñnVr Aä`mgH$m§ZmM (Botanists) dmnaU§ gmo`rM§ R>aV§. gm_mÝ` _mUgmH$aVm ~mOmamV H$mhr \>>sëS> JmB©S> (Field Guide) CnbãY AmhoV. `mV \w$bm§Mo, PmS>m§Mo d OdiyZ H$mT>bobo \$moQ>mo d gmÜ`m ^mfoVrb dU©Z AgV§. Ë`mdéZ PmS> ghO emoYyZ H$mT>Vm `oV§. PmS>m§à_mUoM njr, H$sQ>H$, \w$bnmIa§, gmn B. H$aVmMrhr \>>sëS> JmB©S>g² CnbãY AmhoV. nU AWm©V àË`oH$ PmS>mM§ Ag§ emñÌr` Zmd emoYyZ H$mT>U§ åhUOoM {ZgJ© OmUU§ Ag§ Z¸$sM Zmhr. na§Vw EImÚm PmS>mMr ~XbË`m F$VyVrb ê$n§ {ZaIyZ Ë`mM§ AmOy~mOyÀ`m {ZgJm©er Agbob§ ZmV§ OmUyZ KoÊ`mÀ`m à{H«$`oVhr AmnU {ZgJm©À`m nwîH$i Odi OmD$ eH$Vmo. Vo H$aV AgVmZm AmngyH$M Amnbm kmZH$mofhr dmTy> bmJVmo. IoS>çmVrb bmoH$m§Mm hm kmZH$mof bhmZnUmnmgyZM V`ma hmoD$ bmJVmo. Jwa§ Mmam`bm ZoUmè`m EImÚm ñWm{ZH$ _Zwî`mer Oar Jßnm _maë`m Var Amnë`mM {ZgJm©er Amnbr Zì`mZo AmoiI hmoD$ eHo$b. Amnë`mM H§$nZrV H$m_ H$aUmè`m àH$meH$Sy>Z Amåhm§bm AmOy~mOyÀ`m gaH$mar O§Jbm§{df`r, {VWë`m àmÊ`m§{df`r, Ë`m§À`m R>am{dH$ dmQ>m§{df`r, Oam Xw{_©i PmS>m§À`m OmJm§{df`r... {H$VrVar _m{hVr {_imbr.

Amnë`m `m {ZgJ© àdmgmMr gwédmV AmnU PmS>m§nmgyZM H$é`mV>! H§$nZrÀ`m n[agamV AgUmè`m H$mhr à_wI PmS>m§Mr gyMr Imbr XoV AmhmoV. `mVrb EImX§ Var Amnë`m dmQ>oda, {IS>H$s~mhoa \w$bb§ AWdm \$ib§ Amho H$m? ho ~KÊ`mnmgyZ AmnU gwédmV H$é`m. `m PmS>mda AmnU H$m` nm{hb§V, Vo OiJmdmV BVaÌ Hw$R>o Amho H$m, Ë`mMr AmoiI H$er Pmbr B. {df`r OmUyZ ¿`m`bm Amåhm§bm Z¸$sM AmdS>ob. H$Sw>{Z§~, XwYim (Hw$S>m), {MMmobm, Xhr _waZ, H$S>B©, {hda, I¡a, ~ohS>m, Ambo (~maVm|S>r), gmXS>m, EoZ, ~o§\y$b ({~ã~m), nig, ~hmdm, H$mQ>oYm_U, _moB©. {ZgJ©nÌ 2 {S>g|~a _{hZm... N>mZ W§S>r nS>br hmoVr. nhmQ>o Pw§Ow_w§OwÀ`mdoir Amåhr Vù`mda njr nmhm`bm OmUma hmoVmo. CR>bmo Voìhm COmS>m`bm gwédmVhr Pmbr ZìhVr. A§WéUmVyZ ~mhoa nS>ë`m nS>ë`m nm` J°barH$S>o dibo. JwéHw$bÀ`m 602 À`m J°barV C^§ amhÿZ _r nú`m§À`m hmbMmbtMm A§XmO KoD$ ~KV hmoVo. nU AOyZ ~oQ>o ~mhoa nS>bo ZìhVo. W§S>r_wio Vohr JmaR>bo AgmdoV. n§ImV gmR>dbobr D$~ gmoS>m`Mr Ë`m§Mr AOyZ V`mar Zgmdr. Ja_ MhmMm H$n KoD$Z ~mhoa `oB©n`ªV EImX-XmoZ nú`m§Zr g_moaÀ`m H$Sy>qZ~mda hOoar bmdbr hmoVr. dm°~©ba (Warbler) OmVrMo ho njr ghO AmoiIVm `oU§ AdKS> AgV§. Xw{~©U S>moù`mbm bmdon`ªV Vmo CS>mbmhr hmoVm.... _J Xw{~©Ur, H°$_oam, dhr, noZ B. bdmOå`mg{hV Amåhr Vù`mH$S>o {ZKmbmo. amOm ^moO H±${Q>Z_YyZ ~mhoa nS>Umè`m

48

{ZgJ©nÌ


gm§S>nmÊ`mda 2-3 Ymo~r (Wagtail) Ý`mhmarbm Ambo hmoVo. hm njr \$º$ {hdmù`mV Amnë`mH$S>o ñWbm§V[aV hmoD$Z `oVmo. Hw$R>ë`mhr àXoemV H$mhr njr ho {VWboM a{hdmgr AgVmV, df©^a Vo Ë`m EH$mM {R>H$mUr amhVmV, KaQ>r ~m§YVmV, A§S>r KmbVmV, {n„§ dmT>dVmV. na§Vw H$mhr njr _mÌ nma XwéZ {h_mb`, bS>mI, AJXr a{e`m, `wamonmVyZXoIrb Amnë`mH$S>o `oVmV. {VWbr JmoR>Umar W§S>r Ë`m§Zm Agø hmoD$ bmJbr H$s Vo Amnë`m {dfwdÎm¥dr` àXoemV {OWo {OWo Ë`m§Zm AZwHy$b Amgao AmhoV Aem {R>H$mUr `oVmV. àË`oH$ nú`mÀ`m JaOm doJdoJù`m AgVmV. Ë`m_wio H$mhr njr eoVmÀ`m ~mOybm, H$mhr dñVrÀ`m ^modVmbr, H$mhr XmQ> PmS>r_Ü`o Va ~aoMgo nmUWi OmJm§da (Wetlands) `oVmV. Ë`m_wio ho njr EImÚm OmJoMo XOm©Xe©H$ (Indicator) ~Zy eH$VmV. Ë`m_wio hm Ymo~r ~KyZ Amåhm§bm Vù`mda AOyZhr H$mhr njr {XgUma Aer Amem dmQ>br. H$maU Ymo~r hm nmÊ`mOdi, Vù`mOdi `oD$Z dmñVì` H$aUmam njr Amho... hm {dMma _ZmV AgVmZmM EH$m N>moQ>çm nú`mÀ`m dQ>dQ>rZo bj doYbo. hm hmoVm "amIr dQ>dQ>çm' qH$dm Ashy Prinia. Zmdmà_mUoM Vmo EImÚm \$m§Xrda ~gyZ ~amM H$mi dQ>dQ> H$aV amhVmo. Vgm ghOr gd©Ì {XgUmam hm njr. ~wb~wb, _¡Zm, H$mdio ho Zoh_rMo njrhr Amgnmg {XgV hmoVo. `m gJù`m§À`m hmbMmbr Ý`mhmiV Amåhr Vù`mOdi nmoMbmo. COì`m ~mOyÀ`m dmQ>obm OmD$Z Vù`m^modVr \o$ar _mabr Va ~aoM njr OdiyZ {XgVrb åhUyZ Amåhr Vr dmQ> Yabr. gd©àW_ Amåhm§bm {Xgbo eoH$mQ>o åhUOoM Black Winged Stilt.... `mMmM AW© Xy{fV nmUr Vù`mV {eaV AgUma. COì`m ~mOyÀ`m CVmamdéZ _Jmer Ambob§ H±${Q>ZMo gm§S>nmUr Amåhr MmbV Agboë`m dmQ>odéZ AmoKiV S>mdrH$S>o Vù`mbm {_iV hmoV§. {VWoM ho Jwbm~r H$mS>çm§gmaIo

nm` AgUmao eoH$mQ>o {H$S>o {Q>nV hmoVo. Am_Mr Mmhÿb bmJVmM Vo Oam ImbÀ`m ~mOybm Jobo Am{U hiwdma nm` Q>mH$sV>Ë`m§Zr {H$S>o {Q>nÊ`mMo H$m_ gwé R>odb§. WmoS>§ nwT>o Vù`mV 10-15 ~XH$m§Mm Wdm g§WnUo nmÊ`mda Va§JV hmoVm. Amåhr S>moù`mbm Xw{~©U bmdbr - Spot Billed Duck. H$mù`m MmoMrÀ`m Q>moH$mbm {ndim {R>nH$m Agë`mZo Ë`mbm Spot Billed Duck åhUVmV. WmoS>§ nwT>§ OmD$Z N>m`m{MÌ ¿`m`À`m {dMmamV AgVmZmM Vmo Am»Im Wdm OmoamV Šd°H$ Šd°H$ AmdmO H$aV Vù`mÀ`m _Ü`mH$S>o Jobm. {VWo Ë`m§MoM H$mhr ^mB©-~m§Yd AOyZhr Oamgo {ZÐmdñWoV hmoVo. Amnë`mM ~m§Ydm§À`m MmhþbrZo Ë`m§Zr Amnë`m Jw~Jw~rV earamV Kwgdboë`m _mZm ~mhoa H$mTy>Z n§I \$S>\$S>bo Am{U Wì`mV gm_rb Pmbo. Vù`mÀ`m H$mR>rM Agboë`m nm§Jmè`mda H>o>boë`m _MmUmda MT>Ê`mMm à`ËZ H$éZ nm{hbm. _mÌ Vmo \$mob R>aë`mZo Amåhr {VWë`mM H$Q²>Q>çmda R>mU _m§Sy>Z ~gbmo. N>mZ W§S>r hmoVr, YwH§$ nS>b§ hmoV§. Ë`mV g_moaM§ Vi§ AOyZM gwaoI {XgV hmoV§. EH$m {R>H$mUr nmÊ`mda ZOa pñWa AgVmZmM AMmZH$ nmÊ`mImbyZ EH$ bmbga H$mi§ S>moH§$ da Amb§, nmR>monmR> EH$ N>moQ>§g§ ~XH$ Amb§. ho Amho Xm~{MH$ qH$dm Little Grebe. ~XH$m§_Yrb gJù`mV bhmZ AmH$mamM§ EH$_od ~XH$. Ë`m_wio _amR>rV Ë`m§Zm "{Q>~wH$br' åhUVmV. nmÊ`mda `oD$Z Vo bJoM Imbr Job§. ~amM doi _r Vo da `oÊ`mMr dmQ> nhmV hmoVo Va Vo ^bË`mM {R>H$mUmhÿZ da Amb§. `m ~XH$m§Mr nmÊ`mImbr amhmÊ`mMr j_Vm H$_mb Amho. VodT>çmV nmÊ`mV erfm©gZ H$aV Agbob§ ~XH$ {Xgb§. Ë`mÀ`m Q>moH$Xma eonQ>rdéZM Amåhr AmoiIb§ H$s ho Amho Pintail. hr ~XH§$ Zoh_rM {Zå_§ eara nmÊ`mImbr KoD$Z AÞ^jU

{ZgJ©nÌ 49


H$aVmV. hr emH$mhmar ~XH§$ AmhoV. H$modi§ JdV, eodmi§, {~`m, \$i§ B. Ë`m§M§ AmdS>V§ ImÚ. `mCbQ> {Q>~wH$br Am{U Spot Billed Duck ho N>moQ>o _mgo, IoH$S>çm§gma»`m àmÊ`m§da Vmd _maVmV..... Xm~{MH$, {nZ Q>ob, ñnm°Q> {~ëS> S>H$ `m§{edm` H$m°_Z Q>rb Am{U JS>dmb Aer AOyZ XmoZ àH$maMr ~XH§$hr `m Vù`mV {dhaV hmoVr. gmYmaU 5 Vo 6 àH$maMr ~XH§$ `m Vù`mV AmT>iVmV. H$Xm{MV ~mOyÀ`m ZP S>°_ da AOyZhr doJir ~XH§$ AgmdrV Vr nmhmdr åhUyZ Amåhr Am_Mm Vi hmbdm`M§ R>adb§. Vù`mbm M¸$a _méZM ZP S>°_H$S>o Om`M§ R>adb§. g§Ü`mH$mir naV BWoM `oD$Z ~XH§$ ~Ky`mV Ag§ R>adyZ Amåhr Vmo H$Å>m gmoS>bm. Mma nmdb§ Mmbbmo VmoM Vù`mÀ`m _mJÀ`m ~mOyÀ`m EH$m C§M H$Sy>qZ~mda gn©JéS> ~gbobm {Xgbm. AÞgmIirVrb gdm}ƒ ^jH$hr `m n[agamV Amho ho nmhÿZ ~a§ dmQ>b§. gmn hoM AmdS>V§ ImÚ Agbobm hm ^ì` JéS> _moR>çm a{gH$VoZo eri KmbVmo. AmH$memV {H$Vrhr C§Mmda Jobm Var Ë`mMr Vr d¡{eîQ>çnyU©, _Ywa Varhr VrúU eri ghO bj doYyZ KoVo. Vù`mÀ`m H$monè`mda AgUmè`m 2-3 A§OZ d¥jm§Zm {Oìhmù`mZo digm KmbyZ Amåhr nwT>o Jobmo. {Oìhmù`mZo EdT>çmMgmR>r H$s, Am»»`m n[agamV EdT>o _moR>o dmT>bobo A§OZ Ho$di hoM AmhoV>! Vù`mÀ`m H$S>oH$S>obm {dgmdm KoV Agboë`m ~XH$m§Zm ~KV ~KV Amåhr Vù`mÀ`m q^Vrn`ªV Ambmo VmoM EH$m I§S>çmZo nmÊ`mV Sw>~H$s _méZ _mgm nH$S>bm Am{U {VWë`mM EH$m nmQ>rda ~gyZ _Q>H$mdbm. O¡Z B[aJoeZÀ`m nmQ>rda ~gboë`m `m I§S>çmMo N>m`m{MÌ AJXr H§$nZrM§ BWë`m O¡d {d{dYVoer g»` Xe©{dUma§ R>amd§ Ag§M {_imb§. Amåhr nwÝhm _w»` añË`mbm bmJyZ ZP S>°_H$S>o Mmby bmJbmo. COì`m hmVmbm dhmV Agboë`m AmoT>çmda nm§Sy>

50

{ZgJ©nÌ

(Pond Heron), nmUH$m|~S>r hmoVoM. hr _§S>ir ~è`mMXm BWo {XgVmV.

{edm` White eye gmaIo H$mhr {M_wH$bo njrhr \w$bboë`m PmS>m§da Ý`mhmar H$aÊ`mV _¾ hmoVo. YaUmnmer nmohmoMbmo _mÌ Am{U Jma hdoÀ`m PmoVm§Zr Am{U g_moa {XgV Agboë`m ~XH$m§À`m g§»`oZo _Z EH$X_ à\w${„V Pmbo. àW_ bj Job§ Vo AË`§V _moR>çm Ho$eaQ> a§JmÀ`m "MH«$dmH$' ~XH$m§H$S>o. hrM ~XH§$ gJù`mV OmñV AmdmO H$aV {\$aV hmoVr. bS>mI_Ü`o Amåhr Ë`m§Zm A§S>çm{nbm§g{hV nm{hb§ hmoV§... EdT>çm XwéZ Amnë`mH$S>o Ho$di Mma _{hZo nmhþUo åhUyZ `oUmè`m `m ~XH$m§M§ AmnU CÎm_ AmXam{VÏ` Ho$b§ nm{hOo Ag§ ghO _ZmV Amb§. ~è`mMXm _moR>çm g§»`oZo AmT>iUmar Common Coot hr BWo hmoVr. g§nyU© H$mim a§J Am{U \$º$ MmoM Am{U S>moŠ`mda nm§T>am {Q>im AgUmar hr Hy$Q> OUy H$mhr dmaH$ar n§WmVbrM dmQ>VmV. Ë`m_wioM _amR>rV Ë`m§Zm "Zm_m' åhUVmV. Oam XmQ> nmU dZñnVr Agboë`m ^mJmV EH$ gw§Xa Om§^im a§J M_H$bm. hr hmoVr Om§^ir nmUH$m|~S>r (Purple Moorhen). `m ~amo~arZo BWo nbrH$S>À`m Vù`mda nm{hbobr ~XH§$ hmoVrM {edm` H$mhr doJir ~XH§$hr hmoVr. `mVrb EH$ åhUOo Shoveller. Shovel åhUOoM \$mdS>çmÀ`m AmH$mamMr MmoM Agbob§ ho ~XH$. H$mhr njr ho Ho$di H$mR>m§daM amhUmao AmhoV, Ë`mV Sand Piper, Plover, ~Jio, {Q>Q>dr B. hmoVo. `m gJù`m§Mr `mXr ~ZdU§ Mmby AgVmZmM AmH$memVyZ EH$ njr doJmZo Imbr Ambm Am{U nmÊ`mdéZ CS>V CS>V Q>oH$S>rÀ`m nbrH$S>o Jobm. hm hmoVm AOyZ EH$ ^jH$-XbXb ggmUm (Marsh


{VWë`m gd© nú`m§À`m, Ë`m§À`m A{YdmgmÀ`m, AmOy~mOyÀ`m H$Mè`mÀ`m, B. Zm|Xr KoVë`mda Amåhr naV {\$abmo. Harrier).

{Xdg^amM§ H$m_ g§ndyZ g§Ü`mH$mir nwÝhm EH$Xm Vù`mH$S>o Amåhr _moMm© didbm. AmVm Spot-bills Mr g§»`m Oam dmT>br hmoVr Am{U Pintails Mr H$_r Pmbr hmoVr EdT>mM H$m` Vmo \$aH$. naV EH$Xm Vù`mbm \o$ar _mam`M§ R>adb§. Vù`mÀ`m _mJÀ`m ~mOybm OmV hmoVmo VmoM EH$ _moR>m njr Am_À`m S>moŠ`mdéZ CS>V CS>V g_moaÀ`m H$S>çmH$S>o Ponmdbm. Amåhr eŠ` {VVH$m AmdmO Z H$aVm Ë`m H$S>çmH$S>o Jobmo. gmoba Hw§$nUmAmSy>Z ~amM H$mi Vmo hþS>H$Ê`mMm à`ËZ Ho$bm nU nR²>R>çm H$mhr {XgV ZìhVm. EH$m {R>H$mUr {dð>m nSy>Z nSy>Z nm§T>am Pmbobm ^mJ {Xgbm. Ë`mÀ`m Oam da nm{hb§ Va Amåhr OdiOdi {MËH$mabmoM. Amåhr M¸$ l¥§Jr Kw~S>mMr EH$ OmoS>r ~KV hmoVmo. Vr {dð>m {Xgbr ZgVr Va Ë`m§Zm emoYyZ H$mT>U§ Ho$di AeŠ`

BVHo$ Vo Ë`m H$S>çmÀ`m a§JmV [_giyZ OmV hmoVo. ñdV:À`mM a§JmMr {_iVrOwiVr OmJm emoYyZ ~gU§ hr Ë`m§Mr Im{g`V. XrS> Vo XmoZ \y$Q> C§MrM§, S>moŠ`mda XmoZ qeJmgmaIr {ng§ AgUma§ ho nm§T>a§, Vn{H$ar Kw~S> _moR>§ XoIU§ Am{U é~m~Xma {XgV hmoV§. hm njr C§Xra, Kwer ImV Agë`mZo eoVr H$aVmhr AË`§V Cn`moJr Amho. Amåhr {H$VrVar doi Xw{~©U YéZ hmV XwIon`ªV AJXr A§Yma nS>on`ªV Ë`m§Zm ~KV hmoVmo. eodQ>r {XgoZmg§ Pmë`mda Amåhr {VWyZ {ZKmbmo. {XdgmMm eodQ> Agm CÎm_ Pmë`mZo Amåhr IwerV hmoVmo. H$mJXmdaMr `mXrhr 40-50 À`m KamV nmoMbr hmoVr...

Pao (Springs) EImÚm àXoemV ~ma_mhr Pao hr AË`§V _hÎdmMr d g§doXZerb ~m~ AgVo. {deofV: Amnë`mgma»`m _mog_r hdm_mZmÀ`m àXoemV, Á`mV nmdgmù`mZ§VaÀ`m H$moaS>çm _{hÝ`m§V Pam hm AË`§V _hÎdmMm nmÊ`mMm ómoV AgVmo. dÝ`Ordm§H$aVm Am{U _mUgmH$aVmhr. na§Vw AbrH$S>o O{_ZtÀ`m _moR>çm à_mUmVrb CbmT>mbt_wio, gwé§J bmdyZ Ho$boë`m ñ\$moQ>m§_wio (blasting) ho Pao Zmhrgo hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo. Ë`m_wio Aem àH$maÀ`m àXoemV H$m_ H$aVmZm {d{eï> H$miOr KoUo _hÎdmM>o!

{ZgJ©nÌ 51


Obg§dY©Z

nmUr hm {ZgJm©MmM EH$ ^mJ.. {OVH$m {ZgJ© gj_ {VVH$s nmÊ`mMr CnbãYVm A{YH$ Am{U {Ma§VZ. CXm. Amnë`mH$S>o {OWo {OWo amIbobr O§Jb§ AWdm Xodam`m AmhoV Aem {R>H$mUr df©^a {Q>H$Umao nmÊ`mMo Pao AmT>iVmV. Vo H$em_wio Va {VWbm AmOy~mOyMm {ZgJ©, n`m©daU dfm©Zwdf© EH$g§Y Amho. åhUOo H$m` Va {VWë`m AmoT>çm§À`m CJ_mOdiM§ O§Jb CÎm_ AgV§, AmoT>çm§Mo H$mR> PmS>rZo Jƒ ^abobo AgVmV, AmOy~mOyÀ`m CVmam§darb amZdm {Q>Hy$Z AgVmo, `m gJù`m_wio _mVrMr Yynhr hmoV Zmhr Am{U {ZgJm©Vrb AZoH$ Ordm§Zm {VWo Amgam {_iVmo, {VWbr Z¡g{J©H$ n[ag§ñWm gj_ amhÊ`mg _XV hmoVo Am{U `m gJù`mMm EH${ÌV n[aUm_ åhUOo {Ma§VZ nmUr. we need to mimic nature !

IaoVa AmoT>çm-ZÚm§À`m CJ_mOdi, CVmam§da, AmoT>çmH$mR>r Mm§Jb§ O§Jb hdo. `mH$aVm Imbrb Jmoï>r nmim`bm hì`mV 1. g¨nyU© nmUbmoQ> joÌmMm (catchment) Mm {dMma. Vo gwYmab§ Va Ë`mMr nmUr gmR>dm`Mr j_Vm dmT>ob. 2. EH$mdoir EH$ nmUbmoQ> joÌ. concentrated efforts _hÎdmMo. Xhm Jmdm§V Xhm Vbmd ~m§Ybo Var {Paß`m_wio Vo nmUr CnbãY hmoD$Z dmna H$aUo WmoS>mH$miM eŠ` hmoVo. Ë`mnojm

52

Obg§dY©Z

EH$mM JmdmÀ`m catchment _Ü`o gd© à`ËZ H|${ÐV H$amdoV. 3. nwT>rb V§Ì§ am~{dU§ JaOoM§ A) XJS>r ~§Ymao - Loose boulder dams ~) Gully Plugging H$) AmoT>çmH$mR>À`m àXoem§Zm g§ajU. S>) T>mgiboë`m H$mR>m§Mr XwéñVr (stabilisation) XJS - _mVr B. dmnéZ, {g_|Q Mm dmna Z HaVm. B) AmoT>çm_Ü`o XJS>mMr Vir Diversion ponds for percolation

\$) CJ_mOdiÀ`m àXoem§Zm g§ajU - (enclosures) XJS>r VQ>~§Xr/Vmb qH$dm H$mQ>çm§Mo Hw§$nU d O¡{dH$ Hw§$nU H$éZ N>moQ>o N>moQ>o àXoe g§a{jV H$aVm `oVmV. J) AmoT>çmH$mR>r {d{eï> dZñnVtMr bmJdS> (H$a§O, C§~a, AOw©Z) h) AmoT>çmÀ`m nmÌmV Amgao {Z{_©Vr (instream habitat development)

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nwÊ`mVrb {hadmB© 59


AgVmV. Ë`m§Zm ñdV§Ì ApñVÎd, JaOm, OrdZ Amho. Amnë`mbm AmOy~mOyM§ ho OrdZMH«$ A~m{YV R>odm`bm Z¸$sM AmdS>ob. nU Amnë`mM ZH$iV AmnU nQ>H$Z BHC nmdS>a Q>mHy$Z ho OrdZ ghO CX²ÜdñV H$aVmo. ho Q>miVm `oB©b... Z¸$sM>! nmbmnmMmoim... H$Mam? ~mJ gm\$gy\$ R>odÊ`mÀ`m ZmXmV AmnU PmS>m§M§ AÞM Va Zï> H$aV Zmhr Zm... Ia§Va hmo`>! ~mJoV nS>bobm nmbmnmMmoim PmSy>Z gm\$ H$éZ OmiÊ`mnojm Vmo àË`oH$ PmS>mÀ`m ~w§Ü`mer VgmM amhÿ {Xbm Va H¥${Ì_ IVm§Mr H$mhrM JaO nS>Uma Zmhr. df©^amV PmS>m§Mm Q>dQ>drVnUm, `oUmar \w$b§ BVH§$M H$m` nU PmS>mda nS>Umar H$sS> `mVhr \$aH$ OmUdob. _mdm, nm§T>ar _mer, Air... H$sS>? Ia§M `m_wio PmS>m§Zm H$m` Anm` hmoVmo? hr H$sS> Amho H$s H$sQ>H$m§_Yrb {d{dYVm>! Mm§Jë`màH$mao nmofU Pmboë`m PmS>mbm {H$S>çm§_wio H$mhrhr \$aH$ nS>V Zmhr. nU Oam _mdm {Xgbm H$s _§S>ir OmoaOmoamV amoJmoa gmaIr ^`mZH$ Am¡fY§ ~mJ^a \$dmam`bm bmJVmV. Aer H$sQ>H$ZmeH§$ Ooìhm H$sS> _mé eH$VmV Va _mUgmda Ë`mMm H$m` n[aUm_ hmoB©b? ho Am¡fY _mVrV {_giyZ {dhrarV OmD$Z naV Amnë`mM nmÊ`mV `oV§. ^mOrnmë`mda \$dmaë`mg Va WoQ> Amnë`m nmoQ>mVM OmV§. åhUOoM ho Am¡fY naV Amnë`mMH$S>o `oV§. Ia§Va BHC, DDT gmaIr Am¡fY§ OJ^amV dmnaÊ`mda ~§Xr Amho. nU AmnU Oam _w§½`m§Mr am§J {Xgbr H$s Ë`mda nyS> Q>mHy$Z _moH$io hmoVmo. `mMr Ia§M JaO Amho H$m? 'Pest control' H$aVmZm {H$VrVar agm`Z§ _méZ

60

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AmnU S>mg, _mem, Pwaio, nmbr `m§Zm _maVmo. gm\$g\$mB© hdrM nU `mbm BVa _mJ© AmhoV H$s. Am_À`m ~mJoV qH$dm KamV Joë`m 13 dfm©V EH$hr H$sQ>H$ZmeH$ _mabob§ Zmhr nU AmÎmmn`ªV H$sS> nSy>Z PmS> _ob§ Ag§ EH$Xmhr Pmbob§ Zmhr. N>mZ N>mZ ~mJm Agbobr _§S>ir Xa AmR>dS>çmV Zo_mZo Am¡fYo \$dmaVmV. BVa _mUgm§Zm Ë`mMm Ìmg hmoVmo Am{U naV 4-5 {XdgmV H$sS> nwÝhm hOa. Vo Am¡fY \$dméZ AmnU eÌy§~amo~a {_Ì H$sQ>H$hr _maVmo Am{U njrhr. Amnë`m ~mJoV Hw$R>o CKS>r _mVr {XgVo? H$m \$º$ {hadi Am{U Caboë`m ^mJmV \$aer Amho? \$aer Agob Va nmUr H$g§ _waUma Am{U {hadi Agob Va nmUr H$g§ nwaUma? {hadirMm gwImdUmam Jmadm nmUr Q>§MmB©Zo Ooìhm S>moù`mVrb nmUr gwH$dob Voìhm H$m`? AmO bhmZ ~mJ Agmo, CÎm_ b±S>ñHo$qnJ Ho$bob§ JmS>©Z Agmo qH$dm Am`.Q>r. H§$nÝ`m§Mr Amdmao AgmoV, {nÊ`m`mo½` ewÕ Ho$boë`m nmÊ`mZoM `oWrb bm°Ýg nmogbr OmVmV. Amnë`m CîU H${Q>~§Yr`, H$_r nmdgmÀ`m àXoemV "bm°Z' hr M¡Z nadS>Umar Amho H$m? gm§S>nmÊ`mda à{H«$`m H$éZ Vo nmUr ~mJobm XoVm `oU§ eŠ` Zmhr H$m? ~mJoMr gwédmV H$aVmZm Agbobr _mVr, _wé_ B. gm{hË` H$mTy>Z Q>mH$U§, Ë`mda CÎm_ bmb _mVr ngaU§. _mVr~amo~a Ë`mV eoUIV, BVa IV§, BHC EH$Ì H$éZ Ë`mda bm°Z d emo{^d§V \w$b§ bmdU§, hr Pmbr Zoh_rMr ~mJ V`ma H$am`Mr à{H«$`m. `mV bmb _mVr Am{U BHC, amgm`{ZH$ IVo Q>miVm `oVrb? hr bmb _mVr {OWyZ IUyZ AmUVmV {VWë`m S>m|Jam§M§ Z§Va H$m` hmoV§ Vo nm{hb§ H$s ~mJ H$éZ§ {hadmB© CËnÞ H$aU§ Amho H$s Zï> H$aU§ Amho ho g_Oob. ho H$aÊ`mnojm eoUIV, nmbmnmMmoim, Jm§Sy>iIV dmnéZ CÎm_ gwnrH$


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nwÊ`mVrb {hadmB© 61


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gwairV H$m`©aV AgVo Va Ooìhm "{ZgJ©' hm "Z¡g{J©H$' AdñWoV Onbm OmB©b. na§Vw AmÎmm {ZgJ© AmnU Amnë`mbm hdm Vgm BVŠ`m _moR>çm à_mUmda ~XbV AmhmoV H$s Ë`mVë`m {d{dY KQ>H$m§Mr ZyVZrH$aUmMr j_Vmhr AmnU KmbdV AmhmoV. ZyVZrH$aUj_Vm åhUOo H$m` Va {ZgJm©Vbr M{H«$`Vm (cycling). EH$m à{H«$`oVb§ A§{V_ CnO (output) - (gm_mÝ` ^mfoV H$Mam), Xwgè`m à{H«$`oMm H$ƒm _mb (input) åhUyZ dmnab§ OmV§. Ë`m_wio {ZgJm©V g§VwbZ amIb§ OmV§. CXm. PmS>mMm nmbm O{_Zrda nS>Vmo. Vmo O{_ZrVbr gyú_Ord ImVmV Am{U ~Xë`mV O{_ZrVbr nmofH$Ðì`§ dmT>dVmV Or naV PmS>m§À`m dmT>rgmR>r Cn`moJr nS>VmV. `m d Aem M{H«$`Vo_wio {Q>Hy$Z am{hbobr O§Jb§, qH$dm BVa n[ag§ñWm _mZdmbm bmJUmè`m gd© JaOm§H$aVm H$ƒm _mb nwadVmV. amoOÀ`m dmnamV AgUmè`m Jmoï>tMr `mXr H$éZ àË`oH$mM§ OrdZMH«$ ~Zdb§ Va eodQ>r AmnU {ZgJm©VbmM Hw$R>bmVar KQ>H$ dmnaV AgVmo ho g_Oy eHo$b. Va Agm {ZgJ© Oa Amnë`mbm {Ma§VZ dmnam`Mm Agob Va Ë`m dmnamÀ`m ~Xë`mV AmnU Ë`mbm H$ƒm _mb naV Úmdm bmJob VaM Ë`mMr ZyVZrH$aUj_Vm A~m{YV amhÿ eHo$b. Xwgar Jmoï> åhUOo Ë`mMm doJ. Z¡g{J©H$nUo ZyVZrH$aUmMm doJ Am{U Ë`mVë`m {d{dY KQ>H$m§À`m dmnamMm doJ `mVbm g_Vmobmhr amIbm Jobm nm{hOo. Ia§Va Vmo g_Vmob JmR>Ê`mÀ`m AmnU Iyn _mJo nS>bmo Amho na§Vw Vmo JmR>Vm `oU§ AeŠ` Amho Ag§hr Zmhr. Ho$di gy`m©Mr D$Om© dmnéZ `m èhmg hmoV Mmbboë`m {ZgJm©M§ nwZé‚mrdZ Ho$b§ Va Vo eŠ` Amho, Ag§ dmQ>V§. eŠ` H$g§ Amho ho ~KÊ`mH$aVm naV AmnU noZmM§M CXm. KoD$`m. Oa noZ AmnU ZyVZrH$aUj_ Aem ómoVmnmgyZ CXm. bmH$S>mnmgyZ ~Zdb§ Va Ë`m§À`m OrdZMH«$mVrb Q>ßno d dmhVyH$


XmoÝhrhr H$_r H$aVm `oVrb. ñQ>rbnmgyZ noZ ~ZdÊ`mnojm Oa bmH$S>mnmgyZ ~Zdb§ Va Ë`mV `m OrdZMH«$mVbr EH$ gmIir H$_r hmoD$ eH$Vo. bmHy$S>hr O§JbmVyZ bm§~yZ dmhVyH$ H$éZ Z AmUVm bmJdS> Ho$boë`m àXoemVyZ AmUb§ Va _yiÀ`m n[ag§ñWoMm èhmghr Wm§~dVm `oB©b. `m_wio EH§$XaM `m OrdZMH«$mVbm D$O}Mm dmna H$_r hmoD$Z noZ Oamg§ n`m©daUnyaH$ H$aVm `oB©b. `m n`m©daUnyaH$nUmMo (gm_mÝ` ^mfoV Ecofriendly) doJdoJio Q>ßno AmhoV. gJù`mV daMm Q>ßnm åhUOo noZ Z dmnaU§>! Xwgam åhUOo Kar Ho$boë`m H$mOirMr emB© ~ZdyZ d XmamV Agboë`m PmS>mMr 6 B§M \$m§Xr H$mnyZ Q>mH$ ~ZdyZ Vo dmnaU§. {Vgam Q>ßnm åhUOo ZyVZrH$aUj_ nXmW© dmnéZ ~Zdbob§ noZ dmnaU§. Mm¡Wm Q>ßnm åhUOo Amnë`mM àXoemV ~Zdbob§ noZ dmnaU§ B. AmVm `mVë`m {H$Vr nm`è`m MT>m`À`m ho àË`oH$mZ§ Amnmnë`m Hw$dVrZwgma R>admd§. daÀ`m XmoZ nm`è`m§n`ªV nmohmoMU§ OdiOdi AeŠ`M Amho ho Ia§ Agob nU Ë`m nm`-`m {ZXmZ _m{hVr Agm`bm hì`mV. "dmnam Am{U \o$H$m' dñVy (disposable) dmnaÊ`mMr Amnbr gd` Va AË`§V KmVH$ Amho. Iyn OmñV D$Om© IM© H$éZ AmnU Amnë`m _`m©{XV gmR>çmVbr g§gmYZ§ dmnéZ `m ßb°pñQ>H$À`m Am{U W_m©H$mobÀ`m dñVy V`ma H$aVmo Am{U EH$XmM dmnéZ Ë`m \o$Hy$Z XoVmo. Ë`m {ZgJm©V nwÝhm {_gië`mhr OmD$ eH$V ZmhrV. _J `m_wio EH$ ZdrZ _mH}$Q> V`ma Pmb§ Vo Hw$Oy eH$Umè`m "dmnam Am{U \o$H$m' dñVy ~ZdÊ`mM§. AmVm XJS>mnojm drQ> _D$ Ë`m_wio {ZpíMVM Aem dñVy dmnaU§ ~a§, na§Vw Amnbr hr gd`M dmB©Q> Amho ho AmnU OmUm`bm hd§. EH§$Xa H$m` hmoV§ Va Amnë`m `m gd`t_wio åhUm qH$dm H$mhrem AkmZm_wio åhUm, {ejUmV `m Jmoï>tMm A§V^m©d ZìhVm åhUyZ

åhUm, H$Mam, àXyfU, {ZgJm©Mm èhmg dmT>VM Mmbbm` Am{U ~amo~arZo ho gd© gwYmaÊ`mgmR>rXoIrb `§ÌUm dmT>V Mmbë`mV. EH$m Ñï>rH$moZmVyZ ho Mm§Jb§hr Amho nU Ë`mMmhr BVH$m {dn`m©g hmoVmo H$s naV EH$Xm VrM g§gmYZ§, Iyn gmar D$Om© dmnéZ AmnU ZrQ> H$é BpÀN>Vmo. `m_wio EH$m {R>H$mUM§ n`m©daU Oar gwYmab§ Var Xwgè`m Hw$R>ë`m Var {R>H$mUr Ë`mbm Pi nmohmoMbobrM AgVo. EH$ nmaS>§ Imbr OmV§ åhUyZ Xwga§ da OmV§. `mV Oa g_Vmob gmYm`Mm Agob Va AmnU H$aV Agboë`m àË`oH$ H¥$VrMr, dmnaV Agboë`m àË`oH$ dñVyMr nwZ:íM MmMnUr H$amdr bmJob. na§Vw `mH$aVm Amnë`mbm Amnbr _mZ{gH$Vm Va ~Xbmdr bmJobM Ë`m~amo~arZo OrdZe¡brhr ~Xbmdr bmJob. AWm©V d¡`{º$H$ nmVirdaÀ`m `m Jmoï>t~amo~a XoenmVirda, OmJ{VH$ nmVirda Am{W©H$ YmoaUmVhr ~Xb Ho$bo VaM AmnU hm g_Vmob gmYÊ`mÀ`m {XeoZo dmQ>Mmb H$é eHy$. gÜ`mMr gmYmaU _mZ{gH$Vm H$m` Amho Va OmñVrV OmñV n¡go H$_mdUo, _J Vo H$_mdÊ`mgmR>r Amamo½` nUmbm bmJb§ Var ~ohÎma. OmñV n¡go H$_dyZ Vo JaOonbrH$S>À`m AZoH$ Jmoï>tda IM© H$aUo Am{U Á`m Á`m H$mhr ZdZdrZ dñVy ~mOmamV `oVrb Ë`mVë`m OmñVrV OmñV Jmoï>tÀ`m Cn^moJmMr BÀN>m ~miJUo. `m _mZ{gH$Vo_wio hmoVo H$m` Va Amnbr OrdZe¡br hr Cn^moJdmXrM ~ZV Mmbbr Amho. {_Ì-_¡{ÌUrZo ZdrZ _mo~mB©b KoVbm Va Amnë`mbmhr Vmo hdmgm dmQ>Vmo. _J Ë`m _mo~mB©bMr _bm Ia§M {H$Vr JaO Amho Am{U Zgob Va Vmo AmnU KoD$ Z`o hm gmYm {ZU©` KoÊ`mMr Amnbr j_Vmhr `m Cn^moJdmXmZo H$mTy>Z KoVbr Amho. ZmoH$arÀ`m {R>H$mUr ~Xbr hdr AgVo Vr nJmadmT> ìhmdr åhUyZ. {H$Vr OUm§Zm ~Xbr KoD$Z IamoIa H$m_

{ZgJ©nyaH$ OrdZe¡br 65


dmT>dÊ`mV, O~m~XmarZo H$aÊ`mV ag AgVmo? AndmX AgVrbhr na§Vw _wÔm Agm Amho H$s OmñVrV OmñV Cn^moJ, M¡Z, Amam_ åhUOoM A§{V_ bú`. Ë`mVM g_mYmZ, OrdZmMm {dH$mg, `mda AmnU BVH$m S>moio PmHy$Z {dídmg R>odV AmhmoV H$s Ë`mV \$º$ AmnUM Zìho Va {ZgJ© Am{U Amnë`mM nwT>À`m {nT>çmhr ^aS>ë`m OmV AmhoV hohr AmnU OmUy eH$V Zmhr. JaO Amho Vr AmnU S>moi§ CKSy>Z OJÊ`mMr,

{ZgJm©M§ Am{U Amnb§ Z¸$s H$m` ZmV§ Amho ho OmUyZ KoÊ`mMr. Ag§ åhUy`mV H$s, AmÎmmn`ªV Amnë`mbm _m{hVrM ZìhV§ H$s Amnë`mbm H$m` _mhrV Zmhr. na§Vw Joë`m H$mhr XeH$mVë`m n`m©daUmVë`m g§emoYZm_wio, {d{dY emókm§À`m, VÎdmkm§À`m {dMma_§WZm_wio {ZgJm©M§ Amnë`m OrdZmVb§ ñWmZ Va Z¸$sM {gÕ Pmb§`. CUrd Amho Vo ho kmZ àË`oH$mn`ªV nmohmoMdÊ`mMr.

EImXr Jmoï> n`m©daUnyaH$ Amho AWdm Zmhr ho R>adÊ`mH$aVm H$mhr {ZH$f R>adVm `oVrb {ZH$f 1

dñVy Á`mnmgyZ ~Zbr Vmo H$ƒm _mb {ZgJm©À`m Hw$R>ë`m gmR>çmVyZ Ambm? A. ZyVZrH$aU-j_ ~. ZyVZrH$aU-Aj_

n`m©daUnyaH $ Amho ü Zmhr û$

5

dñVy dmnamH$aVm bmJUmar eº$s A. B§YZ/drO ~. _mZdr

û ü

ü û

6 dmna A. nwZdm©naj_Vm ~. dmnam Am{U \o$H$m

ü û

2 OrdZMH«$mVrb Q>ßno (processing) A. A{YH$ (3 d A{YH$) ~. H$_r (1 Vo 2)

û ü

7 JwUY_© A. Hw$Oy eH$Umam ~. Hw$Oy Z eH$Umam

ü û

3 dñVy {Z{_©Vr A. ñWm{ZH$ ~. BVaÌ - BVa eha/Xoe

ü û

8 dmnamMo n[aUm_ A. àXyfU- ñWm{ZH$/BVaÌ ~. àXyfU Zmhr

û ü

û ü

9 M{H«$` nwZdm©na (recycle) Ho$bobr dñVy Agob Va A. M{H«$` nwZdm©na B§YZ dmnéZ ~. M{H«$` nwZdm©©na {dZmB§YZ

û ü

4 {Z{_©Vrà{H$`oVrb gmYZ dmna A. B§YZmda MmbUmar `§Ì§ ~. hmVr/àË`j Z¡g{J©H$ D$O}da MmbUmar `§Ì§

66

{ZgJ©nyaH$ OrdZe¡br


{ZgJ© g§dY©Z - _mUgmÀ`mgwÕm ^ë`mgmR>r! V§ÌkmZmZo _mUyg gVV {ZgJm©bm n`m©` emoYV Ambm Amho. ho H$aÊ`mV gmo` Amho, Zd{Z_m©UmMm Ah§ Amho Am{U {ZgJm©nmgyZ Xya OmU§hr Amho. `m~amo~arZo {ZgJm©Mm èhmg, àXyfU Am{U Amamo½`mMm Zme Amho. V§ÌkmZm_wio EH$ ZdrZ n`m©` {Z_m©U hmoVmo. Og§ H$s bmHy$S> dmnaÊ`mEodOr ñQ>rb, gwVr H$mnS>mEodOr PwiPwirV Zm`bm°Z, bmH$S>mEodOr J°g Am{U àH$memH$aVm drO..... nU åhUOo {ZgJm©bm n`m©` Agy eH$Vmo H$m? _J ewÕ hdm nmUr, _mVr ho H$moU XoV§`>! drO V`ma H$am`bm H$moigm Hw$Ry>Z `oVmo? ndZM¸$s ~Zdm`bm gm_J«r Hw$Ry>Z `oB©b? eodQ>r àË`oH$ dñVy, _J Vr JaOoMr Agmo qH$dm M¡ZrMr, Vr ~Zdm`bm H$ƒm _mb hm {ZgJm©VyZM `oVmo Am{U VmogwÕm \w$-H$-Q>! amoOMm ídmg KoVë`mda hdobm qH$dm àH$memgmR>r gy`m©bm qH$dm XyY {Xb§ åhUyZ JmB©bm Am{U Am§~m {Xbm åhUyZ PmS>mbm H$moUr n¡go XoV Zmhr. {ZgJ©ào[aV dñVy _mUgmbm \w$H$Q>M {_iVmV. nU `m Z¡g{J©H$ H$ÀÀ`m _mbmbm _`m©Xm AmhoV. V§ÌkmZmZo H$moigm {Z_m©U hmoUma Zmhr`o Va Vmo Ho$di IUVm Am{U dmnaVm `oUma Amho. V§ÌkmZmZo OmñVrV OmñV ~m°ŠgmB©Q> IUyZ H$mT>Vm `oB©b nU ~m°ŠgmB©Q> Agbobm XJS> Zmhr {Z_m©U H$aVm `oUma. V§ÌkmZmZo nmUr ewÕ H$aVm `oB©b nU Vo ~ZdVm Zmhr `oUma..... EH§$Xa H$m` Va Amnë`mH$S>o Or H$m` EH$ n¥Ïdr Amho Vr daMr g§gmYZ§hr _`m©{XV AmhoV. Amnë`m nwT>À`m {nT>çm§Zmhr hr g§gmYZ§ dmnam`Mr AmhoV, Va AmnU Vr H$mQ>H$garZ§ dmnaU§ {hVmM§ Zìho H$m`?

67


Ecological understanding of land

68


There has been a major change in land-use pattern of India during the last decade. This has made drastic changes in the urban, suburban and natural landscape of our country. Changes in lifestyle, speed of uncontrolled development, lack of landscape level policies is affecting natural landscape around us. There is a change in agriculture pattern, plantations, developmental activities that has caused a dramatic decrease in quality and quantity of natural resources and natural processes. Global warming, climate change, ozone layer depletion, depleting biodiversity, recent water chaos and other natural disasters are well known effects of this disturbance and deforestation or forest fragmentation. India's climate & topography allows growth of various types of forests as primary vegetation types. Also due to climatic variation from tropical to temperate, we are lucky to be most bio-diversed country in the world. There are various factors affecting this forest fragmentation such as shifting cultivation, grazing, mining, hydro electric projects, atomic reactors, infrastructure development like roads and railway, industries, uncontrolled extraction of forest products, commercial plantations of non native

species, poaching of wild animals etc. ‘Needs of non human beings are totally neglected in this process. There is no provision to allocate resources to non human beings’, as quoted by Prakash Gole. Due to heavy degradation of our natural areas, restoration and conservation of natural resources is now the need for long term sustainability of any kind of project. To achieve this it is necessary to apply ecological perspective to the project right from planning till execution and operation. Ecological assessment of the site is the first stage in this process. It is a screening tool to know the present situation and potential of the land. It is necessary to identify the status of existing biological diversity, natural resources and natural processes. In this assessment, detailed analysis of soil, water, flora & fauna and natural processes is undertaken. Based on the survey results, ecologically appropriate land use can be decided along with the ways to enhance productivity and self-sufficiency of the land. Detailed Ecological Assessment requires at least one full year to observe seasonal changes

Ecological understanding of land

69


which makes an impact on planning to great extent. There are various steps to have ecological understanding of the area: l

Regional understanding of the area

l

Study of climax ecosystem

l

Assessing current ecological conditions

l

Its integration in project planning

Regional understanding of the area is most important. Biogeographic or climatic zone of project site has certain basic characteristics which needs to be studied and considered while planning. One should not go against it. Being in India, the fundamental thing we need to understand is that “we live in tropics�. But most of the times we tend to copy western countries, with temperate climate. E.g. Beautification is restricted to lawns as the main element. In tropical countries lawns prove to be the most energy and resource consuming element as we have to water them daily and maintain with regular doses of fertilizers and also it is labour intensive. Whereas temperate climate does all this for free. We need to come up with creations which are appropriate and ecological to tropical climate.

70

Ecological understanding of land

We must remember basic characteristics of tropical climate i.e. high temperatures, seasonal rains, production of dust, high decomposition and seasonality. These factors should be used as strength instead of weakness. Every season can exhibit its own unique beauty which slowly gets converted into another form with altogether different experience ! We underestimate our landscape by having the same single green look throughout the year. India has 11 different biogeographic zones; each of these has various unique characteristics. But even then the look of beautified landscapes is similar right from Delhi to Kanyakumari, same lawn patches and green Duranta / flowering edges. We definitely need to create congenial atmosphere by increasing green cover, but it should be integrated with seasonal surprises. Creating such landscapes could be a good challenge for creativity of planners and designers ! Study of climax ecosystem, if any, is very necessary to know the actual ultimate character of the ecosystem, which needs to be restored on site. Climax forest is the ultimate state of forest favored by that particular local climate, rainfall and physical conditions; without any biological interference. As we have discussed earlier that


most of the land is in a degraded condition. We need to take it back to its near original state. The most significant way to imagine its virgin state is to study the protected patches from that surroundings. Such protected patches could be in the form of government forests or national parks or sanctuaries or sacred groves. Though with current trend of development even these protected areas have been exploited by humans and cattle, so most of the times “remnants� from original system plays key role in ecological understanding of the area. Once we know the original composition of flora and fauna and natural processes, every activity of the project should be planned in a way to boost up the same. Knowing socio cultural practices / traditions helps to understand the ecological changes in an area over a period of time. e.g. Shifting cultivation in hilly region has destroyed the forests, its floral and faunal diversity to a great extent. In this kind of cultivation, local people cut one patch of forest on slope (steep / gradual) and spread all the cut branches and leaves on floor and burn it just before monsoon. And then at the onset of monsoon they cultivate hill millets like Nachani, Warai, and Karale for three consecutive years.

After these 2/3 years of cultivation this patch is left fallow for 10-12 years to let the forest grow and cultivation is shifted to next patch of forest. But now a days this fallow period is reduced to 2/3 years due to decreased area availability. So benefits from grown forest can't be exploited by cultivation and so also the produce turns out to be very meagre. This practice itself is also not sustainable nor is it beneficial to natural systems. Once we know such stresses on natural systems, we can provide solutions by giving alternatives to such cultural practices. If we are saying NO to fuel wood cutting, we need to provide them alternative fuel energy. Also, all these degraded areas are in mode of succession. Succession is a step by step process to achieve climax ecosystem conditions. Each stage is definite, orderly and predictable if we know the kind of stress. Understanding all such socio cultural issues helps to do integrated and holistic planning though significance of this study changes as per the objective of the project. Assessing current ecological conditions is the actual study of the project site. It is done with respect to following components, l

Natural resources (mainly soil and water)

Ecological understanding of land

71


l

Bio-diversity i.e. flora and fauna

l

Ecologically Important and Sensitive Site (EIS)

l

Ecological Processes

Status of soil and water could be known from indicator species. If needed, lab testing can be done. Natural drainage pattern must be studied to know water ways, perennial sources; sub surface flows, wells etc. so that it can be incorporated in planning. Inventory of the floral and faunal species can be done during one year. This survey must be planned at regular intervals of the year to record seasonal changes in flora. In monsoon, highest diversity is recorded. But along with quantity, quality of the species also should be determined. Instead of having 50 various species which are indicators of degradation, 10 species indicating good health of the forest have more potential. Some sites on project land could be very sensitive having a very rare tree species or endangered orchid or perennial ooze or habitat for wild animals or roosting for birds etc. All such places needs to be identified and marked carefully on plan as 'EIS - Ecological Important Sites ' and treated specially.

72

Ecological understanding of land

Ecological processes like regeneration, pollination, sediments and nutrients flow in a stream etc. are very important which takes years to establish and once disturbed can't be restored easily. So activities harming or disturbing these processes should not be planned or executed. This way complete understanding of the site can be gained. An important thing after this is to integrate all these observations in planning so that planning itself improves ecological health of the area. There are many restoration and conservation techniques which can be executed irrespective of project type. Also, while doing plantations, using 'Native' species will help directly to start various ecological processes. Projects based on such ecological perspective will definitely contribute to improve health of the ecosystems in our country !

Pre-published: Journal Of Landscape Architecture, Vol. 6, Issue 3


Here is a short checklist to take quick ecological notes of the unknown area. This is also useful for general travelers. l

Date:

Time:

Flora & Fauna

l

Location:

Biogeographic zone:

l

Area covered:

Line (km) , Plot(m2/km2/acres)

l

Substrata:

Rock / Murum / Soil (shallow/deep)

l

Land character:

Slope: Steep / moderate / gradual Plain land: Low lying/elevated plateau

l

Climatic conditions:

Rainfall (Average annual) : Current status of climate: Windy / Breeze Hot / Cold Cloud cover in % : Clouds: Scattered / High / Low cloud / Overcast Rainfall: Drizzle / Torrential / Normal / No

l

Details of water body: Stream / River / Lake / Well Natural / Manmade Water : Perennial / Seasonal

l

Vegetation:

General Character: Perennial cover / Seasonal cover Type of cover: Trees, Shrubs, Grass, Herbs, Climbers, Liana Species list: Name flowering, Fruiting, Fall, Foliage Invasive / non native species:

l

Fauna:

Name, Number, Activity, Male/Female, Sighting / Call Feed / Nesting / Roosting / Courtship / Hunting parties

l

Other remarks:

l

Special features (striking)

If we all keep such record of our travel it will help to develop into a very good reference material in future. Ecological understanding of land

73


Sacred Groves

74


Sacred groves are the forest patches dedicated to local deities or ancestral spirits. These are totally protected by local communities through social traditions and taboos that incorporate spiritual and ecological values. Local people believe that they will be punished by God even if they cut a single tree or pick up dead wood or pluck a flower from that grove . If all these traditions are interpreted ecologically, its significance becomes clear. Also, there are various interesting stories about these sacred groves; be it a myth or a fact; those have great ecological significance. According to Kosambi (1962) the existence of sacred groves in India most likely dates back to an ancient pre-agrarian hunter-gathering era, before humans settled down to raise livestock or cultivate the land and their presence has been documented since the early 1800s. Over 50,000 Sacred Groves have so far been reported from different parts of India. Sacred Groves are the rich heritage of India, and play an important role in the religious and socio-cultural life of the local people. In India, sacred groves have been fairly studied from anthropological as well as biological

conservation point of view. The tradition of Sacred Groves is reported from most parts of the country except some states. Most of them are reported in tribal areas; very few are located in non tribal areas. Most of the sacred groves are located in high or medium rainfall areas (>3000 mm average rainfall annually) than in semi arid areas of India. These are found all over the country and abundantly along the Western ghats and the West coast and in several parts of Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Orissa and Himachal Pradesh. Sacred groves are identified by different local names in different parts of India: kavu in Kerala; devarabana, devarakadu, nagbana in Karnataka; kovilkadu in Tamil Nadu; devarai or devarahati in Maharashtra; in central and eastern India they are jaherthan or sarana; deovan in western India and Himalayan States; in the northeastern States the names differ from tribe to tribe. Sacred grove is the only biodiversity-related cultural phenomenon cutting across the length and breadth of India. We can call this as a Ecowise tradition that is still seen in many parts of the country. “Cultural and Ecological Dimensions of Sacred Groves

75


Sacred Groves in India,� by Kailash C. Malhotra, Yogesh Gokhale and Sudipto Chatterjee provide an overview of sacred groves all over India, specifically in some states. According to them, at least 13,720 sacred groves have been reported in various regions of the country, but experts estimate that the actual number is likely to be around 100,000 to 150,000. In many groves, villagers perform annual rituals and ceremonies to the presiding god or deity and ensure the well-being of the community, crop, animals, rainfall etc. In some sacred groves, animals like goat, fowl, pig are sacrificed. These deities are believed to look after the people and also protect the groves by ordering punishment to the lawbreaker. People also worship the deity individually for good yield in field or for curing any disease or for birth of the child. They also ask for 'kaul' i.e. decision for doing any new activity. Management of these groves varies as per the region or traditional system. Sometimes it is managed by a particular caste in the village, or by a single family or by the whole village. Many of the sacred groves are under the control of state forest departments or other government departments.

76

Sacred Groves

Analyzing the 'rules' or 'banned activities' in Sacred Groves shows that there was indeed a deep thought behind this tradition. Our ancestors had a vision, good understanding of human nature & community and knew the importance of forests or ecosystems. Ban on cutting of trees allows the eternal cover on the land which avoids degradation of resources. It also helps to maintain diversity on the land. Each plant has certain associations with other organisms, plants and animals, for survival which are maintained forever. This is achieved by ban on cutting even a branch, which might have a nest of a bird or insect. No plucking of flowers or fruits offers more food for non-humans and allows maximum regeneration for plant survival. Even collection of the dead wood is banned for the survival of the termites which are an important part of ecosystem as recyclers. Removal of dead wood might let termites use fresh wood as their food or venture out into neighboring fields or houses. Many a times it is seen that these groves are at the ]\origin of a fresh water stream or spring. Existence of vegetation near water source makes


the source perennial, thus providing life-line to the community. In nature, the System is to recycle whatever small surplus for the sustenance of other component in the system. Output of one process is used as input to other process, so the recycling is very efficient. These taboos are set as per the traditional systems, utilization of resources & living practices. Sometimes villagers use these sacred groves for medicinal purpose as collection of fallen flowers or fruits is permitted. Many local communities derive certain economic benefits from the groves. In Karnataka, larger groves are exploited as 'resource forests', so people collect many forest products that are essential for sustenance. In Kerala, sacred groves are dedicated to snakes which protect agricultural crops by controlling insect and rodent populations. Likewise, in Rajasthan orans protected by Bishnoi tribe is an ideal example of management of resources where they are very scarce. Bishnois very much believe in the right of every living creature to share the resources. In Jawhar region, Maharashtra, Devrais were protected for the Tiger. When tribal people moved from one area to other & started clearing the

forested lands for cultivation or settlements, they kept intact forest patches for the aboriginal species of the region 'Tiger'. They believed that if enough area is kept aside for the top predator like tiger, he will not harm the people. This belief started 'Waghoba' dev to be worshipped along with the surrounding forest, termed then as 'Devrai' or 'Rahati'. In Golawali, (Village in Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra) tributary of river Shastri divides the village in two parts. There are two sacred groves on both the banks of river. History told by the locals is very interesting. Goddess Waghjai is now located in Sacred grove on left bank of the river. It was once located on the right bank in an older & larger sacred grove. It is told by the villagers that this Goddess shifted because hunting of tigers was started in the forests of right bank which never happened earlier. So this Goddess got angry and shifted to the other bank. Name of the goddess (Wagh means tiger) itself indicates her affection for the tigers. So now nobody does hunting in this new sacred grove because of fright of goddess. Importance of old traditions could be understood through this story. Such beliefs are really protecting the forest patches and its Sacred Groves

77


diversity. These patches are not only rich in biodiversity but also provide wide variety of medicinal plants required by the local villagers. These sacred groves are just like a dispensary for the tribals who are far away from health services. Ecological services: In many areas, these sacred groves are the only patches of forest representing the “original� type of native vegetation in natural or near-natural state, preserved since many generations. Climax forest is the ultimate state of forest favored by that particular local climate, rainfall and physical conditions without any biological interference. These groves represent natural vegetation, with many rare species of plants and animals of that particular region. These Sacred Groves are significant because most of the area surrounding these groves is in most degraded condition today. It must have experienced the similar set of flora and fauna that is found in the sacred grove. But due to biotic interference like shifting cultivation and grazing, the forests patches are being destroyed. So these groves are the forest patches that have remained like a live museum for original diversity.

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Sacred Groves

Due to complete protection, micro climate needed for specialist species is preserved. With such specialist species diversity, the status of such groves becomes very fragile. If these habitats are lost, it is nearly impossible to restore it back to its original state. So these sacred groves hold heritage value which is beyond evaluation. Also, the services provided to locals in terms of other resources like water and soil are unparalleled. Since sacred groves hold perennial cover on the land, it improves soil stability, prevents top soil erosion. This patch of biomass acts like a sponge. Absorbs water during monsoon and releases slowly throughout the year. Due to thick riparian patch along the streams, hyporheic (a region beneath and alongside a stream bed, where there is mixing of shallow ground water and surface water) zone of the stream holds lot of water in root zone of the plants. So streams originating or flowing through these groves are perennial. Thus it provides perennial water to villages in the vicinity for drinking, agriculture or other usage. In catchment of Warasgao dam in Western Maharashtra, villagers of Tekpowale are preserving one such sacred grove & a perennial


water source since centuries. There is one average size pond inside the sacred grove. Strict rules of locals prevent WOMEN to touch or even see that water. They don't even put their feet into the water. Again various stories about the death of girls and women could be heard who tried to break the rule. But this tradition is really helping to keep that water clean and its diversity intact for years. The pond holds many rare species of fishes which otherwise would have gone with the washings of utensils and clothes by women. This tradition is providing clean and hygienic drinking water and many rare medicinal plants to the villagers since long. Stresses: Forces of the contemporary world are depleting sacred groves and weakening the traditions that protect them. Its long term use of functioning is neglected due to want of short term benefits. So these groves are under great stress. In the modern educational system, younger generations are not learning respect for local traditions and beliefs in the cultural importance of sacred groves. Many of them, now view the practices of the past as superstition. Youths are attracted towards urban areas and growing market economy.

Sacred groves in many parts of the country have been destroyed over the past century to make way for development projects such as railway, roads, highways and dams. In many places the government has ignored local communities' customary management rights and allowed the development of commercial forestry operations. Many groves are suffering from transformation of primitive nature worship into formal Hindu practice. This has led to the clearing of areas in groves to make way for temples and a shift in focus to idols rather than nature itself. Considering the fact that today many Sacred Groves are modified and existence of dense forest canopy is seldom seen, it is now important to revive the old tradition of 'Forest protection' but with the active participation of local community. Since the beginning, they were protected by fear. Now since the younger generation is educated, they can understand the real significance or the thought behind these protected patches. So, now there should be efforts made for 'reviving the old tradition with new understanding' at community level and restoring the forests with 'ecorestoration' principles with community & experts in the field. Sacred Groves

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Strategy for Sacred Grove Restoration: v Protection l

l

l

Zoning:

Social fencing a voluntary contribution made by the community for a particular cause; it can be anything from behavioral change to some practices

Live hedge it includes plantations of hedge plants and trees.

Sacred groves have remained like an isolated island in a landscape. Most important thing is to establish connectivity between sacred grove and nearest natural area or protected area. Corridor development. l

Survey of the surroundings to know movement of organisms

l

Protection to these migrating routes by discontinuing any interference

l

Plantation of native species and habitat creation

Sacred Groves

Buffer zone

Core zone

Dry fencing fencing done using dried branches, thorny climber etc

v Establishment of connectivity.

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v Revival of natural processes.

Utility zone l

Buffer zone Area along the periphery of grove.

l

Core zone Area in the middle having special diversity. This should be a TOTAL PROTECTION zone.

l

Utility zone Area which can be used by villagers for their activities like celebration, worships etc.

There could be multiple stake holders in the process, young generation which is local to that area, government institutions like panchayat, municipality, and forest departments, researchers in the field of botany, ecology, etc. Traditional practices needed to be changed to pure conservation practices !


Understanding Biodiversity 'Biodiversity is a Range of variation in living organisms i.e. plants and animals.’ 'It is variety of life forms, and associated eco processes on the land.’ It is said that biodiversity is an expression of health of Nature. That's how a tiger indicates healthy, functioning forest because for tiger's survival there are appropriate deer and for deer there is ample vegetation.

Biodiversity also indicates habitat type. Habitat is a set of conditions suitable for a living being to feed, nest & rest. A sparrow is found in densely populated settlement whereas quail can be seen in countryside where human interference is less. This biodiversity is decided by physical setting of an area, climatic factors such as rainfall, humidity, temperatures and also current status of land. So, it will be different in a city, in a farm, on a

Understanding Biodiversity

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hill slope, in grassland or in dense forest. It is interesting to know how the biodiversity evolves in a specific habitat. It is a process of 'replacement of species' at every stage in evolution. Also called as 'succession'. E.g. It will be very interesting to know how barren rock patch gets converted to a dense forest. This magic takes time which is beyond our imagination. All this happens in geological time-scale. Human timescale falls short to understand and witness the process of 'Ecological succession'. Initially a barren rock gets covered partially by plants called 'lichens' which arrest moisture. 'Mosses' establish themselves in that moisture and arrest few soil particles. In this habitat grasses regenerate. Each plant community takes years to establish, flourish and then break down into soil nutrients for the next community. The stage of grasses & herbs is most important as it adds larger volume of soil, organic matter, nutrients to land. Once there is good layering of soil and biomass then there is moisture accumulation & next set of plants starts growing i.e. the shrubs & climbers. The trees appear in the last stage when there is good soil profile, enough

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Understanding Biodiversity

nutrients & soil moisture to survive for longer period. Of course, for this process to complete, the preconditions of nature are, 'complete protection' from human beings & 'inputs from surrounding'. The most important factor about succession is that under complete protection, and when let to nature, it is predictable, it is orderly and it is definite. And so it can be easily used to interpret the biodiversity. So, at any given condition, it will be necessary to assess the 'succession stage' and then the 'biodiversity'. Earlier herbs and grasses may vanish once forest canopy is established. Nature has been evolving in similar way since millions of years. Then, the most evolved brain came into existence – Humans – The Homo sapiens. As humans settled down to agriculture, from the hunting-gathering stage, modifications in natural surrounding started happening at a faster rate. This changed rapidly after industrialization & outburst of human population. It changed the nature in surrounding areas for resources, affected larger tracts of pristine nature, and today there are different sets of biodiversity as per land conditions and human activities. These species are different according to the succession & habitat and also as


per the pressures from human activities. e.g. High elevation and high rainfall areas in Western Ghats are best suited for tropical semi evergreen or evergreen forest type. But due to many external interventions in the ecosystems, it is degraded to thorny, scrub forests & grasslands. There are different terms used for the species groups. The 'pioneering' species are the ones that get established under most adverse conditions and create favorable conditions for the next group. Then there are few species that require very specific conditions, called as 'habitat specialist'. Certain species grow in newly generated or degraded habitats, are 'habitat generalists'. Certain species grow in any condition, special or degraded, are 'ubiquitous' or 'omni present'. It is very important to know the quality of species present. Many times, survey of biodiversity is restricted to the inventory and count of the species. But it is necessary to interpret what type of species are growing. Let's take a case study of Evergreen forests in Western Ghats which ideally should have maximum evergreen tree species with Tiger as apex predator and a number of animal species

finding their habitat in special micro-climate observed mostly in the core of the forests. In Northern Western Ghats, dominant tree species include Mangifera indica (Amba), Syzygium cuminii (Jambhul), Actinodaphne hookerii (Pisa), Memecylon umbellatum (Anjani), Olea dioica (Par jambhul), Garcinia talbotii (Phansada), Elaeocarpus spp. (Kaswi) etc. And most of them need shade and very specific micro-climate. Similarly, bird species include Malabar whistling thrush, White rumped shama, Oriental dwarf kingfisher, Verditer flycatcher, Emerald dove, Great pied hornbill etc. while, mammals are Tiger, Leopard, Sambar, Sloth Bear, Gaur, Giant squirrel etc. Along with the major animal groups, infinite numbers of special microbes, worms, tiny insects are associated with this stage of ecosystem. Today, such diversity is found only in protected areas like Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary etc. Major areas of Western Ghats are under private ownership, & degraded stage, with different biodiversity than earlier primary condition of biodiversity. When a forest habitat starts degrading,

Understanding Biodiversity

87


initially, few hardy species like Meyna laxiflora (Alu), Scutia indica (Chimat), Mangifera indica (Amba), Syzygium cuminii (Jambhul) stay back. In subsequent years, if the stress continues, due to open and sunny conditions, thorny species like Meyna laxiflora (Alu), Carissa congesta (Karwand) starts proliferating. Along with these thorny species, moist deciduous species like Terminalia spp. (Ain, Hirda, Behada), Bridelia retusa (Asana) etc also dominate the area. Thus, the original semi-evergreen species gets gradually replaced by moist deciduous or scrub species. Same way it happens with the fauna. Once the habitat of the apex and keystone species, is lost, in which vegetation plays the important role, they migrate to other area with required conditions or die. So the vacated place gets filled up by some ubiquitous (common) species and some opportunistic species which survive in variable environmental conditions. e.g. Birds like Crow, Bulbul, Oriental white eye, Magpie Robin, Ashy Prinia and mammals like Leopard, Wild boar are seen once original habitat is disturbed. Effect of this kind of degradation is well

known and urgency to restore these forests is also well understood now days. While restoring these forests back to its matured stage, it is important to know the current status of biodiversity so that it is understood as to how to take it to a healthy, functioning stage. In some degraded areas, it is seen that top soil is totally washed off from steep slope, the opportunistic plant species like Senecio spp (Sonaki), Impatiens spp (Terada), grasses like Heteropogon spp (Kusali) spp starts growing, which are indication of degradation. But at the same time they are the 'pioneering' species. By producing huge number of seeds, they try to increase the population and produce more biomass, increasing the productivity of the area. But if some stress, like grazing by domestic animals, is continued, ecosystem gets arrested at a certain stage or the succession is slowed down almost to zero. So the area with earlier evergreen forests now has xerophytic species, similar to deserts. And slowly with the same continued stress, an ecosystem may reach the 'bad' stage from where it is nearly impossible to restore it back to a healthy stage. But if the pioneering species are protected,

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Understanding Biodiversity


then species keep on changing at certain intervals once favorable conditions are formed, which increases soil quality, moisture, microbe count ultimately making habitat for superior biodiversity. This improves the micro climate of the area to a certain level, resulting into improved regenerating capacity of the soil to have perennial plants. Slowly with improved canopy, shade tolerant species from original forest also start regenerating making the nature grow in right direction towards semi-evergreen forests ! Just like plant diversity, change in animal diversity also can be observed. Initially, with protected grass clusters, birds like Bush quails increase. With change in the grass to shrub clusters and some canopy, birds like Bulbuls nesting in clusters increase with prolific increase in number and species of insects. Slowly, with developing canopy, some shade loving birds or reptiles start using this area as stepping stone and so on‌ Finally the desired set of biodiversity can be restored back. Understanding biodiversity plays an important role in ecological restoration. Also it plays important role in human life.

From human utilization point of view, it is an unlimited source for agricultural, medicinal and industrial enterprise, catering to our various needs in our daily life. Many of the ecosystem services like climate regulation, decomposition of wastes, pollination of crops, renewal of soil fertility, soil erosion control, purification of air and water etc., are supported by biodiversity. This list is unending. Also, intrinsic value of biodiversity which provides aesthetic beauty and intellectual stimulus that lifts up the human spirit, is unique. Looking at the current scenario of diminishing biodiversity, there is an urgent need to conserve it. During last century, biodiversity has been depleting very fast. Almost all scientists acknowledge that the rate of species loss is greater now than at any time in human history, with extinctions occurring at rates hundreds of times higher than background rates. The time has come, to look at the biodiversity with an ecological perspective, understand its significance, and conserve & restore it, for our own future !

Understanding Biodiversity

89


Ecological Landscaping

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A wildlife garden or ecological

“liveliness� on the land. All attention should be

landscaping concept is new in the world of highly

given to local site conditions, use of resources,

manicured gardens. If current trend of

long-term sustainability, and local wildlife needs.

landscaping is observed, it refers to a man-made manicured space with huge lawns, large flowering

Ecological designing has following advantages,

beds, well shaped plant hedge and mounds. But

l

Less consumption of resources like soil, water.

this consumes a lot of resources like water,

l

Less use of energy.

fertilizers & pesticides in maintenance and energy

l

Food for all, from native species.

involved in pumping of water, cutting of lawns

l

Waste recycling & minimization.

and man power. What this gives is an aesthetically

Designing a garden or a space, which can

pleasing, well designed, neat space that soothes

be eco-friendly is a creative process, which can be

eyes. But where is the place for our non-human

achieved with certain principles. Following are the

friends ? A small puddle attracting butterflies or

important aspects of ecological landscaping,

hiding place for a garden lizard, berries for birds

l

Climatically appropriate design

l

Following natural landforms & contours

form of lawns is taxing on resources including

l

Zoning for Land

money. When people have acute shortage of

l

Material selection

drinking water, these gardens consume good

l

Plant selection

quality, treated water in large quantities. A garden

l

Habitat creation

l

Waste minimization & recycling

l

Signage

are lost during the process of beautification. In tropical climate of India, maintaining greenery in

should certainly be grown with treated wastewater. Exactly this is the starting point for concept of 'Ecological gardening'. It is not just making greenery on land but it is about creating

Climatically appropriate design: The bio-climatic regime should be considered while zoning or

Ecological Landscaping

91


designing particular features or plant selection.

area should be away from human movement,

E.g. In tropical climate of central & southern India,

allowing silence for wildlife like butterflies, birds,

keeping huge lawns will not be eco-friendly. We

with a lot of wilderness. These two zones can be

have seasonal rains so there is no permanent

joined with an informal zone which will act as a

natural green and keeping lawns lush will need a

buffer.

lot of energy & water. So lawns should be restricted only to formal landscape & for design enhancement. Rammed earth, which will have seasonal surprises of flowering herbs can be a good option.

Material selection: Keeping minimum area as hardscape will first of all reduce material requirement of landscape apart from allowing maximum ground water percolation. Materials like stones, tiles, blocks, cement, sand, bricks are

Follow natural landforms & contours: Reshaping

generally used for hardscape. Instead of imported

whole area into new terraces, mounds, ditches is

materials, locally available stones, soil, murrum

expensive on resources & money. Also, it destroys

are best and should be considered in design. So, the

natural diversity, starts erosion, having

aesthetic needs to be managed as per the

irreversible impacts on ecosystems as a whole.

availability of various materials. Bringing in

Natural landforms should be kept as they are and

Nevasa stone or laterite from kokan or Jaisalmer

enhanced for better functions.

stone for 'looks' can't fit in eco-landscaping

Zoning for Landscape: Overall landscape design should be divided as, Formal, Informal & Natural. This will easily cater to different needs of aesthetics, non-human beings and kitchen garden

concepts because, first it involves heavy transportation cost, for fuel, energy, manpower and secondly the source area is hampered due to quarrying, excavation activities.

requirements. Formal area should be used mainly

So the key is hunt for 'Local materials' on

by humans & can have few lawn patches,

the land itself. Along with local stuff, renewable

pavements, pathways, gazebos etc. The natural

materials like bamboo, a fast growing, structurally

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Ecological Landscaping


sound material with lots of aesthetic value is

should highlighted by avoiding intense shaping &

highly recommended.

pruning.

Plant selection: Landscaping cannot be complete

Now coming to year round flowering

without plants, they add colour, fragrance, beauty,

beds, colourful flowering areas, our native

life to the land. In an ecosystem, plants form a base

candidates are not suited for this demand. So for

as a producer. No one but plants are capable of

the formal zone, some non-native species with

producing food & releasing oxygen using sun

following criteria can be selected,

energy & CO2. They play a major role in making the

l

land 'productive' for humans and non-humans. Wise use of plant species adds a living component ‘fauna’ to the landscape. Plants

Species must not germinate & spread by seeds, Via dispersal agents like wind, water or fauna.

l

They should necessarily be grown by cuttings.

Habitat creation: Creating habitats for smaller or

provide nectar, leaves, flowers, fruits, wood as

minute fauna which is normally neglected or

food; nesting, roosting, shelter places for fauna. So,

eradicated in usual landscaping techniques. This is

it is very important which plant species should be

done according to actual site conditions. While

selected.

doing this, use of indigenous plant material, rocks,

U s i n g n a t i v e s p e c i e s i s a l wa y s

logs, even bird boxes, bird feeders etc. is advisable.

recommended for any plant related activity. They

Waste minimization & recycling: Leaf litter, cut

are climatically appropriate, hardy species,

branches, which is commonly termed as garden

adopted for ups and downs of seasons. They not

waste is either thrown or burned. But it is a

only provide food but need less water and

valuable resource if used as nutrient input,

fertilizers so there is decrease in maintenance.

mulches in the garden. Even a compost pit attracts

Thus, maximum native species should be selected

insect eating birds like Magpie robin or Fantail

in landscape. Here we need to design landscape as

flycatcher to the garden. So it is must in every

per plant habits. Plants' natural habit, flowering

garden design. Along with garden waste it can Ecological Landscaping

93


readily accept the kitchen waste providing rich

fauna can be displayed in the signage just next to it.

manure for plants.

Education with recreation!

Landscape design also can accommodate

These are common minimum principles to be

a nicely designed treatment plant for kitchen waste

followed in eco-landscaping,

water. It can be treated locally through basic

l

Plant hedges

vegetated filter & treated water can be given to a

l

No cement in hardscape

part of garden saving on drinking quality water.

l

Organic shapes

Execution: Apart from the planning process, its

l

Less hardscape

execution & operational phases are also important

l

Less lawns

l

Compost pit & waste water recycling

l

Use of native plants.

l

Maximum area under perennial green cover

which needs to be planned, incorporated in design and monitored carefully. Using site soil with addition of organic matter & nutrients is most ecofriendly way of garden development. Bringing in loads of soil from outside has proven disastrous to

Having a green patch with lot of lawns

source area. An inch of soil takes more than 500

and inputs, chemical fertilizers and pesticides

years to form so this resource should be carefully

everywhere is not at all environment friendly. With

planned & used.

our growing urbanization & garden development

Signage: Sign boards giving instructions, tree plates giving information about plant, its name, botanical name along with some interesting facts or medicinal use can also be a unique feature in

it is very much necessary to have this ecoperspective. We must keep spaces for humans and non-humans. Our gardens can then develop into a refuge for plants and animals.

public gardens. If a pond is one of the features in landscape, the importance of pond ecosystem or its

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Ecological Landscaping

Pre-published: Landscaping and Outdoor Living Magazine, July-August 2009.


Let's Be Conscientious ! How a city should be ? Considering today's uncontrolled, unplanned, encroaching & ever developing cities, this question repeatedly comes in mind… Pune needs more water, so build more dams… electricity needs are increasing with ever increasing comforts, so have more energy through nuclear power plants… Want secure future, purchase flats for investment… Our fast, insecure, expensive life is becoming increasingly difficult to maintain. It will be more and more difficult in coming years because of problems like food security, availability of quality water, clean air, etc. What's the point in development if people are deprived of these basic needs ?

Nature conservation is more than just planting trees and wildlife photography. This could be just a first step to get familiar with nature. We need to climb a step towards conservation. Conservation starts at home, at city level. Smallest action a common man does in a city gets connected to a larger circle around city. Our life style matters. We must start asking questions to ourselves, to people in power, to decision makers, to policy makers… If we do not make a positive start now, it will be too late. Why nuclear power plants are not placed in Hinjewadi or Vashi, when most power needs are in city. Why destroy the serenity of our natural areas like Kokan or Sahyadri ? Why no one is talking about controlling Let's Be Conscientious !

95


population, decreasing our demands, or consuming less ?

Is it true that replacing wood with steel is 'ecofriendly' ?

More and more development, advanced technology means expensive lifestyle. How many of us can afford it ?

Do we need to stop somewhere ? or Can we have some threshold for our consumption ? How much is enough ?

Residential projects are increasing very fast, but how many flats are really occupied ?

If we feel that there has to be 'some' change for a better life, what that could be ?

Industries, residential projects are being developed on Agricultural lands, then what about our food security ?

Local products, decentralized systems, organic products, self-sufficiency… Can this be our way of life ?

Very good fertile lands are being converted to Sugar cane cultivation, needing more water, more fertilizers. Do we really need so much sugar ? How much sugar we eat daily ?

Can we aim at having a 'chemical-free' life ?

How can we as 'city dwellers' be so careless in throwing our garbage or sewage in surrounding villages ? At the cost of their health ? Increasing infrastructure means more need for cement, steel, bricks. This also means more mines, more forest destruction. Is there any way out ? Can we create soil, or generate oxygen or manufacture a grain in industry ? Do we really need a second home, in form of a farm house ?

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Let's Be Conscientious !

Can there be wise ways of consumption, conservation ? One of the answers could be to be a conscientious consumer. When we reduce the consumption, automatically supply changes, reducing the manufacturing. Use of highly processed products needs to be reduced. Instead local products should be promoted. This needs to be discussed more in various forums, citizen groups. We can also start a group that can brainstorm, find better ways to live life, make people aware of these facts, take action oriented programs to make earth a better place to be… forever… !


Glossary

1. Apex species : Predators with no predators of their

e.g. Regeneration, pollination etc.

own, residing at the top of their food chain. 7. Ecological succession : The phenomenon or process 2. Biodiversity : Biodiversity is a Range of variation in

by which an ecological community undergoes more or

living organisms i.e. flora (plants) and fauna (animals). It

less orderly and predictable changes following

is variety of life forms, and associated eco processes on

disturbance or initial colonization of new habitat.

the land. 8. Ecological restoration : Restoration ecology is the 3. Biogeographic zone : Area of animal and plant

scientific study and practice of renewing and restoring

distribution having similar or shared characteristics

degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and

throughout.

habitats in the environment by active human intervention and action, within a short time frame.

4. Biomass : Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time. It

9. Ecosystem : An ecosystem is a biological system

can include microorganisms, plants or animals. The

consisting of all the living organisms or biotic

mass can be expressed as the average mass per unit area,

components in a particular area and the nonliving or

or as the total mass in the community.

abiotic component with which the organisms interact, such as air, mineral soil, water and sunlight.

5. Climax vegetation/ climax : Climax vegetation is the vegetation which establishes itself on a given site for

10. Indicator species : An indicator species is any

given climatic conditions in the absence of

biological species that defines a trait or characteristic of

anthropogenic (human) action after a long time.

the environment.

6. Ecological processes : Processes taking place at the

11. Landscape : Landscape comprises the visible

virtue of status of the ecosystem and are interdependent.

features of an area of land, including the physical

Glossary

97


elements of landforms such as (ice-capped) mountains,

15. Perennial ooze : Perennial water springs

hills, water bodies such as rivers, lakes, ponds and the sea, living elements of land cover including indigenous

16. Physical setting of an area : Characteristics of the area

vegetation, human elements including different forms

including geography, topography and actual location in

of land use, buildings and structures, and transitory

the landscape.

elements such as lighting and weather conditions. 12. Keystone species : A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance. It plays critical role in maintaining the structure of an ecological community, affecting many other organisms in an

17. Poaching : Hunting of animals 18. Reference site : (In a degraded landscape,) A site which can be referred to visualize the near-original structure of ecology (biodiversity, natural resources and natural processes).

ecosystem and helping to determine the types and

19. Seral stage : An intermediate stage found in an

numbers of various other species in the community.

ecosystem advancing towards its climax community.

13. Microclimate : A microclimate is a local atmospheric

20. Temperate region : Temperate means that there is

zone where the climate differs from the surrounding

variation of temperatures but no extremes of heat or

area. The term may refer to areas as small as few square

cold. Typically these locations are midway between the

feet(for example a garden bed) or as large as many

equator and poles.

square miles. 21. Tropical region : The tropics is a region of the Earth 14. Opportunistic plant species : Species characterized

surrounding the Equator. Tropics are characterized by

by high reproduction rates (prolific seeding), rapid

high temperatures and seasonal rains.

development, early reproduction, small body size, and uncertain adult survival.

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Glossary


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Nisarg Samvardhan