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MILE PARK and MUSEUM Santa Monica, Peter Hamilton Gerry gast, Terminal Studio 2012-2013 university of oregon m.arch

University of Oregon School of Architecture and Allied Arts


MILE PARK and

MUSEUM SANTA MONICA, CA

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Condensed ThesisStatement

CONDENSED THESIS STATEMENT: The city of Santa Monica in Southern California is divided into two halves: the North and the South. The division was established with the construction of the I-10 freeway in the 1960s. The I-10 has created a social, economic, visual, pedestrian, and cultural divide between North and South Santa Monica. The Proposed Mile Park and Museum plans to erase that divide.

The Mile Park and Museum is a proposed 1.25 mile freeway cap from 17th street to the Santa Monica’s Ocean Avenue. The freeway cap will house a water treatment plant and interactive museum as well as a huge public park and pedestrian connection between North and South Santa Monica as well as the residential Eastside with Downtown.

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Development Overview

Mile Park and Museum THE PARK:

THE WATER TREATMENT AND MUSEUM

The park proposal serves as a physical patching of the two halves of the city. It is a reallocation of 45 acres or 1.25 miles of green/public space to the city of Santa Monica.

The proposed water treatment center and museum will simultaneously act as an educational resource that explores the conservation and preservation of water as well as a collection and filtration center for urban and rainwater runoff within the city and surrounding areas.

The park houses the public museum and water treatment plant and extends the full length of the park. As it stretches further west and closer to the city’s downtown and most pedestrian dominated section of the city, the park’s landscape transforms from a more soft-scaped open space to a hard-scaped open space. The idea is that the lower density and residential ares of the city have access to a more recreational green space, while the more dense, tourist and business districts have access to a more pedestrian focused outdoor space.

The two will intertwine and connect with one another, educating people on the process of water conservation and filtration by connecting the users directly with the action. The Water Treatment plant will be roughly 43,000 square feet with additional water storage tanks that will be buried underground alongside of the freeway. Most of the treatment center will be open for user access and viewing. The Museum portion will be a learning and interactive center attached to the treatment center to the south. Other spaces in the museum include a community gathering/event hall, traveling exhibition spaces, cafe and restaurant, and extensive garden and green space. The space is roughly 42,000 sqft.

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Thesis Statement

Thesis Statement

Tectonics + Design Statement

The Mile Park Museum project is a engineering and architectural re sponse to a civic and cultrural divide in the city of Santa Monica, CA.

The ongoing focus of the MP+M project has been about how to reestablish and reconnect the community of Santa Monica to a successful outdoor and indoor public space. Both the Santa Monica climate and site have allowed me to design directional, open, and transparent clusters of pavilions that meander and guide the user through the site.

The proposal is freeway lid atop the I-10 freeway from where it crosses 17th street and extends west to the McClure Tunnel. Atop the lid, the Mile Park and Museum project will house open green space, an artificial storm water control watershed, and a water treatment plant and museum. The MP+M aims to investigate the many possibilities and opportunities a freeway lid can offer in terms of the immediate environmental impact, social/communal impact, educational impact, and architectural/aesthetic impact on the community of Santa Monica. The MP+M not only deals with the largest cause of pollution in the Santa Monica Bay through its treatment of storm water pollution, but also gives the city more public and communal space. The MP+M – a site strongly intertwined with the city of Santa Monica’s most central and important uses – will offer the city a respite from the oppressive sound/site/division of the I-10 Santa Monica Freeway while simultaneously re-allocating 2 million square feet or 44 acres of public space back to the people of Santa Monica. The MP+M will address environmental issues, such as vehicle pollution, sound pollution, air quality, and most importantly storm water runoff and treatment. The Mile Park + Museum will be a museum of water (the history of water in Los Angeles, water conservation, etc.) and a water treatment center in partnership with the Santa Monica Urban Runoff Recycling Facility. The client, the Association of California Water Agencies has partnered with city in their commitment to a healthier urban community. The MP+M will act as a learning center for the city as well gallery space to house important Los Angeles history, archives, and occasional art installations. As a community resource, the MP+M will provide space for both private and public gatherings, meetings, and events. Due to its central location, the park will connect and patch together the divided city of Santa Monica. As an urban plan, the newly allotted land will patch Northside + Southside, and the Eastside with downtown to the west. Within the 30 year phasing of the project, density and urban growth is assumed to grow tremendously. Ultimately the MP+M project is a redemtion of land, a patching together of a divided city, and a precedent of sustainable public. The MP+M is going to be one of the city’s greatest assets and arguably one of the greatest public spaces in the city of Los Angeles as a whole.

Because of this strong, clear design intent, I felt that the structure should reflect this simple, and open feeling. The experience of the Mile Park + Museum is just as much about the exterior as it is with the interior, and it was important for me to choose a structure that allowed this connection to be as open and transparent as possible. The goal is to highlight the structure while not making the structure overbearing or divisive between outdoor and indoor space. The glazing of the curtain wall, the wood screen lattice, and the strict grid of the structural system exaggerate the directionality and layers of this simple building. This layering amidst this intentional simplicity offers a changing perspective and landslide as one moves through this otherwise industrial site. Each pavilion is made up a simple steel column and beam system with a regular bay grid spaced at 24’ OC. The five pavilions vary in width between 42’ and 50’. At each column grid, there is a moment framing system that a 10’ long prefabricated steel plate welded to two columns that take on the lateral moment forces. This system serves three different needs including creating a boundary and interstitial space between the enclosed galleries and the walkways, as well as a frame to attach the wood lattice screen system. The columns are connected to concrete footings that are tied into concrete decking of the freeway lid structure. In order to avoid any offset point loads atop the concrete decking, the column is inline with freeway lid girder grid. Because weight is an issue with the site, it was important to not have a heavy ‘hat’ atop the pavilions. Thus, a heavy green was roof was replaced with a light, aluminum fin and frame roof system. The fin system is a prefabricated system that is not only easy to install and access for maintenance, but when site-welded to the structural frame, it provides and additional rigid moment connection. From a sustainability standpoint, one of the major goals was the need for adaptation and flexibility. As the needs of the water treatment plant and museum change, the spaces will in turn change as well. The open structure allows for these changes through time making it possible to preserve the bare structure for a new use rather than tear it down completely (something that happens in Los Angeles far too much).

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Public Space

“Public Space: An Essential Entity Effectively Implemented” Public space is an essential part of a healthy, functioning urban environment. Public space has the opportunity to offer a respite from a busy urban environment, it can act as the platform for cultural and community events, or the soap box for public demonstration, dissidence, reaction, and unity. Successful public and urban space allows one to get away while never having to leave the town. Many of the world’s great cities have utilized and edified the importance of public and open space. Central Park in New York, Millennium Park in Chicago, Golden Gate Park in San Francisco, Prospect Park in Brooklyn, the Park Blocks of Portland, Hyde Park in London, Vondelpark in Amsterdam, and the Campo dei Fiori in Rome are just a few public spaces that add value to their surrounding urban communities. These parks give their respective cities a sense of orientation, a sense of direction, and a sense of balance. These open spaces become part of the identity and the experience of an urban place, and thus establish themselves as essential.

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However, the success of public space is as delicate as it is essential. For every successful park or public space, there are just as many unsuccessful public spaces. Although there are many aspects and design implementations that help in ensuring that a public space is successful, there are two essential characterics that one must have in order to be successful and positive. First, in order to ensure the viability of a successfully designed public space, it must be flexible and adaptable to meet the needs of many different kinds of users and functions. Secondly, it must require and encourage local community investment within the space which will increase use and accountability of that space. Through this investigation, the Mercato di San Lorenzo in Florence, Italy will serve as our precedent for how to successfully implement these two primary requirements. The definition of the anything that is ‘public’ implies diversity of people, diversity of uses, and the ability to accommodate a wide variety of expectations. In order for a public space to be successful,

it needs to be able to apply this definition to its existence. Parks and plazas that are successful are usually thoughtfully designed to allow for varied use, but they rarely, if at all, subtly dictate use. One of the best examples of this kind of space is the Mercato di San Lorenzo in Florence, Italy. This public space is simply a street side ‘courtyard’ in front of the Sagrestia Vecchia which lies

in the heart of the city. Although open to the street, the space is tightly enclosed by the dense urban environment and feels and acts as an outdoor room. Tall, long steps that lead up to the side of the Sagrestia Vecchia define one edge of the skinny space, while a small road – closed to vehicular traffic at portions of the day – defines the other. In between is a quarter-block cobblestoned plaza, with essentially


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Public Space

“Public Space: An Essential Entity Effectively Implemented” nothing significant nor special inside of it. Yet, however simple the space, it allows for a myriad of different uses. In the mornings it houses an open street market, in the afternoon, the plaza is a stage for table and chairs from the surrounding cafes to spill into the plaza as people enjoy their afternoon cappuccinos, and at night, the steps of the church serve as a view platform for people sit, enjoy a glass of wine on the steps, and to watch the passerby-ers stroll through the city. Nothing within the space dictates a specific use, or does anything special to ‘get people to use it.’ Rather, it is a simply defined open space that allows flexibility and diversity, and because of this, is busy and successful. Secondly, successful public space has to encourage and prompt the local community to invest or have some kind of stake in the land. A natural tendency of human beings is to place value on things that they deem as ‘their own.’ From our homes to our friends to our families or to our jobs, the more someone feels apart of something,

the more that person will value or stake in that thing.

plaza, and it is a ‘living room’ for the locals that frequent the church stairs to have a glass of wine at the end of the day. No one specifically owns the plaza outright, but just about everyone who uses it has a personal investment in the space. This investment adds value to their daily experience and life. If there is no opportunity for one to invest or to personally connect, there is really no risk of losing any value, nor is there any hope of particular return. The space becomes a nonessential element to ones life or community, thus its viability of success is weakened, and sometimes eliminated.

When there is investment in anything, there are always two present absolutes: the hope of return and the risk loss. The more personal care, risk and accountability of an investment, the greater the chance and desire for positive return. This same phenomenon applies to the success of public space. Although the space is open and used by the public, when people feel personally connected to and invested in a space, they are more likely to ensure its success. This can come through many different avenues. Personal investment or stake in a place can be as literal as a community garden plot, to something as ambiguous as part of a daily routine, such as walking to work or place where one takes a lunch break. One uses the space by working the land and yielding a physical return. The other uses the space in order to add the and diversify the psychological and mental experience of their daily life. Both add value to a person’s life. Both require thoughtful investment of time and/or energy and

resources. When a public space allows for a variety of investments that yield a variety of returns, the space is more frequently used and most often successful. The plaza of the Mercato di San Lorenzo is a ‘work space’ for the farmers who come to sell their goods, it is a ‘patio’ for the café and shops that spill out into the

Successful public spaces add value, assert identity, and offer escape to their surrounding urban environments and communities. They are essential elements to the working cogs of a successful place, and when designed to allow flexibility of use and for the investment of the local community, a public space can and will add to the value to the lives of the people that use that public space.

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Table of Contents: Santa Monica, the city 9 client profile 10 “CREATING THE THE SANTA MONICA FREEWAY: BUILDING WALLS ACROSS COMMUNITIES”

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LOS ANGELES WATER ANALYSIS 14 SITE AND PROPOSAL 18 SITE ANALYSIS 22 PROGRAM PROPOSAL 48 Phase one: site plan 52 conceptual studies 55 architectural drawings 60 final models 68 tectonics 70 landscape design 74 passive strategies 76 final renderings 78 precedent studt 83 bibliography 104

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Santa Monica Santa Monica, California - a small independent, beach side city encompassed the city of Los Angeles - is a place that prides itself on its autonomy, its progressive vision, and its ability to exist as the most nonLos Angeles city within the city of Los Angeles. Santa Monica benefits from one of the world’s greatest climates and an average of 310 days of sunshine a year, and because of its small size, it is able to boast its own police force, municipal government, public transportation network, environmental code and zoning laws, and the title of Southern California’s most walkable city.

89,736 polulation

8.42 square miles

The city is well known as one of the leading sustainable cities in all of the US. Three of every four of the city’s public works vehicles run on alternative fuel, making it among the largest such fleets in the country. All public buildings use renewable energy. City officials and residents have made the ongoing cleanup of the Santa Monica Bay a priority – the Santa Monica Urban Runoff Recycling Facility catches 3.5 million gallons of water each week that would otherwise flow into the bay. Santa about in the of the

companies (the Big Blue Bus), Santa Monica connects hundreds of thousands of people every year throughout the greater city of Los Angeles and surrounding areas. It is viewed as a major cultural and central destination in the Southern California region. The Mile Park and Museum is a project that could only exist in the City of Santa Monica because of its independent stability, its investment in sustainable design, development, and lifestyle, and its very large tourism economy. The Mile Park and Museum offers the city an opportunity to further establish itself as a progressive, creative, and innovative leader in the pursuit of public space coupled with environmental responsibility. This project would act as a precedent to the United States, and it would concrete the City of Santa Monica one of the countries greatest destination.

Monica is a city that cares its environment and its place city of Los Angeles. With one nation’s best public transit

$71,400 Santa Monica

household median income

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Client Profile

Client: Association of California Water Agencies Associate of California Water Agencies

ACWA Who We Are The Association of California Water Agencies (ACWA) is the largest statewide coalition of public water agencies in the country. Its nearly 450 public agency members collectively are responsible for 90% of the water delivered to cities, farms and businesses in California. ACWA was formed in 1910 by five irrigation districts. Originally known as the Irrigation Districts Association (IDA), ACWA’s mission is to assist its members in promoting the development, management and reasonable beneficial use of good quality water in an environmental balanced manner.

The Association of California Water Agencies

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Investing in a Sustainable Water Future

What We Do In fulfilling its role, ACWA identifies issues of concern to the water industry and the public it serves; accumulates and communicates the best available scientific and technical information to the public and policy makers; facilitates consensus building; develops reasonable goals and objectives for water resources management; advocates sound legislation; promotes local service agencies as the most efficient means of providing water service; provides additional services of value to its members; and fosters cooperation among all interest groups concerned with stewardship of the state’s water resources.

910 K Street, Suite 100

Sacramento, CA 95814

Phone: 916-441-4545

ACWA has taken a strong policy position to support comprehensive solutions to California’s water problems. In 2005, ACWA issued a major water policy document that called for a comprehensive suite of investments and actions to ensure the state has the water supply system it will need in the coming decades. ACWA believes investments in our statewide infrastructure, including improvements in water storage capacity and the way water is conveyed within the 10 districts the ACWA serves. The ACWA invests in local resource development strategies such as water use efficiency, water recycling, groundwater storage and desalination.


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Client Profile

Client: Association of California Water Agencies

District 8 and the Mile Park and Museum The Association of California Water Agencies has partnered with over 40 different water organizations and beaureaus in numerous cities and counties of California. The ACWA operates from 10 different districts throughout the state, addressing unique, local and regional water concerns, conservancy, retention, and education. District 8 - that serves mostly Los Angeles County - has partnered with the City of Santa Monica to develop the Mile Park and Museum.

The ACWA views the Mile Museum and Park as an opportunity to further investigate, recycle, and conserve water in West Los Angeles - a precious and valuable commodity in a unique and urban city. The project parallels ACWA’s vision to educate, invest, and develop neighborhoods and regions that are thoughtful, aware, and active about local and global water conservation awareness... plus public green space is always a good thing in urban communities!

AWCA Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

The Santa Monica Freeway

“Creating the Santa Monica Freeway: Building Walls Across Communities” by Nathan Masters on September 28, 2012 To-

day, the Santa Monica (I-10) Freeway is an indelible marker across the Los Angeles landscape, a mini-equator that delineates boundaries between cultural and historical hemispheres of the city. Southern Californians depend on the freeway as a vital link between the Westside and downtown Los Angeles and as a transcontinental connection to points east. But in the 1940s, ‘50s, and ‘60s, the I-10 was part of a massive public works project to bind the nation with concrete superhighways, then perceived as a threat that united local communities and later -- according to one admirer -- as a work of art. Although transportation planners envisioned its general path to the

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sea as early as the 1940s, the Santa Monica Freeway is best understood as a member of Southern California’s second generation of limitedaccess highways. Unlike L.A.’s first freeways, their routes mapped by local planners and their construction financed by municipal and state funds, these second-generation freeways were part of a broader statewide and national effort. Many were part of the National System of Interstate and Defense Highway, which in Southern California included the Santa Ana (I-5), San Diego (I-405), and Santa Monica (I-10). Under the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956, the federal government would provide 90 percent of the funding for these new freeways that extended across the continent. Greater state funding came in 1959 with the establishment of the California Freeway and Expressway System, which incorporated early, sporadic efforts at freeway building into a coherent statewide map of urban and rural superhighways. With this backing came bolder plans and a tendency to subordinate local concerns to the needs of the larger region. Mapping their proposed routes, planners drew lines straight through established residential communities. Houses and local businesses along the route were no more an obstacle

than existing surface streets or water mains; the state would purchase whatever property it needed, relocate residents, and reconfigure the neighborhoods around the new freeway. It’s little surprise, then, that local opposition immediately coalesced against the Santa Monica Freeway when state highway planners announced a major part of its route in August 1955. The entire route -- known originally as the Olympic Freeway -- would span 16.6 miles between the East L.A. Interchange in Boyle Heights and Pacific Coast Highway in Santa Monica, barreling through quiet bedroom communities

on its path to the sea. Hundreds of churches, homeowners groups, and other community organizations rallied against the proposal, focusing their opposition on the 6.6-mile stretch west of La Cienega Boulevard. Channeling the ire of his West L.A. constituents, State Assembly Member Thomas Rees declared at a public hearing that the proposed freeway “would constitute a wall diagonally across this area,” adding that it would pass menacingly close to several schoolyards. Others raised concerns about air pollution, while Superior Court Judge Stan-


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

ley Mosk spoke on behalf of a local orphanage over which he presided, warning that the freeway would disrupt the lives of 200 orphans. Still, the general consensus held that Los Angeles needed a freeway connecting downtown to the coast. Instead of attacking the idea itself, opponents limited their criticism to the freeway’s route, advancing alternatives that would steer the freeway clear of their homes. Many, for instance, argued for a viaduct freeway atop Venice Boulevard, whose commodious median had been unused since the Pacific Electric decommissioned its Venice Short Line in 1950. Although planners rejected the Venice proposal, in April 1956 they did revise their original route in the face of community opposition. But while the new route saved 47 homes, it largely shifted the freeway away from the domains of its most vocal opponents and into new neighborhoods. Local opposition persisted, but the highway commission held firm. On June 17, 1957, construction crews broke ground on the first segment of the newly renamed Santa Monica Freeway over the Los Angeles River. Land acquisition for the freeway’s right-of-way began in 1958, and by 1961 families -- living in houses the state had purchased and then rented back to their occupants -- received orders to move.

The Santa Monica Freeway

On December 4, 1961, Governor Edmund “Pat” Brown dedicated the first, easternmost segment of the freeway as crews began work on the route’s West Los Angeles and Santa Monica portions. At its western extreme, the freeway required a 7,000-foot-long, 20-foot-deep cut before reaching the Pacific Coast Highway’s McClure Tunnel. Perhaps the most ambitious part of the project was the route’s interchange with the San Diego (I-405) Freeway. Designed by Marilyn Reece, the first woman to serve as an associate highway engineer for the state, the interchange cost an estimated $20 million to build. With the aid of an early computer program, Reece plotted the curves of its ramps and soaring, 75-foot-tall bridges to allow automobiles to transition between freeways at 55 miles per hour -- a significant speed increase over the tolerance of earlier interchanges, like downtown’s Four Level, which required cars to slow to 35 miles per hour. Later, in his 1971 book “Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies,” architectural historian Reyner Banham singled out Reece’s interchange for praise: ...[T]he wide-swinging curved ramps of the intersection of the Santa Monica and the San Diego freeways, which immediately persuaded me that the Los Angeles freeway system

is indeed one of the greater works of Man, must be among the younger monuments of the system. It is more customary to praise the famous four-level intersection...but its virtues seem to me little more than statistical whereas the Santa Monica/San Diego intersection is a work of art, both as a pattern on the map, as a monument against the sky, and as a kinetic experience as one sweeps through it. Work on the freeway progressed slowly, and in stages. It was not until October 1964 that it extended west to La Cienega Boulevard, and on January 29, 1965--several years after residents in the freeway’s path were displaced--a Goodyear blimp

helped cut the ribbon on the 4.5-mile segment between La Cienega and Bundy Drive. By then, local opposition had dissipated, and civic groups participated in the dedication festivities. The final segment through Santa Monica opened on January 5, 1965.

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM: Water in Los Angeles: Conservancy as Sustainability Water has always been a part of the history and the survival of the city of Los Angeles. This vast city - essentially built upon a desert (defined by less than 12 inches of annual rain fall on average) - since its inception has had to deal with the fact that it needs a lot of water that it simply doesn’t have. It has seen extreme floods, extreme droughts, good water years, and bad water years. Whatever the case of Los Angeles’ present water conditions, the city has had to deal with the dilemma, and because of this it has become a place that cares, invests, and exerts huge amounts of resources to preserve its water sources. The Mile Park and Museum is in a part an environmental response to Los Angeles’ - and more specifically Santa Monica’s - biggest environmental obstacles: water use and conservation. With the MP+M project, the city is able to conserve, protect, recycle, and utilize millions of gallons daily that it previously hadn’t had to opportunity to do so. Although the issue is vast in its expanse and its complexity, the MP+M has addressed a few pressing and important issues that, although will alleviate the problem, will more importantly stand as a precedent and example for others that plan to take on the issue of water awareness and conservancy in Los Angeles and throughout the world.

Sustainability: Water Use Watershed Map of Los Angeles:

Los Angeles Watershed Outside City

Los Angeles Watershed

Santa Monica Watershed - Outside CIty

City of Los Angeles Boundary

Santa Monica Watershed The Santa Monica Bay

Ballona Creek Watershed - Outside City Ballona Creek Watershed

Dominguez Channel Watershed - Outside City

Dominguez Channel Watershed

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Sustainability: Water Use

Ground Wells: circa 1930

1 Well =

2 Well =

3 Well =

etc.

Ground Wells: 2007

Securing Los Angeles’ Water Supply Although water use in the City of Los Angeles has been historically high, it peaked in 1986, at just over 700,000 acre-feet per year (AFY). What followed was five years of severe drought, widespread water shortages, and the implementation of mandatory conversation measures. Due to conservation, a boost in rainfall in 1992 and 1993, and tough economic times, water use dropped by more than 17 percent in the following years.

Since the early 1980s, the City has invested millions of dollars in conservation measures, particularly the installation of low-flow toilets and shower heads. Thanks to these efforts, L.A.’s water demand is about the same as it was 25 years ago, despite a population increase of 1 million people. The City of Los Angeles historically receives water from five major sources: the Eastern Sierra Nevada water-

shed (via the Los Angeles Aqueduct); the Colorado River (via the Colorado River Aqueduct) and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (via the State Water Project / California Aqueduct), which are purchased from the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWD); local groundwater; and recycled water for industrial and irrigation purposes. In addition, the City’s successful conservation programs have reduced

demand, preserved the water supply and offset the need for new resources. Over the last two decades, the City’s water deliveries from the Los Angeles Aqueduct have dropped dramatically due to reallocation of water for environmental mitigation and enhancement in the Eastern Sierra. From 1995 through 2000, the City received 63 percent of its water from the

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Sustainability: Water Use

Securing Los Angeles’ Water Supply

Population vs. Water Demand 1000

4

Eastern Sierra through the Los Angeles Aqueduct.

The City of Los Angeles is committed to making these environmental enhancements, which are among the most far-reaching environmental restoration projects in U.S. history. One of the key objectives is the collection of water, recycling of water, and replenishing of water back into the natural water table. The Mile Park and Museum project aligns with the LADWP’s vision and goal for a more sustainable Los

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Thousand Acre-Feet

500

2

1

0

0 ‘70

‘80

Population Trend

‘90

‘00

‘07

‘90

‘00

‘07

Water Demand

L.A. Water Use and Sources 7 6 Thousand Acre Feet

Reductions in Los Angeles Aqueduct deliveries are largely due to the reallocation of water for environmental mitigation and enhancement. Among these environmental requirements are: the State Water Resources Control Board Mono Lake decision, which permanently limited LADWP’s ability to export water from the Mono Basin; implementation of the Owens Lake Dust Mitigation Project; rewatering of the Lower Owens River, and a number of other environmental restoration projects in the Owens Valley that require water.

3

5 4 3 2 1

‘70

Local Ground Water

‘80

Los Angeles Aqueduct

Metro Water District of So. California

Populations in Millison

From 2001 through 2004, however, only 34 percent of the City’s water came through the Los Angeles Aqueduct. Each year, the snowpack in the Eastern Sierra varies, and dictates the quantity of water delivered by the Los Angeles Aqueduct. The significant annual variations in Los Angeles Aqueduct deliveries that are inversely proportional to MWD water purchases, highlighting the City’s strong reliance on MWD, especially during dry years.


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Sustainability: Water Use

Sustainability Objectives for Los Angeles’ Water Conservancy and Consumption Short-term conservation Strategies 1. Enforcing prohibited uses of water 2. Expanding the prohibited uses of water

Long-term Strategies 1. Increasing water conservation through reduction of outdoor water use and new technology 2. Maximizing water recycling

3. Extending outreach efforts

3. Enhancing stormwater capture

4. Encouraging regional conservation measures

4. Accelerating clean-up of the groundwater basin 5. Expanding groundwater storage

Defining the numbers

Demand, or the amount of water used by the City’s residents and businesses, is measured in acrefeet. An acrefoot covers one acre of land, one foot deep. One acrefoot is equivalent to 325,821 gallons and is enough water to serve approximately two households per year. Currently, the Los Angeles Community uses about 600,000 Acre-Feet per year. Thanks to conservation efforts, that is 100,000 AF per year less since 20 years ago.

Residential

commercial

68%

17%

Los Angeles’ Water Use and Users

Projections of the City’s growth show that Los Angeles’ total water demand (including all customer sectors) will increase about 0.4 percent annually – from just under 670,000 AFY in 2006-07 to 776,000 AFY in 2030 (based on normal weather conditions and with projected conservation).

Government

7%

non-Revenue Industrial

4% 4% Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Project Site

Overall Park and Museum Site: City of Santa Monica

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Project Site

Prelinary Site Proposal: Cap of the Santa Monica Freeway (I-10)

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

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Project Site + Map of Santa Monica


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Project Site + Map of Santa Monica

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Analysis

14 th St re et

11 th St re et

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Ol ym pic

Bl vd

Co lor ad oB lvd

17 th St re et

Br oa dw ay Bl vd

Sa nt aM on ica Bl vd

Partial Site View and Immediate Adjacencies


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Analysis

Site Overview and Written Anaysis

Olympic Park and Skatepark

Water Treatment and Museum Site Data:

Water Treatment and Museum Site Analysis:

Expo Light Rail Line

Water Treatment Site:

Site for Water Treatment Plant

Average Length: 1125’

The Mile Park and Museum and Urban Rainwater Water Treatment Center is located on the most north eastern end of the entire park site proposal.

Commericial Corridor - SM Blvd Medium-Density Residential

Average Width: 240’ South Santa Monica

Industrial / North Santa Monica

Total Footprint Sqft: 357,000 Site in Acres: 8.19

Mile Park Museum Site: Historic Woodlawn Cemetery

Average Length: 1139’

Low-Density Residential Housing

Average Width: 250’

Site For Mile Park Museum

Total Footprint Sqft: 318,000 Site in Acres: 7.13

Interstate 10 Freeway

The museum and treatment facility is directly adjacent to Santa Monica’s historic Woodlawn Cemetery, Olympic Park and Skatepark, the Expo Light Rail like that runs directly to Union Station in Downtown Los Angeles, and site atop the Interstate 10 freeway. Because the I-10 was built in an old creek bed, the topography of the freeway’s grade is naturally and significantly sunken on an average of 40’ below the surrounding grade. The site is significant in that it runs directly through the center of the city, starting 2.25 miles east and terminating at the most western end of the city. The site is within 1/2 of mile from Santa Monica College, 3 different high schools, Santa Monica’s only rail transit line, city hall, Santa Monica’s downtown, and numerous other amenities within the city. The Mile Park and Museum offer a respite from the overwhelming presence of the I-10, and an opportunity to connected a divided city with educational and public space.

Peter Hamilton

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Site Analysis

MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Analysis Maps: 5

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1/2 Mile Radius

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1 Mile Radius

1

1 Mile Radius

School Park or Greenspace

City Districts

Mile Park and Museum Site 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Santa Monica State Beach Lincoln Park Olympic Park Woodlawn Cemetery Virginia Park Civic Center Park Hotchkiss Park Los Amigos Park Palisades Bluff Park

A. B. C. D. E. F. G.

24 the Mile Park and Museum

St. Anne’s Catholic New Roads Cross Roads Santa Monica College Santa Monica High Schoolh St. Monica’s High School Olympic High School

4

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Montana District Downtown/Commercial District Midtown Main Street District South Santa Monica Stewart District

5


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Analysis

Prelinary Program Proposal Bergamot Station

8 7

5 4

Expo Stop

Broad Stage

Bus Station

3

1/2 Mile Radius

6 1

2

Broad Stage

3rd Street Sears Rail Station

City Hall Rand Corp

Hotel Row SM Pier

Main Street SMURRF Venice Beach

1 Mile Radius

Activity Hubs

SigniďŹ cant Adjacent Destinations

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Broad Stage Hotel Row SM Pier SMURRF Rand Corp City Hall Main Street Venice Beach SM Beach

Palisades Bluff Park Santa Monica Pier + Beach Downtown Montana Ave Santa Monica Community Center Main Street Santa Monica College Wilshire Blvd - East

3rd Steet Sears Rail Station 14th Street Expo Rail Stop Bergamot Station and Galleries Greyhound Bus Stationh

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Analysis

Site Analysis Maps: City Connections

CURRENT

PROPOSED

1/2 Mile Radius

1/2 Mile Radius

1 Mile Radius

1 Mile Radius

A Failed Connection One of the biggest issues with the Santa Monica Freeway is the great divide that it has created within the city. Currently, density in the city moves from the freeway out. There is little connection between North and South. This

The Park as a Healer diagram shows how the two ends of the city have their ‘backs’ to one another. This phenomenon is felt physically, socially, economically, and ethnically.

26 the Mile Park and Museum

The proposed park will help stitch the two divided communities together. The proposed park creates significant pedestrian connections between the North and South. The vehicular connections become secondary to the pedes-

trian connections. In theory, the neigherhoods now have a reason to turn and face one another. Hopefully, this proposed project helps to heal the social, physical, economic, and ethnic divide found in the center of our city.


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Analysis

73

80

10

0

90

10

5

12

0

11

0

11

5

12

5

14

0

Park Sections and Structure Proposal

5

2 3

1

9

10

3

50

60

7

4 4

1

9

2

7

1

8

1 7

Santa Monica Bay

0

40

30

1

Topography Topography is a significant element to the site and the project, especially in regards to the natural path that rainwater takes in order to drain into the Santa Monica Bay. This map shows how the water will ow and can be easily

Public Transportation: An Important Connection collected on my site without much redirection, the contrast of topography between the street grade and the freeway grade, and the amount of water not falling on the freeway after the cap is in place.

Santa Monica has one of the best public transportation networks in the country. The Mile Park and Museum site rests in the center of a web of public transportation routes which gives visitors from all over the city a chance to experi-

ence, utilize. and visit the newly built park , museum, and community center.

Peter Hamilton

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Site Analysis

MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Analysis Maps: City Connections

CURRENT

PROPOSED

20th Street

210' - 0” (To Other End of Freeway)

7' 6"

40' 6"

10'

45’ - 0”

Expo Stop Lincoln

4th Street Main Street

40' 6" McClue Tunnel

OnRamps/OffRamps Fortunately, the proposed freeway cover on has on ramps and offramps on only two of the five sections of the site. Few points of access to the freeway makes it easier and more feasible to build and navigate the site from

Freeway Section a structural engineering standpoint. Both sections that house the Museum and Water Treatment facility have NO offramps or onramps that might impede with the development.

28 the Mile Park and Museum

The Interstate 10 freeway conveniently sits at the bottom of an old, original creek bed that emptied into the Santa Monica Bay. Because of this, the freeway sits on average about 40’-45’ below the grade of the surround-

ing neighborhood. A freeway cap would literally stitch the surrounding grade to one another. This is a huge advantage as the development doesn’t have to factor in any level changes between the park and the surrounding community.


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Analysis

Site Analysis Maps: Pedstrian Behavior and Use

CURRENT

Current Pedestrian Corridors and Behavior Very Strong Use Strong Use Good Use Below Average Poor Use

The pedestrian behavior in the city of Santa Monica - like most cities - is dictated by the two phenomena: destination and connection. Downtown, the beach, and Santa Monica College clearly see more ped traf-

Proposed Pedestrian Corridors and Behavior fic, while the residential neighborhoods seem to lack ped traffic. The Mile Park and Museum creates both a destination for people to want to walk to as well as a connection between major

regions of the city: downtown, the college, Main Street, north and south residential neighborhoods as well as the myriad of scattered schools and parks that surround the Mile Park and Museum site.

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Urban Strategy + Impact:

Density Analysis through Project Phasing - 30 year Projection

Phase one: 10-year Projection

MP+M and California Native Reserve Park

30 the Mile Park and Museum

Phase two: 20-year Projection

Neighborhood Recreation Facilities Park

Phase three: 30-year Projection Urban Pedestrian Park and Pavilions


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Urban Strategy + Impact:

Density Analysis through Project Phasing - 30 year Projection

cURREnt dEnSIty condItIon

dEnSIty GRoWtH - 10 yEAR

dEnSIty GRoWtH - 20 yEAR

dEnSIty GRoWtH - 30 yEAR

CREATING AN ANCHOR, STITCHING THE HALVES

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Overall SIte Programming

Park Sections and Structure Proposal

Sequential Movement 1. Urban Rainwater Treatment Center 2. Mile Park Museum

3. Wood Parkland Space

4. Recreational Park Space

1/2 Mi le Ra diu s

5. Hardscape Park Space

As the site moves east to west, the landscape and the groundscape changes. As a sequential diagram, the park is anchored by two major destinations: the Mile Park and Museum and Santa Monica’s downtown and commercial district. The MP+M will enliven a less urban and vehicular dominated part of east Santa Monica. It was act as the beginning of a path southwest to downtown. As the path nears downtown, the landscape changes and evolves from a kind of ‘natural’ untamed landscape, to a clearly human and pedestrian dominated hardscape. The progression and different uses of the land will hopefully fit well with the environment as well as create a path in a place where is none.

1M ile Ra diu s

1.

2.

32 the Mile Park and Museum

3.

4.

5.


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Overall SIte Programming

Prelinary Program Proposal 1. The Water Treatment Facility:

3. Wooded Parkland Space

Here is the industrial, public space that is primarily used as a visitor and learning center. The Water enters this portion of the site - the highest elevation and most northern point of the park. Here the water is collected, stored, and treated. There is strong emphasis on viewership and user interaction with the processes of the water treatment.

Native, wooded, and natural park preserve. Space exploits the use of native, California trees and drought plants. The section of the park is an opportunity to replenish the landscape with what it once was

2. The Mile Park Museum: The MPM is a historical, architectural, and ecological interactive museum that explores the issue of water in the Los Angeles area. Open, light, public space that houses the museum, public gardens, and public monuments. Space connects with the historic Woodlawn Cemetery. The museum utilizes the interactive nature of the water treatment center to help in the ‘hands-on’ education of the museum. Treated water flows through this site as well as the entire park’s site.

4. Softscape Public Space: The recreational portion of the MP+M site offers public recreation and use such as sports fields, open spaces, and environmental refuge for native plants and animal species. Again, treated water from the water treatment facility flows through this portion of the park. On an environmental and water treatment level, this section is used as a oversized green roof and auxiliary water filtration system. The the ‘creek’ created by the excess water is allowed to flow back di-

1.

*

5. Hardscape Public Space: As the park nears the center of Santa Monica and closer to the more ‘pedestrian dominated’ portion of the city, the park becomes a hardscaped public space. This space is used more as a pedestrian open space that offers opportunities for public shows, exhibitions, meetings, functions, farmer’s markets, concerts, etc. This plaza-like space connects downtown’s pedestrian 3. dominated streets with city hall and the popular Main Street district. The hardscaped portion of the park mimics the urban European nature of Downtown Santa Monica.

2.

4.

3. Wooded Parkland Space Native, wooded, and natural park preserve. Space exploits the use of native, California trees and drought plants. The section of the park is an opportunity to replenish the landscape with what it once was

rectly into the water table. Also, all excess water that does not reach the water table is slowed and ultimately either stored or drained into the Santa Monica Bay. Recreation lawn and structured activity park allows community members to utilize the park for baseball, football, soccer, and other open field sport

5. * Visual context of connection to significant spaces within the city of Santa Monica

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

34 the Mile Park and Museum

Site Photos and Context


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Photos and Context

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

36 the Mile Park and Museum

Site Photos and Context


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Photos and Context

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

38 the Mile Park and Museum

Site Photos and Context


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Photos and Context

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

40 the Mile Park and Museum

Site Photos and Context


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Photos and Context

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

42 the Mile Park and Museum

Site Photos and Context


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Photos and Context

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

44 the Mile Park and Museum

Site Photos and Context


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Photos and Context

Peter Hamilton

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46 The Mile Park and Museum


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Photos and Context

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Project Program

MP+M: Space Programming SPACE

FUNCTION

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

ADJACENCIES AND DAY LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS

ENVIRONMENTAL, FURNITURE, AND EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS

SQUARE FOOTAGE

Water Treatment Facility Amenities and Requirements

Solid Filtration Drums

This is the first process of the filtration process after rainwater re-direction to the plant from the city's stormwater gutter system. The filtration drums are Drums most likely do not have to be housed indoors, however massive circular perforated steel drums that rotate while the collected water they do need to be designed for easy and quick maintenance flows in. The drums collect any and all large debris that may washed into access. the water collection tanks. After filtration, all large debris is collected and burned off-site.

Drums will have to be directly adjacent to the city's Outdoor seating and benches for viewing are needed for this space. stormwater collection systems as well as the the initial water No climate control or environmental design requirements are needed collection tanks along the freeway. If inside, daylighting in this outdoor space. needed in space.

5,000

Water Storage Tanks (6 @ 12,000sqft each)

After the water has run through the filtration drums, it is then collected in the first of three water collection tanks. These initial tanks hold and retain rainwate, allowing for a much higher volume of collection that is typically needed. This is to ensure efficiency during the rainy periods.

These huge tanks are far too heavy and large to be atop the freeway cap. The storage tanks will be buried underground alongside the freeway, and water will be pumped from these underground tanks to the other stations of the treatment plant. There will be no public access to these underground water tanks.

Tanks will be sunken below the grade and will have to have overflow access to the city's stormwater collection system.

Grit Removal Chambers - Pavillion B

The collected water is then pumped into the Grit Removal chambers. These chambers are huge circular tanks that have a motorized spinning center shaft that slowing churns the water. As the water churns, theese spinning chambers send heavy grit or particles (such as sand, small plastics, soil, small trash, etc.) that were not collected by the filtration drums to the walls then the floor of the circular tanks. The water is then drained, and the particles and grit is collected and removed.

Chambers must be placed indoors in a controlled environment. Tanks will be designed with viewing windows within its walls so that users and visitors will be able to view the process. Tall ceilings are required (15'-20'). There is a possibility for an elevated walk that allows viewers to look into the spnning chambers from above. Space needs amble areas for safe viewing and touring.

Space needs access to central entrance as well as separate Seating and benches for viewing are needed for this soace. Space fire exits. Public access is required. Space will be directly must meet appropriate ventilation and safety regulations. Interactive adjacent to DAFD and collection tank. Daylighting needed in learning stations needed in space. space.

6,000

Dissolve Air Filtration Device - Pavillion C

The next process is the DAFD or the Dissolve Air Filtration Device. This device is essentially a huge tank or pool that is line with air pressurized tubing along the bottom of the tank. These air tubes force air out of extremely small holes, and very small bubbles are created. As these bubbles move upward, oil and grease in the water attaches itself them. The bubbles bring the oil and grease to the top of the tanks, and a scooping mechanism combs the surface of the water, essentially collecting the risen grease and oil.

Like the grit removal chambers, these tanks will have viewing windows that allow for users to see the process of water filtration. Tall ceilings are required (15'-20'). Space needs amble areas for safe viewing and touring.

Space needs access to central entrance as well as separate Seating and benches for viewing are needed for this soace. Space fire exits. Public access is required. Space will be directly must meet appropriate ventilation and safety regulations. Interactive adjacent to grit removal tanks and microfiltration tube tanks. learning stations needed in space. Daylighting needed in space.

3,000

Although the actual process wont be available for view, space will still be used by visitors, thus ample, appropriate daylighting is required. Space will be adjacent to the disenfection tank and the DAFD process area.

6,000

Micro Filtration Chambers (5 chambers) - Pavillion C

Disinfection Tank - Pavillion D

Water Treatment Laboratories (3 @1000 sqft each) - Pavillion D

Mechanical (5 @ 300sqft each: 1 per treatment station)

Auxiliary Mechanical

Central Lobby Space - Pavillion A

Restrooms and Services (3 @ 1,000sqft each)

The last process of filtration is the Micro Filtration Chambers. These chambers or tanks are lined with microfiltration tubes. With high pressures, Because of intense pressure and energy used in this station, water is forced through these tubes, and because only water molecules can fit through this microfiltration material, all other materials are left behind. viewership of the filtration process is not available. Tall ceilings After asession of filtration, there is a back pressure of water the other are required (15'-20'). direction through the tubes which essentially cleans the tubes from the collected particles. They water is then drained in the city's sewer system.

Underground tanks will need access to efficient climate control systems and ventilation.

Seating and benches for viewing are needed for this soace. Space must meet appropriate ventilation and safety regulations. Interactive learning stations needed in space.

With the water clear of oils, debris, and microscopic particles and sediments, the filtered water is then sent through a large, slowflowing Like the grit removal chambers, these tanks will have viewing Seating and benches for viewing are needed for this space. Space Space needs to be large and long because of the design of the windows that allow for users to see the process of water shallow, disinfection tank. The disinfection tanks are dark tanks will must meets appropriate ventilation and to meet safety regulations. ultraviolet lights that kills all bacteria in the newly filtrated water. This being shallow slow moving water tanks. filtration. Space needs little or no access to outside light. Interactive learning stations needed in space. the last process in the treatment plant, the clean water is then sent to the clean water storage tanks.

These spaces used by employees of the city of Santa Monica. Laboratories Laboratories need to be open and flexible to allow for changing Laboratories can have acces to natural light but will also used for to test for quality control of the facility's treatment systems, as well and large testing and experiments. Also, there needs to be need the ability to close out natural light completely for ample space for storage and documentation filing and as other areas of water research. controlled testing and experiments. recording.

Laboratories will have to be highly controlled from outside climate, and will have to have access to all services privately. Spaces will need large plug loads for scientific equipment such as freezers, fume hoods, light labs, pressurized machinery, and water testing tanks. Space must meet all safety and health regulations.

72,000

7,000 3,000

Spaces need flexible and open floor plans that allow for Because of the nature of the water treatment stations, each station requires mechanical changes, additions, and advances for each of the a minimum of 500 square feet of flexible mechanical space. different treatment proceses. There will be no public access to mechanical spaces.

No daylighting concerns or requirements needed for space. Mechanical spaces need to meet at safety regulatory system Mechanical space have to be immediately adjacent to all treatment facilities given that these smaller mechanical requirements. Equipment will vary for different tasks. Not all spaces specifically serve the different processes in the water equipment has been determined. treatment plant.

1,500

Mechanical space is used to operate the entire treatment facility outside of the direct mechanical spaces that are attached at each station. Needs such as lighting, ventilation, security, electrical loads, etc. will be met by this Auxiliary mechanical room.

No daylighting concerns or requirements needed for space. Mechanical spaces need to meet at safety regulatory system Mechanical space doesn't have to be immediately adjacent requirements. Equipment will vary for different tasks. Not all to all treatment facilities, however space should be easily equipment has been determined. accessable to these facilities processes.

1,200

Spaces need flexible and open floor plans that allow for mechanical changes, additions, and advances for each of the different treatment proceses. There will be no public access to mechanical spaces.

The Water Treatment plant will need a central lobby space that helps orient Space will need clear wayfinding signage as well as clear and direct the users as to how they should explore and move through the indication that it is indeed a central or major space within the space. treatment facility.

Provide both public and privately accessed restrooms and services for the both the visitors as well as the employees of the treatment plant.

Restroom and services much meet all ADA and wayfinding regulations.

3,000 Public restrooms and services require access to the central lobby space as well as to all the publicly accessed spaces within the building. Employee restrooms and services do not Restroom and services must meet all safety, health, and ADA require immediate adjancy to the central public space, regulations. however access to the labs as well as separate and fire exits is required.

3,000 TOTAL - 31,700

48 The Mile Park and Museum


is required.

TOTAL - 31,700

MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Project Program

MP+M: Space Programming SPACE

FUNCTION

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

ADJACENCIES AND DAY LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS

Offices need to have private access and separate fire exits. Spaced need to be able to be locked off and closed off to the publicly accessed spaces in the museum . Offices Located on 2nd Floor.

Drums will have to be directly adjacent to the city's stormwater collection systems as well as the the initial water collection tanks along the freeway. If inside, daylighting needed in space.

ENVIRONMENTAL, FURNITURE, AND EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS

SQUARE FOOTAGE

Museum + Gallery Amenities and Requirements

Adminitrative Offices

Space houses the adminitrative services and offices needed to operate both the museum. Space will need to have the ability to house multiple different sections of administration, from even planning, logistical upkeep, and overall management.

4000 (Total)

Single Office Spaces

1,000

Vonference Room

2500

Open Office Spaces

750

Locker Room + Break Room

750

Storage space will house both the storage for maintanence needs as well as for the needs for the community space. Storage will house tables, chairs, and event appropriate equipment (speakers, podium, removable stage, etc.).

Spaces need to be designed to be accessed only by museum personell and should not infringe or be apparent from the publicly accessed museum spaces.

Tanks will be sunken below the grade and will have to have overflow access to the city's stormwater collection system.

Display and Gallery Space (x4)

The primary display and gallery spaces will house the permenant collection of artifacts and educational displays of the museum. Like traditional museums, spaces will be airy, open, simple with emphasis on wayfinding and legibility of access from one space to another.

Spaces need plenty of daylight with open floor plans. Although the work is for the permeant within these spaces, the galleries need to be designed to flexibly exchange new art and displays. Minimal partitions within the spaces is ideal, and access to storage and other main gallery spaces is essential.

Space needs access to central entrance as well as separate fire exits. Public access is required. Space will be directly adjacent to grit removal tanks and microfiltration tube tanks. Daylighting needed in space.

16,000

Large Auditorium and Theatre Pavillion E

The large auditorium is specifically designed for special events, most likey sponsored by the museum or an outside entity that allows public access (I.e. public movie screening, school plays or performances, community meetings or public community events, etc.)

The large auditorium space is a large, high-ceilinged space that has fixed seating that faces a main stage. There will have to be Like the grit removal chambers, these tanks will have viewing Space will require a stage, lighting and sound eequipment strict acoustic, lighting, and egress requirements for this space. windows that allow for users to see the process of water requirements for performance space. Fixed, ascending seating It has not yet been decided, but there may be an opportunity for filtration. Space needs little or no access to outside light. required within space. a mezzanine level for seating and sound and stage technicians.

3,000

Café and gift shop offer visitors and employees access to snacks, small lunches, coffee, pastries, and museum parafenalia.

Café must have clear indication of its central, public nature. Space will be open and felxible within the central lobby space. Gift shop and café require ample daylight, immediate Café will also be designed with ablility to serve as a prep kitchen adjacency to central/lobby space, and restroom and service for all private and public events that take place in the main facilities. community room and large ampitheater.

Community and Event Space - Pavillion E

The community and even hall is a flexibly designed space that can be used to hold events that are sponsored by either the museum or the community and are meant to be exclusively private events (weddings, parties, private film screenings, fundraisers, etc.) When the space is not being used for private events, the space will be opened as a 'flex' spcae to the museum and its visitors throughout the day.

Event space will be large and mainly an open space, able to accommodate a variety of different uses, such as weddings, parties, fundraisers, etc. Space will have very tallk ceilings (20'30') with access to the outdoors and the rest of the museum.

5,000

Mechanical Room

Mechanical space is used to operate the entire treatment facility outside of the direct mechanical spaces that are attached at each station. Needs such as lighting, ventilation, security, electrical loads, etc. will be met by this Auxiliary mechanical room.

Spaces need flexible and open floor plans that allow for mechanical changes, additions, and advances for each of the different museum needs and loads. There will be no public access to mechanical spaces.

1,000

Traveling Exhibition and Art Gallery Pavillion E (Same Space as Event Room)

The exhibition and art gallery space is a space somewhat detached from the 'water-based' theme of the rest of the museum. This space houses temporary art installations, whether local or not. It is essentially a space set aside for the promotion and display of art in an already very public building and destination.

Space needs to be open and flexible in order to accommodate a changing landscape of different art installations. Art Gallery spaces need high ceilings (15'-20') and large door access (idealy some kind of garage door or a door of the like) to allow for easy installation of large art exhibits.

Storage and Maintanence

Café - Pavillion A

Public restrooms and services require access to the central lobby space as well as to all the publicly accessed spaces within the building. Employee restrooms and services do not require immediate adjancy to the central public space, however access to the labs as well as separate and fire exits is required.

Underground tanks will need access to efficient climate control systems and ventilation.

Space needes to meet all health and safety regulatory requirements. Proper seating for eating and lounging must be met in the café and gift shop. Café requires stove, preperation equipment, coffee brewing machinery, food storage refrigerators, and immediate access to facilities.

2,000

1,500

4,000 TOTAL - 28500

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Water Treatment Process

Urban Runnoff Catchment Map

THE WATER TREATMENT PROCESS Every non-rainy season day in Los Angeles, millions of gallons of water runs off in the city and county’s stormwater gutter systems. from overwater gardens and lawns, washing cars, and emptying pools, Angelenos waste huge amounts of water every day. Aside from the waste, the greatest source of pollution to the city’s Santa Monica Bay is stormwater runoff. As the runoff travels through the streets and gutters and ultimately into the ocean, it collects toxins, oils, heavy metals, bacteria, and trash. this collection of pollution threatens the safety of water for both humans and wildlife within the bay. the Mile Park + Museum aims to help collect this non rainy-season runoff - known as urban runoff opposed to stormwater runoff - to treat it, and to funnel it into the bay as clean water. currently, the city of Santa Monica treats 95% (500k gal/day) of its urban runoff, but Los Angeles treats less than 15%. the Mile Park + Museum will treat the remaining 5% of Santa Monica’s need as well as a portion of West Los Angeles and parts of culver city. the treatment process are designed to handle 3 million gal/day during non-rainy days.

50 the Mile Park and Museum


Water Treatment Process

MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Process Machinery

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

COLLECTION + FILTRATION DRUMS

GRIT REMOVAL TANKS

DISSOLVE AIR FILTRATION DEVICE TANKS

MICRO-FILTRATION CHAMBERS

DISENFECTION TANKS

Limited Rainwater and urban runoff is initially directed and collected into the storage tanks that lines below the freeway cap and alongside the freeway. .

the collected water is then pumped into the Grit Removal chambers. these chambers are huge circular tanks that have a motorized spinning center shaft that slowly churns the water. As the water churns, these spinning chambers send heavy grit or particles (such as sand, small plastics, soil, small trash, etc.) that were not collected by the filtration drums to the walls then the floor of the circular tanks. the water is then drained, and the particles and grit is collected and removed.

the next process is the dAfd or the dissolve Air filtration device. this device is essentially a huge tank or pool that is line with air pressurized tubing along the bottom of the tank. these air tubes force air out of extremely small holes, and very small bubbles are created. As these bubbles move upward, oil and grease in the water attaches itself them. the bubbles bring the oil and grease to the top of the tanks, and a scooping mechanism combs the surface of the water, essentially collecting the risen grease and oil.

The last process of filtration is the Micro filtration chambers. these chambers or tanks are lined with microfiltration tubes. With high pressures, water is forced through these tubes, and because only water molecules can fit through this microfiltration material, all other materials are left behind. After accession of filtration, there is a back pressure of water the other direction through the tubes which essentially cleans the tubes from the collected particles. they backwashed water is then drained in the city’s sewer system.

With the water clear of oils, debris, and microscopic particles and sediments, the filtered water is then sent through a large, slowflowing shallow, disinfection tank. the disinfection tanks are dark tanks will ultraviolet lights that kill all bacteria in the newly filtrated water. this being the last process in the treatment plant, the clean water is then sent to the clean water storage tanks where it is either sold back clients for non-potable uses or drained into the bay as clearn water

the raw water is then pumped - debris and all - into the filtration drums, which is the next process in the water treatment. This is the first process of the filtration process after rainwater re-direction to the plant from the city’s stormwater gutter system. The filtration drums are massive circular perforated steel drums that rotate while the collected water flows through. the drums collect any and all large debris that may washed into the water collection tanks. After filtration, all large debris is collected and burned off-site.

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Phase One: Site Plan Euclid Street

12th Street Olympic Blvd

14th Street

11th Street 25

Euclid Street

5

12th Street

0 50 75 100

52 the Mile Park and Museum

Michigan Ave


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Phase One: Site Plan

15th Street

16th Street

Olympic Blvd

17th Street

14th Street 16th Street

15th Street Michigan Ave

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54 The Mile Park and Museum


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Concept + Parti

SEQUENCE. MOVEMENT. MOMENT.

Initial Parti Sketch

LIKE THE WATER THAN MOVES THOUGH THE SITE, THE USERS MEANDERS, EDDIES, AND EXPERIENCES THE CHANGING TERRAIN OF THE MILE PARK + MUSEUM. AS A CONNECTION BETWEEN BOTH NORTH AND SOUTH SANTA MONICA AND EAST SANTA MONICA WITH THE PACIFIC OCEAN, THE MP+M SITE AND MASSING ALLOWS MOVEMENT, MOMENT, AND SEQUENCE IN WHATEVER WAY ONE PASSES THROUGH. THE PAVILLIONS ARE SCATTERED, AT FIRST CLUSTERED, BUT EVENTUALLY OPENING UP, SLOWING PROGRESS- ING INTO THE WIDE OPENINESS OF THE NATURAL PRE- SERVE. THE PATHWAYS CONSTRAIN AND COMPRESS ONE’S VIEWS, BOTH EXCITING AND ENTICING THE USER TO CONTINUE THE JOURNEY WHILE ALSO REWARDING ONE WITH OPEN, DEFINED OUTDOOR SPACE AND beautiful VISTAS. SeQueNCe Of PROGRaM uSHeRS ONe tHROuGH tHe SiteMOVeMeNt Of StuCtuRe DiReCtS ONe WeStWaRD. MOMeNtS alONG tHe PatH allOW tHe uSeR tO aPPReCiate aND SOaK iN tHe beautY Of tHe Re- ClaiMeD laND tHat WaS ONCe DOMiNateD bY tHe DiViSiVe fReeWaY

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Concept + Parti

Early Building Sketches + Studies

56 The Mile Park and Museum


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Concept + Parti

Early Building Sketches + Studies

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Concept + Parti

Early Building Conceptual Models + Parti Exploration

58 The Mile Park and Museum


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Concept + Parti

Early Building Conceptual Models + Parti Exploration

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Architectural Drawings

MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Partial Plan: Pavillion A+B - No Scale

-

--0 5 10 15 25 35

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Architectural Drawings

UP

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Architectural Drawings

Building Elevation - Pavillion A+B - Looking East - No Scale

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Architectural Drawings

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Architectural Drawings

Building Section - Pavillion A+B - Looking East - No Scale

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Architectural Drawings

0 1

5

15

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35

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Architectural Drawings

MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Structural Bay Study + Screen Elevation Detail CL

BAY STUDY

24’-0” 12’-0”

8’-0”

12’-0”

8’-0”

In my initial design stage, I focused on how to bring about the complexity of design and structure through simple form. It was a study of scale and relationship, structure and aesthetic.

8’-0”

8’-0”

Each structural steel bay is composed within a 24’x24’ modular shape, and the mullion placement follows suit within an appropriate aesthetic and human scale. 12’-0”

SCREEN DETAIL

2’-0”

12’-0”

6’-0”

CL

24’-0”

16’-0”

the wood-lattice shading screen that adorns the facade of all five pavillions is slowly stripped from the structure as the pavillions move through the site - as the program goes from industrial to communal. this mimics the journey of the stormwater’s transformation from dirty and heavy to clean and light. Ernest Hemingway once said that a ‘good writer is able to take a page of words and distill it down to a sentence of truth.’ It is this kind of simplicity that drives the tectonics of the MP+M.

15’-0”

13’-0”

12’-0”

14’-0”

17’-0” 19’-0”

10’-0” 8’-0”

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PAVILION: A

66 the Mile Park and Museum

PAVILION: B

PAVILION: C

PAVILION: D

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Architectural Drawings

MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

A

B

12’ - 0” OC

C

12’ - 0” OC

D

12’ - 0” OC

E

12’ - 0” OC

F

12’ - 0” OC

G

12’ - 0” OC

H

12’ - 0” OC

I

12’ - 0” OC

---

EXTRUDED ALUMINIUM SUN-FIN

11' - 2" 3' - 0" 1' - 0" 2' - 0"

W18X24 BEAM FRAME

2' - 0"

3' - 0"

5' - 6"

EXTERIOR LOUVERS CURTAIN WALL MULLION

33’- 9”

ACCORDIAN CURTAIN WALL SLIDING DOORS

8’ - 0”

18' - 0”

CONCRETE FLOORING DRAINAGE MESH GEO-COMPACT FOAM

8’ - 0”

GEO-COMPACT FOAM DRAINAGE MAT CONCRETE DECKING

0’ - 6" 0’ - 6" 1' - 0” 1' - 0” 0’ - 6"

MECHANICAL RUN-THROUGH

1' - 0”

12’- 6”

8’ - 0”

PRECAST SPANNING RIENFORCED CONCRETE GIRDER

A 0

1

5

B 15

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

25

1. 2.

1. Matte White Aluminum Panels

2. treated oak vertical Louvers

3. Weather-treated corten Steel frame

4. Jerusalem Lime Stone Interior+Patio finish

3. 4.

Building Material Palette Peter Hamilton

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68 the Mile Park and Museum

Final Models


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Final Models

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Tectonic Study

33’-0”

Freeway Lid Stuctural Study

CRUSHED GRANITE AND COMPACTED EARTH

10’-0”

COMPACTED GEO-FOAM

PREFABRICATED CONCRETE PANEL DECKING

PLANTER WELLS FOR TREES AND LARGE PLANTS PLACED ATOP THE FREEWAY CAP

35’-0”

7’ PREFABRICATED CONCETE GIRDERS SPANNING 90’

FREEWAY+PAVILLION CONNECTION SECTION no Scale

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FREEWAY CAP STRUCTURE AXON no Scale


Tectonic Study

MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Pavillion Stuctural Study

SHEAR WALL STRUCTURE WALL AND VENTILATION CAVITY. CONNECTED AT FREEWAY CAP CONCRETE PANELS - SHEAR STRUCTURE MAKES UP A MINIMUN OF 30% OF STUCTURE LENGTH

PREFABRICATED LIGHT SAILS ATTACHEDTO A RIGID STEEL FRAME THAT ADDS ADDITIONAL RIGID STRUCTURE TO STEEL BEAM-AND-COLUMN SYSTEM

ALUMINUM LIGHT FINS 3’-0” OC TYP

W18X24 STEEL BEAM FRAME SYSTEM.ATTACHED TO MOMENT FRAME COLUM SYSTEM - BEAM PLACEMENT AT 12’-0” OC TYP

NON-STRUCTURAL CURTAIN WALL SYSTEM - WALLS AND WINDOWS OPEN TO EXTERIOR W18X24 STEEL MOMENT FRAME COLUMN SYSTEM - COLUMN PLACEMENT AT 24’-0” OC TYP PREFABRICATED STEEL MOMMENT FRAMSTHAT SUPPORT LATERAL LOADS AND ATTACHTO THE BEAM AND GIRDER FRAME SYSTEM WOOD LATTICE CURTAIN SCREEN SYSTEM ATTACHED TO MOMENT COLUMN SYSTEM - LATTICE PLACEMENT AT 1’-0” OC TYP

24’-0” 12’-0”

MP+M PAVILLION STRUCTURE AXON No Scale

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

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Site Section + Context


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Site Section + Context

Peter Hamilton

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Landscape

Early Landscape Vision Sketch

RETURN TO THE LAND: LANDSCAPE AS SUSTAINABILITY One of the major goals of the Mile Park + Museum project is give usable, natural land back to the city of Santa Monica. The freeway currently occopies more than 10 million square feet within the city. The land used by the freeway disturbs Tound levels, natural water and flood outlets, natural plant growth, and local indigenous habitats that once occupied this site. The MP+M project has proposed to give this land back to the community while at the same time addressing these many problems that

74 The Mile Park and Museum

the divide of the freeway creates. The three phases of the MP+M project would be adding approximately 4 million square feet of green space to the city of Santa Monica. This is over 40 acres of land and would be about a 60% increase in usable green space within the city. The design of the site itself was extremely important in regards to its strong statement aboust sustainability and environmental responsibility. As the museum and water treatment center outdoor space is designed

for the pedestrian, the second swatch of land just south is designed for the natural habitat of the adjacent site. The clean water that leaves the treatment center is allowed to flow naturally through the park space, uninterrupted and ultimately into the ocean. Essentially, it is a space dedicated to revitalizing natural plants, local animal and insect species, and creating a land preserved for the sake of envirohmental repair and observation. The natural preserve park space allows for the MP+M project to further more act as a learn-

ing opportunity and outreach to the community of Santa Monica beyond just the industrial treatment of the stormwater. The preserve land demonstrates the how the use of local plants and plant species help in utilizing and conserving water, providing healthy soil, providing natural protection, and helps in providing a beautiful escape for the pedestrian.


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Landscape

Early Building Conceptual Models + Parti Exploration

A.

B.

C.

cALIfoRnIA BRUSH

A PAtH foR tHE WAtER

A PAtH foR tHE PEdEStRIAn

Euclid Street

12th Street Olympic Blvd

14th Street

11th Street

A. B.

C.

25

Euclid Street

5

12th Street

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Michigan Ave

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Sustainability

Passive Strategy as Sustainability

EXHAUST + FIN PANELS: ALLOWS HOT AIR TO ESCAPE AND GENERATES PASSIVE BREEZES TO FLUSH SPACE LIGHT ‘SAILS’ - PASSIVE SUN SHADING THAT BLOCK 85% OF DIRECT SUNLIGHT THROUGHOUT THE ENTIRE YEAR

REGULAR GRIDDED STRUCTURE FLEXIBLE DESIGN ALLOWS FOR PROGRAM ADAPTATION AND EXPANSION WHILE MAINTAINING ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION LINEAR, SKINNY DESIGN ALLOWS FOR THE WALLS TO OPEN AND CAPTURE LOCAL BREEZES TO COOL AND FLUSH THE GALLERY AND INDUSTRIAL SPACE FREEWAY CAP ‘GREEN ROOF’ - 4-MILLION SQUARE FEET OF SOIL COLLECTS RAINWATER AND REDISTRIBUTES IT INTO THE ADJACENT GROUNDWATER LAYER

CAP ALLOWS A SOLUTION TO THE SOUND POLLUTION CAUSED BY THE I-10 FREEWAY. SOUND AND DUST POLLUTION FROM THE FREEWAY IS THE LEADING POLLUTANT COMPLAINT IN THE CITY OF SANTA MONICA

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Sustainability

Passive Strategy as Sustainability thanks to the mild climate of Southern california, the MP+M museum is able to utilize many non-energy load passive strategies to control the environment within its spaces. the ‘light sails’ and shading fins block most of the direct sun heat gain throughout the year, but are designed in such a way as to maximize reflected soft light when most needed. As show in the diagrams below, in the summer - when the sun is highest and brighest in the sky - the fins allow for theleast amount of desired light, where in the winter - when the sun is lowest and least bright - the fins allow for the most reflected light.

JUNE 21: 2:00PM

they also allow for ventilation and nightly flushing of the heated space. the position of my site also allowed the MP+M to take advange of the local breezes that come mostly from the Santa Monica Bay. they move northeast through the site, essentially perpindicular to my building layout.

WIND DATA: SANTA MONICA, CA

YEARLY TEMP DATA: SANTA MONICA, CA

3.2 IN

74 D

2.4 IN 65 D 1.6 IN 53 D

0.8 IN

40 D

0.0 IN J

F

LOW

SEPT 21: 2:00PM

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A

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DEC 21: 2:00PM

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Pavillion A + B Interior View Looking Southwest


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Pavillion A + B Courtyard View Looking Northeast


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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Precedent Study

WORLD CONTEXT:

THE DETAILS:

PRECEDENT: WHERE:

Jim Ellis Freeway Park

Seattle, WA, USA SITE:

Jim Ellis Freeway Park WHAT:

5.5 Acre Park that covers a portion of Interstate 5 COST:

NA COMPLETION DATE

1976

The Jim Ellis Freeway Park is a freeway cap park that covers the 5 freeway that splits the city of Seattle. Although the park was an idea in 1966, not until help from the Forward Thrust bond money in 1976 did the five-acre park became a reality. The space is defined by a series of linked plazas that are intertwined and enclosed by concrete planting containers and walls. Consistency and cohesion between these spaces is developed through a shared materials palette of concrete, broadleaf evergreen

plantings and site furnishings. The spaces are differentiated through the dynamism of the water features that occupy the spaces and the attendant differentiation of moods. A roiling precipice of water in freefall dominates the Central Plaza, tumbling over an assertive assemblage of overhangs and outcrops. The design effect of 28,000 gallons per minute tumbling over 30-foot tall formed concrete blocks is at once rugged and decidedly urban. The fountain and pathway design nods the Northwest’s Cascades mountains and provides a stark contrast between the humandominated spaces of the city and the natural formations of Seattle’s surroundings. By placing the water feature over the canyon of the freeway, the “natural” gorge was able to drown out-or at least amelioratethe roaring sound of the automotive flows below. Near the base of the canyon, a heavy-gauge glass window allows visitors to see cars driving by, creating a dynamic visual dialogue between nature and water and the city and the cars of the freeway.

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM: Jim Ellis Freeway Park

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Precedent Study


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Project Program

Site and Context Photos: Jim Ellis Freeway Park

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Precedent Study

WORLD CONTEXT:

THE DETAILS:

PRECEDENT: WHERE:

Margaret T. Hance Park

Phoenix, AZ, USA SITE:

Margaret T. Hance Park WHAT:

34 Acre Park and Freeway Cover of the Interstate 10 Freeway COST:

NA COMPLETION DATE

1990

The park spans several blocks and is divided by Central Avenue into two distinct areas. On one side is an open play area, playground, and picnic area with grills and sand volleyball. On the other side is a brick entryway and fountain at the base of the Phoenix Public Library and a partially completed Japanese Friendship Garden. When completed, the Gardens will be located on 3 acres of the park and will include a Tea House, a koi fishpond, and a strolling walkway. Considered the heart of Phoenix’s

downtown cultural center, Deck Park is the city’s second-largest downtown park. The park has spurred recent efforts to revitalize the surrounding downtown area, including the construction of a new library, new market rate and affordable housing projects, and the expansion or renovation of nearly all the area’s museums.Proposals to build a downtown freeway in Phoenix had been debated for decades – the original 1966 design called for a roadway elevated more than 100 feet above ground.However, because of public support for the current design, the Papago Freeway overcame obstacles that would kill most highway projects. The highway was built through some of the oldest and most historic neighborhoods in Phoenix; it also ran through two ancientarchaeological sites, which were salvaged before construction. Today, the Papago Freeway is an aesthetic, economic, and cultural success. The project, particularly the park deck area, is thought of as a showcase for Phoenix; not just a highway project, but also an essential element of the fabric of the City of Phoenix.

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM: Margaret T. Hance Park

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Precedent Study


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Project Program

Site and Context Photos: Margaret T. Hance Park

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Precedent Study

WORLD CONTEXT:

THE DETAILS:

PRECEDENT: WHERE:

Klyde Warren Park

Dallas, TX, USA SITE:

Klyde Warren Park WHAT:

5 acre park that spans and covers an existing freeway COST:

$68 Million COMPLETION DATE

2012

In 2006, the Dallas Texas Department of Transportation, the City of Dallas, and The Woodall Rodgers Park Foundation rolled out a plan to cover the Woodall Rodgers Freeway in downtown Dallas.

city in hopes to revitalize these city centers.

The ambitious plan to cover the sunken freeway was an effort to connect Uptown Dallas with Downtown Dallas. The freeway created a huge divide, and the city planners, developers, and the community saw this project as an opportunity to stitch together the

The park’s design bloated with amenities: a performance stage, a restaurant, water features, a children’s garden, botanical gardens, a dog park, and lush landscaping.

The park is a 5 acre ‘lid’ that is 200’ feet wide and spans three city blocks long.

The park addressed a myriad of needs within the city of Dallas. The lid provides acoustic resolve to the noise pollution of the freeway, it created a pedestrian friendly connection over the freeway as well as to the connecting adjacent Dallas art district in this area, and improved the air quality in the surrounding neighborhood. Klyde Warren Park also acts as a green roof in collecting, retaining, and slowing the process of rainwater pollution and erosion. Dallas’ intense heat island levels are lessened by the new greenspace that has replaced exposed freeway concrete - one of the biggest factors to heat island effect. The park was designed by landscape architect James Burnett, and the engineers on record are the Jacobs Engineering Group.

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM: Klyde Warren Park

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Precedent Study


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Project Program

Freeway Cap Structural Diagram

7.

6.

5.

4.

1. Existing Freeway

5. Geo-foam layering

The existing freeway was built and constructed 35’ below the natural grade of the surrounding city and street context. The freeway was a 200’ wide gash through the center of the city, dividing uptown from downtown Dallas.

The structure needed to support the weight of 322 trees at maturation, 904 shrubs, equipment, soil, park attendees, and even rainwater.

2. Spanning Beams Because of a 17’ minimum height clearance for vehicular traffic, the above structure had to be sure to be thin yet strong. Thus, the supporting spanning beams were 54” prestressed modular concrete beams. 3. Planter Box Trenches

3. 2.

1.

The structural beams in the deck structure also served another purpose. Designers wanted the tree roots to grow underground, but needed room for the root-balls to properly grow. Concrete panels were placed between the beams to form trenches. The 100 trenches act like planter boxes and accommodate not only the tree root-balls, but fiber optic cables, water and gas lines, and telephone and electrical lines. 4. Concrete Slab Where there was no need for tree trenches, there was onsite poured concrete structural slab that lay atop the spanning beams.

The weight load on the deck was drastically reduced by using geo-foam, which is like a dense Styrofoam, and engineering lightweight fill wherever planting soil wasn’t needed. Geo-foam weighs 1.8 pounds per cubic foot and the lightweight fill weighs 65 pounds per cubic foot. Regular soil weighs 120 pounds per cubic foot. The geo-foam deck weighs 180 tons in total, versus 12,000 tons had the engineer used regular grade soil. 6. Earth and Sod As the diagram shows, earth and sod varies in depth according to use. Where the trees are places within the trenches, more earth is needed. Where there is only sod atop, there is significantly less earth fill. 7. Strategic Tree Planting Because the tree trenches had to be placed long before any landscaping could happen, the engineer and landscape architect decided months before planting where the trees would be placed.

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM: Klyde Warren Park

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Precedent Study


MILE PARK and MUSEUM: WORLD CONTEXT:

Precedent Study THE DETAILS:

PROJECT SITE: ZADAR, CROATIA WHERE:

Zadar, Croatia PROJECT:

The Sea Organ, ZaDar WHAT:

Seaside walk and stone wharf and dock COST:

240,000 Euro COMPLETION DATE

2006

Because of its place on the ocean and its geographical significance as being a gateway from Europe into Eastern Europe and beyond, Zadar, Croatia has historically been a place know by war and tumult. As far back as the crusades and even to as recent as the 1990s, this small port town has paid a price for being connected and close to the sea. Because of this history, the town has been on to avoid.

The Sea Organ wharf and esplanade is a perfect example of how the people of Zadar reconnected with the ever-present entity, and rather than shun it, have embraced it as an infinite aspect of the city itself.

In an effort to revitalize Zadar and to take advantage of the lucrative tourist economy of Europe, the Zadar City Council decided to embrace the ocean instead of avoid it.

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Precedent Study

SEA ORGAN, ZADAR, CROATIA

Sometimes called the ‘ship of stone’ since it occupies an elongated peninsula, Zadar was heavily bombed in the second Wold War. Post war construction failed to do just to its incredible views, and it wasn’t a city that many people visited. In 2004, with the incipient tourist industry in Croatia, the authorities decided to refurbish the zone as a wharf for incoming cruise vessels, whereupon the space went from neglect to having a key gateway role. Next, an esplanade was required to lead from the

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port of the city. A stairway running along a 70-meter front bridges the difference in height between wharf and esplanade. This consists of seven juxtaposed flights of white marble steps gently running down into the sea, each section with a difference in height of one step beside its neighbor so that the stairs along the esplanade are a staggered silhouette reminiscent of the varying dimension of the parts of a musical instrument. A series of tubes of different diameters an lengths run through the inside of

each flight connecting the submerged part with a gallery beneath the esplanade. With the thrust of the waves the water comes in through the lower end of the rubes, runs into the gallery and spills back in to the sea. In this process, the air inside the conduits is propelled towards a series of orifices that emit a wide range of sounds. The Sea Organ dissolves the limits between the sea and land. The steps become a grandstand from which to contemplate the scenery,

the song and sounds of the sea, and how this built structure has created a link between the infinite sea and the town of Zadar.


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Precedent Study

SEA ORGAN, ZADAR, CROATIA

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM: WORLD CONTEXT:

Precedent Study THE DETAILS:

PROJECT SITE: BENIDORM, SPAIN WHERE:

Benidorm, Spain SITE:

Playa de Poniente Esplanade WHAT:

Esplanade walk that connects the urban city of Benidorm with the sea. COST:

10,600,000 Euro COMPLETION DATE

2009

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The urban city of Benidorm was missing its beach. The city - an overly urban modern city that seem with a high volume of tourism - had lost its connection to the ocean, a huge part of the identity of the city. Benidorm lacked a sense of collective space, and because of the urban-touristy city had some many concrete and defined ‘urban’ spaces for the large, there was a need to mesh both the local world and the world that was built with visitors in mind. The Poniente Esplanade that con-

nects the beach with the urban fabric of the city seems to do just that: interweaves a more local collective space that both the tourists and the residents can exist in together.


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Precedent Study

ESPLANADE DE PONIENTE ESPLANADE BENIDORM, SPAIN

The esplanade of the west beach of Benidorm was once ran along a 4-lane highway that split the beach from the city. Access to the sand was only possible by way of stairways set 200 meters apart. The new esplanade has reduced this urbanized surface, creating a complex strip of transition between the city and the sea. It is structured over a sinuous succession of white concrete walls delimiting terraces,

flowerbeds, and ramps with a line of apparently capricious concave and convex geometric surfaces. The road has now been restricted to two lanes and an underground parking area runs longitudinally along the esplanade. The architectural barriers have been eliminated.

that unfolds in a forceful embrace with the skyscrapers along the seafront, ordering them into a unitary body.

The esplanade’s colorful surging forms is a powerful iconic force

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MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Precedent Study

WORLD CONTEXT:

THE DETAILS:

PROJECT SITE: LJUBLJANCA, SLOvENIA WHERE:

Ljubljanica, Slovenia SITE:

The Ljubljanca River WHAT:

An urban riverfton revitalization project COST:

10,000,000 Euro COMPLETION DATE

2011

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After 2004, the Ljubljana City Council, working with a number of municipal enterprises, decided to make an ambitious public investment of more than twenty million euros in order to redress this situation. In a remarkably brief period of time, it coordinated several teams of local professionals who worked on a series of specific, realistic and viable interventions which, however, were organised within one large-scale urban system


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Precedent Study

PROJECT SITE: LJUBLJANCA, SLOvENIA

The River Ljubljanica, as the guiding principle of this system, was to resume the role it had been given by famous 1930’s Slovenian architect Plenik. It was expected that an improved quality of open-air life in the environs of its waters would foster sociability and stimulate the old city’s economic revival. In brief, the aim was to enhance the city centre’s power of attraction in order to combat the negative trend towards urban sprawl. Covering more than two kilometres of riverbank spaces, the intervention

begins upstream at the point where the original course of the River Ljubljanica flows away from the Gruber Canal. A new footbridge links the Botanic gardens of the University of Ljubljana with the new Špica a green riverbank space that sits on the southern point of the island where the city centre is located. The Trnovo embankment has also been renovated on the left bank of a reach of the river which flows into the Gradašica River, a branch of the Ljubljanica. The meeting of this smaller river with Barjanska Road, a

main thoroughfare providing access to the city, has been resolved by means of a new bridge and a riverbank park known as the Špica. Downstream on the River Ljubljanica, the banks take on a more urban appearance. The Breg embankment has steps leading up to the Nova Square. This is one of the city’s oldest squares and it adjoins the National and University Library. In the direction of flow and still on the left bank, are the Hribarjevo embankment and the Dvorni Square. The new,

exclusively pedestrian Butchers’ Bridge links the centre of the Petkovškovo embankment with the stoa that Plenik built as the riverfront façade of the Tržnica market. The intervention finishes with the introduction of the new Grain Bridge, which has projecting steps connecting with a floating pier. A unitary public space and yet, at the same time, one that that is endowed with a profusion of special parts, the river now gives the old city centre sufficient power of attraction to counteract the centrifugal effects of urban sprawl.

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Precedent Study

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1mi. diameter


MILE PARK and MUSEUM: WORLD CONTEXT:

Before Before

THE DETAILS:

PROJECT SITE: ZADAR, CROATIA

After

Central Connection The City of Ljubljanica was concerned by the lack of central attaction the old city had and saw urban sprawl as a threat to the preservation of this historic town. Before, the river had little connection between the east and west parts of the city. With the design of the new riverfront, the city was able to activate multiple nodes along the river - viewing the river as a connector - and created a strong central destination that has done well to revitalize this neighborhood

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Project Program

Bibliography Interstate 10:

1. Ecola, Liisa., Griffin, James., Hanson, Mark ., Sorensen., Kofner, Aaron-Paul., Light, Thomas., Min, Endy., Wachs, Martin., Yoh, Allison. “MOVING LOS ANGELES: Short-Term Policy Options for Improving Transporta tion”. The Rand Corporation. Rand.com. 2008; http://www.rand.org/ content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2008/RAND_MG748.pdf. Sep tember 30, 2012. A comprehensive analysis and database-centered view on Los Angeles transportation infrastructure. ‘Moving Los Angeles’ identifies issues in the Los Angeles area in regards to private and public transportation, compares the city traffic data with other major metropolitan cities in the United States, and offers particular solutions based on precedent and traffic count figures.

2. Masters, Nathan. “Creating the Santa Monica Freeway, Building Walls Across Communities”. KCET.com. September 28, 2012 kcet.org/ socal/departures/south-robertson/creating- the-santa-monica-freeway building-walls-across-communities.html. October 9, 2012. A look at Instate 10 and how since its construction in the early ‘60s has essentially divided the city of Santa Monica in half. It looks at economic, ethnic, and social divides created by the I-10 freeway.

Stormwater + Water: 3. City of Los Angeles: Department of Public Health. Lastormwater.org. 2012. lastormwater.org Official resource for Los Angeles’ water programs, educational tutorials and action plans for all Los Angeles’ watersheds, rivers, and the Santa Monica Bay 4. Fisk, Charles. “Graphical Climatology of Downtown Los Angeles: Daily Tem peratures and Rainfall, by Year (1921 - Present).” ClimateStations.com. 3 Dec 2012; http://www.climatestations.com/los-angeles/. October 3,

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2012 ClimateStations.com is a website run by noteable meteorologist Charles Fisk. It is comprehensive website that collects and interprets weather related data, from precipitation, heat index, wind record, drought record, and other weather conditions for most of the United States’ major Metropolitan area; namely Los Angeles. 5. Santa Monica Urban Runoff. Personal Site Visit. December 2012. City of Santa Monica’s water treatment facility and an educational center that highlights aspects of the the city’s water treatment facility and conservancy action plan. 6. United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA.gov. 2012; cfpub.epa. gov/npdes/docs.cfm?document_type_id=3& view=Fact%20Sheets%20 and%20Outreach%20Materials&program _id=6&sort=name; September 25, 2012 US EPA’s website that educates and distributes information about sustainable water practices, from residential, commercial, and industrial water uses. Specifically, it covers water conservation and stormwater management tips and processes.

7. Lancaster, Brad. Rainwater Harvesting for Drylands and Beyond. Rainsource Press, Tuscon, Arizona. 2008. Comprehensive book that discusses the ‘how-to’s of rainwater management in dry, temperate climates. Specifically, it covers the kinds of plants, methods, and practices for residential conservancy and small scale water treatment and collection. 8. Villaraigosa, Mayor Antonio R., City of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. “Securing L.A.’s Water Supply”. May 2008. lacity.org. http:// www.lacity.org/mayor/stellent/groups/electedofficials/@myr_ch_con tributor/documents/contributor_web_content/lacity_004714.pdf; Sep tember 25, 2012


MILE PARK and MUSEUM:

Project Program

A 2008 reseach analysis of Los Angeles’ water supply and the increasing population of the city. The document remarks passed water practices, current water practices, and predicts future water regulations and programs needed to sustain the growing population. It is a comprehensive take on the issues that face Los Angeles and her future based on her dependence on water.

Design + Architecture 11. Viljoen, Andre. Continuous Productive Landscapes: Design Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities. Architectural Press, Burlington, MA. 2005.

9. Department of Public Works Los Angeles. “Groundwater Wells - Los Angeles County”. 2012. dpw.lacounty.gov.; http://dpw.lacounty.gov/general/ wells/; September 25, 2012.

Comprehensive look at urban landscapes and how to utilize the land in sustainable, responsible manner, particularly in regard to food and community harvesting and plot allotment design. Reference is complete with data, space analysis, and environmental analyss.

Los Angeles Department of Water GIS mapping software that gives updated data on currently used goundwater wells and previously used groundwahter wells.

12. Angles, Magda. In Favour of Public Spaces. ActarBirkhauserD, Barcelona, Basel, New York. 2010.

10. Shapiro, Neal. Personal Interview. November 2, 2012. Interview with Santa Monica Urban Runoff Recycling Facility director Neal Shapiro on Oct 29 11. Stebbins, Mike. Personal Interview. December 11, 2012. Interview with Mike Stebbins, the operator of the Columbia Boulevard Plant - a water treatment plant in Portland, Or. on December 11, 2012. 12. Water Environment Federation. “Go With the Flow!”. 2012. wef.org.; http:// www. wef.org/flash/gowiththeflow_english/theflow.html. October 10, 2012. Informational interactive website that walks through the steps of water collection and treatment, offers insite on how to recycle, reuse, collect, and retain rainwater and sewage water.

Comprehensive book that explores many the past (back as far as 2000) European spaces that have won the prestigious European Prize for Urban Space, specifically the featuring the Sea Organ projectin Zadar, and the Playa de Poniente in Spain. 13. Unwim, Simon. Analysing Architecture. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, London, New York. 2009. Foundational, comprehensive study in architectural typology and the effects of architecture in regards to phenomenalogy.. 14. Czerniak, Julia., Hargreaves, George. Large Parks. Princeton Architectural Press. New York, 2007. Book that looks at global precedents for large park design, programing, and urban phasing. Precedents range in sizes, from a small one acre parks to miles that cover over a square mile. In regards of my park’s programming, Hyde Park played a role as to how to sequence the different kinds of landscape. 15. Bordas, David Bravo.“Rearrangement of embankments and bridges in Ljubljanica”. publicspace.org. Jan 2012; http://www.publicspace.org/en/ works/g072-preureditve-nabrezij-in-mostovi-na-ljubljanici/prize:2012. October 18, 2012. Article that profiles international prize winners in public space design, specifically, the 2011 winner the Ljubljana River Rehabilitation in Slovenia

Peter Hamilton

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Thesis Monograph - M.Arch, U. of Oregon  

Thesis Monograph - M.Arch, U. of Oregon Peter Hamilton 2013

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