Page 1


nYn-eXOn

dMeNIreqõaHeTATisxaglic nig

²Nëècink~¬gq~S 2000 [ saklºg ] karp§ayrbs'G~kniBnì rk§asiTì

eVHBumõelIkTI 1 cMnYn 2, 000 cºab' tmûl'Tuktamelx 1162 cuH«c©TI 9 v^ciÏka q~S1970 eVHenA¨kumhußneragBumõExµr

Bùsù 2514

Kùsù 1970


k

Garm¸kfa v^PaKTand*v^essv^salEdlCnCatiExµrm~ak'@

eTsrbs'xÂçn

Gacp¶l'cMeJHmatu¨b-

edImºI[Catirbs'xÂçnenAKg'vg§Cév^tk~¬gbN¶aPUmiPaKmYyEdl¨b

kbedaye¨KaHf~ak'enaH

saås¶CatixÂçnenHäg .

KWkarsðal't«mÂvbºFmá

Gar´Fmá

nigCaBiess¨bvti¶

¨bvti¶saås¶kt'¨taTuk¨Kb'kMhus EdldUntaeyIgVn¨b¨Bwt¶rYcmkehIy

k~¬gGtItkal ¨BmTSgPaBfû¬÷efûégrugerOgEdlVneFÃI[vasna¨bCaCatiExµr nig vbºFmáExµrGEN¶t¨tEstxõg'xõs' k~¬gBBk«nBnÂW¨tcH¨tcg'. GMeBIɨBwt¶ikarN_

TSgenHeTaHCap¶l'dl'¨bCaCatieyIgnUvekr¶i_eQµaHrnæWsuHsayk¶I Ék*PaBGamas muxBn'¨bmaNk¶I EdlmanEcgenAelI¨Kb'TMB&r«nBg§avtarCati k*GMeBITSgLay enaHägCaekr¶i_mrtk²tkat't«mÂVnEdleyIgTTYlGMBIdUntaeyIgmk .

KWGMeBI ɨBwti¶karN_TSgenHehIy EdlbegûItnUvsmºCJï:Exµr. CnCati

Exµrsm&yenH CalTìpl«nGtItkal ÉCalTìpl«nsmºCJï:ExµrenHäg .

BitEmnehIyEdlfak~¬g¨bvti¶saås¶«n¨beTseyIg eyIgVnqÂgkat'nUv

PaBGamasmuxy"age¨cIn cab'tSgBIstvt§TI13 rhUtdl'sm&ybcͬbºn~kal enH

e¨kayBIVnsðal'PaBrugerOgGs'ry:eBld*yUr

(BIstvt§TI8

mk

stvt§TI13) k¶I, Et¨bCaCatieyIg, BUCsasn_eyIg, vbºFmánigGar´FmáeyIg

minVnrlaysUn´

Vt'¨semalBIsaklelakeLIy.

Gar´FmáCae¨cInk~¬g

elakenH EdlFÂab'Vnsðal'PaBrugerOg¨tcH¨tcg'k~¬gGtItkal xÂH¨tèvTTYl vasnaGa¨kk'FÂak'cuHeTAk~¬gBiPBggwt«nkarePÂcPÂSgrbs'mnus§ Ék*rlayVt'

¨semalsUn´sugBIsmºCJï:mnus§Cati

dUcmanGar´Fmákaled

Gas§¬IrI (Assyrie), ¨kik (Grèce), É rU"m (Rome) .l.

(Chaldée),

dUec~H ¨bCaCatieyIg Gar´FmáeyIg EdlVntsUßTb'Tl'nwgkarQÂanJn

²tQb'QrGMBIG~kC^txag²tsbº¬rsFmá tSgBICag 6 stvt§rYcmkehIy

Etmin¨BmcuHcaj'

min¨BmTmÂak'GavuFcuHj"mvasnaGP&BÃrbs'xÂçnenaH

enHCa


x vasnad*Ót¶¬gðÓt¶mmYyNas'eTAehIy . enAstvt§TI19, ¨bCaCatiExµreyIg

manbN¶aCnminVndl'mYylannak'pg ( ¨bEhlCa 800, 000 nak' ebItam

Gs'elakG~k¨VCÆVrSg EdlVnmkTs§nanigsik§a¨beTseyIgCaelIkd÷-

bUg ) sm&yenaH eyIgsµanEteyIgVnsðal'TIbMput«nCév^trbs'¨bCaCatieyIg rYceTAehIy EteyIgEbrCars'ranmanCév^teLIgv^j. ehIymin¨twmEtrs'eLIg v^jbu"eNöaHeT

EfmTSgVnerobcMrd½eyIgGnuelameTAtamsm&yTMenIbv^T´a-

saås¶eTotpg. ehIyfµé@enHeTot rbbsk¶iPUmiraCaniymp¶ac'karEdlCaTm©n'

mYyF©n'Bn'¨bmaNmkelIvasnaExµr¨Kb'@rUb nigCa¨bPB«nPaBeGanfyrbs'

¨bCaCatieyIgenaHeTot, ²LèveyIgVnvaykMeTcbMpÂajrbbc«¨genH ykC&y CMnHCae¨scelIrbbenaHrYceTAehIy .

m¶genH eyIgnwgsðal'Cafµém¶geTot nUvBnÂW«nesck¶I«fÂf~èr «nesck¶IkÂahan

nigesrIPaB. eyIgGs'ÓbsKðGÃImkrarSgk~¬gdMeNIreyIgeTAkan'karcab'kMeNIt rs'eLIgv^j «n¨bCaCatieyIgeTotehIy .

mYycMENkeTot, ¨bCaCneyIgk~¬gsm&yenHmanrhUtdl' 8 lannak',

enaHebIeyIgminrab'ExµrenAeyokNamxagtºèg nigenA«fLg' EdlmancMnYnBI 3

eTA 4 laneTotpg . k~¬g 30 q~SeTot ¨bCaCnenAk~¬gEdndIkmõ¬CasBëf©enH

nwgekIneTAdl' 15 lannak'ehIy. ebIy"agdUec~H, etIs¨tèvNa G~kC^txag äNa ÉmhaGMNacäNak~¬gelaknwgGackab'smÂab' bMpÂicbMpÂajCatiExµrBI 8 eTA 15 lanGs'VnEdrÉ ?

vasnarbs'¨bCaCatieyIgk~¬gGnaKtkal

KWeyIg¨tèvEtrs'.

Et¨tg'

cMNucfars'EbbNa@ enaH KW \rs'¨Kan'Etrs'| Érs'k~¬gesck¶IcMerInk~¬gPaB«f f~èrenaH enHCabJúamYyeTotd*FMEdleyIgral'K~a¨tèvEtKitedaH¨say e¨JHebI

\rs'¨Kan'Etrs'| eday¨tehb¨thb esæIrrs'esIærsÂab' rs'k~¬gbN¶akarxÃH esck¶I«fÂf~èr Gyuti¶Fmá evTnafyefakùùù bu"eNöaHeT, enaHsÂab'eTAva¨besIrCag

edImºIkuM[esck¶IlMVkevTna

QWcab'exÂacp§a

stvt§eTAehIyenaHecHEtbn¶eTAeTot .

EdlFÂab'manGs'ry:Cag

6


K karerobcM¨bCaCatiExµr rd½ExµreLIgv^j ¨sbeTAtameKalkar«nlTiì¨bCa

Fibety´ tampÂèvneyaVy (Démocratie Politique) nigtampÂèvsgðm (Démocratie sociale) KWCakarcSVc'CamUld½an «n¨beTskmõ¬Casm&yfµé .

G~kniBnì«nesovePAd*tUcenHyl'fa drabNaKMnit¨bCaFibety´ esrI

PaB sÄitenAEtelI¨kdas min¨BmkÂayeTACakarBitCak'Es¶gk~¬gkicÍkar¨btibt¶i k~¬gCévPaBral'«f©rbs'raås¶Exµr¨Kb'rUb

ÉenAtamPUmiCnbTeTenaH

drabenaH

eyIgminGacrMedaHCnCatiExµr ɨbCaCatiExµrBIPaBVk'sºattk's¬t cuHj"mmun ¨byuTì esck¶Il©g'exÂA ÉkarKµanCMenOeTAelIxÂçnägenaHVneLIy .

eVHbg'p~t'KMnitcas'mYyEdlmanGayurab'

KµanGÃIBiVkCagkarpÂas'b¶èr

stvt§rYcmkehIyenaHeT. EtenaHk*minEmnkicÍmYyEdleKminGacse¨mcVn enaHk*eTEdr . esck¶IkÂahan bUknigkarbuin¨bsb'rbs'G~kneyaVyExµr k~¬g ¨kbxNë«nyuTìv^FImYy Edlt¨mèvnwgcit¶KMnitExµr sgðmExµrBit¨VkdCakarBiVkNas' EtCakarcSVc'CabzmedImºIsMercnUvbd^vt¶n_Exµr . X

X

X

KMnitEdlelakG~kGannwgeXIjk~¬gesovePAd*tUcenH

¨bEhlCaelOn

eBk Ék*hßaneBk ÉmYyk*GacbN¶al[mankar¨sgakcit¶xÂHk*swgman . G~k GanxÂHGacecaTG~kniBnìfa CaG~kmanKMnitTuTid½^niym .l.

G~kniBnìTMB&rTSgenH CaExµrmYyrUbmankMeNItenAcm©ay 6 KILèEm"¨tBI

Ggðrvt¶ VnTTYlkarGb'rMminq©aybu"nµanBIGgðrvt¶ Vnsðal'ehIy¨sLaj'Ggðr vt¶dUcCa¨TB´smºti¶rbs'xÂçnpæal' VnFMeBjv&ycMeNammha¨Vgðsila Ca kMNb'«nvbºFmá Gar´Fmá ¨bvti¶saås¶Exµr suTìswgCaekr¶i_mták«nPaBrugerOg sm&yedImmhanKr . CakarFmµta karsðal'nigkar¨sLaj'¨bPB«nGar´Fmá

Exµr nig¨bCaCatiExµrenH C¨mujcit¶[mankarnwk¨seNaHdl'GtItkal cg' eXIj¨bCaCatiExµrkÂayeTACaBiPBmYyrugerOg¨tcH¨tcg'dUcEdlExµrFÂab'sðal' k~¬gGtItkalsm&y \mhanKr| dUec~aHEdr .


X k~¬gKMnitenH G~kniBnìKµan¨beyaCn_GÃI nwgkarJrÓt¶mKtiäNaEdlpæ¬y

nwg¨beyaCn_xõg'xõs'rbs'CatipgxÂçnenaHeLIy .

KW BIe¨JHEtCakarmYyEdlTak'Tgdl'GnaKtCati dl'GnaKtBUCGmºèr

ExµrenHehIy EdlG~kniBnìGtÄbTenHminxÂacGÃInwglat¨tdagnUvKMnit Éeyabl'rbs'xÂçnEdlCalTìpl«nkar¨tiHriH¨sav¨Cavrbs'xÂçnsuTìsaF CUndl'mti saFarNCnCati¨Kan'CakarBicarNa. äkarBitscÍ:enaH e¨scEtkarv^nicÏ&y

yl'eXIjrbs'mtisaFarNCnCaticuH .

G~kniBnìesovePAd*tUcenH manC÷enOy"agmSfa ¨bsinebIkarGanesovePA

enH bN¶al[mankarBicarNa eFÃIkarv^nicÏ&yEmnenaH enaHeKaledAbMNgG~k

niBnìVnsMercehIy . eKaledAFMrbs'G~kniBnì KWelIkykbJúaGnaKtExµr ykmkecaTcMeJHsmºCJï:Exµr KWbegûIt[manCabJúaeLIgedImºIKit kuM[ePÂc xÂçn k~¬gzan:xÂçnCaExµrrs'enAelIEdndIsuvNöPUmienH .

sUmelakG~kGanemt¶aGP&yeTas ¨bsinebIenAelITMB&rTSgenH mankar

GFibºayedaymanlaytNúaxÂH e¨JHeyIgminGacbMePÂc[sUn´QwgnUvmena seJÍtnarbs'eyIg cMeJHvasnaCatiVneLIy. KWCakarFmµtaeT EdlebHdUg mnus§m~ak'¨sJb'¨seJn kalebI¨semal«nGtItkal EdlCa¨semal«n

karQWcab'rbs'CatixÂçn elceFÂamkk~¬gsmºCJï:mnus§enH bUkbJÍèlCamYy nwgPaBrnìt'jab'j&renAcMeJH muxGnaKtkalxÃHTIedA . cMeJHvasnaExµrk~¬gGnaKt,

CamYypgEdrnUvesck¶Isgôwm

G~kniBnìesovePAd*tUcenHEtgEtEckrMElk

EdldUntaeyIgBIe¨BgnayrEmgVnciJÍwmTuk

k~¬gsn¶ancit¶Exµr . esck¶IsgôwmnigC÷enOenH sÄitk~¬gJk´esÂak É Jk´TMnay

mYyXÂa EdldUntaeyIgFÂab'VneJlt@K~amkfaÐ \ ¨sukExµrminEdlsUn´! | ( Le Pays Khmèr ne périra jamais ! )

P~MeBj Ex F~è 1970

nùXù


g

"Qu'il soit du Nord ou du Sud, il n'est pas un Vietnamien qui ne se sente solidaire du frère dont on l'a arbitrairement séparé, singulier couronnement de l'indépendence recouvrée alors que le « colonialisme » français avait poursuivi le rêve d'hégémonie de l'empereur Gia-Long et que tout son effort avait tendu vers la mise en commun de richesses inégalement réparties mais complémentaires les unes des autres. Comment nourrir la population du Nord-Vietnam sans les réserves alimentaires du Sud et comment mettre en valeur les terrains du Sud sans l'excédent de main d'œuvre du Nord? Pour comprendre le problème, imaginons, une ligne de démarcation qui couperait en France le grenier à blé de la Beauce et les paturages normands, des houillères du Nord et de la métallurgie de l'Est. Pour une superficie de rizières trois fois moindre, le Tonkin a deux fois plus de bouches à nourrir, mais il détient le charbon, le fer, les matières et les sources d'énergie nécessaires à la grande industrie. Que l'on n'objecte pas les tendances particularistes du Nord et du Sud, maintes fois relevées au cours de l'histoire. Ce serait oublier que l'Allemagne et l'Italie ont connu les mêmes dissensions intérieures et que leur unification aux XIXe siècle a conditionné leur accession au rang de grande puissance. Le problème se l’avenir du Vietnam".

pose

dans

les

mêmes

termes

pour

André MASSON in « Histoire du Vietnam » P.U.F, Paris, 1960


c

nYn-eXOn

dMeNIreqõaHeTATisxaglic nig ²Nëècink~¬gq~S 2000 ekItenA«f©TI 29 Exmkra q~S 1944 enAesomrab-Ggðrvt¶, elak nYn eXOn Vn

bMeBjv^CØamF´mPUmienAv^T´al&y«nTIrYmext¶

rYceTAbn¶karsik§aenAmhav^T´al&yKruekasl´

nig enAmhav^T´al&yGk§rsaås¶ nig mnus§saås¶«nsaklv^T´al&y¨kugP~MeBjeTot . Vn¨bLgCab'Casis§salaKruekasl´Can'xõs' ( Ecole Normale Supérieure ) CMnan'TI1 k~¬gq~S

1965

rYcCab'briJïab&¨txag¨bvti¶saås¶enAq~S

1968

.

sBëf©Casaås¶acar´

¨bvti¶saås¶ . k~¬gBiPBelakmYyEdlxÃHesck¶IBit nigxÃHesÄrPaBCaGci«ån¶y_pgenaH sÄanPaBPUmisaås¶«n¨beTskmõ¬Ca Ca¨beTsmYytUcruMB&TìCMuv^jeday¨beTsC^txagFM @ manbN¶aCne¨cIn elIslb'EbbenH KWBitCasÄanPaBmYy¨bkbedaye¨KaHf~ak'Cak'Es¶g ehIyCakarKMramkMEhg mYyd*sahaveTAelICév^t«n¨beTseyIgeTotpg . Ga¨s&yehtuenH bJúakarKg'vg§Cév^t«nrd½ Exµrk~¬gPUmiPaK²temt¶aenH rbs'xÂçn .

¨tèvEtCnCatiExµrm~ak'@cab'GarmµN_elIsGÃI@TSgGs'k~¬gqakCév^t

edayVneXIjcºas'nUvmhn¶rayEdlXÂScS¨bl&yCév^t¨bCaCatiExµr

elak

nYn

eXOn VnsresrGtÄbTenHk~¬gbMNgEtmYy KWp¶l'karriHrkeXIjCaKMnitpæal'rbs'elakCUn dl'smºCJï:CatiExµr edImºIkarBicarNaelIvasnamatu¨beTsExµrterogeTA .


1

- esck¶Iep¶ém etI¨beTseyokNam nwgkÂayeTACa¨beTsGalWÂm"ajÉCb"unTI 2 k~¬gPUmi PaKGasIuEb"kGeK~y_ k~¬gGnaKtenHÉ? k~¬gzan:xƬMCaCnCatiExµrmYyrUb

ekItrs'sÂab'enAelImatuPUmiExµr

nigk~¬g

zan:CaG~ksik§a¨bvti¶v^T´a xƬMsUmÓTæisGtÄbTenH dl'karPÆak'r®k«nsmºCJï: «nCnCatiExµr nigdl'esck¶IcMerInlUtlas' «nkareyaKyl'rvagCatinigCati EdlCakt¶aEtmYyKt' elak .

etICneyokNam

«nkarrYmrs'edaysn¶iPaBk~¬gPUmiPaKeyIgenH«nBiPB

nwgkÂayeTACaCnCatiGalWÂm"gd_k~¬gPUmiPaKGasIuEb"k

GeK~y_ ehIyCaBiess cMeJHkmõ¬CaeyIgÉ? xƬMBuMGacnwgecaTnUvbJúaenHeLIg

CJï:rbs'xƬMVneLIy .

edayxÃHkarQWcab'exÂacp§ak~¬gsmº

menaseJÍtnalnÂg'lenÂac¨segH¨segac s¶IBuMecj EtgEtekIteLIg

k~¬gsmºCJï:xƬM kalebIyUr@m¶g xƬMnwkKiteTAdl'bJúad*FMeFgnigsµ¬KsµajenH CaBiessKWbJúa«nkarKg'vg§Cév^trbs'kmõ¬CaeyIg

k~¬gzan:Ca¨bCaCatimYy

(Nation) k~¬gPUmiPaKGasuIEb"kGeK~y_enH . m´"ageTot, enHCabJúa«nGnaKt kal

EdlBiVknwg¨bemIlemIledayBit¨VkdTukCamun

eTot ¨bvti¶saås¶GacmankrNIelIkElgEdrù ù ù ù .

ehIymYycMENk

EtebITukCay"agdUcem¶cm¶ak¶I eyIgGac¨tiHriHVncMeJHbJúaenH edayGag

eTAelIFmµPaB«n¨bvti¶saås¶mnus§Cati P&s¶¬tag¨bvti¶saås¶ EdlknÂgrYcmk ehIy

nigehtukarN_Casarvn¶xÂH@

bcͬbºn~kalenH .l.

EdleyIgVneXIjk~¬g{kasfµé@

Ék~¬g


2

emeron«n¨bvti¶saås¶KWGÃI? eyIgBuMmanbMNgykTMB&renHmkbe¨gonGMBI Ts§nv^CØa«n¨bvti¶saås¶ (Philo-

sophie de l'Histoire) eT EtKbºIeyIgeFÃIkarrM®kxÂH EdlmanGtĨbeyaCn_ cMeJH karyl'rbs'eyIg eyIg¨tèvecosvagnUv kareJledaymWugm"at' (le dogmatisme)

EteyIg¨tèvEtCa G~k¨Vkdniym . Ts§nv^TUCae¨cInVnecaTsYrcMeJHemeron«n

¨bvti¶saås¶enHfa Ð

etI¨bvti¶saås¶manemeronp¶l'mk[eyIgeT? Ék*¨bvti¶saås¶man¨beyaCn_eT? . ebI

e¨sceTAtamelak EhßEhðl (Hegel) É b"Ul vaeLrI (Paul Valéry) ¨bvti¶saås¶Gac manÉKµan¨beyaCn_GÃITal'EtesaH. cMeJHeyIg eyIgyl'fa¨bvti¶saås¶man

¨beyaCn_pg ehIyKµan¨beyaCn_pg ¨bvti¶saås¶EdlKµan¨beyaCn_ Edl hßanGHGagy"agenH KWedayehtufa KµanVtuPUt¨Bwt¶ikarN_¨bvti¶saås¶äNa (Phènomènes

ou

évènements

historiques)

GacekIteLIgv^jBIrdg

ehIyman

lkÅN_dUcK~aeLIy (Les évènements historiques ne se répètent pas, ou tout du moins de la même façon) .

karBn´l'enH Ga¨s&yedayehtufa k~¬gsm&ymYy mansÄanPaB É

lkÅn¶ik: (Conditions) sgðmkicÍneyaVy vbºFmáesd½kicÍù ù ù ù EbÂkBIsm&y mYyeTot . dUec~HehIy eyIgBuMGacrkBIsÄanPaBBIr [manlkÅN:dUcK~aVneT

ya"gNamij

eyIgk*BuMGacTajnUvemeronGÃImYy[¨Vkd¨bCaGacykGÃICaKMrU

VneLIy .

KYreyIgykÓTahrN_mkBn´l' :

sågðamelakelIkTI1 TukNaCaTmÂak'karxus¨tèvd*F©n'eTA¨beTsGalÂW-

m"ajk¶I k*mUlehtuEdlbN¶alenHsµ¬KsµajNas' minEmnEt¨beTsGalÂW-

m"ajm~ak'ägeT KWTÃIbGWrubenHägCaG~kTTYlxus¨tèv, edaybegûIt[mannUvkar ¨bNSg¨bECg (Rivalités) xagpÂèvesd½kicÍ Ós§ahkmµ JNiCØkmµ, ehIycug


3

e¨kaybgís' kar¨bNSg¨bECgpÂèvneyaVyTUtnigeyaFa ehIyTSgGs'k*Ca plv^Vk«nkarlUtlas'Év^vDón_ «nrbbmUlFnGn¶rCatiEdr (développement du capitalisme

International)

.

dl's¨gðamelakelIkTIBIrpæ¬HeLIg

hak'dUcCayl'fa ¨bvti¶saås¶fye¨kayv^j¨cMEdl (se répéter) . ¨beTsGalÂWma"jbgûsågðamelakeTotehIy

BiPBelak

EtebItamkarBiteTA,

sågðamelakelIkTIBIrenH KWbN¶almYyPaKd*FMGMBIkarqûçtlIla (la folie)

«n

mnus§m~ak' KW hIuEt (Hitler) enHäg . rIäsgðmGalÂWm"gd_v^j BIsm&y hðIeyam

TI2 (Guillaume II) mksm&y hIuEtÂr KWmankarE¨b¨bYle¨cInNas'eTAehIy. ä

cMENksÄankarN_Gn¶rCatiEp~kesd½kicÍneyaVy v^T´asaås¶k*dUec~aHEdr .

etITSgenHÉ EdleKsn~id½anfa¨bvti¶saås¶Kµan¨beyaCn_? enHKWCamti É

CaniekÅbbT(Thèse) mYyEdr. EtebIeyIgBicarNa[e¨CA¨CHedayykFmµPaK«n karv^vDón_enHCaTIGag, eyIgBuMGackat'p¶ac'¨bvti¶saås¶Cakg'duM@(Morceaux)ecj BIK~aeLIy . bcͬbºn~kaleyIgenHCalTìpl«nGtItkalsm&yburaN.l.

ehIyeKfyeTAe¨kayrhUteTAdl'kMeNIt«nBiPBelakù ù ù . CakarBitNas' vtĬk~¬gelakenH GÃI@k*edaymankarTak'TgK~ay"agC^ts~iTì (Tout est lié à tout) . y"agNamij

eyIgBuMGacp¶ac'GtItkalfµé@

ÉburaNnigbcͬbºn~kal

nig

GnaKtkalVneLIy . dUec~H ¨bvti¶saås¶¨VkdCaBnÂWbJÍSgmkelIbcͬbºn~ kalnigGnaKtkal .

KWk~¬gn&yenHehIy

EdleyIgKYrelIkykbJúaedImrbs'eyIgmkedaH¨say

KWbJúa«nkarKg'vg§

Cév^t¨bCaCatieyIgk~¬gPUmiPaKenH«nBiPBelak, bMPÂWdl'smºCJï:eyIgral'K~a. X X

X


4

¨beTseyokNamnigeyIgk~¬gGtItkal k~¬g¨bvti¶saås¶«nmnus§Cati manclna eTsn¶r¨bevsn_ (Migration) mYyEdlmanlkÅN:CaTUeTA

ehIyeKsegûtmanmkehIy

k~¬gsm&yGtIt

kalbUraN nigfµé@enH KW \dMeNIreTATisxagtºèg| (La marche vers le sud) «nCn CatiTSgLay Edlrs'enAEp~kxageCIg«nEpndI (Hémisphère Nord) . dUcenH

enATÃIbGWrub

CnxageCIgdUc

n&rm"g'

(Normands)

Eh§rma"nIk

(Germaniques) Vnruj¨cancuHmkxage¨kam cab'tSgBIstvt§TI5-6 rhUtmk dl'stvt§TI11-12 . enATÃIb²Nëa CnCati Gayin (Aryens) smº¬rs VncuH

mkBIEb"kxagtºèg«n¨beTsrus§I mktSgenAxagtºèg«nCYr P~MhimJn¶ k~¬gTIval «n TenÂsinì¬ nig TenÂKgða (Plaine indo gangetique)

ehIyruj¨canCati ²Nëa edIm

smº¬rexµA (Les dravidiens) [cuHmkenAEp~kxagtºèg (Le Dekkan) .

enAxageCIg nigxaglic«n¨beTs kmõ¬Ca CnCatiesom EdlmankMeNIt enAk~¬gGaNaEx¨t yUNan (Yunnan) «n¨beTscin, Vncab'ep¶Ims¨mukcuHmk xagtºèg tSgBIstvt§TI12 mkemÂ"H edayVnmktSgenAk~¬gGaNaEx¨tExµrTSg Lay

xaglic¨beTs

kmõ¬Ca sm&ybcͬbºn~ ehIyruj¨canrhUtdl'eTA

m"aLayU rYctSgTIenAelIext¶ ma"LayU enHpg. k~¬gÓbTIÃb ²Nëècin dEdlenH Cn Cati eyokNam EdlmanedImkMeNIt enAPUmiPaK tugkwg (Tonkin) k*VneFÃIkar s¨mukcuHmke¨kamEdrÐ mkdl'cugstvt§TI14 CnCatieyokNam Vnvay deN¶ImehIytSgTIrbs'xÂçnk~¬gGaNaext¶xageCIgTSgLay

«nnKr

cam

(Champa) manext¶ kÃagbßéj (Quang Binh) kÃag¨TI (Quang Try) ev" (Hué) ehIyrhUt mkdl' TUr"an (Tourane) sBëf© . BIstvt§TI15 mkdl'stvt§TI17 nKr cam TSgmUl

rhUtmkdl'

bßIjfaj' (Binh Thuan) Eb"kxagtºègbMput ¨tèvrlay

Vt'eQµaHBIEpnTI«nBiPBelak (1696) .


5 karvatTItSgenAk~¬gnKr cmº"a minTan'TSgcb'e¨scVc'ehIypg, niKm Cn \ yYn | k*cab'ep¶ImrulsMrukcuHmke¨kameTot edImºImkdl'Tl'Edn kmõ¬Ca

e¨kam Etm¶g . EdndId*manCéCati smºèNáeTAedayFnFanxagksikmµ man ¨sUv ¨tI nigdMNS¨Kb'Ebby"agenAEdndIsN¶ (Delta) CnCatiExµrEdlmancMnYnticenAeLIy

«nTenÂemKgð nigbN¶a

(tamsiÄtiEdlmannacugstvt§TI

17

manCnCatiExµr¨bEhl 40, 000 ¨KYsar KW¨bEhl 200 000 nak' Et

bu"eNöaH elI«pædICag 60, 000 Km2)(1) ehtuTSgenHäg VnTak'TajGarmµN_ dl'GaNaniKmyYnCaxÂSg EdlCae¨cInstvt§mkehIy VnXÂatkan'Etq©ay eTAGMBIEdndIsN¶«nTen¨khm (Delta du Fleuve Rouge)

CaPUmiPaKkMeNItrbs'

xÂçn ¨bkbedayFnFanksikmµ dUcCaEdndIsN¶TenÂemKgðEdr . Ga¨s&yehtuenHehIy

eKalbMNgykPUmiPaKxagtºèg«nkmõ¬Ca

¨tèv

cat'CaKMeragkarEdl¨tèvGnuvt¶PÂam@ «nCnCatievotNam cab'tSgBIstvt§TI 17 mkemÂ"H. enAedImstvt§TI17 eKk*cab'ep¶ImcUlmktSgenAedayes©¿ms©at'

CaFmµta k~¬gcMeNamGaNaext¶Exµr Eb"kxagekIt«nEdndI kmõ¬Cae¨kam KWPUmiPaK Vero (Baria) ebonhÃa (Bien Hoa) , «¨BnKr sBëf©enH. kartSgTIenH eFÃIeTAVnk*

edaysarEtkareFÃs¨bEhs «nraCkarExµreyIgk~¬gext¶TSgLayenaH, ehIy Ga¨s&ym´"ageTot mkGMBIsågðamk~¬g¨sukrvagK~aäg k~¬gkarv^vaTdeN¶ImblÂ&gû raC´«nk§¨tExµr. k~¬gq~S 1651 CnCatiExµrVneTAsUmC÷nYyGMBIes¶c egÿg ev¯g

(Hien Vuong) edImºITb'Tl'nwgk§¨tdeN¶ImraC´mYyGgð . egÿg ev¯g k*¨bjab'

¨bjal'bJØènkgT&BmYyBlFMeTACYy ehIyeq¿t{kasenaH eFÃIkarbgÅMdeN¶Im

ykGaNaext¶Vero nigebonhÃaEtm¶geTA TukCasKuN«nC÷nYyenaH. neya-

VyGn¶raKmn_«pæk~¬g«nCnCatiyYn

ecHEtmanbn¶eTAeTot¨sbtamclacl

Edlmanjy@ k~¬g¨beTs kmõ¬Ca . ehtuenHehIy k~¬gq~S 1696 GaNaext¶«¨B (1) eyageTAtamesovePArbs' (Lế Thánh Khōi, Le Viet-Nam, Editions de Minuit, Paris, 1955.)


6 nKr k*¨tèvFÂak'eTAk~¬gkN¶ab'«dCnCatiyYn ehIymkdl'edImstvt§TI18 kar vatTItSgenH Vnmkdl'TenÂemKgðCae¨sc. naedImstvt§TI18 edaysMGag eTAelIkicÍkarJrrbs'xÂçn¨bqSgnwgesom eTAelIGaNaext¶ExµrEb"kxaglic «n

kmõ¬Cae¨kam ext¶ Jm (Ha Tien) raCa (Rach Gia) sBëf©enH CnCatiyYnk*mkeFÃI Gn¶raKmn_fµéeTot eTAelIext¶TSgenaH . q~S 1739 ¨BHmhak§¨tExµr¨Tg'VneFÃI sågðamykext¶Jmmkv^j EtBuMVnse¨mcdUcbMNg . tBIenHeTA GaNaext¶ Eb"kkN¶al«nkmõ¬Cae¨kam manext¶ ems (My Tho) v^jL¬g (Vinh Long) (1731)

p§arEdk (Sa Dec) nig mat'¨Cèk (Chau Doc) (1757) k*rebHBImatuPUmiExµrm¶gmYy@ FÂak'eTAk~¬gkN¶ab'«d«nCnCatiyYn, GaNaniKmB¨gIkTwkdI fÃIebImankartva" nig tsUßGMBIraCblÂ&gû¨kugÓt¶¬gðk*eday . naq~S 1765 EdndIkmõ¬Cae¨kamTSgmUl FÂak'eTACaEdndIGaNaniKmyYn elIkElgEtext¶¨TSg (Soc Trang) nig e¨Cay TwkexµA (Camau) EdlTal'EtC^tmYystvt§eTot KWq~S 1840 eTIbFÂak'eTAk~¬g GMNacyYnCadac'e¨sc .

ù ù ù BIeBlenaHmk ¨bvti¶saås¶«n kmõ¬Cae¨kam dUcCa¨bvti¶saås¶«n nKrcmºa" Edr k*rlaycUlCamYynwg¨bvti¶saås¶«n¨bCaCatievotNamrhUtmkTl'«f©enH . X X

X


7

GaNaniKmniymTSg3 b"HTgðicK~aenA²Nëècin karEdleyIgykGtItkald*CUrct'enH

bMNgmYycºas'las'Nas'

mkrM®kk~¬gTIenHeqÂIynwgeKal

KWedImºIbMPÂWdl'karv^vDón_«n¨bvti¶saås¶k~¬gPUmi

PaK«nBiPBenHEtbu"eNöaH ¨Kan'CaBnÂWdl'smºCJï: «neyIgral'K~a. karv^nicÏ&y [t«mÂÉdak'eTas

eTAelICnNam~ak'

¨bCaCatiNamYy

Épæ¬yeTAv^j

kar

sresrk¶I ÉkarjSug[mankarsíb'exõIm rvagCatimYynigCatimYyeTotùùù TSg

Gs'enHminEmnCaeKaledA«n¨bvti¶v^TUeT.

dUcenH

karrM®kCakarcSVc'xagpÂèv

bJïa (Besoins de l'intelligence) edImºIBn´l'Etb"ueNöaH . tSgBIedImerogmk

GaNaniKmniymnigkarB¨gIkTwkdIniym

«n

esom

ehIynig yYn CakarKMramkMEhgd*e¨KaHf~ak'bMput dl'GayuCév^t«n¨beTs kmõ¬Ca

nig lav . munkarmkdl'«nCnCatiEsºksk~¬gPUmiPaKenH enAedImstvt§TI 19

kmõ¬Ca nig lav swgEtsðal'nUvvasnaGP&Bën cmº"a nig¨beTsd*e¨cIneTot«n

BiPBelakeTAehIy. EteBlenaH ¨bvti¶saås¶hak'dUcCaedIrelOn, ¨sbeTA tamelº¯n«n¨bvti¶saås¶ nigbecÍkeTs«nbcÍwm¨beTs.

k~¬graC´¨BHVT mij m"ag (Minh Mang) (1820-1841) ¨beTskmõ¬Ca

TSgmUl¨tèvEbgEckCaBIrPaK EdlmanTl'EdnenA¨tg'Ex§bnæat'x&NëEx¨teJFi

sat'nigVt'dMbg ehIyEx§enHqÂgbwgTenÂsabeLIgeTAdl'mÂ諨B munnwgt¨mg' eqõaHeTAsæwgE¨tg eTAdl'¨BM¨beTsExµr-evotNamsBëf©enH. dUcenH dI1PaK3 «nkmõ¬CaPaKxageCIgTenÂsabkÂayeTACaGaNaEx¨tesom. 2PaK3 «nEpndI Exµr e¨kamEx§bnæat'dEdlenaHkÂayeTACaGaNaEx¨tyYn eQµaH ¨tan tay faj' (Tran Tay Thanh) EdlmanemT&B e¨TOg mij y"ag (Truong Minh Giang) Caes¶c ¨taj'manFanIenA NSy"ag (P~MeBj) .

enH¨VkdCa dMeNIreqõaHmkTisxaglic v^j edayehtu dMeNIrsMrukcuHmke¨kam

Vnse¨mcdl'eKaledA e¨JHeday TwkexµA (Camau) CaEdndIxagtºègbMput«n


8 ²Nëècin Vn¨tèvFÂak'eTAk~¬gkN¶ab'«dyYnrYceTAehIy. EtGaNaEx¨tfµé ¨tan

tay faj' enHBuMmanGayuyWnyUreT e¨JHkarGnuvt¶n_neyaVytwgruwg bJÍèl Exµr[eTACayYn (politique d'assimilation forcée) bN¶al[man¨btikmµy"agxÂSg BIsMNak'mhaCnExµr. karbHeVr¨bqSgbMVt'yYnC^HCan'dwknSeday ¨BHGgðdYg

edaymanCMnYyesompg VneFÃI[GMNacyYnmankarxUcxaty"age¨cIn ehIy e¨TOg mij y"ag k*dkxÂçnfyeTAenA Gan y"ag k~¬gq~S 1841 . neyaVyeFÃI Exµr

[eTACa yYn k*¨tèvTTYlbraC&yy"agCak'Es¶g . CamYyK~aenH karmkdl'«n

BYkVrSgcab'BIq~S 1858 eTA, enAEdndIkUsSgsIunVnebIkyuKfµémYyeTot k~¬g ¨bvti¶saås¶«n²Nëècin. GaNaniKmniymyYn k*¨tèvQb'esÂHmYyGenÂIsinùùùù, e¨JH¨beTsyYnxÂçnäg ¨tèvkÂayeTACaEdndIGaNaniKmVrSgm¶gv^j .

cMENkäPUmiPaKesom«n kmõ¬Ca manVt'dMbg esomrab mÂ諨B TenÂreBA

nigsæwgE¨tg esom¨tçt¨tarhUtdl'q~S 1907 eTIb¨bKl'mk[Exµrv^j eday sarkarsgût'sgû^nxagpÂèvTUtnigpÂèveyaFa«n¨beTsVrSgGaNaniKm Edlb¶èr EdndITSgenaHCamYynwgEx¨t¨tatnigcnætabßun CaGaNaEx¨tesom Tl'muxnwg Ex¨tekaHkugbcͬbºn~enH .

cMeJHälavv^j k*sÄankarN_minxusBIkmõ¬CaEdr . BITl'Edncinmkdl'

Exµr ¨beTslav¨tèvEbgEckenAedImstvt§TI19 eTACaGaNaext¶esom nig yYn ehIyenAsl'EtraCaNac¨ktUc «n hÂçg¨BHVg nig cMV"sak' EdlenArg'cS karEbgEckbn¶eTAeTotbu"eNöaH . k*bu"En¶dUc kmõ¬Ca Edr karmkdl'«nGaNaniKm

niymVrSgVne¨sac¨sg' lav [putBImhn¶rayù ù ù .

enHCakarBit, GaNaniKmniymVrSg KWCa¨hÃSgd*sk¶isiTìi Tb'GaNa

niKm B¨gIkTwkdIesomnigyYnenAstvt§TI19 min[elbEdndIExµrniglavteTA eTotVn .

X X

X


9

äNae¨KaHf~ak' ? etIe¨KaHf~ak'eyIgenAäNa ? yYnÉesom ? etI¨beTsesomCamhae¨KaH

f~ak'dl'GnaKt«n kmõ¬Ca EmnÉ ? ¨beTsesomsm&ybcͬbºn~enH Ca¨bCaCati mYyFM ( Cag 30 lannak' ) EdlmanTItSgenAkN¶al«nÓbTÃIbGasuIGeK~y_dI eKak elIEdndImYyEdlmanTenÂemNam (= emTwk) hUrkat'CakN¶al ehIy

Edl¨bkbeTAedayCICati

ehIynigFnFanksikmµy"agFMeFg

kN¶aly"agenH «n¨beTsesomelIvalTMnabs¶¬ks¶m¸

.

TItSgenA

(au milieu d'une plaine

riche) Gacp¶l'[¨beTsesomnUvnaTImYyy"agFM k~¬gPUmiPaKenH«nBiPBelak . EtkarBit hak'dUcmindUec~HesaH . ¨beTsesommanlkÅN:CaEdndI mYy

EdlmankarlatsnìwgCaGtibrmaeTAehIy BIxageCég KWTl'Ednesom lavPUma

mkdl'xagtºègTl'Ednesom-ma"LayU

KILEè m"¨t

mancm©ay¨bEhl

ehIy¨beTsenHxÃHäkPaBxagPUmisaås¶

(absence

de

2000 l'unité

géographique) neyaVynigesd½kicÍpg . PUmiPaK¨bkbedayFnFanKWdIsN¶ «nTenÂemNam EdlmanbeN¶ay¨bEhl 460 Kùmù nigTTwg 200 Kùmù . dIenH KWCaC¨guk¨sUv«n¨beTsesom, CaebHdUgesd½kicÍCati . PUmiPaKep§gBIenH

CaPUmiPaKbnæab'bn§M

cMeJHCnCatiesomehIyG~k

Edlrs'enAenaH minEmnCaCnCatiesomsuTìsaFpg- tMbn'xageCIg KWBBYkCn

CatiPaKtic kaern, cam, lav xageCIgeqogxagekIt KW lav nig Exµr xagtºègeqog

xagekIt KW Exµr yYn nig cin äxagtºègmanCnCati ma"LayU kan'sasna²sÂam . CnCatibreTsTSgenHEdlrs'enACuMv^jTenÂemNam

mankarGak'Gn'cit¶CaxÂSg

edayCnCatiesomTukBYkTSgenH Ca \Blrd½bnæab'bn§M

(Citoyens de second

zone) | ehIykarlUtlas'xagesd½kicÍeTotesat k*yWtyUrfyefakCae¨cIn ebIe¨bobeFobnwgPUmiPaK¨kugVgkk nigtam«dTenÂemNam EdlCnCatiesom nigcinrs'enAedaykkkuj . ehtukarN_TSgenaHbN¶al[manclnaG~kCati niym (Mouvements Séparatistes)

enAtamEdndITSgenaH Cae¨KaHf~ak'mYyy"agFM

cMeJHäkPaBxagneyaVy«n¨beTs .


10 bJúaFM

EdlecaTsBëf©

KWkarekInd*qab'rh&s

(une

démographie

galopante) «nCnCatiesom . EdndIsN¶«nTenÂemNamnwgBuMGacTb'Tl'dl' Tm©n'd*kan'EtF©n'eLIg@enHeT . dUec~H edImIºedaH¨saybJúaenH eK¨tèvB¨gIknUv FnFanksikmµ ädIEdlenACuMv^jEdndIsN¶ CadI¨kTSgGs' . enHehIyEdl eFÃI[CnCatiesomnwkKiteTAdl'TIvalTMnab«nTenÂemKgð nigTenÂsabmanEx¨t Vt'dMbgExµrCaedIm EdlsmºèreTAedayFnFanksikmµ GacciJÍwmmnus§e¨cIn

lannak' . fÃIebIsm&ybcͬbºn~enH Ke¨magEpnkarenHhak'dUcGnuvt¶minse¨mc edayehtufa esommanbJúa«pæk~¬gù ù ù k*bu"En¶eTAGnaKteT ebIesd½kicÍesom minVnlUtlas'[¨sbeTAtamkarekIny"agqab'rh&s«nbN¶aCneT karvay deN¶ImykEb"kxaglic«n¨beTskmõ¬Ca GaceTACakarBitVn .

enHe¨sceTAelIkarv^vDón_«n¨bvti¶sa¨s¶ . k~¬gbcͬbºn~enH esomenATn'

ex§ayxag«pæk~¬g

BuMGaclatsnìwgVneToteT

ebImindUec~aHeT

äkPaBesom

cºas'Ca¨tèvTTYlkarKMramkMEhg BICnCatiPaKticy"agF©n'F©rminElgeLIy . karlatsnìwghYsmaD nwgnSmk[esomnUvPaBTn'ex§ayv^jeT . Ga¨s&y ehtuenHehIy

ebItameyabl'rbs'eyIg

xaglic KWxagekItCa¨Vkd .

e¨KaHf~ak'rbs'eyIgminEmnenATis

¨beTseyokNamrYbrYmK~aùùù e¨KaHf~ak'dl'kmõ¬Ca ! ebI¨beTseyokNamxageCég nigxagtºègrYbrYmK~av^j ¨beTsenHnwgeTA

Ca¨beTsCatiy"agFM«nGasuIPaKGeK~y_ (40 lannak') .

ebI¨bsinNaCacMnYnbN¶aCnCakt¶amYybnæab'bn§M cMeJHmhiTiìriTìneya

Vy (la puissance politique) «nrd½nImYy@ KuNsmºti¶«n¨bCara¨s¶ (les qualités

d'un peuple) nigkarv^vDón_«nbN¶aCn (L'évolution de la population) ¨VkdCakt¶a

EdlsMxan'CageKbMput

.

cMENkäkt¶aTSg3enH

CnCatievotNammanTSg

Gs' eday²t¨bEkkVn -TI1 bN¶aCne¨cInGacelb²NëècineTAGnaKtVn,

TI2 karekInd*elOnrh&s«nbN¶aCnenH, nigTI3 sMxan'bMputKWKuNsmºti¶Ca Biess«n¨bCaraås¶evotNamenHäg . cMeJHkrNIxage¨kayenH ebImanCn

CatiäNa EdleKGac¨bdUcVnCamYynwgCnCatiyYn KWCnCatiCb"unnigGalÂW-

m"g'enHäg . CnCatieyokNam Ca¨bCaraås¶mYy¨bkbeday¨VCÆafamBl


11 esck¶IkÂahannigBiessbMputcit¶tsUß .l. ¨bvti¶saås¶«nCnCatieyokNamenH Ca ¨bvti¶saås¶«nsågðamEdl¨bCaraås¶eyokNamVneFÃIeday²t¨sak¨san¶CamYynwgbreTs

enACitxag man cin cmº"a lav esom ExµrnigrvagK~anigK~axageCIgTl'nwgxag

tºèg . karenHekItmaneLIgCae¨cInstvt§mkehIy ehIyhak'dUcCaKµansJïa äNabJØak'fa sågðamenHnwgQb'esÂHehIy eTaHCae¨kaykarbJÎb'sågðam enAeyokNamsBëf©enHk¶I . vasna«n¨beTseyokNamCavasna«n¨bCaCatimYyEdl

B¨gIkTwkdIedaysågðam ehIyEdl¨tèveKeFÃIsågðameTAGnaKteTot . sågðamjwkjy

y"agenH Vnse¨mceFÃI[CnCatieyokNammancritrwgbwug ecHGt'Fµt'esck¶I lMVk mankartsUßedaysÃitsÃaj KWlkÅN:TSgenHäg EdlCaPaBGnue¨KaH dl'kar¨byuTeì dayv^FIhig§a . enHCakt¶axagpÂèvcit¶saås¶ Edlsar:sMxan'

cMeJHkaryl'rbs'eyIg .

cUreyIgnwkKiteTAdl'¨bvti¶saås¶ etICn¨bePTNaEdlmkvatTItSgenA

cmº"a nigenA kmõ¬Cae¨kam? KWCnGanafa¨klMVketaky"ak G~keTasEdleKedj BIEb"kxagelI

[cuHmkrkTItSgdIfµéenAPUmiPaKxage¨kam

Tahanpg CaniKmCn (Colons) pg .

mundMbUgmktSgenAedayes©¿ms©at'

mÍas'dIdkxÂçnecjBITIenaHeTAùùù.

G~kTSgenHmkCa

rYcehIyk*tSgbgûerOgehtuTal'Et

²LèvenH¨Bwti¶karN_enHcab'manCafµéeLIgv^j

ehIy sBëf©enHenAkmõ¬CaeyIg, y"agenHKYrEteyIgmanbuBÃehtu«nesck¶I¨Bçy

Vrm¸rbs'eyIg(1) .

(1)-GtÄbTenHsresrk~¬gq~S1969

«f©TI18mIna1970

KWmunGn¶raKmn_«nkgT&BeyokNamxagtºègk~¬g¨beTskmõ¬Cae¨kay


12

GaNaniKmniymB¨gIkTwkdI É GaNaniKmniymesd½kicÍ ( Colonialisme territorial ou Colonialisme économique ? ) karQÂanJnvaydeN¶ImykTwkdI

edaykmÂSgT&Bk~¬gsm&ystvt§TI

20 enH hak'dUcCahYssm&yniymeTAehIy . nabcͬbºn~kalenH sÄab&nCa

e¨cIn«nmnus§Cati manGgðkarsh¨bCaCati, mtisaFarNCnGn¶rCati Ggðkar

karJrsn¶iPaB neyaVysmõnìmit¶ .l. suTìswgEtCakmÂSgxagpÂèvcit¶ Ca ÓbsKðdl'karrMelaPdeN¶ImykTwkdIeday¨sYl GMBIsMNak'CatimYy eTAelI CatimYyeTot .

k*bu"En¶GaNaniKmniymsm&yfµé

EdleyIgKYrVrm¸

KWGaNaniKmtam

ry:esd½kicÍ . eyokNamxageCég ¨bkbedayÓs§ahkmµd*xÂSgkÂa nig eyok

NamxagtºègsmºèrN_FnFanksikmµ GacbMeBjK~aeTAv^jeTAmk ehIykÂay

eTACaesd½kicÍmYylUtlas'elOn«nGasIuPaKGeK~y_ . PaBsmºèNáeTAeday vtĬFatuedImCatiEr" nigfamBl PaBcMerInlUtlas'«nv^T´asaås¶ p§ard*FMeFg KuNsmºti¶rbs'ksikmµ .l. EdleKsegûteXIjmanenA¨beTseyokNam

sBëf©enH suTìswgCakt¶a«nkarrIkcMerInlUtlas'«nÓs§ahkmµCati «n¨beTs enH . fÃIebIb"unµanq~SenH ¨beTseyokNam¨tèvxUcxatexæcxæIswgEtTSgGs' nUv sgÅarN:¨Kb'Ebby"agk¶I shrd½GaemrikminGaccakecjBIeyokName¨kay Edlsågðamcb' eLIy

.

sùrùGaù

ehIyedayTuk[¨beTsenHsÄitk~¬gsÄanPaBdundabdUec~H ¨VkdCasÄabnaeyokNameLIgv^j

cMeJH¨bvti¶saås¶mnus§Cati

.

dUec~HehIy

edImºIlublagxÂçn

esd½kiceÍ yokNammuxCaelb

esd½kicÍ«n¨beTsd«T@ CitxagminElgeLIy . enHCaCMhaneTAkan'karVt'

bg'nUväkraCPaB«neyIg . KWeBlenHehIy

Edl¨bvti¶saås¶nwgEcgnUv

lic| «n¨bCaraås¶eyokNamCaBit¨Vkd . X X

X

\dMeNIreqõaHmkkan'Tisxag


13

neyaVy Çmha¨beTseyokNamÈ ? La politique du Grand Vietnam? eyIgBuMhßansn~id½anGÃITukCamun

[¨Vkd¨bCa

nwgGacykCakºçnt¨ma

¨twm¨tèv cMeJHGnaKt«nvasnaCatieyIg enaHvaBitEmnehIy EteyIg¨tèvEt

mankatBÃkicÍeBjeljk~¬gbJúaenH edImºITajnUvemeronxÂH@ Edl¨bvti¶sa¨s¶ VnFÂab'sðal' mankarBiesaFn_rYcmkehIy . ÓTahrN_ EdlmanlkÅN:

Casarvn¶enaH minxÃHeTk~¬g¨bvti¶saås¶ «nBiPBelakeyIgnasm&yGtItkal fµé@enH

.

eyIgenAcSy"agCak'Es¶g

k~¬gsµartIeyIgm~ak'@

enAeLIyfa

k~¬g

sm&ymunsågðamelakelIkTI2 ¨beTsGalÂWma"j (Allemagne) Vnp¶l'cMeJH mnus§CatinUvemeronmYyCadMNM.

karGÃIEdleKsµanfaBuMGacekItmaneLIgesaH

eLIgVnEdr

CYnkalk*GacekItman

ehIykarenHvae¨sceTAelIeTs:kal:nakalsm&ypg

e¨sc

eTAelIqnæ:«nG~kneyaVyCatienaHpg . ¨beTsGalÂWm"aj VnGnuvt¶nUv¨Tws¶I

neyaVyrbs'G~kdwknSeQµaHhIuEtÂr (Hitler) TamTar[¨bCaCatiGalÂWm"gð man siTìirs'enAelIEdndImYyFM

(Théorie de l'Espace Vital) .

ehIyEdleKcat'EdndIenH

CaGayuCév^trbs'eK

clna«nkarTamTarB¨gékTwkdéenH CnCatiGalÂWm"gðeKVneFÃIeLIg eday

GageTAelIKMnitxusmYyEdlEcgfa ¨bCaCatiGalÂWm"gð Ca¨bCaCatixÂSgBUEkxõg' xõs'dac'eKäg

eTAelICnCatid«TeTot

manCnCatisÂav

(Latins) TSgLayEdlrs'enAk~¬gTÃIbGWr"ubEb"kxagekIt

(Slaves)

nigLatSg

nigGWr"ubEb"kxaglicCa

edémenH . ebI¨bsinCaCnCatiGalÂWm"gð CaCatixÂSgBUEky"agenHehIy FmµCati

¨tèvEt¨bKl'eTA[¨bCaCatiGalÂWm"gðnUvEdndémYyFMlµm eday¨sçl

(Lebensraum)! .

Gac[¨bCaCatirs'

kt¶aCasarvn¶mYyeTot KWkarcMerInlUtlas'd*

GsÍar´ nigmhiTìiòTì «nÓs§hkmµnigesd½kicÍTUeTA «n¨beTsGalÂWm"gðenHäg ehIyCamYynwgkmÂSgesd½kicÍenH

kmÂSgeyaFaKYr[¨BWxÂac«n¨beTsenHeTot

pg EdlC÷ruj[G~kdwknSneyaVyGalÂWm"gðsm&yNasuIs¶ Gnuvt¶edayKµan


14 xÂacrEGg nUv¨Tws¶I B¨gékTwkdéniym d*c«¨gGBmgðlenH . edémºIse¨mcnUveKal bMNgGP&BÃenH

G~kneyaVyGalÂWm"gð

cUlmkk~¬gmha¨KçsarGalÂWm"gð

cab'ep¶ém¨bkasTamTart¨mèv[v^l

nUvEdndIbreTs

naGWr"ubEb"kkN¶alnigxag

ekItTSgLayNa EdlmanCnCatiPaKticGalÂWm"gðrs'enA ehIyEdlniyay PasaGalÂWm"gðpg . KWk~¬gKMnitd*exµAggwtenHäg EdlG~kneyaVyGalÂWm"gð bMbHbMeVrbgûbegûétCaclacl

ÉKNbk§GalÂWm"gðNasIu

k~¬gcMeNamBBYk

GalÂWm"gðTSgLay EdlenAäbreTs KWk~¬g¨beTsC^txagenHEtm¶g . kalebI manCaGgðkarTamTarsÃ&yt (Mouvements autonomistes) ÉclnaTamTarkarp¶ac' ecj (Mouvements séparatistes) EdlmansJØatiGalÂWm"gð ehIyclnaTSgenH

EtgVnGMJvnav[matu¨beTsGalÂWm"aj

Gn¶raKmn_pÂèvswk neyaVyÉTUtCaedém . KWeTs:kal:enHägehIy

nUvbMNgd*Ga¨kk'«n¨Tws¶Irbs'xÂçn

CYye¨CamE¨CgGgðkarxÂçnedayeFÃI

Edlhuc{kaslí[G~kdwknSGalÂWm"gðsMerc .

k~¬gn&yenH

¨beTsGU¨TIsTSgmUl

(l'Autriche) ¨tèvFÂak'eTAk~¬gkN¶ab'«d«nBYkNasuIs¶niymk~¬gq~S 1936 . Edndé

Eb"kxaglic«n¨beTseqkUsÂèva"KI KWtMbn'sußyEdt (La région des Sudètes) Edl manCnCatiGalÂWm"gðrs'enA BIcMnYnCag 3 lannak' ¨tèvkÂayeTACaGaNaEx¨t GalÂWm"gð . e¨kaymk KW¨beTseqkUsÂèva"KITSgmUleTot k*¨tèvkÂayeTACaEdndé GaNaB´aVlGalÂWm"gðeTot .l. ÓTahrN_enH

manlkÅN:Cak'Es¶gNas'ehIy.

etIeyIgGacsYrfa

etI¨Bwti¶karN_d*exµAggwtenH EbbGacekIteLIgsafµéeTot É k~¬g¨bvti¶saås¶«n

mnus§Cati . CakarBitNas' CYnkal¨bvti¶saås¶v^lcuHv^leLIg ¨tLb'mk

e¨kayv^jk*manù ù ù ù . karEdleyIg¨Kan'Et¨keLkemIleTACnCatiGasIu Eb"k kN¶al (Les Peuples de l'Asie Centrale)

EdlsBëf©enH sÄitenAe¨kamkar¨Kb'

¨KgTSg¨sug«n¨kugmU"sðè (Moscou) b"ueNöaHeyIgk*GacmanKMnitxÂHEdrehIy GMBI ehtu«nkmÂSgesd½kicÍneyaVynigeyaFa «nmha¨beTsmYyeTAelI¨bCaCati tUctac .

cuHenAÓbTÃIb²Nëècinv^j etIÓTahrN_ \GalÂWm"gð|GacmaneLIgsaCafµéeT enAk~¬g

tMbn'eyIgenH ? karenHe¨sceTAelI¨bvti¶saås¶¨Vb'eyIgk~¬gGnaKtcuHù ù ù eyIg


15 ¨Kan'EtsUmp¶l'nUv v^PaK «nsÄankarN_neyaVynigesd½kicÍk~¬ge¨Cay²Nëècin Etb"ueNaH edImIºCakarBicarNateTA Ð

¨bCaCati É ¨bCaraås¶eyokNam Ca¨bCaCatimYyEdleKGaccat'Tuk

edayKµanlak'elomfa man famBl

(dynamisme) manKuNsmºti¶xagpÂèvbJïa

(les qualités Intellectuelles) ¨Kb'¨Kan' .l. esd½kicͨbeTsevotName¨kaysågðam Ca

esd½kicÍEdlnwgmankmÂSgek¿vkÂa

¨sbCamYynwgkMritxõg'xõs'xagkarGb'rMv^T´a

saås¶ nigbecÍkeTs«nCnCatienH . m´"ageTot xagpÂèveyaFa, ¨beTseyokNamnwgmankgT&Bd*xÂSgBUEk k~¬gcMeNam¨bCaCatiTSgLay enAe¨Cay²Nëè

cinnigk~¬gGasuIPaKGeK~y_enH . k*bu"En¶ehtukarN_mYyeTot EdleyIgmankar Vrm¸Bn'eBkenaH

KWCakarEdlmanGaNaniKmCnCatiyYn

(les

colonies

vietnamiennes) y"agsMxan' k~¬g¨beTsC^txagTSgLay : enA¨beTskmõ¬Ca - Cag 500 000 nak'

(1)

¨beTslav-Cag50 000nak' (ebIbUkrYmnwgTahaneyokNamxageCég) ¨beTsesom - Cag 50 000 nak' .

enA¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg ¨Kan'EtcMnYn«nCnbreTsyYnenH

karVrm¸enaHBn'eBkNas'eTAehIy e¨cInbn¶eTAeTot

.

eFÃI[eyIgman

ehIy¨bsinebIkarlYccUlmkkan'Et

eKBiVknwgsn~id½anNas'cMeJHplv^Vk

xagpÂèvesd½kicÍk*

dUcCaxagpÂèvneyaVyEdl¨beTseyIg¨tèvTTYlrge¨KaH . CaBiessNas' eTAeTot CnCatiyYnTSgenHBuMgaynwgrlaycUleTAk~¬gsgðmCatinanaTSgenaH eLIy eKenAEfrk§a¨b«BNI TMenomTmÂab'yYn nwgbMNgxagpÂèvcit¶ÉneyaVy CamYynwgmatu¨beTsedémkMeNIt . KWk~¬gKMnitenHehIy EdleK¨tèvcat'TukCn CatiyYnfaCa e¨KaHf~ak'y"agFM mYyxagEp~kneyaVy . karEdl¨beTsev¿tNam

nwg¨tèvlUtlas'duHdale¨kaysm&y

sågðamenHeTA nwgGaceFÃI[bMNgpÂèvcit¶nigpÂèvneyaVy«nCnCatiyYnTSgenH rwtEtmanlkÅN:mSTSxÂSgeLIgCaBuMxan . äcMeJHbJúaCnCaticink~¬g¨beTs (1) e¨kay«f©18 mIna1970, CnCatiyYnCag 100 000 nak' ¨tLb'eTA eyokNamxagtºègv^j .


16 eyIg

manlkÅN:ep§g

edaysarsÄanPaBPUmisaås¶neyaVy«n¨beTs

eyIg (La situation géo-politique) nigedaysarCnCaticinTSgenaH yUrÉqab'Gac ¨Cçt¨CabrlaycUlnwgsgðmCatieyIgbn¶icm¶g@

eyIgGacGHGagedayKµanrEGgfa eyIgk~¬gGnaKtxagmux

.

ehtudUec~HehIy

VnCa

mhae¨KaHf~ak'dl'GayuCév^t¨bCaCatiExµr

BIkarlUtlas'duHdalCasafµéeLIgv^j

«n¨bCaCatieyok

NamenHäg ( la renaissance nationale vietnamienne ) ehIyCabzm, k~¬gbcͬbºn~

kal k*dUck~¬gGnaKtkalC^t@enH, snæ¬H«nesd½kicÍ nigkareXasnap§BÃp§ay

«nmenaKmv^CØabd^vt¶enHEtm¶g .

X X

X


17

etIeyIg¨tèveFÃIdUcem¶c ? karEdleyIgelIkyke¨KaHf~ak'd*FMeFgenH

mkBicarNaBn´l'bMPÂWdl'smº-

CJï:«neyIgral'K~ay"agdUec~H minEmnVnesck¶Ifa eyIgcat'¨bCaCatieyokNam

Cas¨tèvBIdUntaGs'mYyCév^tCatieyIgeLIy (Ennemi hériditaire) . äeyIgv^j k*

dUec~aHEdr eyIgmin[¨bCaraås¶yYndEdlenH cat'eyIgTukCas¨tèvGs'mYyCév^t

dUcK~aEdr . GtItkalKWGtItkal eyIgmin¨tèv¨cLMGtItkal CamYynwgbcͬbºn~ kalÉGnaKtkalesaHeLIy . Ót¶mKtieyIg k*dUcCaÓt¶mKtiCnCati manGar´-

Fmánanak~¬gelakEdr eyIgedAeTArkkarksag GnaKtmYyEdlPÂWsÃag Edllí

¨b«B edayBwgEpíkeTAelIkareyaKyl'K~aeTAv^jeTAmkrvagCatinigCati . kar TSgenHnwg¨tèvse¨mceLIgedayeyageTAtamemeron¨bvti¶saås¶ EdleyIgmin cg'[¨bvti¶saås¶enH vilfye¨kayesaHeLIy . eyIghak'dUcCaVnTTYlkar kk'ek¶Ae¨cInNas'

GMBIsMNak'G~kneyaVy¨beTsyYnsm&yenH

edayeK

Vnsn´afanwgmineFÃI \GukL¬k| dl'¨beTseyIgeLIy(1) eKnwgeKarBTTYl sðal'GFibety´PaBnigbUrNPaBTwkdIeyIg . eyIgk*yl'EdrnUvsn¶ancit¶«n G~kC^txageyIgenH

.

EtKYrKbIºeyIgyl'faenHCa

bcͬbºn~kal

cuHdl'

GnaKtkal yUreTA ? etIyuvCnɨbCaraås¶yYnenH enAEtrk§anUvesck¶IeKarB nigkarTTYlsðal'enHteTAeTot ? sm&ymYyxussm&ymYyeTot ehIykar

edaH¨saybJúak*sMerceTAelI karvivt¶n_ enHEdr . k*bu"En¶CakarBitNas' Tuk

NaCaG~kdwknSyYnTSgLayenHmansn¶ancit¶lídUcem¶cm¶ak¶I cMeJHeyIg k*G~kTSgenH

BuMGacrarSgXat'XSg min[e¨KaHf~ak'enHmancMeJHmatu¨beTseyIgVneLIy e¨JHenH Cacºab'FmµCati CalTìpl«nkarvivt¶n_Gar´FmáBIr Edlmant«mÂmindUcK~a

(Ce serait

l'aboutissement logique d'un long processus d'évolution de deux civilisations voisines de valeur inégale). (1)- GtÄbTenHsresrmun«f©18mIna1970


18 ehtudUec~H ¨bsinebIe¨KaHf~ak'enHmanPaBCak'Es¶g ehIyEdlGackÂay

eTAfakarKMramkMEhgd*kacsahavcMeJHvasnaCatieyIg

eyIg¨tèvEtykbJúa

enH mkcgcSp¶^tCab'k~¬gsµartInigk~¬gsmºCJï:«n¨bCaCatieyIg . GavuFEdl v^essv^saläNa BuMGaceFÃI[eKalbMNgmnus§se¨mceCaKC&yVneLIy ebImnus§Edlkan'GavuFenHxÃH

smºCJï:

¨Kb'¨Kan'

cMeJHe¨KaHf~ak'EdlGac

¨bl&yCév^txÂçnnigcMeJH katBÃkicÍ Casarvn¶rbs'xÂçnägy"agenH . dUec~HehIy

cMeJH¨bCaCatieyIg GavuFEdlsk¶isiTì bMputGacCYyeyIg[putBImhn¶rayVn

KW \ smºCJï:Cati | enHägehIy (la conscience nationale) . mansmºCJï:Cati KW sðal't«mÂd*v^essv^sal«nCatixagpÂèvvbºFmák*dUcCaxagpÂèvsgðm (la valeurs socio-culturelles) es~haCati

.

m´"ageTot

(le patriotisme)

nationalisme) enHeTot .

mansmºCJï:Cati

b"ueNöaHeT

KWmin¨Kan'EtB¨géknUvkar

EfmTSgB¨géknUvlTìi

Catiniym

(le

lTiìCatiniymxagpÂèvneyaVy nigpÂèvesd½kicÍCaGavuF«nkarKg'vg§Cév^t

«n¨bCaCatieyIg (le nationalisme politique et économique constitue l'unique arme de notre survie en tant que nation dans cette partie du monde) lTiì CatiniymCa¨Tws¶I neyaVy minEmn¨Kan'EtVnesck¶Ifa kars~haCati Edl¨Kan'EtCamenaseJÍtnamYy

k~¬gcMeNammenaseJÍtnaTSgLay

«n

mnus§m~ak'@eLIy . lTiìCatiniym CalTiìEdledAeTAelIkar elIkt«mÂxõg'xõs'«n

lkÅNCati «nmenaKmv^CØaCati nigGÃI@TSgLayEdlTak'TgcMeJH¨bCaCati . TSg Gs'enH KWeFÃI[se¨mcnUv Ót¶mKtid*xõg'xõs'rbs'CatidUcCakar lUtlas' karrIk

duHdal«nkmÂSgrbs'Cati xagpÂçvneyaVydUcCaxagpÂèvesd½kicÍÉeyaFaEdr .

KWk~¬gÓt¶mKtienHehIy EdlkatBÃkicÍCabzmrbs'eyIg KW karB¨gwg«n

lTiìCatiniymrbs'eyIg (Renforcer notre nationalisme) eFÃI[lTiìenHman¨KwHmSmYn (Fondements solides) GackÂayeTACamenaKmv^CØaCati¨bkbeday¨bsiTìiPaBCak' Es¶g . KWebIniyay[xÂé KWeFÃI[Jk´ ÇCatiniymÈ man n&yeBjelj . m´"ageTot

lTiìenHGaclUtlas'elOneTAmuxVn

k*Ga¨s&yeTAelIkarlUt

las' lTiì¨bCaFibety´ (la démocratie) EdlGnuJïat[¨bCara¨s¶GaccUlrYb

rYmBit¨Vkd k~¬gkicÍkarrd½ (la participation réelle et profonde du peuple dans les


19 affaires de l'Etat ) ehIyGa¨s&yeTAelIkarduHdal«nyuti¶FmápÂèvsgðm ( la justice

sociale ) Cak'Es¶g . ebIkt¶aCasarvn¶TSgBIrKµaneT Jk´Catiniym ɨsLaj' Cati¨Kan'EtCasðrkMEbkEtbu"eNöaH BuMGacykCaduMkMPYnGÃIVneLIy . kt¶a \mnus§|

( le facteur humain ) Cakt¶aFMbMputku~¬gkicÍkarksagCatieTArk

esck¶IcMerIndl'kMritxõg'xõs'«nGar´FmáCati .

kalebIkt¶amnus§mansPaB«fÂfÂaehIy karsÄabnaesd½kicÍCati CakatBÃkicÍ

cuge¨kaybgís' . eFÃI¨beTskmõ¬Ca[kÂayeTACa¨beTslUtlas' mankmÂSg esd½kicͨKb'¨Kan' CitxageyIg

GacQmmuxTb'Tl'nwgkmÂSgp§BÃp§ay«nesd½kicͨbeTs

enHehIyEdlCaesck¶I¨Vf~acuge¨kay«n¨bCaCatieyIg

.

eK

niyayfa esd½kicÍdwknSneyaVy ( L'économie dirige la politique ) . ehIyeK niyayeTotfa ebIesd½kicÍeyIgex§ay eyIgBuMGacnwgse¨mcVnnUv äkraC´ neyaVy VneLIy ( L'indépendance politique )

. Vnesck¶Ifa ebIesd½kicÍ

eyIgex§ay \ Jk´äkraC´neyaVy | enH KW¨Kan'EtJk´TeT Kµansar: sMxan'GÃIesaH . eyIgkuMniyayeLIydl'eTAcg'se¨mc[man \ äkraC´esd½kicÍ ( L'indépendance économique ) eBjelj bu"eNöaH

.

sm&yenHminEmnsm&y

BIe¨JHenH¨Kan'EtJk´esÂakEt

Edlrs'enABwgEpíkeTAelIxÂçnägTSg¨sug

(L'autarcie) bMVt'karTak'TgxagpÂèvesd½kicÍCamYybreTs ù ù ù . manEtmha GMNacmYy

É BIrbu"eNöaHk~¬gelakenHeT EdlGacse¨mcnUväkraC´esd½kicÍ

enHVn edayGageTAelIePaK¨TB´d*²tKNna EdlFmµCatielakVn¨bTan mk[¨beTsTSgenH . cuHcMeJH¨beTseyIg EdlKµanFnFanBIFmµCatiGÃIb"unµan e¨kAGMBI dIlºb'TenÂemKgð ¨bkbeTAeday CICati nig Twkd*bribUNá ²tKNna nig kMedA¨BHGaTit´ KWeyIgmanEt FnFanTSg 3 bu"eNöaHesaH (dI Twk kMedA) . ehtu y"agenHehIyVnCa mUld½an«nesd½kicÍCatieyIg KW ksikmµenHäg .

eyIgmanFnFan 3 ehIy xÃHEtmYyeTotbu"eNöaH edImIºse¨mcnUvkar

lUtlas'Vn

KWkarGb'rMksikreyIgeTAtambecÍkeTs

nigv^T´asa¨s¶TMenIb

(l'information technique des agriculteurs) ¨bsinebIksikmµeyIglUtlas'eBj TMhwgehIy ¨beTsnwgGackÂayeTACa ÇkMBUlÈ k¬~gPUmiPaKGasuIGeK~y_eyIg

enH ( le Cambodge serait "roi" de l' Asie du Sud-Est ) . etIVtuPUtTSgenHÉ EdlCa


20 mUld½and*v^essv^sal

¨T¨Tg'nUvlTiìCatiniymesd½kicÍrbs'rd½ExµreyIg

?

eyIgman¨Kb'¨Kan'ehIymUld½anTSgenH eyIgenAxÃHEtqnæ: e¨bobVnnwgEdk É

kareb¶CÆacit¶TSg¨sugEtbu"eNöaHeToteT

Edlesd½kicÍksikmµeyIgnwg¨tèvcab'

ep¶émedIreTAmux . 10 É 20 q~SeTot neyaVyenH¨VkdCa[plCak'Es¶gCa Bit¨Vkd .

m´"ageTot 30q~SeTot bN¶aCneyIgekIndl'eTA 15lannak' ¨beTs

eyIgnwgkÂayeTACa¨beTsFMsmºèrsbºaymYy Camha¨beTsmYyk~¬gPUmiPaK GasuIEb"kxagtºègminElgeLIy . eBlenaHehIy

Edl¨bCaCatieyIgQb'mane¨Bob

eGanfyCageK

(Complexe d'infériorité) manmuxmat'Ca¨beTsmYy EdlmanC&yCMnHeTAelIPaB

x§t'ex§ay VnerIb¨mHecjBInwm«n¨bvit¶sa¨s¶ e¨kaysm&ymhanKr ( Ce sera la libération définitive de notre peuple de tant de siècles de décadence et d'écrasement physique et moral ) . eFÃIy"agenH

KW¨VkdCaeyIg¨bKl'eTA[¨bCaCatieyIgv^jnUvesck¶IkÂa

han famBl nigesck¶I«fÂf~èrEdlVt'bg'Gs'ry:eBlCag 6 stvt§rYc mkehIy .

X X

X


21

esck¶IbJÍb' enAk~¬gBiPBmYyEdlkmÂSgesd½kicÍ

E¨bkÂayeTACakmÂSgelIslb'k~¬g

kar¨T¨Tg'nUvkarKg'vg§Cév^t ( la survie ) Cati, ehIym´"ageTot enAk~¬gPUmiPaKenH

EdlsPaBrMeBItrMeBInxÃHesÄrPaBCaGci«ån¶y_ eFÃI[eyIgBiVk¨bemIlnUvGna-

Ktkal ¨beTskmõ¬CasÄitenAk~¬gsÄanPaBPUmisa¨s¶nigneyaVymYy Edl manlkÅN:sµ¬Ksµaj rkGÃI¨bdUcminVneLIy . sÄanPaBenH BitCae¨KaHf~ak'

mYyEdlKMramkMEhg¨beTseyIgral'CMhan «nkarv^vt¶n_«n¨beTs . edImIºnwg karJrmatu¨beTs¨bqSgnwge¨KaHf~ak'enH eyIg¨tèvEt¨bmUlnUvkmÂSgcit¶kmÂSg

kay edImIºsÄabna¨beTskmõ¬Ca[kÂayeTACa ¨beTsmYylUtlas' mankmÂSg esd½kicͨKb'¨Kan' Citxag

GacTb'Tl'nwgkarp§BÃp§ay«nkmÂSgesd½kicÍrbs'¨beTs

EdlsuTìswgEtCa¨beTsFM@

eyIgmankar¨BYyVrm¸ .

mankmÂSgesd½kicÍnigneyaVyKYr[

karKg'vg§Cév^t«n¨bCaCatieyIg k~¬gsÄankarN_d*lMVkenH vae¨scTSg

¨sugeTAelImUld½anEdlmanlkÅN:¨Vkdniym ehIymSTSrwgbuwgeTotpg . ämUld½anenaH eyIgrM®km¶gehIym¶geTotcuH KWKµanGÃIe¨kABIFnFanksikmµ eLIy.

ksikmµeyIglUtlas' Vnesck¶Ifaesd½kicÍCatieyIglUtlas' Vnesck¶I eTotfa eyIgmanGavuF¨Kb'¨Kan' edImIº¨byuTì¨bqSg niwg karsgût'sgûin xag pÂèvesd½kicÍGMBIsMNak'

«nc¨kBti¶niym

sMNak'«nG~kC^txageyIg .

nig

GaNaniKmsm&yfµé

eyIgsUmdk¨sg'Jk´bNëitenru ( Nehru ) edImIºbJÍb'GtÄbTenH Ð

nigGMBI


22

Ç drabNaesd½kicÍeyIgenATn'ex§ay drabenaH eyIgrs'enA hak'bIdUcCaKµan neyaVye¨kA¨beTseLIy

e¨JHeyIgminTan'tSgxÂçnCaecAhÃayelIxÂçneyIgVnenA

eLIy . ä \äkraC´neyaVy| enaHesateTot ¨Kan'EtCaÓt¶mKtienAeLIys¨mab' lYgcit¶eyIg kuM[eyIgxkcit¶Etb"ueNöaH È .

nYn eXOn P~MeBj «f©TI 24 kJïa 1969


dMeNIreq<a¼ (1) eTATisxaglic


23

k~¬gelxe¨kaybgís'«nTs§navd¶é (Etude Cambodgienne) EdlVneVHBumõ eLIgeday¨ksYgeXasnakarCati, elak súal Emeyor ( Charles Meyer ) k~¬g TMB&rv^carNkfaVnsresrk~¬g¨kbx&Në «nkarTak'Tg Exµr eyokNam Ca

GaTidUcteTAenH : Ç vt¶man«nCnCatiyYn eTAelITwkdIExµrCae¨KaHf~ak'xagpÂèv neyaVy ehIyplv^Vk«nehtukarN_enHVnelceFÂa [eXIjrYcmkehIy enAtamtMbn'xÂH@ . eKVnsegûteXIjfaBBYkG~keFÃIkareXasnayYnmanskmµ PaBy"agsMxan' enAtamPUmiCnbTExµrnana ehIyEfmTSgVn ENnSnigdwknS

dl'BBYkbHeVrEdl¨bkan'menaKmv^CØaEbbyYnenHeTotpgù ù ù È . q©aymk eTot G~kniBnìdEdlenH VnsresreTotfa Ð Ç lkÅN:d*F©n'F©rmYyeTot «n

bJúa Exµr-yYn KWkarmktSgenAedayes©¿ms©at'

«nCnCatiyYnenAelITwkdI«n

kmõ¬Ca ( L'implantation pacifique des émigrés Vietnamiens en territoire Khmer ) È

Ç ¨Kçsarrab'ry¨Kç edaysarkarTmÂak'¨Kab'Ebk«nyn¶ehaHGaemrikSg

bgÅ÷[eKcakecallMenAkMeNItrbs'xÂçn,

Vnmks~ak'Ga¨s&yenA¨beTs

kmõ¬Ca . mYyPaKFM«nG~kTSgLayenH VnxitxMvatTItSg enAe¨kaykarbJÍb' sågðameTot ehIykarEdlKYr¨bhak'¨bEhlmYyeTot KWfanwgmanCnCatiyYn xÂH

EdlFÂab'Vn¨tèvr"UvCamYynwgGaemrikSg

nigGaCÆaFr«n¨kug«¨BnKr

kal

sågðamcb'ehIy nwgqÂgkat'¨BMEdnmk¨CkenAelIEdndIExµreTotù ù ù ehIykar

TSgenHnwg¨VkdCabegûét[mannUvesck¶I¨BçyVrm¸mYyy"agFMeFg ¨bCara¨s¶ExµrenAtam¨BM¨bTl'Edn È .

k~¬gbN¶a

esck¶IEtbu"eNöH eyIgGacyl'Vne¨sceTAehIyfa etIe¨KaHf~ak'PÂam@

nigeTAGnaKtrd½ExµreyIgKW¨tg'Na ? dUceyIgFÂab'VnykbJúa«ndMeNIreqõaH mkTisxaglic «nCnCatiyYnenHmkecaTrYcmkehIy clnamkTisxaglic enH min¨twmEtmanlkÅN:neyVy nigmenaKmv^CØaeT KWEfmTSgCalTìpl

y"agCak'Es¶g «nkarv^vd¶«n¨bvti¶sa¨s¶«nEpndIGtIt²NëècinVrSgess . mun

(1) GtÄbTenHVncuHp§ayk¬~gsarBátman ÇnKrFMÈ BI«f© 20 eTA 28 F~è 1969 - KW 5 ExmunsågðamekIt eLIgk~¬g¨beTseyIg . nùXù


24 dMbUg

CnCatiyYnTSgenHVneFÃIdMeNIrmkBITisxagtºègCahUrEh

tamCYrP~M

GNöam ( Les Cordilières annamitiques ) ehIyk~¬gdMeNIrenH EdlmanGayue¨cIn

stvt§ VnelbVt'eTAehIy nKrcmº"a¨BmTSgEdndIkmõ¬Cae¨kameTotpg enA edImstvt§TI19 (k~¬grvagq~S1840) . ehtuy"agenHehIy VnCae¨CayTwkexµA

( Camau ) CadIxagtºègbMput«n²Nëècin ¨tèvCnCatiyYnmkvatTItSgenA .

dUec~HebI«f©mux mankarvatTItSgeTot KWdMeNIreqõaHeTATisxaglic ehIy

mkb"Hnwg¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIgEtm¶g . ²Lèv¨Bwti¶karN_enH edaysarmansågðam enAeyokNam

tSgBIq~S1945

rhUtmkdl'bcͬbºn~kalenH

Cakt¶ay"agFM,

VnmanrYcmkehIy ehIy¨VkdCanwgmankan'EtFMeLIg@ eTA«f©muxeTot ebI v^FankarEdlnwgcat'BuMman¨bsiTìPaB¨Kb'¨Kan'eTenaH .

lkÅN:F©n'F©rmYyeTot«nbJúasµ¬KsµajenH KWkarEdlbN¶aCnyYnenH

mankarbegûéncMnYnmYyy"agelOnKYr[¨beTsC^txag

mankar¨BçyVrm¸CacS

Vc' . ebI¨bsinCaeyIgyksÄiti EdleKVneFÃIeLIgedayv^FIv^T´asaås¶mk Binit´karN_enH rwtEtKYr[eyIgeXIjCak'Es¶gNas'eTAeTot Ð PaKry«n kMeNIncMnYn¨bCaCnExµreyIg man¨twmEt 2,5 eTA 2,6 PaKryEtb"ueNöaH ( le

taux d'accroissement démographique ), äcMENkyYn ebItamG~kCMnajkar PaKry

enHeLIgdl'eTA 3 PaKryelIseyIgeTAeTot . m´"ageTotdl'e¨kaysågðam cb' PaKry«nkarbegûInenH¨bhak'¨bEhlCanwgeLIghYsBI 3 PaKryenHeTA

eTot . ehtukarN_enH Gacmanplv^VkCaF©n'F©rBn'eBk mkelI¨beTseyIg

nig¨beTsC^txag : m´"ageTotk~¬g¨beTsyYn karekInd*elOn«nbN¶aCnenH GacecaT[manCabJúadIFÂI

( problèmes agraires ) Edl¨tèv[manTMhM¨Kb'¨Kan'

edImIºGacciJÍwmmnus§kan'Ete¨cIneLIg@

.

¨Kan'EtsBëf©enH

cMnYn¨bCaCn

xageCIgnigxagtºègbJÍèlK~a Cag 40 lannak'eTAehIy ehIybJúadIFÂImanecaT xÂH@rYcmkehIy, cuHdl' 20 É 30 q~SeTot ¨bCaCnenH¨tèvKuNnwgBIr BI 70

eTA 80 lannak' ! etIbJúaenHnwgmanTMhMFMdl'NaeTA ? elIkElgEtGnaKt esd½kicÍyYn kÂayeTAeTACaesd½kicÍÓs§ahkmµy"aglUtlas'xÂSgNas' eTIb

GacedaH¨saybJúaenHVn

ebIminy"agenHeT

CnCatiyYnTSgenHnwg¨tèvcak

ecjBI¨beTsxÂçnmkenAelIdITSgLayEdlenATMenr ehIydIEdlenATMenrTSgenaH


25 KWEdndIExµreyIgEtm¶g

.

äcMENkEdndI¨beTslavCadIP~M

ehIyebItam¨bvti¶

saås¶eTot CnCatieyokNamenH Camnus§EdlcUlcit¶rs'enAelIvalTMnab ( l'homme de la plaine ) KWEdndIsN¶«nTenÂemKgðEtm¶g ( le Delta ou la vallée du Mékong ) . m´"agv^jeTot cUreyIgkuMePÂcfa ebIdl'q~S 2000 ¨bCaCnExµreyIgekIn

dl'eTA15 lannak' enHebItamkarsµantamkmµv^FIv^T´asaås¶, ä¨beTseyok

Nam nwgekIndl'BI70eTA80lannak'eTAehIy . m´"ageTot ebIkar¨saybJúa¨bCa CnenHBMuVn¨sçleT

enaHeyIgVrm¸xÂacE¨kgEtnwgmankarbegûétk~¬gcMeNam

bJïavn¶yYnEdlmanKMnitCatiniymhYsehtu ( l'ultra-nationalisme ) nUv¨Tws¶I

B¨gIkTwkdIniym edImIº[¨bCaraås¶eKGacrs'enAVn ( une nouvelle théorie de l'Espace Vital ) . ehIyebI¨Tws¶IenHekIteLIgEmnenaH, plv^VknwgmanlkÅN:

F©n'F©r«¨kElg mkelIGnaKt¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg .

m´"agv^jeTot äk~¬g¨beTseyIg CnCatiyYnEdlrs'k~¬g¨sukExµr eyIg

k*ekIneLIgmindac'Edr .

sBëf©enH GaNikCnCatiyYnTSgenaH mancMnYnBI 450,000 eTA 500,000 nak'

eTAehIy(1) KWCiteTA 7 PaKry«nbN¶aCnExµreyIgTSgmUl . ehIyPaKry«n karekIncMnYn¨bCaCnyYnenAk~¬g¨sukeyIgeTot

k*elIsPaKry«nkMeNIt¨bCa

CneyIgEdr dUec~HehIy karekInenH¨tèvEtelOneTAmuxCadrab edaybUkbJÍèlCa

mYypgnUvkarlblYccUlmkenA elIdIExµreyIg eday²tcºab'TmÂab'enaHeTot. eyIg

VnsegûteXIjCaTUeTAfa CnCatiyYnEdlenA¨sukExµreyIg PaKe¨cInCaG~k¨kI ¨k ehIyPaB¨kI¨kenH GacbegûéteLIgnUvbJúaxagpÂèvsgðmy"agF©n'F©r manecar kmµ Xatkmµ PaB²tkareFÃI ElºgsIusg karlk'sm¹s§xÂçnedImIºrs' .l. ehIyedayehtufaExµrnigyYnrs'enAC^t@K~a eTAmkpgk*man

plv^VkenH

CYnkalmankarTak'TgK~aeTAv^j

nwg¨tèvFÂak'mkelIsgðmExµreyIg²tebI¨bEkk

VneLIy. enHCabJúaxagsgðmv^T´a ( un problème sociologique ) KbIºEteyIg

cab'GarmµN_edImIº[sgðmExµrrk§anUvPaBsíatsíMPaBbrisuTì .

¨Bwti¶karN_mYyeTot EdleyIgKYrcab'GarmµN_CaBiess karbegûéncMnYn

kan'Ete¨cIn

«nGaNikCnbreTsyYnelIEpndIeyIg

(1) mun 18mIna 1970 .

ehIyebIeyIgbUkbJÍèl


26 TSgGaNikCnbreTscinmkeTotpg

nwgGacmanplv^VkmYyeTotF©n'F©r«¨k

Elg k~¬gGnaKtkal. ¨Kan'EtsBëf©enH CnbreTsTSgLayenH mancMnYn C^t ÉCagmYylannak'eTAehIy k~¬gcMnYnbN¶aCneyIgTSgGs'Cag8lannak' . ebIeyIg niyay[Vncºas'eTAeTot KWk~¬gExµrTSgGs' 7 nak' manbreTscin-yYn 1

nak' . ehtukarN_enH GacnwgbN¶al[maneLIgCa bJúasasn_ ( un problème racial

)

ehIyEdlnwgmanlkÅN:CabJúapÂèvsgðmeTotpg

.

enA¨beTs

ma"LayUfµé @ enH manpæ¬HerOgsasn_enH bN¶al[mankarvwkvr xUcxatnUvesÄr PaBxagpÂèvneyaVy ehIyEdr

.

ehIysBëf©enHk¶I

GaNikCnbreTsCatiyYn

bJúaenHk*minTan'cb'sBèKb'eTA

enA¨sukeyIgsBëf©enH

BuMEmnenA

es©¿ms©at'bu"nµaneLIy eKmanGgðkarsm©at'¨Kb'Ebby"ag xagpÂèvsasna k*dUc CaxagpÂèvneyaVy . erOgGs'enHnrNak*dwg¨Kb'@ K~aehIyEdr .

sBëf©enH eKeXIjBYkeK enAhak'dUcCaes©¿ms©at' BIe¨JHeBlenH yYn

kMBugCab'eFÃIsågðam enA¨beTsev¿tNam ehIyCa ¨beyaCn_rbs'eKFMNas' Edlt¨mUv

[eKmankarTak'Tgy"ag¨b«B CamYyGaCÆaFrExµreyIg . cuHdl'eKcb'sågðameTA

¨beTseKrYbrYmK~av^jÉeT ?

ebIminrYbrYmxagpÂèvneyaVyk*xagpÂèvesd½kicÍ vbºFmáEdr ehIy¨beTs

eKnwgkÂayeTACamhaGMNacGasIumYy

EdlBiPBelakVnTayrYcmkehIy

enaH CnCatiev¿tNamenA¨sukExµr cºas'CanwgmansmºCJï: cMeJHkmÂSgrbs' xÂçnminElgeLIy ( La prise de conscience de leur force en tant que minorité ethniquement et politiquement dominante ) pÂèvsgðm ÉpÂèvneyaVyminElgeLIy .

ehIynigmankarTamTarGÃIep§g@ xag

enHCae¨KaHf~ak'mYyFMGenk BIe¨JHnwgGacbN¶al[karlík' k~¬gkarTak'

TgExµr-yYn eTAGnaKtkalminecHcb' minecHehIy. VnCaeyIghßanGHGag y"agenH minEmnedayeyIgmanKMnitsíb'CnCatiyYnBIdUnta ( une haine hérédi-

taire ) enaHmkeT KWmkGMBIkarEdleyIgeFÃIv^PaKk~¬gbJúaExµr-yYnenHEtm¶g. enH

Cakarv^vt¶imYy EdlmanlkÅN:CakarcSVc' e¨JH¨bvti¶saås¶mnus§Cati Vn

¨bTHbJúaEbbenHe¨cInNas'mkehIy k~¬gstvt§TI 20 enHEtm¶g .


27

äNakaredaH¨say ? karedaH¨sayEdl¨b«B minEmnkare¨bI ÇFmáek¶AÈ enaHeT e¨JHfaebI e¨bIFmáek¶A nwgbN¶al[man¨btikmµlkÅN:Ca ÇFmáek¶AÈ tbmkv^j mincb' minehIy

nigeFÃI[e¨CaHrvag

ExµrnigyYn

kan'EtmanTMhMFMeLIg@

Gs'man

esÄrPaBneyaVy k~¬g²NëècinCa¨Vkd . eyIgniyay ÇFmáek¶AÈ enH KWcg'

niyaydl'karbgÅM[GaNikCnyYnTSgenH v^l¨tLb'eTA¨sukkMeNItv^j (le

rapatriement forcé) . . v^FankarenH bN¶al[manplv^VkGa¨kk'eTAelIesd½kicÍ Cati Ð eyIgnwgVt'bg'nUv¨kbxNëesd½kicÍ nigbecÍkeTse¨cIn, EfmTSgp§ar k~¬g¨beTseyIgy"agsMxan'eTot EdlCakarcSVc'cMeJHGnaKt karlUtlas' Ós§ahkmµnigesd½kicͨbeTskmõ¬CaeyIg . ehIyeTaHbIkarbgÅM[v^leTA¨suk

kMeNItv^j GaceFÃIeTAekItvanwgbN¶al[manbJúad*FM EdlnwghYssmtÄPaB

rbs'eyIgeTotpg. dUec~H v^FankarEdleyIgGacGnuvt¶eTAVn edayminbegûét CabJúaF©n'F©reBkeT

KWkar¨tçt¨ta[Vnditdl'

dl'skmµPaB¨Kb'Ebby"ag

xagpÂèv sasna k¶I xag pÂèvsgðm É neyaVy k¶I EdlGaNikCnCatiyYnTSgGs' mank~¬g¨beTseyIg edImIºGac[eyIgrMgab'Tan' ( neutraliser ) nUv¨Kb'bMNg

Ga¨kk'TSgLay EdlnwgGaccab'p¶çcep¶émeLIg .

ehIysMxan'CagenHeTAeTot KWkarbiTTl'Edn[Vnrwgbwug KYr[mankar

Tukcit¶ Qb'[mankarlYcnScUlbreTsmktamv^FIJNiCØkmµ É edaykarsuß÷ ¨KlMxÃHsmºCJï: . eyIgKYryl'fa ebImankarlblYccUlmkm¶gmYykal

(Temporaire) enaHminEmnCae¨KaHf~ak'xÂSgkÂabu"nµaneT e¨KaHf~ak'EdlFM KWkarmk

tSgTIlMenACanicÍkal ( Implantations permanentes ) edaymankarsg'pæHsEmºg cab'¨bkbksikmµ ÉmuxrbrGÃIep§g@eTot e¨JHCn¨bePTenH Edlman ÇòsÈ

Cab'nwgdIeyIgehIy nwgmankUnecA mit¶Pk¶i mingay¨tLb'eTAv^jäg@ eLIy. ehIyebIy"agenHeTA

Tl'EdneyIgnwg¨tèvbreTsyYnmktSgenAkkkuj

ehIyk*bN¶al[manCemÂaH

rkerOgehtuCamYynigbgbíènExµreyIg

rYc

begûét[

mankarBiVkrs'enA äExµreyIgCaCatisÂèt¨tg' minCaG~krkerOgehtueK k*¨tèv


28 eVHbg'ecalTIenaH rt'mkenAq©ay@eTot .l. enH¨VkdCakardeN¶ImTwkdI edayv^FIes©¿ms©at' EdleyIgKYrcab'GarmµN_[VnCak'cºas' .

dUceyIgVneFÃIkarEvkEjkrYcmkehIy esck¶IsgwômeyIgTSg¨sugsÄit

enAelIrd½aPiVle¨sac¨sg' Cati EdlnwgmansmºCJï:cºas'las' cMeJHe¨KaHf~ak'd* FMeFgenH dl'matu¨beTskmõ¬Carbs'eyIg . ebIbJúaTSgenHminVnTTYlkaredaH¨say KYrCa

TIkk'ek¶AeT GnaKtrbs'eyIgnwgmanBBkexµAggwtmkVMgminxaneLIy k~¬g¨kbxNë«nkarv^vt¶i neyaVyTUeTA k~¬gPUmiPaK²Nëècind*rMeCIbrMCYlenH .

sù m"anI P~MeBj «f©TI23 F~è 1969


29

}NÚÐcin kñúgqñaM2000¿¿¿


30 KMnit ɨTws¶IEdlEcgfa bN¶aCn ( la population ) nigkarv^vt¶n_«nbN¶aCn

enHman naTId*sMxan' mYyenAk~¬gCévPaB neyaVyCati nigGn¶rCatienHminEmn CaKMnit ɨTwsI¶efµagfµéeT . CakarBitEmnehIy EdleKeJlfa Çmnus§È CamUld½ansarvn¶«n¨Kb'rbb¨Kb'¨KgneyaVy«n¨bCaCati Ésgðmmnus§TSg

Lay . ehtudUec~HVnCacMnYnmnus§eJlKWbN¶aCnk~¬g¨beTsnimYy@ Ék~¬g tMbn'PUmiPaKnimYy@, ¨tèvEtman²TiìBlCakarcSVc'eTAelIsÄanPaB ÉkicÍdwknS

neyaVy k~¬g¨beTsÉk~¬gPUmiPaKEdl¨bmUlp¶¬÷¨beTsTSgenaH . dUec~H ebI eyaleTAtam¨Tws¶IenH cMnYnbN¶aCnnigkardwknSneyaVy BuMGac¨tèveKGar

kat'p¶ac'ecjBIK~aVneLIy .

bN¶aCne¨cInhYsmaD La surpopulation

edayeyageTAtam¨Tws¶IxagelIenH ¨bvti¶v^TUnigsgðmv^TU ( Sociologue )

PaKe¨cInVnBn´l'GMBIbuBÃehtu«nsågðamrvagCatinigCati ( Causes des guerres )

nig clnabd^vt¶n_ (mouvements révolutionnaires) EdlVncab'kMeNIteLIgk~¬g ¨beTsÉPUmiPaKnimYy@ «nBiPBelak edayBwgEpíkeTAelIsÄanPaBnigclna «nkarv^vt¶n_«nbN¶aCnenHEtm¶g . ¨bvti¶saås¶rbs'mnus§Cati hak'dUcCaVn kt'sMKal'nUv¨Bwt¶ikarN_ CaKMrUxÂHrYcmkehIy EdlGac[eyIgykmkbJØak'

bk¨sayBn´l'nUv¨Tws¶IxagelIenH Ð k~¬grvagq~S 1930, ¨beTsGalÂWm"aj sm&yhuIEtÂr enATÃIbGWru"b, nig¨beTsCb"unsm&yeyaFaniymenATIÃbGasuI, Vn eFÃIneyaVyeyaFaniymd*eXareXA

bgûbegûIt[mansågðamk~¬gBiPBelak

¨BmTSgVnp§BÃp§aynUvesck¶Ie¨kom¨kM nigkarexÂacp§aGs'ry:Cae¨cInq~S mk

elImnus§Cati .

¨beTsTSgBIrenH k¬~gsm&yenaH suTìswgCa¨beTsEdlmanbN¶aCn

e¨cInhYsmaDhYssmtÄPaB«nkaredaH¨saysamJï«n¨beTsTSgBIr

Ð

ä


31 neyaVyB¨gIkTwkdIniym nigsågðamQÂanJneTAelI¨bCaCatiCitxag Edl

¨beTsTSgenHVnbgûbegûéteLIg y"agcºas'las'

KWBitCaenAk~¬geKalbMNgneyaVymYy

KWvaydeN¶ImykTwkdIbreTsmkeFÃICarbs'xÂçn

edImIºCa

meF´aVyGac[¨beTsxÂçnmanEdndI¨Kb'¨Kan' ( Espace vital ) sMrab'ciJÍwm bN¶aCnrbs'¨beTseK Edlkan'EtekIncMnYne¨cIneLIg@CalMdab'erogral'q~S@

KWk¬~geKalbMNgenHehIy EdldMbUgeLIg¨beTs Cbu"n VncºSgvaydeN¶Im ykEdndI kUer" ( Corée ) nig m"g'CUrI ( Mandchourie ) na¨beTscinEb"kxageCIg,

¨BmTSgKMramkMEhgdl'GaNaext¶xÂH«nshPaBsUevotpg

ehIybN¶al[

ekItmansågðamy"agyUr BIq~S 1936 eTATl'nwgq~S 1945 rvagcinnigCb"un . ä¨beTsGalÂWm"ajv^j

k*VnGnuvt¶neyaVyQÂanJnTwkdItSgBIq~S

1938 mkdl'q~S 1945 edayVnvaydeN¶Imyk¨beTs GU¨TIs, b"ULèj nig1PaKFM«nmha¨beTs rus§I .l. CaBiesseTAeTot eKVnkt'sMKal'fa mankMeNIncMnYnbN¶aCneTÃk~¬g TIÃbGWru"bBIq~S 1814 mkdl'q~S 1914 ehIy¨sab'EtenA

edImstvt§r_TI20enHEtm¶g

TÃIbGWru"bVnqÂgkat'nUvsm&ymYyd*rMeCIbrMCYl

ehIy

¨bTHnUvmhasågðamdl'eTABIrelIk ¨Kan'Etk~¬gry:Jk'kN¶al«n stvt§r_TI20

Etb"ueNöaH .

CaTIbMputeKsegûteXIjm´"ageTotfa k~¬gsm&ybcͬbºn~enH ¨Kb'¨beTs

x§t'ex§ayTSgLay«nttiyelak ( les pays sous développés ) EdleTIbnwg Vnsðal'nUvkMeNIncMnYnbN¶aCn

d*elOnhak'bIdUcCasnæ¬H¨Bçj

kMBugEtCYb

¨bTHnUv clnabd^vt¶n_ mYyEdlkMBugEtraldalp§BÃp§ay¨Kb'TisTI edayman Ggðkar kumµ¬ynis¶niymGn¶rCati CYye¨CamE¨Cgpg . ehIyclnarMeBItrMeBInTSg enH ¨tèvVneKerobcMeLIgk~¬geKalbMNgnwgrMlMrbb neyaVyesd½kicÍ sgðm

cas'TamTar[manrbbfµé ¨bkbedaylkÅN:bdivt¶n_ EdleKyl'fanwgGac

edaH¨saybJúasgðmmnus§Vneday¨bsiTìPaB Biess bJúaEdlTak'Tg eTAnwgkMeNInd*elOnhYs¨bmaN «nbN¶aCnenHäg . KWk~¬g¨kbxNë«n¨Tws¶I enHägeTot EdlmanG~k¨VCÆxÂHmanelak kúass¶¬gbßUFul ( Gaston Bouthoul ) Casgðmv^TUnig¨bvti¶v^TUCatiVrSg Vncat'Tuk ÇsågðamÈ CaVtuPUtmYyd*sMxan'


32 mannaTICaG~keFÃI[sMerceLIgnUvsmta ( l'équilibre ) k~¬gsgðmmnus§TSgLay «nBiPBelak .

enA²Nëècin bN¶aCnExµrGacTb'

nwgbN¶aCnyYnnigesomVnÉeT ?

edImIºyl'[Vncºas'las' nUvTMhM«ne¨KaHf~ak'CaGci«ån¶y_ EdlKMram

kMEhg¨beTskmõ¬Ca k~¬gGnaKtkalxagmuxenH KbIºeyIgrM®kdl'sÄankarN_ ¨bvti¶saås¶Cak'Es¶g

(Situation de fait ) xÂHTukCaeKaledACabzm . k~¬gkar

v^vt¶n_CahUrEhmkehIy

k~¬g¨bvti¶saås¶«n¨beTsTSgbI

Exµr

esom

yYn

TMnas'Exµr esom, rYcTMnas'Exµr-yYn ehIycuge¨kaybMput KWTMnas'esom-yYn

Ca¨Bwti¶karN_mYymanlkÅN:CaGci«ån¶y_ ( Une permanence historique ) k~¬g ¨bvti¶saås¶«n¨bCaCati²Nëècin Gs'kale¨cInstvt§r_rYcmkehIy . ¨beTs

esomCa¨bCaCatimYy¨bkbedayyuvPaB ( ¨beTsesomcab'kMeNIteLIgna stvt§r_TI 14 ) e¨kayBIVnvatTItSgelIEdndIExµr mYyPaKy"agFMenAEb"kxag

eCIg nigxaglic¨beTskmõ¬Cabcͬbºn~ rYcehIyk*VnxitxMeFÃIneyaVy¨bTak' ¨bTaj¨beTsExµr

[cUleTAk~¬gkar¨Kb'¨KgpÂèvneyaVyrbs'esom

¨beTsExµr[eTACaGaNaB´aVlesomEtm¶g

KWeFÃI

( Faire du Cambodge un

protectorat Siamois ) edImIºTukEdndIenHCa¨Tnab'Tb'Tl' nwgkarvatTItSgrbs' s¨tèvfµémYy«nxÂçn KWyYnenHäg . dUec~HTMnas'esom-Exµr manlkÅN:CaCemÂaH

rvag¨bCaCatiekµg nig¨bCaCatiburaNmYy ehIyCakarFmµtaGar´FmáEdlman yuvPaBEtgEtmanfamBl e¨bobeTAelIGar´FmámYyeTotEdlmanv&ycas' .

ehtuenHehIyVnCaeyIgVt'bg'Gs'GaNaext¶Cae¨cIn . pæ¬yeTAv^j CnCati

yYnk~¬gdMeNIrrbs'xÂçncuHmkTisxagtºègtambeN¶ayeq~rsmu¨Tcam nigkmõ¬Ca e¨kam maneKalbMNgnwgvatTItSgykEdndI¨tg'@Etm¶g KWminEmn¨Kan'Etcg'


33 ykGaNac¨kExµr eFÃICaEdndIGaNaext¶yYneT EtmanbMNgbMVt'sasn_Exµr Gar´FmáExµr, eJlKWeFÃI¨beTsExµr[kÂayeTACaEdndIfµérbs'yYnenHEtm¶g . enHehIyCaehtukarN_

EdlGacBn´l'eyIg[yl'nUvneyaVyyYn

EdlVn¨b¨Bwti¶mkelICnCatiExµr enAstvt§r_TI 18-19 nigenAstvt§r_TI 20

k~¬gEdndIkmõ¬Cae¨kamsBëf©enH . buBÃehtuCaCe¨mA «nneyaVyB¨gIkTwkdI yYn enAEdndI²Nëècin KWkMeNIncMnYnbN¶aCnyYn ehIynigkgÃHxatEdndIEdl

manCICatis¨mab'ciJÍwmbN¶aCnEdlrIkcMerIny"agqab'rh&s. KYr[kt'sMKal'

pgEdrfa k~¬gkar ÇEhkdIExµrEckK~aÈ enHehIyEdlesomnigyYnb"HTgðicK~a ä karb"HTgðicK~aenHk*manCahUrEhmkehIyEdrelIEdndIlav. CnCatiesomk*kan' EtmankarminTukcit¶xÂSgeLIgcMeJHKUs¨tèvfµé KWyYnenHäg . k~¬gkrNIenH k~¬g GnaKtkal ebIesomnigyYnmanCemÂaHK~a KWenAelITwkdIExµr ÉlavenHEtm¶g .

X X

X


34

15ù000ù000 nak'dl' Kùsù 2000 ! eyIgVnniyayCa¨tçs@rYcmkehIy GMBIEdndIPUmiPaKxÂHk~¬gBiPBelak

eyIgenH

EdlVnsðal'nUvkMeNInbN¶aCnCaGtibrma

¨BmTSgplv^Vk«n

¨Bwti¶karN_enHeTotpg. eyIgk*GacBicarNadl'plv^VkEbbenHEdlnwgGac ekItmaneLIg enAelIPUmiPaK²Nëècin ebI¨bsinCakarv^vt¶n_bN¶aCnenAelIEdndI enHmanlkÅNCaFmµta ( un évolution normale ) KWfaebIKµansågðamÉGsn¶isux ɨBwti¶karN_d«TeTot mkeFÃI[sÄankaB«nkarv^vt¶n_enHpÂas'b¶èreT .

EdleyIgrM®kdl'bJúaenH minEmneyIgyl'sb¶ienaHeT, KWeyIgniyay

k~¬gzan:Camnus§

EdlmansmºCJï:¨Kb'¨Kan'Camnus§

ÇFmµtaÈ

Edl

BicarNarkehtupl .

eyIgGacKn'KrU eFÃIelxrkcMnYnbN¶aCnExµreyIg k~¬grvagq~S 2000 Vn

edayykG¨ta«nkMeNInbN¶aCn ( le taux d'accroissement démographique ) 2,5

É 2,6 PaKry(1) mkeFÃImUld½an. ehtudUec~HeyIgGacsµantamv^FIv^T´asaås¶ fa rvagq~S 2000 bN¶aCneyIgnwgeLIgeTAdl' 14 É 15 lannak'ehIy enH ¨bsinebIKµansågðamelak ÉGsn¶isuxNamYymkrMxankarv^vt¶n_enHeTenaH. ä

cMnYnbN¶aCneyIgnwgeLIgeTAdl'80nak'k~¬g 1 Kùmù eTÃKuN . ebIy"agenHEmn

eyIgGacsn~id½anVnfa k~¬g30q~SeTotEdndIeyIgmincegí¿tcgíl'enAeLIyeT. m´"ageTotEdndIeyIgCavalTMnab smºèreTAedayClFa manTenÂemKgðCaedIm, eyIgnwgGaceFÃIrebobGaCévkmµksikmµ( méthodes d'exploitation agricole ) rwtEt ¨besIreLIg edayeFÃI[se¨mcnUvkarVcTwkbJÍèlE¨s ( l'irrigation )

dMNSeyIgenAesssl'e¨cIn . sBëf©enH dIdSdMNSeyIgmanEt 18%

ädIdS «n«pæ

(1) eyageTAtamsÄitiq~S 1962, G¨taenHman 2,3% Etb"ueNöaH EtebItamG~kC÷najkar G¨taEdl¨twm

¨tèvCag KW 2,5% É 2,6% enHäg sUmemIl ( Les facteurs de croissance démographique au Cambodge thèse de doctorat de 3e cycle, Sorbonne Paris 1967.)


35 ¨kLaTSgGs'Etb"ueNöaH . e¨cIneLIg@ .

eyIgnwgGacbegûéneTAeTot ebIbN¶aCneyIgekIn

ehtudUec~HeyIgsgwômfa EdndIeyIgminTan'cegí¿tcgíl'eT k~¬g 30 q~S É

50 q~SxagmuxenH, eyIgnwgGacB¨gIkplitplksikmµEfmeTot . e¨JHfa k~¬g GnaKtkal meF´aVybecÍkeTseyIgk*kan'EtmanlkÅN:¨besIreLIgCahUr

EhEdr . eyIgnwgminrnìt'cMeJHGnaKteyIg e¨JH¨beTseyIgnwgGacciJÍwm

eday¨Kb'¨Kan'nUvbN¶aCnrbs'eyIgVnCa¨Vkd

.

¨beTseyIgmincSVc'

nwgGnuvt¶n_ neyaVyB¨gIkTwkdIniymeTAelI¨beTsC^txageLIy .

EtkarEdleyIgKYrP&yVrm¸ KWeyIgecaTsYrxÂçneyIgfa : etIG~kC^txag

eyIg, xagekIteyIgk¶I xagliceyIgk¶I, nwgTuk[eyIgsðal'sn¶iPaBCaerogdrab É ? ebI 30 É 50 q~SeTot EdndIrbs'eKnwgeBje¨Bob, e¨bobhak'dUcCaTwk

EdleBjlíageTAehIy @ hUrehorecjmke¨kA t¨mg'eTArkTITMnabd«TeTot.

etIeyIgKYrcat'Tukfa TITMnabEdlminTan'dk'TwkTSgenH man valTMnabTenÂemKgð nigTenÂsab ( la vallée du Mékong ) eJlKW¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg GaceCosputBI e¨KaHf~ak'enHÉ ?

X X

X


36


37

e¨KaHf~ak'rbs'eyIgenATisxagekIt Cag 80ù000ù000 nak'rs'enAelIEpndImYyy"agcegí¿tcgíl' enATisxagekItnigxagtºèg¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg CnCatiyYnVncuHs¨muk

mkBITisxageCég

tameq~rsmu¨TGtItnKrcmº"a

ehIyVneFÃIkarTånæanluk

luydeN¶ImdIFÂIBIdUntaeyIg tSgBIcugstvt§r_TI 17 mkemÂ"H ¨Kan'Etk~¬gry:

150 q~SVÂyEtb"ueNöaH yYnVnmkvatTItSg ¨BmTSgkÂayxÂçneTACamÍas'TwkdI kmõ¬Cae¨kam eBjTICae¨sc (k~¬g Kùsù 1840). KYrEteyIgrM®kEdrfa CnCati yYnTSgenHEdlVnelbsIuTwkdIeyIgmYyPaKy"agFM manTMhM 64ù000 Kùmù

eTÃKuNKWesµInwg¨beTslgûa (Ceylan) TSgmUlenHVn k*edaysarsm&yenaH bN¶aCneyIgenAkmõ¬Cae¨kam mancMnYnticBn'eBkNas' fÃIebIEdndItMENldUn taeyIgenH

CaEdndImYyEdl¨bkbeTAedayCICatid*v^essv^sal

mk¨bdUcBuMVneLIyk*eday .

rkdIäNa

cMENkäkarEdlyYns¨mukcuHmkxagtºègenaH bN¶almkBIbuBÃehtufa

bN¶aCnekIte¨cIneBk

yYnBuMGacmandIlí¨Kb'¨Kan's¨mab'ciJÍwmK~aeKVn

eLIy . ehtuenHehIyVnCayYnVneFÃIneyaVyB¨gIkTwkdIniym mkelI raCaNac¨kExµr²tQb'Qr rhUtdl'sm&ybcͬbºn~kalenHeTot k*yYnBuM¨Bm bJÎb'GMeBIlYccUlmktSgenAelIdIEdlTMenrrbs'eyIgeLIy .

sBëf©enH ¨beTsevotNamman«pæ¨kLa¨bEhl 330ù000 Kùm2 KWFM

Cag¨beTseyIgcMnYnC^t2dg. KWCa¨beTsmYyEdlmanbeN¶ayd*EvgcMgay

BIxageCIgmktºègC^tEt 2ù000 Kùmù . naq~S 1970 bN¶aCnTSgGs'«n¨b

eTsenH mancMnYnC^teTA 40ù000ù000 nak' KW 20 lan Eb"kxageCIg nig 18

lan Eb"kxagtºèg . ¨beTsevotNam CaEdndImYysmºèreTAeday«¨B¨Bwk§a nigP~M. «¨BnigP~MenH¨KbdN¶b'elI«pædI 80% «n«pæ¨kLaTSgGs' KWesµInwg«pæ ¨kLa 260ù000 Kùmù eTÃKuN . ehtudUec~HehIyVnCa, mnus§TSg 38 lan

nak'enHrs'enAelI«pædIEt 20% Etb"ueNöaH KWesµInwg«pæ¨kLa 60ù000 Kùm


38 eTÃKuN . k~¬gkrNIe¨kayenH dg'suIet ( densité ) eLIgeTAdl' 600 nak' k~¬g 1

Kùm2 . dUceyIgeXIj¨sab' sBëf©enH dI¨beTseyokNamenHcegí¿tcgíl' Nas'eTAehIy. cMENkplitpl¨sèvGgûr k*swgEtmin¨Kb'¨Kan'pg . C¨guk ¨sèvd*FM«n¨beTsenHKWEdndIsN¶ ( le Delta ) «nTenÂemKgð nigdIsN¶Ten sug«k ( le Delta du Fleuve Rouge ) . EdndIsN¶TenÂemKgðGacp¶l'¨sèvGgûrCa mF´m 6 lanetank~¬gmYyq~S ehIydIsN¶TenÂsug«kp¶l'[ 4 lanetanCa mF´mEdr . bUkeTAVn¨twmEt 10 lanb"ueNöaH, dUec~HeTA «f©mux¨sèvGgûrenH

¨VkdCaminGacbMeBjesck¶I¨tèvkarrbs'bN¶aCnyYn y"agelOnesaHeLIy .

k~¬gcMeNam¨beTsGasIuTSgLay

EdlkMBugekIncMnYn

yYnmanG¨ta«nkMeNIn¨bCaCn

(taux d'accroisement démographique) xõs'CageKäg(1) KWmanrhUtdl'eTACag3% .

ebIeyageTAtamPaKryenH k~¬gq~S 1970 bN¶aCnyYnrYmTSgxageCégnigxag tºèg nwgeLIgdl'eTA 40ù000ù000 nak' . k~¬glkÅN:enH

¨bsinebIkarv^vt¶n_rbs'¨bCaCnenH

manelº¯neTAmux

eTotedayKµan¨Bwti¶karN_FMduMGÃImkrMxaneT bN¶aCn¨beTseyokNamnwgeLIg rhUteTA Cag 80ù000ù000 nak' k~¬g 30 q~SeTot . äkmõ¬CaeyIg dl'q~S

2000 man¨twmEt 15 lannak'b"ueNöaH .

X X

(1)-eyageTAtamesovePA :- Ç ebItamelak B. Fall,

X

Les Deux Viet-Nam, Bernard Fall, Payot Paris, 1967.È

G¨ta«nkMeNInenH eLIgdl'eTA 3,5% ebItamsÄitip¶l'BIkarCMerOn¨bCaCnq~S1960

enA¨beTseyokNamxageCIg. cMeJHeyokNamxagtºèg elak B. Fall

b"ueNöaH .

niyay¨twmEt 3 PaKryEt


39

etInwgmanplviVkF©n'F©rGÃIxÂH -

eyIgKYrecaTsYredayq©l'fa Ð etIdI 20 PaKry«n«pæ¨kLaTSgGs'

330ù009 Kùm2 Ék*dI¨twmEt 60ù000 Kùm2 b"ueNöaH Gacp¶l'Gahar¨Kb' ¨Kan'[dl'mnus§Cag 80 lannak'VnÉeT ?

eqÂIyv^jPÂamfaÐ ¨twmEtsBëf© 40 lannak'b"ueNöaH BiVknwgciJÍwm [

Vnrs'k~¬gPaB¨Kb'¨Kan'eTAehIy cuHdl'eTA 80ù000ù000 etInwgekItCabJúa FMy"agNaeTA ?

etI¨beTseyokNamnwgkÂayeTACa ÇCb"unÈ TI2 k~¬gTÃIbGasIu ÉGalÂWm"ajTÃIbGasIuÉ ? eqÂIy Ð

¡ TI 1 ÉmYyk*¨beTseyokNam nwgB¨gIkkmÂSgÓs§ahkmµnigesd½-

kicÍCaGtibrma e¨bob¨bdUcVneTAnwgCb"unTI 2 k~¬gGasIuPaKGeK~y_ . KMnitenH

¨tèvVnG~ksegûûtkarN_Gn¶rCatinana ykmkKitrYcCamuneTAehIy KWmunkal

bJÍb'sågðameyokNamenHeTAeTot . CaBit¨VkdEmnehIy enHKWv^Fankar ¨b«BNas' . ¨beTseyokNamsmºèreTAedayFnFanEr" elahFatu Efm

TSg¨kbxNëv^T´asaås¶ nigbecÍkeTs ( techniciens, ingénieurs, chercheurs...) ¨bkbedaycMnYne¨cIn¨Kb'¨Kan'

ehIymanfamBleTotpg

bUkrYmnwgp§ark~¬g

GnaKtd*FMeFg (Cag 80 lannak'), nwgGackÂayeTABit¨Vkd CamhaGMNac Ós§ahkmµy"agsMxan'k~¬gBiPBelakeyIgxagmuxenH

.

kalebIeyokNam

kÂayeTACaÓs§ahkmµehIy ¨beTsenHGaclk'ecjeTAbreTs nUvplitpl Ós§ahkmµ edImIºGacTijcUlmkv^jnUvplitplksikmµ edImIºkar¨tèvkarxag

cMNIGaharenAk~¬g¨beTs . KWTal'EteFÃIy"agh~wg eTIbbN¶aCn¨beTsenHGac rs'enAVn

edayecos[putGMBIbJúasgðm

lkÅN:sµ¬KsµajeLIg .

nigneyaVyEdlnwgritEtman


40 cUreyIgnwkKitdl'¨beTsCb"un

Edlk~¬gbcͬbºn~kalenH

man«pæ¨kLa

¨bhak'¨bEhlnigeyokNamEdr ( 370ù000Kùm2 ) ehIymanmnus§rs'enA cMnYnCag 100 lannak'eTAehIy . sÄanPaB«n¨beTsenH BMuxusBI¨beTs eyokNamb"unµaneLIy Ð k~¬gdI 370ù000Kùm2 dI¨twmEt 16 PaKryb"ueNöaH

EdleKGacdSdMNS ehIyrs'enAVn . e¨kABIenH KWsuTìswgEtP~Me¨CaH¨Clg ¨kMfµBuMGac[mnus§rs'VneLIy . kalBIrvagq~S 1930 Cb"unVnsðal'nUv kMeNIn¨bCaCnmYyy"agelOn ehIyedImIºnwgedaH¨saybJúaxÃHdIFÂIenH Cb"un VnGnuvt¶nUvneyaVyB¨gIkTwkdIniym

eyaFaniymQÂanJnvaydeNI¶m

EdndIBI¨beTscin, ¨beTskUer" .l. b"uEn¶neyaVyenHVn¨tèvTTYlbraC&y e¨kaysågðamelakelIkTI 2 Cae¨scrYceTAehIy . ehtuenHehIy VnCa

Cb"unt¨mg'neyaVyrbs'xÂçnmkv^j rhUtdl'kÂayeTACamhaGMNacesd½kicÍ TI 3 k~¬gBiPBelak ( 3

ème

(sUevot) .

puissance économique modiale ) e¨kay sùsùs

dUceyIgeXIj¨sab'ehIy lkÅN:TwkdI nigPUmisaås¶eyokNam nig

Cb"unmansPaB¨bhak'¨bEhlK~a . dUec~H¨bEhlCaKµankmÂSgGÃIGacmkrarSg

min[¨beTseyokNamkÂayeTACamha¨beTsesd½kicÍVneLIy, ehIyp§ar d*sMxan'«nesd½kicÍÓs§ahkmµenH KWEdndIGasuIEb"kGeK~y_Etm¶g .l. ebI¨bsiny"agenHEmnenaH

dMNM

nwgminGaceKcputVneLIg

¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIgnwg¨tèvTTYlrge¨KaHCa

GMBIkmÂSgeyokNamenH

e¨JHkarv^vt¶n_va

¨tèvEty"agdUec~aH ! cMeJHeyIg ebIesd½kicÍenAEteGanfy eyIgnwgkÂayeTACa

p§aresd½kicÍyYnEtm¶g. enHehIyCaTid½PaBfµémYyeTot«nlTìiGaNaniKmniym

sm&yfµé EdlmanPaBsahav minxusBIGaNaniKmniymneyaVy ÉTwkdI enaHesaHeLIy.

enHk*rebobm´"agEdlnwgnS¨beTseyIg[eFÃIdMeNIreqõaHeTA

rkkarVt'bg'äkraC´pgEdr .

Etk~¬gry:evlasBëf©enHk*edaycuH

k*KYrEteyIg¨BYyVrm¸Tuk[ehIy

e¨JH¨Kan'EteyokNamxagtºègb"ueNöaH eKbJØènnis§iteKeTAbreTsk~¬g mYy

q~Srab'Jn'

(1)

nak' [eTAsik§aÓt¶mv^CØaenAGWr"ubÉGaemrik. äeyokNamxageCIg

(1) eyageTAtamesovePAelak B. Fall, <Les deux Vietnam>, Payot, 1967, Paris, TMB&r ( 361 )


41 v^j nis§itbecÍkeTs v^sÃkrrab'Jn'nak'¨tèvbJØèneTAeronenAshPaBsUev¿tÉ

GWru"bEb"kxagekItnigenA¨beTscin .l. TSg¨kum@ Etm¶g. luHdl'sågðamcb' PÂam

¨beTskumµ¬ynis¶TSgLay

ksikmµ

¨beTsenHeLIgv^j

.

rgcSEtCYyksagesd½kicÍ,

Ós§ahkmµ,

karCYyenHCakatBÃkicÍsMxan'Nas'

e¨JH

¨beTskumµ¬ynis¶TSgLay rEmgEtgmanesck¶IsamKðIK~ay"agC^tsi~Tìk~¬gKMnit Gn¶rCatiniym¨bCaBlkr ( dans l'intérêt de l'internationalisme prolétarien ) . m´"ageTot

sågðamenAeyokNamxagtºèg

minTan'cb'e¨scVc'pg

¨sab'EtmUlFnbreTs manCb"unedImeK rYcmkhugkug Gaemrik swgðburI cUl mkeFÃIv^nieyaK ( investissements ) TMrSsågðamcb'eTA

y"agK¨KwkKe¨Kgk~¬g¨beTsenHeTAehIy cuH

etImUlFnbreTsnwghUrcUlmky"agNaeToteTA

?

cuH

cMENkGaemrikSgv^j ¨VkdCaminEmncakecjBI¨beTseyokNam edayTuk

[¨beTsenHVk'EbkexæcxæIy"agdUec~HeT, ebIBuMenaHesat sùrùGaù enHnwg¨tèv Gamasmuxy"agGaeNacGaFmµ cMeJHmtisaFarNCnBiPBelak . Gaemrik ¨tèvEtlublagkiti¶ysrbs'xÂçn

.

k~¬gq~S

1969

knÂgeTAehIyenHsPa

GaemrikSgVnTSge¨Kagfv^kacMnYn 2ù000ù000ù000 dulÂar ( KW¨tèvCa¨Vk' erolCag 100 ekadi ) sMrab'sÄabna¨beTseyokNameLIgv^j .

ehtudUcxagelIenHehIy VnCamtiG~ksegûtkarNGn¶rCatixÂHVnTay

fa Ð karrYbrYmK~aeLIgv^j«n¨beTseyokNam Camhn¶ray²tGÃI¨bdUcVn cMeJHP&BÃ vasna«nmatu¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg . ebI¨bsinCay"agenHEmn

etIeyIgnwgGacmanGÃIGacTb'Tl'rMgab'kmÂSg

esd½kicÍyYn kuM[vacUlmkelbesd½kicÍeyIgVneT ? ebIminVneTenaH, etI

rvag 30 q~SeTot eyIgnwgKg'vg§Cév^tbn¶eTAeTotVnÉeT ? cMeJHkmõ¬CaeyIg

maKáamanEtmYyKt' s¨mab'karedaH¨say[VnKg'

vg§Cév^t . maKáaenaH KWkarB¨gIkkmÂSgesd½kicÍeyIg[VnelOnqab'rh&sTan'kal

sm&y E¨kgGacrMgab'VnxÂHnUvkmÂSgesd½kicÍyYnenH . karbgíg'[yWtya"vteTAeTot

KWCaGMeBIGt¶Xatkmµ

KWCakMhusFMNas'cMeJH¨bvti¶saås¶

rbs'matuPUmiCaTIes~ha«n

eyIgral'K~a . ¨bvti¶saås¶manEP~k . ¨bvti¶saås¶nwgdak'eTasmkelIeyIgral'K~aEdl eFÃs¨bEhsk~¬gbJúaenH .


42 TI 2 - ÉmYyk*¨beTseyokNam nwgGnuvt¶neyaVybnÄycMnYnekµgkuM

[ekIte¨cIneBk ( limiter les naissances ) karenHGacnwgse¨mcVn k*e¨sceTA elIkaryl'eXIj«nG~kneyaVyyYnk~¬gGnaKtEtb"ueNöaH

.

ebITukNaCa

neyaVyCayfaehtuEbbenH Gnuvt¶eTA¨bkbedayeCaKC&yk¶I, k*cMnYnbN¶a CnenAe¨cInCadrab. ¨beTseyokNamenAEtB¨gIkkmÂSgesd½kicÍ Ós§ahkmµ dEdl e¨JHenHCakatBÃkicÍxanBuMVn . ehtudUec~aH e¨KaHf~ak'enAEtmanlkÅN:

F©n'F©rdEdl mkelIvasna«nkmõ¬CaeyIgeTAGnaKt .

TI 3 - Et¨bsinCapæ¬yeTAv^j kmÂSgesd½kicÍrd½eyokNamBuMVnlUtlas'[

¨Kb'¨Kan'eTenaH ehIyneyaVybnÄykMeNItkUnekµg k*BuM¨tèvVnGnuvt¶eTot

enHmhn¶rayrwtEtmanTMhMKuNBIrdgùùù db'dg .l. xÂSgNas'eTAeTot mk elIGnaKt¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg .

ehtudUcem¶cVnCakarenHvaeTACay"agdUec~aHv^j ?

ÇsågðamÈ nwg ÇGacÈ pæ¬HeLIgrvagExµrnigyYn BiVknwgecosvagVn

e¨JHbN¶aCnyYnkan'EtekIneLIgCalMdab'lMeday 50 60 70 80 90 lan

nak'k~¬g30q~SeTot. äFnFanxagesd½kicÍ nigxagksikmµenAdEdlÉlUtlas' yWteBk CaehtuBuMGacnwgGnuJïat¶[ciJÍwmmnus§Vnk~¬gPaB¨Kb'¨Kan'eLIy .

karenHnwgbegûIt[manv^bti¶pÂèvsgðm rYcv^bti¶pÂèvneyaVy bgûbegûéteLIg

edayesck¶Iminsbºaycit¶ ÉPaB¨kevTnarbs'CnCatiyYnenaHäg. eBlenaH ehIy

nwgmanG~kneyaVyyYnxÂH

Vietnamiens Ultra-nationalistes )

EdlCaG~kCatiniymhYsehtu

(

Les

bgûbegûét[man¨Tws¶IB¨gékTwkdIniym tam

rebobGalÂWm"ajC÷nan' hIuEtÂr ( Hitler ) TamTarnUvTwkdImYyEdleKnwgsnµtfa

¨Kb'¨Kan' s¨mab'karrs'enArbs'¨bCaCneK ( une nouvelle théorie de l'Espace Vital ) . ehIyEdndIEdleK¨tèvkarenaH KWmanEtkmõ¬Ca-lav Éesom(?) Et b"ueNöaH . edImIºnwgse¨mcnUvKe¨magkarenHVn neyaVyQÂanJnbgûerOg ehtu [ekIteTACasågðam²Nëècin ÇTI 3È(?) eKBuMgaynwgecosvagVneLIy. ggwt

ebIy"agenHEmn

enAäeCIgemX«nGnaKtEdndI²NëècinnwgmanBBkexµA

mkbiTVMgesck¶Isgwômrbs'eyIgrlt'esaHsUn´

eNacGaFmµ«¨keBk.

KYr[¨seNaHGa


43 ¨bsinebIneyaVyB¨gIkTwkdIniym edImIºrs'enH¨tèvGnuvt¶EmnenaH Edn

dIeyIg

bN¶aCneyIgnwg¨tèveKelbbn¶icm¶g@

ehIyTIbMputnwgrlayrUbVt'

eQµaHecjBIEpnTI«nBiPBelak dUc¨bvti¶saås¶«nraCaNac¨kcmº"a ÉEdndI kmõ¬Cae¨kam²tebI¨bEkkVneLIy .

KWeBlenHägehIy Edl¨bvti¶saås¶nwgEcgGMBI Ç dMeNIreqõaHeTATisxag

lic È «n¨bCaCatieyokNam e¨kamsnæ¬H«nkMeNItCaGtibrma«nbN¶aCnmYy EdlXÂScS{kas¨bl&yCév^teyIg Gs'ry:kale¨cInstvt§mkehIy .

rYmesck¶I Ð EdndI²NëècinCaEdndImYyEdl xÃHesÄrPaBCanirn¶r_ . enAelI

EdndIenH ¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIgk~¬gGnaKtkalxagmuxenH nwg¨tèvqÂgkat'nUve¨KaH

f~ak'd*FMeFge¨cInEbby"ag dUcCakarKMramkMEhgdl'karKg'vg§Cév^t ( la survie )

«n¨bCaCatieyIgeTotpg . ebITukCakarv^vt¶n_enA¨beTseyokNameTACay"ag Nak*eday, mhn¶ray¨Kb'EbbenAcSXÂSCév^teyIg¨Kb'C÷han . eBlevlaedIr elOneTAmuxq©ayeTA@ mhn¶rayk*elcrUbragkan'EtFMcºas'eLIg@ CalMdab' . KWmanEtneyaVy

B¨gIkkmÂSgesd½kicÍCati[Vnqab'rh&sb"ueNöaHeT

EdlGac[eyIgmanmeF´aVyTb'Tl'nwgyfaehtu¨Kb'Ebby"agVn

.

Et

enHKW¨Kan'EtCaniekÅbbT ( des thèses ) Ca¨Tws¶IÉmti ( l'opinion ) rbs'mnus§m~ak'

Etb"ueNöaH dUec~HBuMTan'cat'TukCa¨twm¨tèvVnkareBjeljenAeLIyeT . äkar

BitsÄitenAelI¨bvti¶saås¶k~¬gGnaKtkaläenaHv^jeT EdlGacv^nicÏ&yVnùùù.

k*bu"En¶ eyIgminEmnmanEt ÇyYnÈ eTEdlXÂScS¨bl&y enAäTisxag

lic ÇesomÈ k*cSEt{kaslínwg ǨkejcÈ EdndIeyIgdUcK~aEdr .

X X

X


44

¨beTsesomnwgmanbN¶aCn 70 lannak' enABIxageCIg nig xaglic¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg bN¶aCn¨beTsmYyeTotnwgGac kÂayeTACaTm©n'd*F©n'mYyfµéeTotsgût'mkelIEdndIeyIg ù ù ù . kalebIeyIgVnelIkbJúayYnmkBicarNa

CatieyIgrYcehIy

Bn´l'bMPÂWdl'smºCJï:

eyIgBuMGacbMePÂcVnesaHeLIyfa

yayImatu¨beTsExµreyIg

e¨KaHf~ak'EdlnwgGac

minEmnFÂab'manEtmkGMBITisxagekItnigxagtºèg

b"ueNöaHeLIy, enHKW Çs¨tèvÈ cuge¨kayrbs'eyIg EdlVnelbrYcmkehIy

nUvEdndIeyIg Edlman«pæ¨kLaCag 60ù000 Kùm2 esµInwg¨kLa«pæ¨beTs GuI¨saEGlbIdg. eyIgenAmanG~kC^txagrbs'eyIgmYyeTot EdlCaÇs¨tèvÈ cas'BIbrmbUraN

ehIyEdlVn¨tVk'elbCae¨cInstvt§r_mkehIy

nUv

GaNaEx¨trbs'eyIgy"age¨cInGenk Ð Çs¨tèvÈ enH, EdleyIgminTan'Gac bMePÂcVnfa munq~S 1907 VnmkvatTItSgenAelI 1/3 «nEdndIeyIgsBëf© enH ehIyEdlkalBIq~S 1941 dl' 1945 VnmkcºSgdeN¶Imtamv^FIkmÂSg

VynUvEx¨tesomrab, kMBg'FM, Vt'dMbgCasafµIeTot KW¨beTsesom É «fLgð enHäg .

ebIenAk~¬gBg§avtaExµreyIg CnCatiyYn CaCnCati¨bkbedaye¨KaHf~ak'

y"agCak'Es¶gcMeJHeyIgy"agNa

CnCatiesomk*CaG~kC^txag¨bkbeday

e¨KaHf~ak'EdlmansPaBsahavmincaj'K~ay"agenaHEdr .

dUec~HehIy, karEdleyIgcab'GarmµNe_ TAelIe¨KaHf~ak'TSgBIrenH¨BmK~a

CameF´aVyEtmYy

Gac[eyIg¨buge¨bobeCIgkarN_TukCamun[ehIy

enH

¨VkdCa Ót¶mKtid*¨besIr v^essv^sal«¨kElgNas'eTAehIy ¨bvti¶saås¶

BIGtItkalfµé@ enHCaemeron¨sab', karEdl Ç cS[TwkeLIgdl'¨cmuH È sim

¨bevr¨bvarkTIC¨mk

nwgkÂayeTACaesck¶Iep¶ém«nkarliclg'

Gs'sgwômminxaneLIy . X X

X

ÉTIbMput«nPaB


45

etIbN¶aCnesomGacnwgman²TìiBl GÃIeTAelIGnaKt«nEdndIrbs'eyIg

cemÂIyk~¬gPaB¨twm¨tèvmYyryPaKry tbeTAsMNYrenHv^j, KµanCnNa

mYyGaceFÃIVneLIy EteKGaceFÃIesck¶Isn~id½ank~¬gPaB¨bhak'¨bEhl man EbbEpnCaniekÅbbT ( des thèses ) VnxÂH@ .

tamäksarsresredayelak LalUEbßr ( La Loubère ) k~¬grvagq~S

1693 bN¶aCnesomman¨twmEt 1ù900ù000 nak'Etb"ueNöaH . CagmYyst-

vt§r_knÂgmkeTot KWk~¬gKùsù1841, bN¶aCnenHekIndl'eTA 5ù200ù000nak' (enAry:eBl¨bEhlK~aenaH ExµreyIgman¨bEhl 800ù000 nak'). rYcehIy bN¶aCnenHk*ekIncMnYneTACa 8ù200ù000 nak'naq~S 1910, rYc 14ù500ù000

nak'naq~S 1937, rYc 22ù800ù000 nak'naq~S 1956 . ¨Kan'Etk~¬gq~S 1965

Etb"ueNöaH bN¶aCnenHekIndl'eTA 30 lannak'e¨sceTAehIy . tamkarKn' KUrtamrebobv^T´asaås¶ dl'q~S 1975 xagmuxenHnwgeLIgdl'40lannak'

(1)

.

dUcCaeyIgVneXIjenH¨sab' bN¶aCnesomekInelOnrh&sCaBn'eBk

ehIyCaBiesseTAeTot KWcab'tSgBIe¨kaysågðamelakelIkTIBIrmk . kMeNInd*elOnenH

k~¬gmYyq~S@

bN¶almkGMBIkarcuHfyCae¨cIn«ncMnYnmnus§sÂab'

ehIypæ¬yeTAv^j cMnYnmnus§ekItkan'Etmansnæ¬Helº¯neTAmux

²tQb'QresaH . munq~S 1950 eKVncat'Tuk¨beTs«fLgðenH Ca¨bCaCati Edlsmºèrsbºayrs'k~¬gesck¶I

Çs©b's©at'È

KµanbJúaecaTesaHeLIy

.

²LèvenH, Gs'ehIyPaBsmºèrsbºay Gs'ehIyPaB Çs©b's©at'È bJúad* e¨cInEsnkMBugEtecaTeLIg

qab'«nbN¶aCnesomenHäg

KWbuBÃehtu«nbJúaenH

KWbN¶almkGMBIkMeNInd*

¨BmTSgkarv^vt¶n_«nsÄanPaBneyaVyGn¶rCati

k~¬gPUmiPaKGasIuEb"GeK~y_enHmkbUkbEnÄmeTot .

(1) eyageTAtamesovePA <l'Evolution de la Thailande contemporaine> Cahier de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences, Politiques, P. Fistié, Paris, 1967, et " la Thailande", Q.S.J., P.U.F., Paris, 1963.


46

¨beTs«fLgð Ð 70ù000ù000 dl'q~S 2000 ! ebItamsiÄtiEdl¨tèvVneKse¨mceLIg

G¨ta«nkMeNInbN¶aCnesomeLIgdl'eTA

2,6% Etb"ueNöaH .

ehtudUec~HehIy

tamEbbbTv^T´asaås¶

3,00%(1)

kMrit

äExµreyIgman¨twmEt

ebI¨bsinCaKµan¨Bwti¶karN_äNamkrMxandl'karv^vt¶n_

enHeT ¨beTsesomnwgGacmanmnus§dl'C^teTA 70 lannak' naedImstvt§ TI 21 xagmuxenH ( äkMeNInbN¶aCnExµreyIgnwgeLIgdl' 15 lannak'Et b"ueNöaH ) .

ehtuEdlbN¶aCnesomenH ekInk~¬g 30 q~SxagmuxenHdl'eTA 70 lan

nak'enH minEmnCakarmYyKYr[eyIgenAes©¿m¨Begéyken¶IyesaHeLIy. EdndI

²Nëècin

nwgkÂayeTACaEdndIEdlmanbN¶aCne¨cInhYsmaD

(

Une

région

surpeuplée ) . ¨Kan'EtesomnigyYnbUkbJÍèlK~aekIndl'eTACag 150 lannak' eyIgEdlman¨twmEt 15 lan KW 1 ¨bqSgnwg 10 nwgmanmeF´aVy¨Kb'¨Kan' GacttSgnwg ( s¨tèv ) eyIgVneT, ebIeKrYmK~aCaF¬gmYyehIyGnuvt¶nUvbMNg

Ga¨kk'mkelI¨beTseyIg . ¨beTseyIgKWCaEdndImYyEdlman sÄanPaBPUmi saås¶neyaVy ( Une position géo-politique centrale ) enAkN¶aleK, ehIyEdl eK ( ¨bsinebIeK¨tèvr"UvK~a ) ekobsgût'BI¨Kb'TisTIVnedaygay . ebIeyIgnwg erIsykÓTahrN_k~¬gelakenHmkBn´l'Vn

KWsÄanPaBPUmisaås¶¨beTs

b"ULèj enHEtm¶g . cUreyIgemIlcuH ¨beTsb"ULèjenH, CYnkal¨tèvVt'bg'Edn

dI, Vt'eQµaHBIEpnTI«nBiPBelak, CYnkaleTot ¨beTsGalÂWm"ajBIxaglic

nig¨beTsrusI§BIxagekIt¨suH¨sYlK~a ÇEhkEdndIEckK~aÈ dUckalBIsm&y

sågðamelakelIkTI 2 enH¨sab' .l.

dUec~HehIy, k~¬gGnaKtkalenH bJúaFMEdlecaTmkelI²Nëècin KWbJúacegí¿tcgíl'

«nEdndI EdlbN¶almkBIbN¶aCne¨cInhYsmaDenHägCa¨Vkd .

(1) eyageTAtamesovePA : <L'Evolution de la Thailande Contemporaine> dEdlnig <L'Economie de l'Asie du Sud Est> Lè Thanh Khoi, P.U.F. Paris, 1964.


47

plviVk bN¶almkGMBIkMeNIn bN¶aCnk~¬g¨beTsesom

etIrd½aPiVlesomnwgedaH¨sayEbbNa

CnenH ?

cMeJHbJúakMeNIncMnYnbN¶a

¨Kan'Etk~¬gsBëf©enH EdlbN¶aCnminTan'TSgekIndl' 40 lannak'pg

enaH VnbegûIn[mankar¨BçyVrm¸mYyy"agFMeFgk~¬gcMeNamG~kdwknSesom.

naq~S 1957-58, tamesck¶IsuMBIrd½aPiVlesom ebskkmµmYy«n FnaKar BiPBelak ( la B.I.R.D. ) VnmkeFÃIkarsik§anigesck¶IraykarN_mYy GMBI

sÄanPaBesd½kicÍesom . eyabl'rYm«nesck¶IraykarN_enH Vnbgúaj[ eXIjnUvkgÃHxat nig PaBx§t'ex§ayCae¨cIncMeJHGnaKtesd½kicÍesom . pæ¬yeTAv^j,

karB¨gékFnFanesd½kicÍ

KWbegûénplitplksikmµnig

Ós§ahkmµCakarcSVc' edImIºedaH¨saybJúakMeNInbN¶aCnenH, edImIºrk§akuM [kMritCévPaB«n¨bCaraås¶FÂak'cuHCalMdab' rhUtdl'PaBevTna¨kx§t' xÃHcMNI GaharbriePaK .

sm&ybcͬbºn~enH FnFanesd½kicÍxÂH@ EdlBImunGac¨tèveKnSecjeTA

breTsVn

k*kan'EtmancMnYneGanfyCalMdab'

maneQI«m"sak',

V"hSg, ekAsUß, ehIyBiesseTAeTot KWGgûrenHEtm¶g . ehtudUec~HehIy

VnCakarB¨gIkesd½kicÍ[VnelOnqab'rh&s

kÂayeTACaGaTiPaBTImYy «nneyaVyesom . KWk~¬gKMnitenHehIy

Edlrd½aPiVlesomsBëf©enH

sMN, Vn

kMBugEtsÄabna

Ke¨magkarN_FM@ Cae¨cIn mansMNg'TMnb'ClaKðIsnI EdlGac[se¨mcCa mYypg nUvkarVcTwkbJÍèlE¨s

( l'irrigation ) nwgGagGacB¨gIknUv«pædIdS

dMNSfµé@eTot . rIäxagv^s&yÓs§hkmµv^j mUlFnbreTs (les capitaux

étrangers) Cae¨cInVn¨tèveKe¨bI¨Vs'k~¬g¨beTs edImIºse¨mc[mannUvkarcMerIn lUtlas'. k~¬gcMeNammUlFn¨beTsEdleKVneFÃIv^nieyaKk~¬g¨beTsenH KW

manmUlFnCb"une¨cInCageK, bnæab'mkmUlFncintay-va"n' ehIyTI3 KWmUl


48 FnGaemrikSg . k~¬gneyaVyesd½kicÍenH rd½aPiVlVneFÃIkars¨mçl[Ca

Gtibrma dl'karnScUlmk«nmUlFnbreTsTSgenH .

k*b"uEn¶ bJúaEdlsMxan'CageK KWbJúa¨sUvGgûrenHäg . valTMnab«n

TenÂemNam CamhaC¨guk¨sUv«n¨beTsesom . k~¬gkalsBëf©enH «pæ¨kLa dIdSdMNS mancMnYnEt 1/4 Etb"ueNöaH «nvalTMnabTenÂemNam EdlsmºèNá eTAedayClFar . dUec~HbJúa«nkarB¨gékdIdMNSminEmnecaTk~¬glkÅN:F©n'F©r dUcenA¨beTseyokNamenaHeT . EdndIesomEdlman«pæ¨kLaTSgGs'Cag

500ù000 Kùm2 ehIyEdlmYyPaKy"agFMCadITMnab nwgminTan'kÂayeTACadI cegí¿tcgíl'enAeLIyeT k~¬gry:kal 30 É 50 q~SeTAxagmuxenH . ¨beTs enH GacnwgbegûénplitplksikmµVnEfmeTot edImIºGaceqÂIytbeTAnwgesc k¶I¨tèvkarkan'EtFMeLIg@«n¨bCaraås¶ eLIg

nUvrebobGaCévkmµksikmµ

edaysarneyaVyeFÃI[rwtEt¨besIr

mankarVcTwkbJÍèlE¨s

kare¨bICéKImI

É

e¨bIe¨KOgyn¶ksikmµ . KWk~¬gbMNgenHägehIy edayrd½aPiVlesomkMBug EtGnuvt¶Ke¨magkarFM@ Cae¨cIn xagTMnb'Twk Cék¨bLaybJÍèlE¨s tSgBIq~S

1950 mkemÂ"H edaysarC÷nYyBiPBelak . Ke¨magkarenH GacB¨géknUv

«pæ¨kLadIdSd÷NS ¨BmTSgfamBlGKðIsnIeTotpg . ¨bsinebIKe¨magkarB¨gékplitplksikmµ

nigFnFanÓs§ahkmµenH

maneCaKC&yEmn bJúav^bti¶pÂèvsgðmGacnwg¨tèvVnedaH¨say[VnFUr¨sal

xÂH, k*bu"En¶kmÂSgesd½kicÍesom nwgrwtEtmanTMhMFMeLIgCalMdab' Ga¨s&yeTAelI PaBFMeFg«np§ark~¬g¨beTsesomenHCa¨Vkd (BI 65 eTA 70 lannak' dl'

cugstvt§TI 20) . k~¬gkrNIenH karB¨gékkmÂSgesd½kicÍesomenH k*GackÂay eTACae¨KaHf~ak'mYyFMEdr

eTAelIGnaKt¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg

Edlmanp§ark~¬g

¨beTsex§ayenAeLIy . CakarBitEmnehIy kmÂSgesd½kicÍk~¬gtMbn'nimYy@

«nBiPBelak e¨bobVneTAnwgkmÂSgTwkEdlhUrehor BItMbn'mYyxõs'eTAtMbn'

mYyeTotEdlTabCagdUec~HEdr .

ä¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg EdlsÄitenAkN¶al¨beTsTSgBIrenH TukCaeyIg

eFÃIy"agNa @ k¶I k*BuMGacecosputGMBIkarsgût'sgû^nkan'EtF©n'F©reLIgxagpÂèv

esd½kicÍ nigbN¶aCn ( les pressions d'ordre économique et démographique


49 grandissantes ) «n¨beTsTSgsgxagVnrYceLIy edayGa¨s&yeTAelIehtufa

eKBuMGaceFÃI¨BM¨bTl'EdnäNa[biTC^tsUn´QwgVneLIy xagK~a .

rvag¨beTsC^t

etI¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg EdlmanlkÅN:CaEdk¨Tnab'mYytUc Gac¨T¨Tg'

Tb'Tl'nwgjjçrFM@ dl'eTABIrEdlFÂak'mkelIxÂçn¨Bm@ K~aVnÉeT k~¬gGnaKt xagmuxenH ? vaCakarBitNas'eTAehIy, edImIºnwgGac¨TS¨TVn luH¨taEtEdk ¨Tnab'enH ¨tèveKbEnÄm¨sTab'Edk[Vn¨kas'mSCagmuneTIbVn . m´"ageTot

cMeJHkrNIesomenHeTotesat

ebIsinCa¨beTsenHGac

sMercedayeCaKC&yxagkarB¨gékkmÂSgesd½kicÍVn enaHCakar¨besIrehIy .

EtebIpæ¬yeTAv^j, etInwgmankaredaH¨sayäNaeTot ? cºas'CaG~kdwknSesom enHnwgecalEP~kjy@ mkelI EdndId*manCéCati«next¶Vt'dMbg nigvalTMnab«nbwg

TenÂsab EdlsmºèreTAeday¨tIsac' nig¨sUvGgûrminxaneLIy . cuHebIeKXubXitCa mYyCnCatiyYneTot edImIºEbgEckEpndIeyIg, dUcenAstvt§r_TI 19 naq~S

1840 etIeyIgnwgQmmuxTb'Tl'nwgKe¨magkarGkuslenHtamv^FINa ?

X X

X


50

esck¶IbJÍb' TSgGs'enH, KW¨Kan'EtCakarsn~id½an kar¨bDit EdlCalTìpl«n¨VCÆa nwgkaryl'Etb"ueNöaH minTan'manCakarBit«n¨bvti¶saås¶enaHeLIy . Et, etI nrNaeLIyEdlGachßanGHGagfa k~¬gGnaKt, kar¨bDitenHminGackÂayCa dac'xat eTACakarBitk~¬g¨bvti¶saås¶Vn ? ¨bvti¶saås¶Gac[emeronpg min

[emeronpgcMeJHeyIgral'K~a . GnaKtkalKWCarUgggwtmYyEdleKt¨mèv[

eyIgcUleTAk~¬g

eday²t¨bEkkVneLIy

EtebIeyIgdwgmunfarUgenHmanPin

PaKy"agem"c@ xÂHehIy, eyIgk*Gac¨buge¨bobxÂçneyIgVne¨cInEdr edImIºQm

muxnwgyfaehtu¨Kb'y"ag .

ehtudUcVnGFibºayeday¨tçs@

BIxagelIenH

eyIgGacsnµteday

mankarPan'¨cLMCaGbºbrmafa cMeJHGnaKtkal«n¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg, änay

eCégemXäeNaH suTìEt¨bkbeTAedayduMBBkexµA@ e¨cInCaGenk kmÂSg«nkarsgût'sgû^n xagpÂèvesd½kicÍCamYyK~anwgpÂèvbN¶aCn

KMramkMEhgmYyy"agFM²te¨bobpæwmVn

nigpÂèvneyaVyEfmeTotpg

Edl¨beTseyIg¨tèvEtTTYlrge¨KaH

BIsMNak'«nGnaKt¨beTsC^txageyIg . k~¬glkÅn¶ik:EbbenH,

Cakar

maKáaEdleyIg¨tèvedIr

KWeyIg¨tèvmankatBÃkicÍCa

bzm erobcMesd½kicÍCatieyIg[edIrelOnTan'sm&yniym, eFÃIesd½kicÍenH[rIk cMerInCaGtibrma

edImIºGac[mankmÂSg¨Kb'¨Kan'

kmÂSgsgût'sgû^nBIG~kC^txageyIg

Cév^teyIgmanTMhMy"agtUcbMput .

GacQmmuxTb'Tl'Vnnwg

edayeFÃI[karKMramkMEhgdl'karKg'vg§

ebIesd½kicÍmankmÂSg¨Kb'¨Kan'ehIy, neyaVyk*edIrtamesd½kicÍBIe¨kayx~gEdr sm

nwgJk´Edlfa KWesd½kicÍeTEdlnSneyaVy . KMnitTSgGs'enH KW¨Kan'EtCalTìpl«n kar¨tiHriHBicarNas¶çces¶Ig«nmnus§m~ak'Etb"ueNöaH dUcenHBMuTan'manlkÅN:CasakleLIy. ehtudUec~HehIy karPan'¨cLMmincºas'las'EtgmanCakarFmµta . bMNgrbs'eyIgKW karsaklºgbMPÂWGnaKtkalnigsmºCJï:Etb"ueNöaH .


51

cuH .

¨tg'bJúaB¨gIkesd½kicÍ[VneC¯nelOnenH e¨scEtsmtÄkicÍbecÍkeTs xagEp~kenH ù ù sUm¨beTskmõ¬Ca CamatuPUmiCaTIes~ha Kg'vg§CanicÍù ù ù k~¬gPaBfû¬Mefûég .

kMBg'cam «f©TI 20 mkra 1970

nYn eXOn

vaysaeLIgv^j nigrcnaGk§r¨kb : XunBImU"c

EksMrYlJk´VrSg nigrUbPaBEpnTIfµé : man'¨Bwk

CYyBinit´GkÅrav^ruTìExµr : cinexµA sùrùGaù, 7emsa2008ù

Damneur Chhpous Tov Toeus Khang Lech  

khmer story book

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