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“The Life” Cel ebrat ing t he a r ts, culture, a n d s us t a inabilit y o f t he H awa iia n I s l a n d s For those who love life on Hawai‘i Island

July–August 2015 Iulai–‘Aukake 2015

The Hawaiian Islands, known for their exceptional

natural beauty, have always appealed to those talented enough to represent the world around them in artistic forms. Avi Kiriaty is one of these gifted artists. His depictions of the Hawaiian Islands capture the spirit of the ‘aina as well as the people who live the Aloha spirit.

It is no wonder that his upcoming exhibit at Volcano Art Center’s Gallery is entitled “Kumu Pele” meaning “Pele the teacher.” Avi says that throughout his works made particularly for the show over the last six months or so that Pele has been involved either directly or indirectly in the subject matter and style of the art.

Avi Kiriaty: Capturing the Spirit of Aloha Avi Kiriaty was born in Israel, the son of a dabbling artist, and spent his youth as a keen observer of nature and people. He met his wife on a kibbutz and soon after moved to New Hampshire where they had their first child, Keytoe. The budding Kiriaty family decided to move to the South Pacific in search of a warm, peaceful place amid nature. The original plan included Hawai’i as one stop along the way, but upon arrival they couldn’t resist the beauty they experienced and decided to stay. The first year was spent on Kauai, where Avi experimented for a time with oil painting. From there he moved to the Hamakua side of Hawai’i Island, to begin to live “kama‘aina” with the land, farming and fishing. His son, Jazz, was born there on an old Hawaiian homestead. Avi then moved to the Puna rain forest and began to live the life of an “artist.” His first works were sold at the Hilo Farmer’s Market, where his wife had been selling tie-dyed t-shirts. It was no surprise, Avi’s works were an immediate success. Since that time Avi has continued to capture the Hawai’ian landscape and his observations of its people in joyful paintings and prints.

VAC’s Gallery Manager, Emily C. Weiss said of the exhibit, “VAC Gallery is pleased to showcase Avi’s recent works, which honor our host culture, representing the beauty of both Hawaii’s landscapes and people.” Weiss summed it up best saying, “Our audience and collectors have missed viewing his original works since the Kiriaty’s closed their Hilo studio, which was always a visual treat to experience. We hope everyone here on Hawai’i Island and art enthusiasts everywhere will not miss this unique opportunity to support Avi and his works by visiting this exhibition.” VAC is also very excited to have Avi at the exhibit’s opening reception on July 18 at 5pm. “Kumu Pele” is an exhibition of original paintings and prints and will be on display daily, from 9am—5pm from July 18—Aug. 23, 2015 at Volcano Art Center Gallery in Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park. The exhibit is open to the public and free of charge; park entrance fees apply. Visit

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“The Life” Celebrating the a r ts, culture, a nd susta inabilit y of the Ha wa iia n Isla nd s

July–August 2015 Iulai–‘Aukake 2015

Art 53 Mele Murals Local monuments and a source of community pride By Fannie Narte

Business 65 Managing with Aloha: Mālama By Rosa Say 84 Celebrating a Long-Time Advertiser with Ke Ola Showcase Gallery and Beads

Culture 12 Pu‘ukoholā A prophecy fulfilled, past conflicts still healing By Karen Valentine 39 Cultivators By Ku‘ulei Keakealani

Health 41 Healing Plants: ‘Ākia Stupefies fish, not humans By Barbara Fahs

Home 43 Sun Power Deciding if solar panels are right for your home By Paula Thomas

Land 33 Wai‘ōpae Tidepools in Puna Unique ecosystem under siege By Denise Laitinen 75 The IncrEdible Coconut By Sonia R. Martinez

Rare aerial view of Pu‘ukoholā Heiau 4

Find yourself here.

Music 67 Becoming Mele‘uhane Spirit of Song By Le‘a Gleason

Ocean 63 Worldwide Voyage Celebrating 40 years of the Hōkūle‘a

19 Ambassador of Aloha Michelle Kaulumāhiehie Amaral By Gayle Kaleilehua Greco

25 Preserving a Community Kona Historical Society By Le‘a Gleason

46 The Shining Aloha Spirit of Uncle Donna Kuali‘i By Karen Valentine


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Puna Culinary Festival

NOV 8-15

Hawaii Yoga Festival

NOV 15-28

Permaculture Design Course

Spirit 11 Ha‘a ka Wahine By Kumu Keala Ching

Ka Puana -- Refrain 86 No Mākou Ka Mana Liberating the Nation By Kamanamaikalani Beamer


Featured Cover Artist: Bonnie Sol Crossword Puzzle Island Treasures Farmersʻ Markets Hawai‘i Island Happenings Community Kōkua–Volunteer Opportunities Talk Story with an Advertiser

Back issues of Ke Ola available for purchase.

July/August 2015

61 71 72 74 76 78 80

With generous support from: The County of Hawai‘i and


Advertiser Index

Mahalo to our advertisers! By recognizing the value of Ke Ola for their marketing, they enable us to perpetuate and immortalize these important stories that deserve to be shared. Please visit them (in person, online, or by phone) and thank them for providing you this copy. Without them, Ke Ola magazine would not exist.

ACCOMODATIONS Dragonfly Ranch Healing Arts Center and B & B 68 Kalani 5 Kīlauea Lodge 80 ACTIVITIES, CULTURE, EVENTS Aloha Performing Arts Co. Avi Kiriaty Art Exhibition at Volcano Art Center Botanical World Adventures Daniel Sayre Foundation Awards Ceremony Dolphin Journeys FairWind Big Island Ocean Guides Harbor Gallery Summer Wood Show Hawai‘i Volcanoes Helicopter Tours Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park Tours Home Tours Hawaii - Culinary Tours Kilauea Drama & Entertainment Kohala Zipline Kohala Grown Farm Tours Kona Boys Oneness Center Palace Theater

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Ke Ola recognizes the use of the ‘okina [‘] or glottal stop, as one of the eight consonants of (modern) Hawaiian language; and the kahakō [ā] or macron (e.g., in place names of Hawai‘i such as Pāhoa). Ke Ola respects the individual use of these markings for names of organizations and businesses.

July/August 2015


The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness. [Its sustainability depends on doing what is right.] Proclamation by Kona-born King Kamehameha III in 1843. Later adopted as the Hawai‘i state motto.

Publisher, Marketing, Operations Barbara Garcia Bowman, 808.329.1711 x1,

Editor, Art Director

Renée Robinson, 808.329.1711 x2,

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East Hawai‘i: Barbara Garcia, 808.345.2017, West Hawai‘i: Jeff Keith, 808.339.8182,


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Advertising Design

Mary Strong, 808.747.2829, Stephanie Schreiber, 808.315.7182,

Copy Editor

Lindsay Brown


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Fern Gavelek • Keala Ching • Mars Cavers • WavenDean Fernandes

Ke Ola is printed on recycled paper with soy-based inks. Ke Ola is a member of:

Submit online at (go to Contact menu) Community Kōkua volunteer opportunities Editorial inquiries or story ideas Request advertising rates Worldwide Delivery 808.329.1711 x4, order online at, Subscribe@KeOlaMagazine, or mail name, address, and payment of $30 US/$48 Canada for one year to: PO Box 492400, Kea‘au, HI 96749. Contact us for international rates. Subscriptions and back-issues available online. © 2015, Ke Ola Publishing, Inc. All rights reserved

July/August 2015

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Letters and Sightings Ke Ola sightings from the Editor Even though I’ve lived in Kailua-Kona almost eight years, this year was my first time to witness the lei-draping ceremony at the King Kamehameha I statue in Kapa‘au, What a special event! After the parade, I walked to Kamehameha Park to enjoy the Ho‘olaule‘a (music and art festival). In the back corner of the gym, I was surprised, and pleased, to see the display of the Royal Order of Kamehameha I, Moku O Kohala. Philibert “Ski” Kiatkowski shared how the story in the Jul–Aug 2014 issue of Ke Ola is so helpful in explaining the Royal Order of Kamehameha.

Ski sharing with Denise Laitinen, a writer for Ke Ola magazine

I came home from the Kamehameha Day celebration to find an email from a gentleman in Seattle saying he enjoyed reading Ke Ola magazine yesterday in Yakima, WA. Long story short, his uncle by marriage is my uncle from my birth family (I was adopted at nine days old). I love that I can have Ke Ola mailed to my Aunt and Uncle in Washington state. Who knew it would help me find new relatives? Ke Ola (the life) is true to its name.

Aloha from the Publisher As I write this letter on June 11, 2015, celebrations are occuring statewide on this significant holiday which honors the birth of King Kamehameha I. On Hawai‘i Island, the location of the Kings’ birthplace and death, we have three annual celebrations in Hilo, Kailua-Kona, and North Kohala. It is inspiring to live in a place that is so connected to its history and culture. It is an honor for us at Ke Ola to be able to share the stories that perpetuate this culture. Although most of us are malihini (newcomers to the island), we have the utmost respect for it and its people. Ke Ola was created so we could share these inspiring stories which we feel need to be documented into perpetuity, on both paper and online at our website. In this issue, you will learn about Pu‘ukoholā, Hawai‘i’s first seat of government for the united Hawaiian Kingdom under Kamehameha I. Its history is fascinating. Other wonderful stories include hula dancer Kaulu Amaral, the Kona Historical Society, saving the tidepools in Puna, Uncle Donna Kuali‘i, the first in a series on the Mele Murals, Keikilani Lindsey plus all our other regular features. This issue makes great summer reading! Enjoy, and please interact with us on our Facebook and Instagram pages, where we post events and other things happening on this exciting and constantly changing island. Aloha pumehana, Barbara Garcia, Publisher

Mahalo, Renée Robinson, Editor

From Our Readers

✿ Aloha Renée, I want to thank you personally for representing my project [Keau‘ohana Native Rainforest, p51of the May–Jun 2015 issue] so eloquently in your beautiful Ke Ola magazine. There is only one important detail that was omitted somehow, and I am writing to request if it may be possible to offer this correction in the next edition. I believe it is important to mention that the nonprofit organization hosting my project is ‘Malama O Puna’. I’m so sorry I did not pick up this omission in a timely manner. Mahalo, Jaya C. Dupuis Hawai‘i Island

July/August 2015

Pu‘ukoholā Heiau by Bonnie Sol See her story, page 61


Ha‘a Ka Wahine | Na Kumu Keala Ching

‘Ae, Ha‘a ka wahine Ha‘a ka wahine i kai o Nanahuki I kai o Ha‘ena Puna ka wahine Hōpoe leilehua, Poli o Hi‘iaka

Woman of the dance At Nanahuki, a woman dances There Ha‘ena, a woman of Puna Precious Hōpoe, a lei of Hi‘iaka

Hula le‘a ka wahine Kapo Laka ē

Hōpoe of Kapo Laka

I Ha‘ena la, kahi kapu ka wahine

At Ha‘ena, indeed a sacred woman

Noho mehameha i kai o Hōpoe

Alone at the shoreline is Hōpoe

Kahe ‘ula ‘ena‘ena mai Kilau‘ea

From Kilau‘ea, a radiant flow arrives

Huki wale ‘o Pele i ka lehua i kai ē Hū a‘ela ka lehua ‘ena‘ena ala Ho‘olewa i kai, ha‘a o Hōpoe He aloha ko Hi‘iaka, pili ka wahine I Puna leilehua pulu i ka ‘āina ē Puana ‘ia mai ha‘a ka wahine I kai o Ha‘ena Puna ka wahine Hōpoe leilehua, Poli o Hi‘iaka I Puna leilehua pulu i ka ‘āina ē He mele nō Hōpoe, ha‘a ka wahine

Pele, destroying the lehua groves Lehua is turned into stone Upon the sea, Hōpoe dances Indeed loved by Hi‘iaka In Puna, tears upon the land It is shared, a woman dances There Ha‘ena, a woman of Puna Precious Hōpoe, a lei of Hi‘aka

Eō mai nā wahine o ka hula, ‘o Hōpoe ke kumu hula o kēia mokupuni o Hawai‘i. I Puna ala kahi i noho ai ‘o Hōpoe me Ha‘ena ā na lāua nō ke hoa aloha iā Hi‘iakaikapolioPele. Ma kai o Nanahuki, na Hi‘iakaikapolioPele i a‘o i ka hula me ia mau wahine ‘elua. I ka ha‘alele ‘ana ‘o Hi‘iakaikapolioPele i Kaua‘i, na Pele i mālama ia mau wahine ‘elua me nā lehua i Puna ala. I ka ho‘i lohi ‘ana ‘o Hi‘iakaikapolioPele, ua pau ‘o Hōpoe lāua ‘o Ha‘ena iā Pele i Puna. He aloha pili i waena o ia mau wahine ‘ekolu; ‘o Hōpoe ‘oe, ‘o Ha‘ena ‘oe a ‘o Hi‘iakaikapolioPele ‘oe. He aloha nō! Honor to the women of the hula, Hōpoe the teacher of hula from the island of Hawai‘i. In the district of Puna resides Hōpoe and Ha‘ena, dear friends of Hi‘iakaikapolioPele. On the shores of Nanahuki, Hi‘iakaikapolioPele learned the hula with these gracious women. When Hi‘iakaikapolioPele journeyed to Kaua‘i, Pele promised to care for these women (Hōpoe and Ha‘ena) and the lehua groves of Puna. Because of Hi‘iakaikapolioPele’s extended journey, Hōpoe and Ha‘ena were turned into stone by Pele in Puna. Hōpoe, Ha‘ena and Hi‘iakaikapolioPele loved each other so dearly! Indeed Love….

In Puna, tears upon the land

Hula is healing nurtured by the love of the elements, the love of sacred places and the love for each other.

A song of Hōpoe, a woman dances

Contact writer Kumu Keala Ching:

July/August 2015






A prophecy fulfilled, past conflicts still healing

| By Karen Valentine


o the casual observer, Pu‘ukoholā Heiau appears to be a massive stone structure perched on a hill, facing the sea and surrounded by desolate country. Located just south of Kawaihae Harbor on the northwest side of Hawai‘i Island, it is that and more. To the Hawaiians and a group of cultural practitioners, Nā Papa Kanaka o Pu‘ukoholā Heiau, it is a living, sacred temple honoring the unification of the Hawaiian Islands by Kamehameha I. Kamehameha I built and consecrated the heiau for that purpose in fulfillment of prophecy. In the spirit of unification and honoring Hawai‘i’s first king, many feel it is worthy of an annual pilgrimage of Hawaiian kanaka (people) from all islands to pule (pray), perform ho‘oku‘ikahi (to create unification) ceremony and make ho‘okupu (offerings). The public is invited to witness this ceremony by some 200 participants each August. The importance of Pu‘ukoholā—now a National Historic Site under the stewardship of the US National Park Service—is increased with the knowledge that it was once a buzzing hub of royal family business and strategic decision-making with comings and goings of significant individuals in Hawai‘i’s history. As much as ‘Iolani Palace in Honolulu was or today’s state capitol building is significant, Pu‘ukoholā was Hawai‘i’s first seat of government for the united Hawaiian Kingdom under Kamehameha I. It is from here that Hawai‘i was brought out of isolation and into the 19th century as a player on the world stage. 12

Upon Pelekane beach, beneath the heiau, was the king’s family compound and headquarters. Sailing ships from faraway lands called at nearby Kawaihae Harbor, the only safe anchorage on this coastline. From Pu‘ukoholā, Kamehameha could observe all who approached, and if necessary, defend his lands. Foreign visitors called upon him to gain his approval, and at least one important foreigner—John Young—became the king’s trusted advisor, ali‘i nui and governor of Hawai‘i Island after having been stranded on the island when his ship left him behind at Kawaihae. The ruins of his home are also adjacent to Pu‘ukoholā and a part of the historical exhibits located here. Sadly, for some people of Hawai‘i Island, Pu‘ukoholā represents painful memories of a chief thought to have been betrayed and made a victim of human sacrifice in order to consecrate the temple for the fulfillment of Kamehameha’s mission. Keōua Kuahu‘ula was cousin to Kamehameha I and ruler of one of the last pieces of land to be conquered. Even after Kamehameha’s occupation of Maui, Moloka‘i, and O‘ahu, the local district of Ka‘ū remained contested and independent under the great warrior chief, Keōua. It was 1790 and Kamehameha was looking for answers. How could he end the wars and unite the islands? In the late 1700s, there were signs that Kamehameha’s destiny was to unite and rule over all the Hawaiian Islands. By 1790, Kamehameha had invaded and conquered Maui, Lana‘i, and Moloka‘i, and yet had difficulty claiming and conquering his home island of Hawai‘i

July/August 2015

Gate at Pu‘ukohalā Heiau with kapu (sacred or forbidden) sticks, signifying no entry is permitted photo by Karen Valentine

because of the opposition of his chief rival and cousin, Keōua Kuahu‘ula. For guidance, Kamehameha sent his aunt to the prophet Kapoukahi. The prophet stated that Kamehameha would unite and rule the islands if he built a large heiau (temple) to his family war god, Kūka‘ilimoku, and it should be placed atop Pu‘ukoholā (Whale Hill). Kamehameha immediately organized the construction of this great heiau, which measures 224 by 100 feet with 16-to-20-foothigh walls—the largest on all the islands. The task was so huge that Kamehameha called in thousands of men to participate. Even chiefs and Kamehameha himself helped with the labor. A human chain 20 miles long was formed from Pololū valley, from which the proper stone was located and passed, hand to hand. The entire structure was built without mortar, and by the summer of 1791 it was complete. The prophet had also instructed that the heiau’s mana (spiritual power) would be great enough to accomplish the prophecy only if a human sacrifice of a very important person were made. Kamehameha’s chief rival, Keōua, became the heiau’s first, yet ultimately not the last, human sacrifice. Keōua, from the Ka‘ū district, had been warring with Kamehameha for nine years, seeking absolute rule over the same lands and people of the island of Hawai‘i. He had made multiple invasions of Kamehameha’s territory, reclaiming land. A lasting peace was not possible while both were living. Keōua, however, had suffered fatal defeats, one being the decimation of his army

July/August 2015

Members of Nā Papa Kanaka o Pu‘ukoholā perform ceremonies each August to honor and reaffirm the unification of the islands under Kamehameha. In this photo, Park Superintendant Daniel Kawaiaea portrays the high chief. photo courtesy National Park Service

by a lava flow, an incident seen by Keōua as displeasure from one of his primary gods, Pele. Keōua also recognized the god Kūka‘ilimoku and realized that tradition dictated that the consecration of the temple newly built to honor this god required a high sacrifice. Upon his invitation by Kamehameha to the consecration, the chief knew that he was to be the sacrifice. The story is told very well in this excerpt from a photographic essay, “Ho‘oku‘ikahi: To Unify As One,” printed in the Winter 2007 edition of Manoa, a literary journal of the University of Hawai‘i Press. “…Kamehameha and the great chiefs labored until the heiau at Pu‘ukoholā was completed. The walls rose up and the paehumu, the kapu enclosure; the ‘anu‘u, the tower; the haku ‘ohi‘a, the 13

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main sacred image; and the hale mana, the largest house of the luakini heiau, were put in place. All that remained to fulfill the prophecy was to consecrate the great heiau.” About Keōua, the story says, “By accepting his fate, he saved his Ka‘ū people from invasion and annihilation. “En route by canoe, Keōua and his escort made their last s top at Kiholo Bay, at a pond called Luahinewai. There, he bathed and performed the ritual ‘umu‘o [a genital mutilation], which made him an imperfect sacrifice. It was a sign that Keōua knew he would die, and it was his final act of defiance toward Kamehameha. “Watching from the hill at Pu‘ukoholā, the forces of Kamehameha and his armies of Kona and Kohala saw Keōua and his men sail into the bay…As the canoes from Ka‘ū approached the landing, Keōua stood and cried out to Kamehameha, ‘Here I am!’ “ ‘Stand up and come forward that we may greet each other,’ was Kamehameha’s reply. “As Keōua stepped ashore, a swift thrust of a spear from Ke‘eaumoku, Kamehameha’s father-in-law, took the Ka‘ū chief’s life. All those on the canoe were killed as well. The body of Keōua was prepared in the older heiau, Mailekini, just below Pu‘ukoholā, and then taken up to the altar to be offered to the god Kūka‘ilimoku. The sacrifice made the consecration of this temple complete. “Bitter was the loss of Keōua to the Ka‘ū people, and that bitterness has flowed down through the veins of seven generations. In Hawaiian tradition and in many other native cultures, spiritual completion occurs when the seventh generation hands down its knowledge of all things inherent and sacred to their children. Now, the eighth generation comes, seeking to staunch the flow, heal the wounds, and serve as a symbol of unification.” Seeking to facilitate healing and reconciliation, the National Park Service hosted a ceremony in 1991, the 200th anniversary of the consecration of the heiau, bringing together the descendants of these two chiefs at Pu‘ukoholā. “The celebration intended to bring two clans together who historically had been torn apart, to support those in search of their cultural roots, to honor and affirm those who continue the practices of their kūpuna, and to invite all Hawaiians searching for a united voice to come together as one at this place.

A 1989 photo by W.T. Bingham looks toward the southeast to Pu‘ukoholā Heiau, showing structures along the shore between the temple and Kawaihae. The grass shack is said to be the birthplace of Queen Emma. The Queen Emma Foundation, of which the medical center is a part, donated 34.3 acres to the National Park Service in 1973, a major step toward establishment of the park. It donated another 26.5 acres of land to the NPS in 1986 to be used for expansion of the park and relocation of the visitor center and road in order to return the landscape surrounding the heiau to a more authentic appearance. photo courtesy Hawai‘i State Archives

July/August 2015

Procession by members of Nā Papa Kanaka o Pu‘ukoholā as they begin the ceremonies.

“Polynesians from across the Pacific journeyed to Pu‘ukoholā to support their kin, as Hawaiians came together there to honor and reclaim certain traditional protocols for the first time in seven generations.”* Since 1991, the symbolic retelling of this story through commemorative events is hoped to educate and also continue the healing of the wounds. Nā Papa Kanaka o Pu‘ukoholā Heiau and several other local, cultural organizations participate in partnership with the National Park. Its current kahuna nui (high priest) is John Kapono‘ai Molitau. He organizes the ceremonies and invites students into the activities to learn and appreciate the significance of Pu‘ukoholā. On the makai side of the large heiau sits Mailekini Heiau. It predates Pu‘ukoholā and its original purpose is uncertain. We know that during Kamehameha’s rule, Mailekini Heiau served as a fort. By 1810, the king had successfully united all the Hawaiian Islands through military conquests and by following the advice of his new and trusted military advisors, John Young (British) and Isaac Davis (Welsh), who consulted with him on the use of modern weapons and negotiation of treaties. Around 1812, Young advised him to mount cannons on Mailekini to help protect the island and Pu‘ukoholā. Kamehameha maintained a distinct advantage over his foes by acquiring the benefits of European ideas and military strategies, and also advanced technology such as arms and gunpowder. Already, by 1790, he had managed to acquire guns, light cannon, and an armed schooner. In gratitude, John Young received from Kamehameha a significant amount of properties on several islands, including one entire ahupua‘a at Kawaihae. He built his own home and family compound just northwest of the heiau. Possibly the first western-style structure built in Hawai‘i, its ruins are now part of the National Historic Site. The home was constructed using a combination of western and Hawaiian techniques, with a whitewashed plaster façade made of crushed coral, poi, and hair. He achieved great authority as the king’s advisor, facilitating meetings and training and supervising shipbuilding. Young married a niece of Kamehameha. His granddaughter, Emma Rooke, whose birthplace and childhood home was here at the Young compound, became Queen Emma, who was married to Kamehameha IV and founded Queen’s Hospital in Honolulu. The Queen Emma Foundation donated land for the national park. Pu‘ukoholā Heiau probably was used for religious rituals beyond its consecration. Since Kamehameha’s position was not 15

Another heiau just offshore is called Hale o Kapuni and is dedicated to the shark gods. Groups of black-tipped reef sharks are often seen circling in the area.

Rare aerial view of Pu‘ukoholā Heiau

totally secure for another 20 years, during that time he may have felt the need for continuing ceremonies to gain mana from Kūka‘ilimoku. There is some evidence that further human sacrifices were made there. A number of historical accounts report seeing human skulls aligned along the tops of the walls. One testimony is that of John Young, who told the Reverend Lorenzo Lyons that he had seen there “many a human victim sacrificed.” Commoners or foreign visitors never viewed the interior of the heiau during the time of its use, as it was kapu, sacred and forbidden upon penalty of death. Even today, visitors are not allowed inside the heiau. There are a number of details relative to Pu‘ukoholā’s original appearance that can be substantiated both from the historical accounts and from surface surveys, although no in-depth archaeological study has ever been done.


The entrance to the platform was at the northwest corner of the structure, with the large temple platform area enclosed on the east, north, and south ends by high walls, making it impossible for observers to see what was going on there. Possibly a wooden fence stretched north-south along the top terrace. Wooden fences were often used in conjunction with stone walls and were often an integral part of a heiau structure. This one probably was about four-feet high with human skulls affixed to the wooden poles. These white skulls could be seen from ships approaching the harbor. The large platform on the north end of the courtyard probably held at least three structures, including houses for the kahuna and the king. There were also areas for offerings, an oracle tower, and images arranged throughout the structure. The stone wing walls extending from the northwest and southwest corners of the temple probably marked the limits of its sacred space. Pelekane remained Kamehameha’s residence from about 1790 to 1794 while he completed the invasion of the other Hawaiian Islands. Then he and his family moved to Kailua Bay in Kona, at the site of today’s King Kamehameha’s Kona Beach Hotel and Ahu‘ena Heiau.

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In 1819, King Kamehameha passed away and his son Liholiho began his ascension to the throne as King Kamehameha II. To prepare himself to take his father’s place, Liholiho journeyed to the site of Pu‘ukoholā Heiau and evidently performed a re-consecration ritual to honor his reign. However, soon after coming to power, Liholiho (Kamehameha II) and Kamehameha’s widow, Queen Consort Ka‘ahumanu, influenced by Christian missionaries, ended the kapu system that had been in place for centuries. The idols and structures of the heiau were burned and its use as a temple terminated until its revitalization by today’s practitioners. Submerged just offshore are the ruins of what is believed to have been another temple, called Hale o Kapuni, which local lore relates was dedicated to the shark gods or ‘aumakua. It is said that several of them were given names and it was believed they protected the families who fed them. Among these were Uukanipo, two great sharks who were twin brothers. When the king wished to see them, their keeper hung two bowls of ‘awa from a forked stick to attract them. The black-tipped reef sharks, whose ancestors were fed human remains, continue to circle just offshore and can be seen by visitors, especially in the early morning hours. *The text is adapted from the documentary film, Ho‘oku‘ikahi: To Unify As One, scripted, produced and directed by Meleanna Aluli Meyer and written with John Keolamaka‘ainana Lake, kahuna nui of the ceremonies. The film is available at the interpretive center at Pu‘ukoholā. ❖ Contact Pu‘ukoholā Heiau National Historic Site: Contact writer Karen Valentine:

July/August 2015

Ho‘oku‘ikahi I Pu‘ukoholā (To Unify at Pu‘ukoholā)  

     Pu‘ukoholā Heiau National Historic Site will celebrate its 43rd anniversary with the park’s annual Ho‘oku‘ikahi i Pu‘ukoholā Establishment Day Hawaiian Cultural Festival on August 15–16, 2015. The festival will open with Nā Papa Kanaka o Pu‘ukoholā Heiau performing the ho‘okupu and ho‘oku‘ikahi ceremonies on Saturday, August 15 from 6−9:30am, with cultural activities continuing until 3pm. On Sunday, August 16, there are cultural activities from 9:30am−3pm. Many arts and craft workshops and demonstrations are planned to experience and learn hands-on, including lei making, quilting, Hawaiian games, ipu (decorative gourds), lauhala weaving, and more. For more information, contact park staff at 808.882.7218 Ext. 1011.

“E‘oni wale no ‘oukou i ku‘u pono ‘a‘ole e pau.” “Endless is the good that I have given you to enjoy.” Kamehameha I, May 8, 1819


Michelle Kaulu Amaral and Danny Kaniela Akaka at Mauna Lani Bay Hotel, 2015 photo courtesy Bob Fewell


Ambassador of

Michelle Kaulumāhiehie Amaral | By Gayle Kaleilehua Greco


ave you ever seen an angel dance?” asks Cultural Center Manager Earl Regidor as Michelle Kaulu Amaral starts to dance in the lobby of the Four Seasons Resort Hualālai. With the first step, Kaulu begins to float as if on a cloud, weightless and timeless in a moment of elegant hula. Her hands, so delicately precise in telling the story of the mele (song), arms moving like gentle wings of a bird, the current of air begins to transform into a breeze of aloha as Kaulu moves with extraordinary grace, eyes keenly seeing everyone near and far, being certain that no one is left without knowing the magic of her hula. Her smile, whether with her eyes or facial expression, comes from her heart, warming the pure essence of each person in her presence. Breathing in this aloha, there’s an inexplicable calmness, compassion, and humility that instantly cast your

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troubles and worries far from this moment of receiving the beauty of Kaulu’s hula. Said by many who know Kaulu, from longtime hula dancers and musicians, to returning hotel guests, “Kaulu is Aloha,” she is timeless in her beauty and heart, the embodiment of aloha to all who meet her. It is rare to actually meet the virtues love, kindness, and grace, yet in Kaulu’s presence these virtues come to life. Named by her maternal grandfather, John Nicholas Perez, Kaulu remembers her ‘ohana recounting the story of her grandfather announcing her name as Kaulumāhiehie. In a prophesying moment, the meaning of her name was given as a delightful bundle; a growth of beauty who will mālama (care for) because of the beauty from within; her spirit is to care for others. The significance of a Hawaiian name is given with importance at the declared moment and as foreseen into the future. This name, Kaulumāhiehie, set the course for a young girl’s life of destiny. 19

Kaulu as May Day Queen at Keauhou Beach Hotel, 1980

Kaulu remembers her childhood in the 1960s with sweet reverence, “We learned hula at home or as an extra activity attending workshops.” Her first hula classes were with Aunty Margaret Moku in Kohala and replicated at family gatherings watching her aunties and cousins dance. Enrolling in Kamehameha School in Honolulu, Kaulu continued hula under the instruction of Kumu Hula Nona Beamer and other hula masters. Graduating from high school, Kaulu returned to Kailua-Kona and was hired by the Keauhou Beach Hotel. Working in the hospitality industry as a young woman, Kaulu reminisces of her days and years as a Mea Ho‘okipa (host), “In every way I have been recognized and awarded, it is because I came from an ‘ohana mālama (caring family) and was raised with aloha. That feeling carries me to a place of being blessed to represent our culture.” Kaulu recites from the Ōlelo No‘eau, “A‘ohe lokomaika‘i i nele i ke pāna‘i, no kind deed ever lacks its reward.” She explains, “A kind deed can be a smile, sharing aloha, making everyone feel they are important, going above and beyond, and never expecting anything in return. I serve with a grateful heart.” The wise proverbs of the kūpuna (elders) provide the hā, the breath that formed this woman’s life as Kaulumāhiehie. A legend in the professional hula world, Aunty Sally Alohikea Lyons of Kona became Kaulu’s mentor as she began performing in hula productions at various hotels and events. 20

July/August 2015

“Aunty Sally called me to fill in for a dancer at the Kona Lagoon Longhouse,” Kaulu laughs at her innocent reticence and knocking knees as Aunty Sally coached her on the dance and pushed her out on stage. From there it was fate, as Kaulu became part of the Hawaiian show ensemble that would entertain visitors and locals for several years. Aunty Sally took Kaulu aside one night, sitting on the stairs outside the showroom, and shared with her protégée, “you will do this one day like me, all on your own.” In a moment of surprise, Kaulu did not know what to think of that statement, yet as the years went on, Aunty Sally’s words proved to be the foundation of a remarkable career. In 1985, Kaulu was invited to audition for a position as a solo hula dancer at the Mauna Lani Bay Hotel. Through a cast of many young women, Kaulu was awarded the job, and the owners of Mauna Lani committed to a trio of musicians and a solo hula dancer in the hotel’s atrium. Remarkably, the musicians were Kohala’s own Lim Family and the Lyn Flores Trio, with whom Kaulu started her journey into the world of a professional hula soloist. Rodney Ito, General Manager of Mauna Lani Bay Hotel, comments on Kaulu as a charter employee with 30 years of service at the resort, “We feel special and blessed to have Kaulu entertain our guests over the years. Her commitment to the art of hula; her focus and passion; and her gift to make contact with everyone in the audience is what sets her apart.” He continues, “Many of our returning guests and homeowners say that once they see Kaulu, they know they are home.”

July/August 2015

This sentiment is echoed over and over as returning guests gave their comments, each one having their own unique set of experiences that are etched in their memories. All consider Kaulu family as they speak of how she taught their children and grandchildren to dance hula over the years. Unconditionally loving each child, knowing their names and what grade they were in, year after year, never skipping a beat, Kaulu has put a kiss in the heart of these families, who repeatedly call her perfection. Danny Kaniela Akaka, Cultural Historian at the Mauna Lani Bay Hotel has known Kaulu from their days at Kamehameha School, ‘the BC days’ Danny laughs, “Before children.” Danny has watched Kaulu through the years, seeing her in every capacity she has endeavored, from a budding hula soloist, to 17 years a Pā’ū rider to Pā’ū Queen of Kohala and Kailua-Kona, and countless performances on island and internationally. Danny reflects on Kaulu through a lens of many decades and brings us forward to a time today where the maturity of this legendary hula dancer provides the elegance, confidence, dignity, and pride that captures people’s souls and brings them home to their hearts. Danny gives Kaulu the highest of compliments as he reverently describes her as a Kanaka Makua, an endearing and powerful Hawaiian designation that holds spiritual meaning for a person others look up to, one who has earned the respect through the dedication of their life work, whose accomplishments are many, and who has taken what they do to a new level. “Kaulu has a timeless elegance, she lives her life softly and is the embodiment of old school hula, from the days of Aunty Io,” Danny says. In a moment of inspiration, Anna Akaka, hula dancer, former Pā’ū Queen, and longtime friend of Kaulu, says, “In my dreams, I dance like her.” Anna describes her friend as the epitome of elegance and the personification of the spirit of hula. Danny continues from a musician’s perspective, “I have played music for the greatest hula dancers ever, and Kaulu is really the ‘cream of the crop.’” Danny’s words provide a professional recount of the relationship between the musician and hula dancer. “Kaulu can haku (weave) any mele (song) on the spot. That’s the mark of a great dancer.” Danny’s explanation provides the transparency of a hula dancer’s ability to be flexible in the moment; to move beyond their comfort level with any performance or musician; to connect with the audience, utilizing everything that is around them to portray the story with passion and emotion—this is the essence of a master hula dancer.


Kaulu is quick to state that an important element of her foundation is her hālau (hula school) life. Under the direction of Nā Kumu Hula Nani Lim Yap (Kohala) and Leialoha Lim Amina (O‘ahu) of Hālau Nā Lei ‘O Kaholoku, Kaulu receives support, sharing, and guidance from her hula sisters and teachers. Being with the hālau since 1989, they have traveled the path together through multiple Merrie Monarch award winning hula performances and in life’s moments of blessings and challenges. A hula hālau is a place of renewing oneself and of continual learning as well. Kaulu says, “we live, eat, and breathe hālau.” Kaulu’s achievement of becoming Kumu Hula in 2012 provided an opportunity to be further inspired under Wahine Ua, established by Tumu Nāleialoha Napaepae Kunewa. Tumu Nālei comments that Kaulu has all the traits of a traditional hula dancer and carries the customs of an era in hula that needs to be preserved. Stepping into her mother’s hula footsteps is eldest daughter, Misti Ka‘iulani Manasas. Misti reflects on her mother’s ability to parent as a respectful and loving mother who instilled a solid work ethic in all of her children, noting that her mother lives aloha in every capacity of her life, personally and professionally. Misti comments that her mom has set the bar high for anyone dancing hula, “She is her own entity. I strive to be at her level. When dancing together, it is not work, it is our passion. It is my honor to dance with her.” Kaulu has two daughters, one son, and five grandchildren. At the center of her family and


Albert Amaral and Michelle Kaulu Amaral, Pā‘ū Queen at King Kamehameha Day Parade in Kailua-Kona, circa 2000

Kaulu and her daughter, Misti Manasas, 2011

July/August 2015

support system is her husband, Albert, who shares, “As Kaulu’s husband, I have been honored by her in marriage and her never wavering steadfastness to her family and hula life. I regard my wife and her talents with the highest esteem and love.” Whether mesmerizing dignitaries, resort audiences, private clients, or children, Kaulu is the breath that fills ones heart. Her revered kuleana (responsibility) is witnessed in everyday life as a wife, mother, grandmother, aunty, sister, and friend to many people. With a repertoire so wide, Kaulu reflects on what it is like to hula, no matter what is happening in her life, a good or bad day, the balance of family, multiple jobs, caregiving, teaching abroad and ministries. “Hula fulfills me, it empowers me, it puts a shot of light in me and I want to give more,” she says. When asked what has made the difference in her life, Kaulu recites the many mentors, teachers, family and friends, and at the core of it all, she says, “Aloha has carried me there, through everything in my life, it is aloha.” In the State of Hawai‘i, Kaulu is one of two professional resort solo hula dancers having the longevity of multiple decades entertaining audiences. The Mauna Lani Bay Hotel will honor Michelle Kaulumāhiehie Amaral in August 2015 at Twilight at Kalāhuipua‘a, with an evening of Hawaiian music, hula, and talk story to commemorate her 30-year anniversary at the resort. ❖ Contact Michelle Kaulumāhiehie Amaral: Contact writer Gayle Kaleilehua Greco:

call 769-5212

open every day 10 - 6 MAE#2634

July/August 2015




Michelle Kaulu Amaral’s

Professional Achievements Kamehameha Day Parade Judge Ka Hula Le‘a Competition Judge Kūpuna Hula Competition Judge Miss Kona Coffee Pageant Judge Little Miss Kona Coffee Pageant Judge KBS-Korea “The Challenger” Judge MBC-Korea “Friday-Wide” May Day Queen—Keauhou Beach Hotel Kamehameha Day Parade Pā‘ū Rider Kamehameha Day Parade Pā‘ū Queen—­Kailua-Kona and Kohala Merrie Monarch Hula Competitor/Hālau Na Lei ‘O Kaholoku Aloha Award(s) Recipient Kumu Hula—Hokupa‘a Voyaging Partners—Germany Kumu—Various Hula Ministries TV Host, ‘I Remember When’, Farish Media Featured dancer with Dr. Paul Pearsall, Author and Inspirational Speaker Featured dancer with the Lim Family and Solo Vocalist Lorna Lim—Nā Hōkū Hanohano Award Winners Performer and Production Consultant—Tihati Productions Performer and Production Consultant—POMAI Productions Hula Model—Na Waiwai Collection Through the years, Kaulu served as an inspiration to several artists who have captured her style of hula in photographs and paintings. Renowned artist Herb Kawainui Kāne’s Hula Holoku paints Kaulu’s graceful hula and displays a montage of her along with the true essence of hula ‘auana. Artwork courtesy of Kaulu, who has written permission from the artist.


July/August 2015

H.N Greenwell Store in 1951, a stone structure with coral mortar

The H.N Greenwell Store, restored with the help of many community volunteers, 2007.

Preserving a Community: Kona Historical Society | By Le‘a Gleason


he stories that stem from the history of communities in Hawai‘i are diversified because of a blending of cultures and influence of immigration, growth of population, and the birth of industry. It was during this period of growth, in the 1970s, that the population of Kona was about 8,000 people. The combined population of North and South Kona today is somewhere around 75,000 people. The coffee industry was such a driving factor in the economy at the time that school schedules were planned to accommodate the coffee-picking schedule. And something else was happening: as the tourism-oriented developments began on the Kona Coast,

July/August 2015

the community began to feel the influence of an external image superimposed on the Hawaiian Islands to attract visitors. The culture wasn’t just white sand beaches and hula dancers. No, it was the rich legacy of a melding of many people’s stories. Jill Olson, who at the time had recently moved from O‘ahu (now a 45-year Kona resident), worked with the community and was the first executive director of a small group aimed at preserving those stories: Kona Historical Society (KHS). Jill had begun working with Sherwood Greenwell, a descendent of a long line of ranchers in the Kona community well-known for having operated the Greenwell General Store during the nineteenth-century. It was an important community landmark and was in need of repair. 25

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In an oral history recorded in 2013, Jill remembers the beginnings of KHS. “In 1974, I was working in Sherwood’s office and Jean [Greenwell] had sent out a letter to the family and she was getting responses, everybody wanted to save the store. Some wanted a Jill Olson and Sherwood Greenwell historical society, there was at the old Pauahi Dairy site, 1998 this energy and they felt the need,” she says. Sherwood had been a key community historian, as he was raised a rancher, and then became a supervisor for the county, thus being involved with local politics. His sister, Amy Greenwell, worked with Bishop Museum and had a strong connection with other local historians as well. So as the preservation of the Greenwell General Store began, so too the historical society was born. Spearheaded by a group of concerned citizens, the goal was to preserve the stories of all the families important to Kona’s rich history. Looking back, current Executive Director Joy Holland Cesca says there was a marked difference in the type of preservation the group decided to pursue. “A group of residents started to talk about [creating] some kind of organization. They wanted to see what they could do to advocate [since] there was a political component trying to stop [structural] development. They decided they wanted to preserve the history,” she says. Although some preservation of physical structures was done, it was decided that the focus would be more on preserving the intangible stories of the people and their rich cultural history. According to Joy, Sherwood and his in-law Jean Greenwell, an amateur local historian and archival scholar, with a group of concerned citizens and local families were also committed to the idea that this should be something preserved for all of Kona. They didn’t want it to be just a community monument to the Greenwell family. They wanted it to be somewhere for the whole community to engage.

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In the beginning, however, getting KHS off the ground and running was a task for the organization. “Because it was community driven there was a learning process involved in how to care for and maintain the collections. Jill Olson really tried to find trained consultants that could help us,” Joy says. By working together and combining their skills, Kona Historical Society and the community: • built and restored two buildings that are now on the National and State Register of Historic Places, • oversaw an era of development when Kona Historical Society was invited to become the first Smithsonian-affiliated museum in Hawai‘i, • still remains the only organization that has two permanent National Endowment for the Humanities Exhibits, • and they built an important archival collection and innovative living history programs from the ground up.

“If someone came to talk to them about the history of Kona, they were always ready to sit down and give as much time as they could. It’s this model that KHS is now steering its ship by. There have been a lot of prominent kama‘āina families involved and providing support to the organization over the years, but we really want to make this about every family in Kona. What we think is exceptional is every story that’s here,” Joy says. KHS continues to engage visitors and longtime community members and their children who may have their own roots in that culture.

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During the initial collection development, Jill met Mary Parr, a librarian and archivist who was developing software to keep track of museum collections with her husband. Today, Past Perfect Museum Software is used by more than 9,500 museums around the world. As processing and caring for a collection of historical artifacts started to take shape, so did a decision to establish a “living history” approach to KHS’ community outreach programs. “They felt it would be great for school programs and engage visitors and give them a clear view of what our culture is like. Even today when you see Hawai‘i represented in popular


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1993 Kona Coffee Living History Farm Planning Committee

L–R On steps: Buddy Norwood, Burton Ito, Una Greenaway Middle row: Mikio Izu, Yosoto Egami, Minoru Inaba, Kiyono Kunitake, Jill Olson Back row: Sherwood Greenwell, Yoshitaka Takashiba, Fusae Uchida Takahara, Sheree Chase, Ed Kaneko

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Jill Olson and Joy Holland Cesca 2013

culture, it’s a fantasy—the types of narratives that start to arise can be counterproductive. The real aspects of human life here—the toil, struggle, hard work, grief, stories surrounding World War II, and what became of Hawaiian people when this immigration started—that’s glossed over.” A living history model allows people to walk onto a site and see, touch, smell, and feel what life might have been like in past times. KHS has two living history sites: Kona Coffee Living History Farm and the H.N. Greenwell Historic General Store. “Jill Olson and the early founders were eager to find something that engaged people on a visceral level…you walk onto a historic site and you get to see people engaged in certain activities almost as though you’re stumbling into a certain time. Her thought was that living history allows people a clear picture that they might not get in a static exhibit,” Joy says, “[And] our Kona Coffee Living History Farm has this element of the hard work and sacrifices the Japanese workers made to come here.” The farm environment stages the period of 1925 to 1945. Visitors can explore coffee and macadamia nut orchards, historic structures, and are accompanied by costumed interpreters throughout their journey. At the General Store, the oldest standing commercial building in West Hawai‘i, visitors can view what a typical shopping trip might have been like in the 1890s. Nearby, stands a large woodfired forno, or Portuguese Stone Oven. Once a week, volunteers and locals get together to talk story, roll dough, and bake sweet bread. The community can then purchase the bread, and Joy says many people do. “It’s absolutely crucial that children growing up in this community take pride in where their family came from. Most of us want to be lifelong learners, they want to find a way to do something meaningful, to be part of something that preserves what they remember, and some of that is just teaching these things all over again. The bread baking program was about

July/August 2015

perpetuating what people might have forgotten: that a big part of ranching life was a taste for Portuguese food,” Joy says. “It’s a way for even those who don’t have the funds or time to visit a typical museum to stay connected to their culture.” In Summer 2015, KHS will begin to construct an additional element of historical preservation: a small gallery and exhibit space. During this time, the General Store exhibit will temporarily close. Joy is excited for how it will provide ways to share information even more widely and with larger audiences than it presently can in its small archive and other programs. “The gallery is a culmination of what some of our founders wanted, which was to make the history and materials of Kona available to everybody, and the gallery really provides a means to that. We [want] to share some of these collections more widely. We want to find a way to share the artifacts and documents and things that will tell these stories in our gallery,” Joy says. It’s all about continuing to share the rich history of Kona with today’s residents, many of whom have a firm stake in that culture—be it through living here or being descendants of families who did live here. The gallery will help to tell the story of every man and woman in Kona’s history through additional elements that support that process such as artwork and photos that represent the culture and lifestyle of what Kona was and what it continues to be. KHS feels that the goal of any successful historical society is just that: to lend expertise with historical and fine art collections and engage people so that the stories are truly authentic, emotional, and mean something to the community. “We’re really well poised to do it,” Joy says. ❖

Visit KHS: Kona Coffee Living History Farm: Mon–Fri, 10am–2pm H.N. Greenwell Store Museum: Construction planned. Call 808.323.3222 for availability. Contact Kona Historical Society: Contact writer Le‘a Gleason:

Jill Olson at the 1978 Quilt Exhibit

The H.N. Greenwell Homestead in the Kalukalu Ahupua‘a, near what is now referred to as Kealakekua town.

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UH-Hilo marine science researchers are studying coral health at the Wai‘ōpae tide pools. photo courtesy Takabayashi Research Lab

Wai ‘ōpae

Tide Pools in Puna: UNIQUE ECOSYSTEM UNDER SIEGE A secluded coastline where bright tropical fish swim in calm, azure blue waters. Even the neighborhood overlooking this peaceful setting conjures images of paradise. Its siren call is hard to resist. Vacationland. Located along the Puna coastline in the private subdivision of Kapoho Vacationland, the Wai‘ōpae Tide pools Marine Life Conservation District (MLCD), also known as the Kapoho tide pools, is probably one of the worst kept secrets on-island. In years past, it was the sort of hidden spot shared by kama‘āina who brought friends and family to snorkel in the tide pools. Thanks to a burgeoning array of guidebooks, online blogs, and travel-related websites, an estimated 50,000–75,000+ visitors per year now frequent the tide pools, and residents say the number of visitors is increasing. It’s a unique situation because in order to get to the tide pools visitors must go through the private subdivision. “Any given weekday you might see 25 cars parked here, not including the tour vans that carry around a dozen people each,” says Betty Hunter, a 15-year resident of Vacationland and secretary of the Kapoho Kai Water Board. “On the weekends, I’ll see upwards of 45 cars.”

July/August 2015

| By Denise Laitinen

In 2003, the state officials designated Wai‘ōpae tide pools as an MLCD, one of only 11 such areas statewide, in order to protect the marine resource. Similar to a barrier reef, a shallow basalt ridge causes waves to break off shore while tradewind-generated swells ensure that the pools still get excellent water circulation.  Making this community more unique is that many of the properties in Vacationland contain anchialine ponds that are interconnected to the tide pools. Derived from the Greek words anchi (near) and halos (the sea), anchialine ponds are landlocked bodies of water found next to the ocean. Varying in salinity levels, they have an underground connection to the ocean and their water levels vary with the tides. Researchers still have a limited understanding of these ponds that are home to a variety of fish and crustacean species and are found in only a few parts of the world. Hawai‘i has among the highest concentration of anchialine ponds on the planet, with Hawai‘i Island having the most ponds in the state. While the ponds are private because they are on residential property, the tide pools are a snorkeler’s delight. “Kapoho tide pools host one of the most diverse and highest coral covers as far as east Hawai‘i reefs go,” says Misaki 33

Wai‘Ĺ?pae tide pools are home to several variety of corals. photo courtesy Takabayashi Research Lab


July/August 2015

UH-Hilo marine science researcher Misaki Takabayashi entering the Wai‘ōpae tide pools to conduct research. photo courtesy Takabayashi Research Lab

Takabayashi, a marine science researcher at the University of Hawai‘i, Hilo. Misaki knows these waters well. A marine scientist for the past decade, she has spent eight of those years specializing in coral ecology tracking coral health at the Wai‘ōpae tide pools. Misaki is quick to point out the beauty of the tide pools, with their exquisite and unique environment. Yet she also notes that Mother Nature has not been kind to the tide pools in the past year. Two hurricanes and an extended El Niño weather pattern are taking their toll on the marine ecosystem.  

Iselle Takes it Toll

Last August, Hawai‘i Island was bracing for back-to-back storms in the form of Hurricanes Iselle and Julio. Fortunately, Julio bypassed the island. However, Iselle, which was officially downgraded to a tropical storm shortly before it made landfall, struck in the early morning hours of August 8, 2014. With estimated peak wind gusts of 70-75 mph, Iselle brought high winds, torrential rains, high surf, and storm surge. The damage inflicted by the storm on the Puna district was unprecedented. Many communities, like Kapoho Vacationland, were without power for 14 days. The low-lying community experienced storm surge of more than eight feet. More homes were destroyed in Vacationland than anywhere else in Puna, with a dozen homes completely destroyed. Roads were so severely blocked that it was days before officials and relief agencies knew the extent of the damage in Kapoho. Entire homes were washed off their foundations and swept into ponds. Furniture, cement blocks, the contents of storage sheds, and the sheds themselves all wound up in the ponds. Streets within Vacationland were impassable for days due to debris and downed trees. Parts of the shoreline road where visitors parked to visit the tide pools looked like it had been through a blender.

Community Coming Together In true aloha spirit, Puna residents in neighboring communities, themselves impacted by the storm, came to help residents in Kapoho Vacationland. Betty says, “The outer communities came to help their neighbors long before Civil Defense or the Red Cross showed up. There was so much help from other communities, such a compassion to help us out.”

July/August 2015

That help and compassion was desperately needed given the level of destruction. In the storm’s aftermath, the MLCD and a large portion of the Kapoho-Kalapana coastline were closed in order to assess the damage and conduct water quality samples. It was weeks before state officials with the Division of Aquatic Resources allowed access to the ponds again, and when they did, it was only to foot traffic. Visitors to the tide pools must now park at the entrance to the subdivision and walk to the tide pools, a distance of roughly half a mile. In the weeks following the storm, large amounts of heavy equipment were brought into the neighborhood to remove debris, and two neighborhood clean up work days were held while researchers set about studying the impact of the storm. Given her years of experience studying the coral in Kapoho, Misaki and her UH colleagues were asked to study the effects of the storm on the tide pools. “A big reason why we could step in and assess the impact of Hurricane Iselle was because we already had a baseline of what a healthy reef looks like down there,” says Misaki. “We have healthy data sets of what the reef looked like before and after the hurricane.” “There was absolutely no coral breakage in the marine conservation district on the south side,” adds Misaki. “On the north side, the average breakage outside of the marine life conservation district was six percent.” Misaki notes that the UH scientists did not study the anchialine ponds because they are on private property. However, the Department of Health did conduct water quality testing on the ponds at the community’s request due to the extent of the damage. Clearing and cleaning of the ponds required a massive coordinated effort that included everyone from the mayor’s staff to civic organizations and even correctional inmates who provided labor removing debris. Over the course of two days in September 2014, more than 25 volunteers with assistance from County officials and various businesses removed 11.25 tons—more than 22,500 pounds—of Iselle storm surge related debris. “We’re a close-knit community,” says Betty. “We all worked together.” Various businesses, including a dive team from Nautilus Dive Center and volunteer divers from Project Aware helped out, as did numerous area residents and volunteers. Work day organizers single out state and county officials, such as John Kahiapo of the State Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR) Division of Aquatic Resources; Kevin Dayton, at the time executive assistant to Mayor Billy Kenoi; and District 4 Hawai‘i County Councilman Greggor Ilagan, as being particularly helpful in arranging for heavy equipment and dumpsters to be brought in to help in the cleanup effort. “Greggor [Ilagan] and John [Kahiapo] were really instrumental in helping us getting our community back together,” says Betty. “DLNR was very helpful in getting us a container. The County helped a lot too; they brought in dumpsters.” With the overwhelming amount of debris removal that needed to be done in the small community, Ilagan and the mayor’s office coordinated efforts to have inmates from Hale Nani Correctional Facility assist in supervised clean up efforts. “The end of Kapoho Kai, where we used to have parking, was full of debris,” says Betty. “Those guys helped us get it to where it was presentable.” 35

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Although much hard work went into those clean up workdays, volunteers were unable to remove all the debris. For months, future workdays were postponed due to the uncertainty surrounding the lava flow that was impacting the nearby Pāhoa community at the time. And Mother Nature was not done with the tide pools. Hurricane Ana grazed Hawai‘i Island in October with storm surge and high surf. And while Ana’s impact was minimal compared to Iselle, Misaki says an even greater threat has been wreaking havoc on the tide pools. “It was bad enough [the tide pools] got hit with two hurricanes, but what was really bad was that it was an El Niño year last year,” says Misaki. “The ocean temperature rose and the ocean circulation affected the water in the tide pools.” Misaki explains that the tide pools are semi-confined. The porous nature of the region’s soil means that rainwater and storm water are soaked up like a sponge underground and discharged into the tide pools where they are flushed out during high tides. But during El Niño weather patterns, the tide pools are subjected to warmer water temperatures and the water doesn’t circulate as much as normal. The results can be devastating for coral found along the shoreline. “Corals have algae that live symbiotically with them,” explains Misaki, “providing nutrients for the coral. When the coral lose those algae, it’s like their energy source is cut out of them.” When the algae die, the coral in turn become bleached and die. “That’s what happened with last year’s El Niño. The coral in the tide pools sat in the elevated water temperature for months. That warm water killed off the algae resulting in bleaching and [the] coral died off.” The impact on some of the coral species found in Kapoho was dire. In October 2014, just two months after Iselle struck, Misaki and her fellow researchers discovered that more than 80 percent of the blue rice coral found in the Wai‘ōpae tide pools

July/August 2015

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Kapoho Beach Tide Pools photo courtesy Eli Duke/Wikimedia

was bleached and died due to the El Niño. Overall, 15 percent of all the coral species found at Wai‘ōpae were bleached as a result of El Niño. She says that while El Niño has had a bigger impact than the hurricanes, all of the events affect the health of the reef. “It’s not just one stressor on the coral. It’s not just the hurricane or the water quality; it’s everything—a synergistic effect.” “When a person has a lot of different stresses on them, such as family issues and work problems, they are more susceptible to disease. If we can help the coral with local stressors we can help them be better equipped against larger stressors like global warming and El Niño weather patterns.” For its part, the community is doing what it can. Visitors must now park at the entrance to the subdivision and walk to the tide pools. The Kapoho Vacationland Community Association is in the process of installing portable changing rooms for visitors. There is a portable toilet available, although there are no permanent restroom facilities. Vacationland residents met with Civil Defense Administrator Darryl Oliviera before the start of this year’s hurricane season to see what could be done to better prepare the community for future storms. Marine scientists like Misaki remain concerned, especially in light of a continued El Niño weather pattern. She and other researchers are hoping they can continue studying the tide pools in Kapoho, and are challenged by funding issues. “What little emergency grants we were able to get ran out last March,” explains Misaki. “We’re now relying on donations to continue our research. ❖ Donations can be made through the UH Foundation: Contact writer Denise Laitinen:

July/August 2015



• The tide pools are located within a private subdivision. Limited parking is available at the entrance to the community near the mailboxes. • There are no lifeguards on duty at the tide pools. High surf and strong currents may occur during stormy weather conditions. Strong currents may also exist in some locations during periods of rapid tidal change. • There are no permanent facilities at the tide pools. The closest public facility, including phones and toilets, is Ahalanui Beach Park, about 1.5 miles south. • The MLCD’s maximum depth is about 13 feet and is not recommended for SCUBA diving. • Kayaking is discouraged to avoid breaking coral in shallow water. • Pick up trash, even if it is not yours. Trash can damage and kill a wide variety of marine life. • Do not feed or pet the wildlife. Fish and other wildlife feed on their natural foods. • Leave coral, shells, and rocks where they lay. • If you are snorkeling, keep your fins, gear, and hands away from coral.


• To fish for, take, or injure any marine life (including eggs), or possess in the water any device that may be used for the taking of marine life.

• To take or alter any sand, coral, or other geological feature or specimen, or possess in the water any device that may be used for that purpose. • To anchor or moor any vessel. • To conduct commercial activities, including but not limited to commercial tours, dive groups, sightseeing tours, hikes, or guided services.


The Wai‘ōpae Tide pools are located in lower Puna, about an hour drive south of the Hilo. Take Hwy. 130 heading south, then go east on Hwy. 132 to Hwy. 137. Travel about 1.1 miles south on Hwy. 137 and turn east (makai) on Kapoho Kai Drive. Follow road to parking areas marked by signs.

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July/August 2015

A beautiful winter day with snow atop Mauna Kea (left) and Mauna Loa (right)


| By Ku‘ulei Keakealani


o many happenings all around us these days. Movements of aloha are seen and heard from one town to the next, from mountain top to mountain top. Messages of hope and desire are painted, printed, and manifested. Within and amongst these actions, I see many young people who have emerged as leaders. They were yesterdays’ children, for some, they literally were our students; ones we had a chance to potentially affect or influence in our classrooms or otherwise. They are today’s leaders and are true products of their raising and rearing. For those of us in the makua (parent) or kupuna (grandparent) generation, we look on with admiration, and a sense of pride that with the blossoming of this generation, we can rest assured that we have done well. With a humble heart, I witness numerous movements that found at the forefront, navigating their way, are yesterdays’ children—today’s leaders. This piece is dedicated to the ones I call the “Cultivators” and to those we have “grown!”

July/August 2015

Journal Entry Auhea ‘oukou e na kanaka mahi‘ai? Where are the farmers? Yes, you who plant seeds of a different kind—of hope, of desire, of aspiration, and liberation. Seeds of encouragement, positiveness, and of exponential potential. Seeds to grow dreams, speak visons of hope to the ears of the universe. Safe places where doubt doesn’t exist and self-worth is magnified. Not less than, but more than you ever thought possible. Insufficient is not a word spoken, not the attitude present. Yes, gifts of all and any kind are realized and celebrated. Unique, pulsating vibrations of support, lift you up. Yes, be all that you can be. Judgements? Stomped, smashed, thrown out. Be who you are meant to be, your higher self, higher calling. More than hear the call, heed the call, feel it in your being. Step up, let us know that you are there. Let us know that you are 39

willing. Let us see that you are able, capable, for ultimately let the cultivators know that you are ready—ready to assume your place. BE ON ALERT, let it be known to you, cultivators of today, that here and now, we have grown the cultivators of tomorrow! We may each have varying thoughts, opinions, and convictions on the matters of today, and that’s not a bad thing. It’s what makes the world go ‘round, right? Nevertheless, here are my closing thoughts. I judge not and condemn none. In this time of huli au, a changing tide, I say, “Let us continue to celebrate the ‘crop’ that was cultivated. And by all means let us keep the soils rich, let us continue to water, and tend to the beautiful gardens that we keep.” Thereʻs truth to the phrase—we reap what we sow. Ola! (Life!) ❖ Contact writer and photographer Ku‘ulei Keakealani:



f you look around the grounds of Kona-area hotels, condominiums, and vacation rentals, chances are you might discover ‘ākia used as an attractive groundcover plant. It’s an endemic Hawaiian plant that botanists call Wikstroemia uva-ursi, or hillside false ‘ōhelo. If you’re familiar with the herb commonly called uva ursi (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), this Hawaiian plant with a shared name is very different. “Uva” translates to “grape” or “berry,” while “ursi” means “bear.” So the nickname for both plants is “bear berry,” due to the

Healing Plants: ‘Ākia Stupefies fish, not humans |

By Barbara Fahs

similarity of the red fruit, which resembles berries that bears eat in other climate zones. This nomenclature points out the importance of learning the botanical names and properties of plants before we attempt to use them medicinally or for food.

Appearance and Distribution

‘Ākia is a sturdy, low-growing native with dense branches and small, pale green, oval leaves. In season, it produces small yellow flowers and later, red berries that grow no larger than ¾ inch in diameter. It can spread to several feet and also can grow three or four feet tall. ‘Ākia is native to dry, open, lowland, or coastal habitats on Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, and Maui, according to Hawaiian Native Plants. The University of Hawai‘i also reports that ‘ākia occurs in windy spots near the ocean, on ridges to 1,400 feet, and on ‘a‘ā lava. It is rarely found in the wild today. Along with naupaka, pōhinahina, and the white Hibiscus arnottianus, it is one of the most common Hawaiian plants used in landscaping.

Growing ‘Ākia for the Landscape

‘Ākia works well in dry leeward gardens because it has few cultural needs. It can be trained to form a low hedge and its yellow flowers and red berries add color to dry environments. A slow grower, ‘ākia thrives under drought conditions and is resistant to insect pests and plant diseases. To propagate ‘ākia, collect ripe berries, each of which normally contains one seed. Allow the berries to fully ripen in a plastic bag for several days. Then follow these steps: 1. Scrape away the fleshy pulp under running water by rubbing each berry on a sieve or strainer. 2. Soak seeds in water for 24 hours. 3. Prepare pots with moist vermiculite and then press several seeds into this medium and cover with ¼ inch of sterile potting soil. 4. Cover pots with moist sphagnum moss and keep them in an area with several hours of sunlight each day. Water daily. Expect germination within two weeks to three months. 5. When germination begins, remove the moss. 6. Allow seedlings to develop several sets of true leaves before you transplant them to the garden or to individual pots. 7. Water young transplants periodically until they begin to sprawl and take root.

July/August 2015

Traditional Uses

Although ‘ākia is nontoxic to humans, it was used in ancient times as a fish sedative. It’s one of the few Hawaiian plants that is toxic to cold-blooded animals. Hola is a method of fishing that utilized the roots, bark, leaves, and stems of ‘ākia as a fish sedative. Ancient Hawaiians pounded the plant with chum and then poured the mixture into fishponds. After the fish ate the baited plant material, they behaved as if they were drunk, making it easy to collect them. ‘Ākia was used in several other ways: • The berries have been used in lei making; • Extracts made from ‘ākia are believed to have anti-tumor capability; • The wood from larger species of Wikstroemia was used for ‘auamo, or carrying sticks; • Branches also provided one of the strongest fibers known in Hawai‘i—it was used to make ropes and braids; • ‘Ākia’s fiber also may have been used for creating kapa (tapa cloth); • Mixed with coconut and sugarcane, the sap was given along with sweet potato as a purgative to cleanse the body of toxins; • A close relative, ‘ākia kuahiwi, was used to treat asthma and constipation.


Toddlers (or pets) who eat ‘ākia berries will not be affected by the narcotic that stuns fish; it appears that the stems, leaves and roots contain the chemicals that cause fish to become catatonic. It’s better to be safe than sorry, however, as Native Plants Hawai‘i cautions, “It is probably best to side with caution and avoid ingesting any parts of ʻākia until sound information is available.” Top photo courtesy Forest and Kim Starr Contact writer Barbara Fahs: References/Sources: 41

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July/August 2015

Sun Power:

Deciding if solar panels are right for your home

| By Paula Thomas

| By Paula Thomas

For people in Hawai‘i, where the cost of energy per kilowatt hour (kwh) is about the highest in the nation, the biggest incentive for going solar is to reduce the long-term cost of energy. The good news is that the current net metering system in the state of Hawai‘i can result in a household paying just $20.50 per month. However, that’s after you invest thousands in a photovoltaic (PV) system that is set to generate your power based on the average amount of electricity you use monthly over the course of a year. The bad news is that net metering system is going to be restructured, according to electric utility officials, because it is not sustainable.

What Does It Take?

To shift from purchasing electricity from a utility company to generating your own solar power requires relatively high upfront costs. There is no way around that. Solar panels are relatively expensive and getting them installed, wired, and properly metered are added costs. These costs will vary significantly depending on how you go about installing what you need and how much power you want to generate. The first factor is your overall energy usage. A quick glance at your electric bill will show you your monthly usage. Add all those numbers up and divide by 12 and you have your average monthly energy usage. That number will determine how many panels you may require. If you are planning to expand

July/August 2015

Groundmounted solar panels including mandatory right-of-way.

your family or add an addition to your home, then your average monthly energy draw will likely increase, and that needs to be factored in. Similarly, if you plan to purchase additional high energy-drawing appliances like dryers, freezers, or refrigerators, you may need to factor that in as well. The second factor is the quality of the panels you purchase. The higher the quality of the panel, the more expensive each panel will be. Solar companies on the island are pretty good at explaining the types of panels they offer and the reason for cost differences. Another factor that plays into cost is the condition of your roof. You cannot install solar panels on a rusted or deteriorating roof. You will notice, if you pay attention to those buildings that have solar panels, that the roofing underneath the solar panels is either brand new or has been treated, which may not be true for the rest of the roof. Since most panels have a 25-year guarantee, the roof underneath them has to last that long, as well. Some homeowners opt for a ground-mount. This is just as viable and comes with a slightly different set of parameters and installation requirements. Wherever your solar panels are set up, the way they are mounted is just as important as the type of panels you buy. It is worth your time to research the most secure and effective way to mount your panels and query solar companies about what they do. Solar companies can generally design, develop, build, and install the system that best suits your requirements, whether 43

Roof-mounted system that optimizes panel placement.

you are off-grid or on. Some warehouse their supplies and equipment, others order from their preferred suppliers. You should expect to receive a turnkey system unless you build it yourself. Whatever process you use (turnkey or do-it-yourself), your system will be subject to inspection and approval by the County Department of Public Works, Building division. And if your system is being connected to the grid, HELCO on Hawai‘i Island will be involved at the front end by assessing what it will take to connect your home to the existing grid and then on the back end by connecting your solar meter once your system is installed and approved. As an energy consumer, you also have the option to lease versus purchase a system. It sounds exceedingly appealing in some circumstances to lease a system because you pay out nextto-nothing for your system (and for some that is the ultimate deal); however, the long-term benefit of purchasing a system is that after your system is paid off, your energy bills are much, much lower. Most solar companies promise that they will monitor and inspect the solar panels regularly. Some may even offer to clean them annually for free; but you can expect to incur a modest fee for panel cleaning if you don’t want to do it yourself.

Leasing Versus Purchasing

The salient differences between a lease vs. purchase transaction with a solar company is the level of your investment over time, the ownership of the panels, and cost-savings over time. 44

July/August 2015

incentives can offer up to 54.5% cash back, or a potential 65% tax shield depending on how you handle your taxes. These tax credits are currently set to expire at the end of 2016. Bottom line, if you lease, you only reduce your monthly electricity bills (you are purchasing your electricity from the solar company) and you pay next to nothing out-of-pocket for purchase or maintenance. If you buy solar panels, you get a much lower monthly energy bill, you receive the tax credits (at least if you purchase by the end of 2016), and your solar company is still going to monitor your panels and replace parts. If you take out a loan to purchase the panels, the tax credits and any resulting refund can be applied against your loan.

Benefits of Solar

If you lease solar panels, you will incur little-to-no upfront costs. The solar company owns your panels, receives the tax credit, manages the panel cleaning and maintenance, and engages you in a purchase power agreement (PPA). The PPA is your locked-in energy rate for a 20-year period. It is guaranteed to be lower than the kWh price you pay to the electric company, but it will never be as low as the monthly rate you will be assessed if you own your panels. The difference can be in the hundreds of dollars per month. For example, if your electricity bills average $300 per month, you can expect to pay somewhere around $145 per month in a PPA if you lease your panels. If you own your panels and are on the net metering system, you can expect to pay somewhere around $20 per month. (Once the net metering system is revised, this figure is subject to change.) Add to this the fact that if you lease, you do not get the benefit of any tax credits as the federal and state tax credits benefit the panel owners. If you purchase your panels, your tax credits and any resulting refunds can be applied to the cost of the panels. If you don’t have the cash to pay outright, you can apply for a low-interest loan. Once your solar system is installed and your electric bills are reduced, use your monthly cost savings on your energy bill to start paying off your loan, apply any tax refunds to your low-interest loan, and within several years your loan will likely be paid off. According to the Islandwide Solar website, there is a 30 percent Investment Tax Credit (federal) along with a Hawai‘i state credit equivalent of up to 35 percent of the installed cost of the solar system for the tax year that the system is placed in service. When you combine these, the federal and state tax

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Solar panels that generate your electricity not only reduce your monthly energy bills, they reduce your carbon footprint, add value to your home, and contribute to the goal to reduce our state’s dependence on fossil fuels which is “to meet and exceed 70 percent clean energy by the year 2030. Along with reducing our islands’ dependency on fossil fuels and increasing efficiency measures, the clean energy plan is also contributing to the state’s economic growth.” The two keys to making this affordable and workable for families are: 1. Tax credits, and 2. Qualifying for a low-interest loan to cover the cost of outright purchase. As a result of the need to absorb more PV systems on the grid, Hawaiian Electric Companies is adjusting requirements for equipment in 2015. From the HEI website: The Hawaiian Electric Companies expect to establish a new list of “Qualified Equipment that Meets Transient Overvoltage and Ride-Through Specifications,” which would supersede the current requirement and associated listing. The new TrOV-2 certification requirements will be instrumental in allowing us to continue to sustainably integrate more PV systems. Already, the pace of solar installations is increasing. If you want to get on this bandwagon, it may be best to do so before the end of 2016, so you can take advantage of the current tax credits for doing so. ❖ Photos courtesy Alternative Energy Resources Contact writer Paula Thomas:

Roof-mounted solar PV/water heater system on roof in excellent condition.

Uncle Donna is surrounded by some of the officers of the Hawai‘i Police Department that he has worked with. On his left is Assistant Chief Paul Kealoha. The photo was taken on May 13, 2015 during the Kona Police Department’s annual Police Week ceremony and celebration. photo by Karen Valentine

The Shining Aloha Spirit of

Uncle Donna Kuali‘i

It’s rare these days to find someone who is of 100 percent Hawaiian blood, and it’s a happy occasion to find one who is also full of 100 percent aloha. With a smile that’s a mile wide, Uncle Donna Kuali‘i fits both criteria. Appropriately, he worked for Aloha Airlines—a career that spanned 32 years and took him around the world spreading aloha through his personality and native proficiency in Hawaiian music. Like many Aloha Airlines employees, he had two jobs at the same time. Uncle Donna was assistant manager of customer service for Aloha at Kona International Airport on Hawai‘i Island. And, when the call came to drop his work and take to the road—or to the skies in this case—he was ready to go. 46

| By Karen Valentine

Stewardesses doubled as hula dancers, and porters picked up their ‘ukulele. During the ‘60s and ‘70s, attracting customers and passengers for the airlines was a much more personal, face-toface, process than it is in today’s Internet-dominated world. “It was fantastic,” says Uncle Donna, whose family heritage is in Waipi‘o Valley, although he grew up in Hilo. His father was also a musician. “We got treated first class. They took good care of us. We traveled to all the 49 states and Japan. Every time I went, somebody else had to take my place. But they didn’t mind.” It was an opportunity for a lot of Hawai‘i-born young men and women to see the world while sharing the aloha spirit.

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“Aloha Airlines was formed right after the war. For a long time, only Hawaiian was flying, and everybody was happy to see another airline,” says Uncle Donna. He joined the airline in Hilo in 1953, and one year later was transferred to what is now the Old Kona Airport. They moved to the new Kona International Airport in 1970 as the tourism business was expanding. “In order to get attention and passengers from the travel agents on the mainland we had to go out and do promotions. Some of the people there didn’t even know where Hawai‘i was, or even where Pearl Harbor was. Everybody quit working to watch us, with the girls dancing and everything. We would call for volunteers to come up and dance with the girls and everybody was happy,” he smiles. “The two airlines helped each other, and we did joint promotions with the big airlines like United, Continental, and Pan Am. They requested for us to go out there and help them.” A 1977 story in Ha‘ilono Mele, a newsletter of the Hawaiian Music Foundation at UH-Hilo reads: “In hotel lobbies and airport lounges, people gather to watch and listen. In Buenos Aires or Atlantic City, a bit of authentic Hawaiiana has appeared. Mainlanders and foreigners alike, everyone loves it. It creates images of faraway places. Strangers always pause to appreciate. And the musicians and dancers are all natural hams.” George M. Archer, Jr., Director of sales meetings and conventions for Aloha Airlines, was quoted as saying, “For Aloha Airlines, music is probably our biggest direct sales tool. We can sign up groups on the spot after giving them a bit of music. But also we know, as performers, we are always ambassadors for Hawai‘i…. It is a direct sales tool. We take our musicians to travel agent conferences, department store promotions, and various travel gatherings of all sorts. We intensify the desire to travel to Hawai‘i.… As we are able to bring the music to travel agents thousands of miles from Hawai‘i, so then the agents become knowledgeable and truly in spirit with all that Hawai‘i is.” The 84-year-old Uncle Donna is the epitome of an ambassador of aloha. Married for 61 years to the equally charismatic Melvine Freitas, a Kona native, their family includes a daughter and two sons, all of whom live on Hawai‘i Island. They have passed that aloha quality on to their children. Everyone in Uncle Donna’s immediate family worked at Kona International Airport at some time. Melvine’s career includes 23 years working for Interisland Resorts at the Old Kona Inn and 24 years with Mauna Kea Resort. She was Mauna Kea’s official greeter at the airport. Son Donovan started the porter service there and son Kaleo worked with him as a baggage handler. Daughter Kanani worked at a rental car service desk. A Mauna Kea Resort representative, Tobi Hoff, is quoted as saying, “Melvine has been an institution at Kona International Airport, a true and shining example of the old-fashioned Hawaiian hospitality of yesteryear, the kind that never goes out of style.” Q: When/how did he start being called Uncle Donna? A: His real name is Donna, and he doesnʻt know why he was named that. Some people call him Don for short, and his school friends used to call him Kanani, however neither is his given name.

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Uncle Donna Kuali‘i and Melvine Freitas Kuali‘i are shown at his retirement party in 2001 after serving 44 years as a reserve police officer with the Kona division of the Hawai‘i Police Department. photo courtesy Kuali‘i family

Uncle Donna dressed as Santa, playing with a group of six Aloha Airlines entertainers, helping United Airlines promote Hawai‘i travel at a Christmas party at the Sahara Hotel in Las Vegas. photo courtesy Kuali‘i family

Melvine, whose family is from Hōlualoa on the Kona side, and Donna, who played basketball for the champion Vikings team at Hilo High School, didn’t meet until both were on O‘ahu where they fell in love. After having been employed with HELCO in Hilo, Donna was doing electrical work for one year at Pearl Harbor and Melvine was in nursing school. Both returned to Hilo, where Melvine worked at Hilo Hospital. In 1954, they married and moved to Kailua-Kona, where Donna had been transferred by Aloha Airlines and Melvine got a job at the Kona Inn, beginning a career in the hotel hospitality industry that lasted nearly 50 years before she retired. Uncle Donna’s musical touring activities actually began in 1956 with a European tour by Bunny Brown’s Hilo Hawaiians, a group of musicians from Hilo’s Haili Church. He was part of a troupe The Kuali‘i family (L–R): Kaleo, Melvine, Donovan, Kanani, and Uncle Donna photo courtesy Kuali‘i family


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of seven that included four musicians and three hula dancers, organized to entertain U.S. Armed Forces troops stationed in Europe. In addition to entertaining the troops, they played for hospital patients and a group of escapees from Iron Curtain countries, visiting England, Scotland, Germany and France during the three-month tour, which ended at New York City’s Lexington Hotel’s Hawaiian Room. Another opportunity to entertain troops arose during the Vietnam War, when Aloha Airlines received a letter from a helicopter squadron attached to the 25th Division from Schofield Barracks, asking permission to christen one of their choppers as “Aloha Airlines.” “[An officer] wrote a letter to our president, Kenneth Char,” says Uncle Donna, “who answered and said they could have their aircraft named Aloha Airlines, but he also said we have a promotional team that they could use over there and entertain the boys. So the officer was shocked and surprised and said, ‘That’s terrific!’” Aloha sent a troupe of four musicians and three dancers for what turned out to be a

July/August 2015

An iconic photo of Aloha Airlines group travel specialists portrays representatives from all the islands’ airports in colorful, 1970s-style uniforms. Uncle Donna from KailuaKona is in the back (R). photo courtesy Kuali‘i family


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During the ‘60s and ‘70s, Aloha Airlines employees with musical talent were recruited to help the airlines promote travel to Hawai‘i. Uncle Donna Kuali‘i, assistant manager of customer service for Aloha at Kona International Airport (back, second from right), was a frequent member of the traveling entertainment troupe. photo courtesy Kuali‘i family

whirlwind, 14-day Vietnam tour entertaining the troops at a number of locations around the country. “When we got up there, all the squadron was all split up, so what we did was travel to every spot where the local boys were. They were all excited to see us. We could hear the bombs going off,” he says, and because of the potential risk, the musicians were all given officers’ titles in case anything happened to them. At the same time Uncle Donna was working two jobs as airport assistant manager and entertainer, he served a total of 44 years as a reserve officer for the Kona division of the Hawai‘i Police Department, from 1957 until retiring in 2001. Since then, he continues to put in two days a week for the department in clerical work, volunteering under the RSVP, senior volunteers program. All of this service has been totally unpaid in financial terms. “They didn’t have enough officers, so they created the Police Reserves,” says Uncle Donna. “Chief Anthony Paul started it. They picked up nine from Kona, and every district had nine. We went to Saturday classes in Hilo, where we trained at the same time as the regular officer recruits.” “He has great people skills,” says Assistant Chief Paul Kealoha. Uncle Donna worked the midnight shift and eight-hour shifts on weekends, he says. “I had the pleasure of working with him back then on the streets. What he did best was his incredible

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Bryan Moon, Aloha’s assistant vice president for public relations and advertising (right), poses with the Aloha Airlines employee musicians who traveled to Vietnam to entertain the troops. Front (L–R): dancers Beverly-Ann Kilauea, Marciel Nakoa, and Alicia Davis (one dancer not pictured). Back (L–R): Bill Keana‘aina, Donna Kuali‘i, and Henry Ka‘alekahi. photo courtesy Kuali‘i family


communication skills with members of the community. He knew everybody and had an innate ability to deescalate situations, bring order, and keep people calm. He’s still part of the family and does entertainment for us free of charge.” In 1985, Uncle Donna retired from Aloha Airlines and went to work for the Kona Hilton (now Royal Kona Resort) as doorman until 1997. It’s clear he loves his community and his community loves him. He remains an active member of the Royal Order of Kamehameha I, Moku O Kona and is a past president and board member of Kai ‘Ōpua Canoe Club. He participated in the canoe club’s building of its large koa canoes and with the restoration of Ahu‘ena Heiau. He still performs in the Merrie Monarchs men’s chorus each month at Hulihe‘e Palace in Kailua-Kona. In 2010, Uncle Donna Kuali‘i was recognized as a “Living Treasure of Kona” in a proclamation signed by the mayor. A popular song by The Mana’o Company sings, “A-L-O-H-A, a little aloha in our day/ spread a little aloha around the world.” It’s unlikely that anyone will ever do it better than Uncle Donna Kuali‘i. Contact writer Karen Valentine:

Uncle Donna Kuali‘i (front right) marches with the Royal Order of Kamehameha I, as they honor King Kamehameha III at his birthplace in Keauhou Bay, 2012. photo by Renée Robinson

A Historic Plantation Town

MELE MURALS Local monuments and a source of community pride

Kahilu Theatre, the first Moku o Keawe Mele Mural photo courtesy Evan Loney

| By Fannie Narte

“Our work honors the last commands of King David Kalakaua, ‘Look to the keiki, teach them, groom them, show them wonder, and inspire them.’” ~Mele Murals, The Estria Foundation


hese timeless words offer profound guidance to all of us— grandparents, parents, uncles, and aunties. These words are especially for those who have the kuleana (responsibility) as teachers and leaders with the extraordinary privilege of nurturing and educating our ‘ōpio (youth). King Kalākaua’s directive is a constant reminder to all of us that our future rests in the capable hands of our youth. We, the older generation, are charged with the task of filling their hands with wisdom and lessons of aloha. From their hands, this information then flows onto our ‘āina (land) like a waterfall, to benefit us all.

The Mele Murals Project

Mele Murals is a youth development, arts education, cultural preservation and community-building project. It is a platform that gives our ‘ōpio opportunities and experiences to discover who

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they are by exploring where they live and where they come from. It is a project that provides a creative environment where our youth can thrive and learn to become storytellers, painters, and community leaders. Beginning in late 2013, local artists, youth, and other members of communities across Hawai‘i created a series of large-scale outdoor murals focusing on mele (songs and chants) that explore mo‘olelo ‘āina (stories of place) and cultural and historical heritage. Their work is ongoing and will span five years. A project of this scope and complex structure includes many unique facets. Diverse groups of participants at each location form teams. These teams meet to develop individualized goals. Plans and processes are formulated and implemented, which include the wisdom and values of ancient Hawaiian protocols. The result is a Mele Murals project that is historically and culturally significant—an unprecedented undertaking. 53

Several Mele Murals have been completed in Hilo, Waimea, and Kona on Hawai‘i Island. Ke Ola magazine plans to feature these murals in a series of articles throughout the coming year. In March 2014, Hawai‘i Island’s first set of Mele Murals were unveiled at the Kahilu Theatre in Waimea. It was a time of much celebration for all of the participants and members of the community. The murals are local monuments and are the result of many months of planning, preparation, and work done by a collective creative force.

The Kahilu Theatre Mele Murals Team

Students, supporters, and partners from the Waimea community came together to form the Kahilu Theatre Mele Murals Team. The participating ‘ōpio are students from Kanu o ka ‘Āina, (the lead school), Waimea Middle PCCS, Parker School, Hawai‘i Preparatory Academy (HPA), and the babies of Pūnana Leo O Waimea. These students were joined by cultural practitioners such as Aunty Pua Case, Uncle Kalani Flores, Diana Larose, Chadd Paishon, Pomai Bertelmann, Keali‘i Bertelmann, and musician Emalani Case, all of whom provided valuable knowledge and guidance throughout the entire process. The success of an enormous project such as this depends on many supporters and partners from the community such as ‘Ōiwi TV, who will film every mural and share the videos through their cable channel and website. In addition, Tad Nakamura, an acclaimed documenter, will produce a feature-length film, which will be shared with people around the world through film festivals and special screenings.

The Estria Foundation

In order to appreciate the core values upon which the Mele Murals was created, it is helpful to understand the organization that established this project. The Estria Foundation (TEF) is a nonprofit organization founded by Estria Miyashiro and Jeremy LaTrasse in 2010. It


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is dedicated to creating social change by empowering local communities through the creation of art. The Mele Murals project is only one of many Art-in-Public projects conceptualized and supported by TEF. The foundation “strives towards a society that places value on people and the environment above the accumulation of wealth.” Included among their mission statements and goals is their “10 Points of Unity,” which is a list of values and beliefs that guide their work and define the foundation’s politics. TEF values the protection of human rights and freedom of expression without fear of persecution. They promote creativity, environmental consciousness, personal and professional development, and equality for all. They also support efforts that allow people to determine their own future. Echoing King Kalākaua’s proposition, TEF states that “the youth must be included in the decision-making and be given all opportunities for learning.” Recognizing that teamwork is a key to success, TEF “requires engagement from stakeholders, and a sense of ownership among the people who live in the communities where their projects are located.”

A few of the many hands that help bring our first Moku o Keawe Mele Murals to life.

TEF Team

The Estria Foundation team includes two experienced members who bring their diverse knowledge to the Mele Murals project. They are Estria Miyashiro and Mahea Akau. Estria Miyashiro, co-founder of TEF, also serves as the foundation’s Creative Director. Estria has been spray painting for more than 30 years and is a world-renowned urban art living legend. “He is a valued historian and community leader who is helping to awaken the social and political consciousness of graffiti writing art.” Originally from Honolulu, Estria moved to the San Francisco Bay Area in the 1980s during the city’s “Golden Age of Graffiti.” He is credited with pioneering important painting techniques and is the originator of the “stencil tip.” Estria has moved back to the islands and now calls Hawai‘i home. Mahea Akau, Mele Murals Coordinator, was born and raised in Kailua-Kona, Hawai‘i. “The source for Mahea’s passion and dedication to promote and support cultural awareness and preservation stems from the teachings of her Hawaiian grandparents. They taught her the importance of ‘ohana (family) and the inherent kuleana one has to perpetuate their Hawaiian culture.” Mahea brings more than 15 years of management, promotion, and event planning experience to TEF, including the Ironman

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John “Prime” Hina and his little helpers work on the “Makawalu” wall. photo courtesy Evan Loney




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The Kahilu Theatre Mele Murals

The three mele that inspired the three-panel mural at the Kahilu Theatre are “Malana” by Queen Emma, “Na Pu‘u Kaulana o Waimea” by Emalani Case, and “Hole Waimea,” author unknown.

Kumu Kanoa Castro of Kanu o ka ‘Āina was key to the success of the first mele mural. photo courtesy Evan Loney 56

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Kumu Kanoa Castro, a teacher at Kanu o ka ‘Āina, connected me with some of his students. Kainoa Salumbides, age 16, Kayala Kahaulelio, age 18, and Auli‘i Mahuna, age 17, took time from their busy day at school between classes to talk to me. The knowledge and experiences they shared were inspiring. They all expressed gratitude for being a part of the entire Mele Murals process. They learned the mo‘olelo (stories) of their community and were able to translate that knowledge into visual art through the process of meditation. “We’re literally painting a picture for people to know the history of our ‘āina and why it’s so special,” says Auli‘i. They also learned the value of working in teams. Kayala says, “During the Mele Murals process, we not only came together within our school, but also with Waimea Middle and HPA. The topic of water and rain brought us all together and on the same page.” In addition, they experienced the joy and fulfillment resulting from the many months of hard work through the completion of the project and finally sharing their mural with the public. Kainoa says he was moved by the public’s acceptance and appreciation of the mural. “At the unveiling, we chanted together and shared stories together. Many people cried. The community came together as one,” Kainoa says. Besides sharing their general experiences about the project, Kayala and Auli‘i shared their understanding about each of the mele. “Malana” Kayala: “Malana” is a mele that calls all the districts together in unity. We wanted to make sure that we included everybody from our home—not only from our island, but everyone from all the other islands so that we can all come together as one. “Na Pu‘u Kaulana o Waimea” Kayala: Na Pu‘u Kaulana o Waimea, talks about all the pu‘u (hill) in Waimea, how it acts as a water catchment system, and how it provides for us. Auli‘i: This mele was written by Aunty Emalani Case, who is from Waimea. She taught it to me when I was in the fifth grade. Her purpose was to bring attention to the way we need to preserve our ‘āina and the pu‘u that sustains us with water. Without that, we wouldn’t even be here; we wouldn’t have a community. “Hole Waimea” Kayala: “Hole Waimea,” is a very well-known oli for our community. It talks about the Kīpu‘upu‘u—very thick, stinging rain, which comes down at a slant angle. That rain is what

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replenishes our ‘āina, our community. Kīpu‘upu‘u is also the name for a group of warriors who lived in Waimea and Kohala during the reign of Kamehameha I.

Kayala Shares Her Thoughts

“I’m very culturally involved not only within our school, but outside of our school. Seeing the process of the artist is actually really great for me because people see things on different levels. When we got together, I don’t think they expected us to be so culturally rooted, but that foundation helped us connect with each other so that we could get a better vision of what we needed to do as a kuleana to this mele mural. She continues, “Coming from our community in Waimea, Hawai‘i Island, we are very privileged to have natural resources like water, which is our main life support. We’re lucky to be able to look up every day from our school at the pu‘u and acknowledge the fact that we have water flowing through our town naturally.” According to local legend, a mo‘o wahine (female spirit) lives at a pond near a rock known as “Manaua.” During times of drought, cultural practitioners leave offerings at the rock where it is said she goes to sunbathe. Kayala explains why they chose to add the image of Manaua to the mural. “One of our kids had a vision while meditating about our rain. The vision was about Manaua, a mo‘o wahine. So we paid her a visit, brought ho‘okupu


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(offering), and danced hula for her. One of our kids actually heard something from her. So we knew that we had to put her on our wall.”

Auli‘i Shares Her Thoughts

“I know where I’m from, but I never really took the time to actually learn the mo‘olelo (story, history). Through this mural process, I was able to do that.” Auli‘i also learned valuable lessons about leadership and responsibility. “Even though we’re just painting, which might not seem like much, it takes a lot. There’s planning processes and the actual painting. It was a stressful process trying to get everything in order,” she explains. The reward for Auli‘i is confidence in her abilities—something that only experience can truly solidify. “I have grown physically, spiritually, mentally, and emotionally. It’s also grown me as an artist. I was never really confident in my art before, but now I’ve gotten better because I’ve had so much practice. Having people there to help me when I’m not doing something right, and also having our cultural advisors there to tell us if what we’re painting actually looks like the person we’re trying to paint was awesome. Estria and Prime, a local artist, taught us so much about art, and in return, we taught them about our culture. “It was just super emotional to see something that represented who we are, and put up on the wall. Everyone knows that we did that, and it’s for a purpose, and it is so important. It really helped me to connect more to where I’m from.”

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Ku‘ulei Guerpo shares her mana‘o on the story of Manaua, the inspiration behind the second wall in Waimea. photo courtesy Evan Loney


In addition to the Kahilu Theatre mural, Kainoa, Kayala, and Auli‘i also participated in painting murals at other locations on the island. The love they have for their culture, community, and ‘āina is clear. It is evident that the teachers and community leaders, including artists, cultural practitioners, and musicians who surround these youth throughout the process understand that the project is an important tool by which they can guide our ‘ōpio to know who they are by knowing where they come from. The Mele Murals is a creative project that offers our youth an incredibly unique opportunity for them to build their foundations—their root systems. This project has all the elements that can transform the ordinary into the extraordinary. ❖ Contact The Estria Foundation and Mele Murals: Contact writer Fannie Narte:

Pomai Bertelmann sha res her mana‘o on the “Makawalu” wall and connection of Papahu the lilani, Papahulihonua, and Papanuihanaumo ku. photo courtesy Evan Loney

“Mele Murals is a catalyst for change for our people and our communities. It is projected that the Mele Murals, when completed, will have changed the lives of more than 1,000 young people throughout our islands.” ~Mahea Akau

THE ISAACS ART CENTER at Hawai‘i Preparatory Academy: 65-1268 Kawaihae Road, Kamuela, Hawai‘i. Adjacent to the HPA Village Campus. HOURS: 10 a.m. - 5 p.m., Tue. - Sat. Admission is free. For information, or to arrange group visits: 808-885-5884 or WEB: &

The Isaacs Art Center features some of the finest Hawaiian and Asian art from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. All proceeds benefit the HPA Scholarship Fund, which assists promising young people in realizing their educational goals. This year is the 100th anniversary of the Art Center building, the original 1915 Waimea Elementary School that was moved to its current location, restored, and opened as an art gallery in 2004. We now celebrate 10 years of welcoming visitors to this vintage schoolhouse and invite the community to tour our unique art collection. Come visit the art center and enjoy!


PICTURED: Madge Tennant, Hawaiians Hanging Holoku, oil on canvas, 1940.

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Featured Cover Artist: Bonnie Sol

Hapu‘u ‘Ohana


in Hawaiian Paradise Park, Lili‘uokalani Gardens in Hilo, and Kuki‘o Bay in Kona. Her landscapes often feature unique cloud ird song and the soft scent of passion flower greet the formations, rippling waters, and rich colors senses from Bonnie Sol Hahn’s home studio, which overlooks that invite the viewer to feel expansive and a backyard lush with flowers and fruit. From this perch, Bonnie at peace. Paintings of hula dancers, flora Sol creates oil paintings that capture Hawai‘i’s natural beauty. and fauna, and patterns in nature also Even before she moved to Hawai‘i at the age of four, Bonnie grace her portfolio. Sol—whose name means “pretty sun”—told her parents that she Bonnie Sol made her first art sale during would grow up to be an artist. During her childhood years in high school in the U.S. Virgin Islands, where Kalapana and Kea‘au, she frequently sketched her surrounding her family moved environment. when she was 12. In Bonnie Sol allows the confluence of 1998, she graduated beauty, experience, and emotion to from a dual degree ignite the creative process. program, earning a She is especially drawn “to the way BA in Anthropology light surfs the waves, the way a sunset from Tufts University streaks across the sky, the way wind in Medford, blows through the palms. From the Massachusetts boldness of the distant mountain as it and a BFA with rises above the clouds, to the intricacies a concentration of a flower as it opens to the sun, I in painting from find myself compelled to pick up a Bonnie’s Bananas The School of the paintbrush.” Museum of the Fine Arts in Boston. When she returns to her studio, she When she is not painting, she uses a photograph to help recall the Above the Clouds is outdoors living her philosophy moment that she wishes to convey. of appreciating the fascinating world around us with her Painting in thin woodworker husband and her bulldog, Po. layers, she builds “We need to remember to look up and around,” Bonnie says. up colors and “I believe this is one key element to having people take better saturation on the care of the environment. And when they cannot be outdoors, canvas or board. my work brings a bit of the outdoors inside.” Her paintings The cover painting, “Pu‘ukoholā Heiau” 20”x60” oil on canvas reveal an gallery wrap is available and on display at Plantation Interiors, intimacy with Teak Garden and Lanai in Kailua-Kona. places like Bonnie Sol’s work is available in seven fine art galleries across the end of Hawai‘i Island—Harbor Gallery, Plantation Interiors, Teak Garden Kaloli Street and Lanai, Cliff Johns Gallery, Volcano Art Center, One Gallery, Kohala Coast Fine Art, Gallery of Great Things. Perfect Day at Kuki‘o Bay

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Contact Bonnie Sol:,


March 8, 1975 Hōkūle‘a is launched for the first time, entering the water at Hakipu‘u/Kualoa in O‘ahu.

May 30, 2014 Hōkūle‘a departed from Hilo on the first international leg of the Worldwide Voyage. Traditionally navigated throughout the Pacific, to date it has reached 24 islands in six countries, and traveled 7,000 miles.

Worldwide Voyage

May 1, 1976 Hōkūle‘a left from Honolua Bay, Maui.

Celebrating 40 Years of the Hōkūle‘a

Mau Piailug navigates Hōkūle‘a from Hawai‘i to Tahiti without modern instruments.

In 1976 the Hōkūle‘a weighed 26 tons. After being refurbished for three years before the WWV began, it now weighs 12 tons. The first trip in 1976 took 34 days. In 2014, the first leg of the WWV, from Hilo to Tahiti, took only 15 days—the fastest trip ever.

Hōkūle‘a and Hawaiian Renaissance Timeline June 4, 1976 Hōkūle‘a arrives in Tahiti.

1992 Nainoa Thompson and Clay Bertlemann

Hōkūle‘a was the first voyaging canoe in 1976. Now there are 22 canoes in Pacific Polynesia.

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1968 Herb Kāne calls Ben Finney about the idea for building Hōkūle‘a. 1973 Mau Piailug commits to navigating to Tahiti. 1975 Hōkūle‘a is launched for the first time, entering the water at Hakipu‘u/Kualoa in O‘ahu on March 8. 1976 Hōkūle‘a successfully voyages to Tahiti, Mau Piailug navigates Hōkūle‘a from Hawai‘i to Tahiti without modern instruments. 1978 Hawaiian becomes an official language of Hawai‘i. 1980 Nainoa Thompson becomes first Hawaiian since the 14th century to practice traditional navigation, sailing successfully to Tahiti. 1982 Aha Punana Leo language immersion preschool system founded. 1984 First Punana Leo Preschool opens. 1985 Hōkūle‘a voyages to New Zealand, venturing outside of tropical waters for the first time. 1986 Governor Waihee is elected (first Native Hawaiian governor). 1987 Hawaiian Immersion program introduced in Hawai‘i public school system. 1990 President George Bush Sr. orders a stop to the bombing of Kaho‘olawe. 1992 PVS sails to Rarotonga, while 30,000 students connect and talk with navigators aboard Hōkūle‘a and astronauts on the Columbia Space Shuttle. 63

1993 Hawai‘iloa, made of natural materials using traditional construction techniques, is launched. 1994 U.S. Navy conveys deed of ownership of Kaho‘olawe to the State of Hawai‘i. 1999 Hōkūle‘a sails to Easter Island, successfully visiting the three outer corners of the Polynesian Triangle. 2000 Hawaiian-culture-based charter schools open. • Governor Cayetano proclaimed Hōkūle‘a as Hawai‘iʻs first state treasure (on Hokule‘aʻs 25th birthday). 2004 Hōkūle‘a travels to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. 2007 Five Hawaiian navigators (Nainoa Thompson, Bruce Blankenfeld and from Hawai‘i Island; Shorty Bertelmann, Chadd Paishon, Kalepa Baybayan) are initiated into the ranks of master navigator in a Pwo ceremony conducted by Mau Piailug. • Hawaiinuiakea School of Hawaiian Knowledge established. 2008 ‘Ohana Wa‘a commits to voyaging around the world. 2009 A month-long sail to Palmyra Atoll is completed as a training sail for the next generation of young PVS navigators. 2010 Hōkūle‘a restoration. 2013 The Mālama Honua Worldwide Voyage is launched from Hilo, Hawai‘i. Hōkūle‘a and Hikianalia travel the Hawaiian Islands and reach more than 22,000 school children and community members in Hawai‘i. • The 26th Legislature of the State of Hawai‘i passes education legislation that, for the first time, includes the phrase. “in Hawai‘i’s two official languages.” 2014 WWV crew adopted 96 schools in Hawai‘i. • Hōkūle‘a and Hikianalia crew sailed 14,000 nautical miles collectively (7,000 each). • 136 individual crew members sailed—totalling almost 1,000,000 collective nautical miles.


• Leg 2: Hawai‘i to Tahiti (10 Apprentice Navigators). • Leg 3: Society Islands–Cook Islands–American Sāmoa (7 Apprentice Navigators). • Leg 4: American Sāmoa–Sāmoa–Swains Island (6 Apprentice Navigators, 4 New Watch Captains). • Leg 5: American Sāmoa–Tonga–Aoteroa (7 Apprentice Navigators, 1 New Watch Captain). 2015 Since May 2013, PVS reached more than 33,000 students and community members internationally via canoe tours, dockside outreach, presentations, community events as part of the Mālama Honua Worldwide Voyage. • January: Hōkūle‘a sailed the farthest south of the equator she has ever been. • March 8: Hōkūle‘aʻs 40th Birthday. • April: Hōkūle‘a left the Pacific Ocean for the first time. • May-June: Hōkūle‘a sails around the coast of Australia and the Great Barrier Reef.

The Hōkūle‘a is currently sailing its way around the northern part of Australia. Next year it will go around the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa. Photos courtesy of Polynesian Voyaging Society.

Learn more and connect with the Worldwide Voyage Track the voyage:

July/August 2015


Mālama Honua Worldwide Voyage May 24, 2014

The value of stewardship. To take care of. To serve and to honor, to protect and care for. Sixteenth in an ongoing series.


Managing with Aloha: Mālama | By Rosa Say

have a client who refers to Mālama as “my take care of business value.” I love his focus with Mālama’s value alignment, and I couldn’t agree more. To ‘take care of business’ in your culture-building with Mālama, is to constantly assess the health of your business assets—all of them collectively, and each of them in turn. Loyal customers, valuable employees, a highly-trafficked storefront, quick-replace inventory—make a list, and you will quickly see that ‘your assets’ covers a lot of ground core-critical to the very logic of the way you do business. Mālama is exceptional at helping you trouble-shoot problems and uncover opportunities in your basic business model so you can attain the best health of an ‘Ohana in Business. You’re busy. Day to day ‘business as usual’ can be attentiongrabbing, time-consuming, and grueling. The unexpected crops up in some incarnation on a near-daily basis. It can sap your analytical and creative energies in the best of times, and consistent work on value alignment—in this case, on Mālama—is the better strategy of tackling ‘business as usual’ and turning it into something you feel good about. Let’s consider an example in Mālama’s problem-solving and focus on a very important asset: Your staff. How can valuealignment on Mālama assure that whenever you say, “Our people are our most important asset” you truly mean it, and your staff enthusiastically voice their agreement? How can you be sure your customers are served by happy and productive employees who will also keep your best business interests in mind? How do you illustrate your Mālama every day in everything you do, so you retain those people as your staff, and as people who cannot imagine working anywhere else than with you? For example, and to illustrate the direct connection to a business model, adopting and honoring the value of Mālama will guarantee that you never fall into the trap of overtime abuse, something that has become an all to common practice in the years subsequent to the 2008 recession. A hotel worker recently showed me his pay stub as explanation for why he couldn’t schedule a badly needed dentist appointment: He’d just logged a total of 123 hours in two weeks time—43 more than the 80 one would expect, saying that this was his “new normal at work, ever since the Christmas rush.” Auwe! Employers mistakenly feel there is an appreciation for overtime pay. Occasionally, maybe. As the normal way they do business? Absolutely not. What staff appreciate even more, is respect for the time off they have earned within their delivery

July/August 2015

of a reasonable work schedule—respect shown to them and to their families. Overtime should be a rare contingency, and certainly not the way a business person avoids increasing staffing pars, and paying the benefit package that should rightfully, decently, and morally accompany part-time, full-time, and salaried employment. If a business cannot afford to schedule correctly and compensate fairly, there is definitely a glitch in their business model which must be corrected, whether it calls for increasing revenues, cutting costs in other areas, or a balanced approach with both strategies. To expect employees to make up labor and equipment shortfalls with overtime or unreasonable workloads (e.g. one person expected to do the work of two) is simply wrong, and these practices would be clearly seen as the abuse they are through the value lens of Mālama. As unbelievable as it may sound, I’ve had employers debate me on shades of right and wrong in the overtime/overwork abuse issue. Yet they eventually get clear on this certainty: If you abuse your staff, they will assure you pay for that abuse in another way, be it in the faulty delivery of the service they give—“I can’t help it!”...“I don’t have the time!”— or in their disregard for, and lack of stewardship of your other assets—“We don’t have the equipment for this job; none of our repairs have been made. You know how hard I’m working, but something had to give!” We often think of Mālama as a value that goes the extra mile, such as with additional investments given to community in Mālama ‘āina, or extra compassion demonstrated through a Ho‘oponopono session or customer focus group. However, think about taking care of business in a more basic way, wherein you systematically audit the core standards of your business model. ‘Extra’ becomes a very logical opportunity for you, such as with the smart re-entry we can offer within a Light Duty program which decreases expenses in prolonged periods of layoff or due to Worker’s Compensation, while simultaneously increasing morale. Streamlining and continuous improvement guided by the value of Mālama will directly contribute to strengthening a sustainable workplace culture. ~ Rosa Say Next issue: Mahalo, the value of thankful perspective. Contact writer Rosa Say:, 65

Historic Kainaliu, Kona’s original shopping village. Located 5 miles south of Kailua-Kona.

& Made in Hawaii Fine Crafts Jewelry & Art

plus Beading Supplies

808 322-3203

Becoming Mele‘uhane

Most Kailua-Kona residents are no strangers to the surname Lindsey, as it signifies a family notorious for playing Hawaiian music and well-known for their ties to the ranching industry. As a boy, Lindsay “Keikilani” Lindsey was raised on the likes of Elvis Presley and Don Ho—what he calls “hapa-haole” music. Hawaiian music had evolved to be in English, and he was starved for variety. As a teenager he discovered Cecilio and Kapono, the Brothers Cazimero, Peter Moon, and the new way music in Hawai‘i was transforming. Then, in his twenties, Keikilani found rock and roll and loved it. His past years of performing in family shows as a hula dancer were behind him. He’d always felt like the awkward tall kid. He could keep that connection to performing through music, and gradually picked up the ‘ukulele, bass guitar, and then standard guitar. It was his varied taste in music that would later lead him to become a diverse entertainer, interested in providing a true listening experience for all kinds of people. This isn’t just a story about Keikilani Lindsey, though he says he’s been there, done that. Now, Keikilani focuses his energy on embodying mele‘uhane, something he defines as the spirit of music, or a captured feeling of the energy of all the musicians whose hard work go into the music. Most important of those musicians is his son, Leo. By name, mele‘uhane quite literally represents this father and son duo, and Keikilani no longer performs as a solo artist. Revamping this identity to become well-known as a duo is one of their current goals.

July/August 2015

photo courtesy Lynn Piccoli

Spirit of Song | By Le‘a Gleason

At just 20 years old, Leo is independent, well-spoken, polite, and a really good lead guitarist. He is one of four boys, all of whom play at least one instrument. Until recently, Leo lived in Hilo with his mother, and now resides in Kailua-Kona with Keikilani and his wife, Lindsey Carol, and the three of them are quite the group. She is “the rock”—strong, understanding, and has a peaceful quietness about her. Keikilani and Leo keep things playful. They often complete each other’s sentences, only to comically bicker about what one or the other meant by what was just said, or who got the Keikilani’s last word. first stage At least for now, dad gets performance the last word, and it’s for good reason. He’s honing a talent in his son that he first glimpsed when Leo was two and broke in his first drum set in just a couple months. Leo played the drums for many years and picked up the guitar about five years ago. “We’re a team, and it’s been a gradual process. My whole life I imagined I’d have a son and we’d play together one day. When he picked up the guitar, he was so good at it, and we experimented a bit.

Leo and Keikilani playing at the Gabby Pahinui Waimānalo Kanikapila photo courtesy Lynn Piccoli

I brought him to work and he was learning here and there,” Keikilani says. Leo interrupts and says he doesn’t think of himself as a lead guitarist. “He lays down a good foundation, and I just dance!” Leo says. “That’s what being a lead guitarist is!” his dad scolds. “I got into Hawaiian music in high school,” Leo says. “Before that I was into rock and all this heavy stuff, but as soon as I heard Hawaiian music I thought, ‘I’m never going back to that.’ It’s just so beautiful.”


To Leo, music is a universal language and a source of inspiration. “I know that whenever I play with these artists—like John Cruz and Henry Kapono—they bring this energy to the stage that’s overwhelming. They inspire me to want to play and sing better and develop new parts to accompany their playing. Collaboration brings inspiration,” he says. “Every time I work with dad, it’s like he plays something, and my mind finds the perfect accompaniment for it. When I don’t have something, we reach out to someone else…and they come

July/August 2015

up with something truly incredible…and then I try to make it into something more. I love working with my dad. The amount of energy we get…we just have the time of our lives right there on stage,” Leo says. Keikilani is equally fueled by working with his son, even if he does grumble that Leo needs to smile, or speak up more when he’s on stage. “I’m very proud that my son is up there. I’m honored that I get to live a life where I get to perform with my son. I love that I get to say I did this for a living and that we can do that together. It can be trying sometimes, and yes I’m critical, but only because we have to be not just good enough, we have to be amazing. He’s already shown me how good he can be. When we’ve played with John Cruz and others, I have to look over and make sure that’s my son.” Father and son play regular gigs in Kailua-Kona and are busy promoting their first album, Mele‘uhane, which first took shape in 2011. The album explores the evolution of Hawaiian music stylistically, and yet one traditional element exists that was very important to Keikilani during the writing process: that it be written solely in Hawaiian, with the help of native speakers. “I want the people to love Hawaiian music, but I also want the people that don’t even know they love Hawaiian music [or] don’t speak the language to fall in love with the melody. And then when they fall in love with the melody that was crafted purposefully to have an emotion of its own, then it compels them to find out what the song is about, and when they find out what the song is about, then it hits them again,” he says. The album consists of 11 original tracks, each handcrafted to evoke a certain feeling. In writing them, Keikilani says he wanted something iconic and unmistakably different than everything else. “In this day and age people are so afraid they’re going to lose something in the music or the language, when really they should just allow their music to evolve. I was just on fire. Everything I could think of, everything I’d see—how could we weave this into a Hawaiian song? Hawaiian language goes so deep, and sometimes it’s multilayered—add really great melody to that and you just can’t go wrong,” he says. The album is a reflection of a collaboration of many artists and behind-the-scenes helping hands, especially since Keikilani chose to produce it independently. When a band signs with a big label they’re instantly in stores, with photos and CDs everywhere. However, when they decide to Leo and Keikilani photo courtesy Sheri Prisby


go independent, it’s an uphill battle to find producers, musicians to collaborate with, and places to promote their music. Fortunately, though, so many have come through to help Mele‘uhane. Ron Pendragon—well-known for recording Earth, Wind, and Fire—recorded the album in his Kaua‘i studio. Mele‘uhane was on-island to play a gig and met with him with fingers crossed, and explained their situation. They were almost out of money from making demos, had a list of great songs, and just needed someone to believe in them. Ron did, and opened up a large list of musicians to use on the tracks at their disposal. “I can’t even count how many wonderful people in the industry— just legends—people who have been in it their whole lives, have been so helpful. When you want to be independent it’s super important to have people to reach out for you,” Keikilani says. Physical copies of the album today also boast a certain little gold sticker: a Nā Hōkū Hanohano Award Nomination—well, actually two of them—for “Liner Notes” and “Most Promising Artist of the Year.” Although they did not win, the nomination has already catapulted the pair towards their goal of changing the face of Hawaiian music. All along, they have never stopped believing. “Faith is believing in something that you don’t see, and we’re all faced with that all the time in our lives. You have to believe in yourself. It’s the same thing with singing: you’ll never become a good singer if you don’t like the sound of your voice. It’s the mind setting itself on a purpose,” Keikilani says. The pair are currently anticipating their second album, which tells stories of Kaua‘i and will be released in July. It too aims to share that same spirit that is Mele‘uhane. “Mele‘uhane is something that many of us have caught on to. The entity of it is all of these people that bring the songs to life. It’s people that hear the concept, hear the songs, get to know us, want to be involved, and who take the songs home and stew on them and put their aloha into every song. It’s not a who, it’s more like a movement that we are lucky enough to spearhead,” Keikilani says. Mele‘uhane performs most Mondays at Huggo’s On The Rocks in Kailua-Kona. ❖ Contact Keikilani Lindsey: Contact writer Le‘a Gleason: Keikilani, his wife Lindsey Carol, and Leo at the Nā Hōkū Hanohano Awards Show, 2015


Crossword Puzzle | By Myles Mellor

This page is for Ke Ola readers to have FUN while learning about the Hawaiian culture and this wonderful island we call home. Some answers are in English, some are in Hawaiian. Some answers will be found when you read the stories and ads in this issue. Feel free to use the online Hawaiian electronic Oh yes, you can find the answers on page 77. Your feedback is always welcome.

ACROSS 1 Book about Hawiian history by Kamamaikalani Beamer, PhD (4 words) 7 Long fish you can find on a reef 8 Heiau (temple) created by Kamehameha the Great 10 Cold, in Hawaiian 11 Expression of doubt and uncertainty 12 What Keikalani Lindsey defines as “the spirit of music” 14 Piece of band equipment 16 Street for short 17 King whose last words were: “Look to the keiki, teach them, groom them, show them wonder, and inspire them” 22 Compass point 24 Glowing 26 Last name of the poet who wrote “Woman of the Dance” 27 Internet address letters 29 Hawaiian artist who creates oil paintings that capture Hawai‘i’s natural beauty (2 words) 31 Time just before 32 People working together for a common purpose 34 Marinated raw fish, in Hawaiian 35 Mele ____, a community building project for youth development

July/August 2015

DOWN 1 Olelo ____ , traditional saying in Hawaiian 2 Hawaiian word meaning to take care of 3 Hawaiian word meaning to pay 4 Pluck off a plant, in Hawaiian 5 Hawaiian word for love and affection 6 Alert 8 It moves water 9 Earthworm, in Hawaiian 13 To throw, in Hawaiian 15 Word meaning small 16 Bushes 18 Imaginative creator 19 Shape of a rainbow 20 Animated 21 Fishermen 23 Woman, in Hawaiian 25 Famous traditional Hawaiian pop singer (2 words) 28 Rhythmic lines 30 Leaf, in Hawaiian 33 Goes with Mrs.


The Captain’s Paw Pantry—Kailua-Kona


abine-Maeva Andresen’s business started in the fall of 2008 when her friend asked if she would bake a few dog treats for a no-kill sanctuary benefit event on Hawai‘i Island. Her husband, Torsten, had established a reputation as a hobby baker—for humans. They tried several recipes, and none of them appealed to Sabine. They tried one more and added bacon. Thus, “Bacon Woofys” were born. After the event, people praised the treats—the dogs loved them, and so did the owners. All of the treats are edible for humans, because they contain natural ingredients and no preservatives. Humans are just as fond of the Bacon Woofys as the canines! Soon after that event, Sabine baked treats to give away to friends’ and neighbors’ dogs. At home, Sabine’s many rescue dogs look forward to the leftovers from the baking process. It was so much fun that Sabine collected more than 100 recipes, modifying them to her liking. During the years she has added interesting recipes from Germany, Asia, and Hawai‘i (made with poi). She found cute cookie cutters and attractive packaging and designed labels for the products. Sabine bakes for cats, too! This presents a greater challenge because cats are more picky than dogs. If it’s not the right size or does


| By Mālie Larish

not smell good enough, they will turn their little heads. Sabine does not expect all cats and dogs to like her treats, however the majority of the taste testers are content with her high quality homemade creations. Mochi, her chihuahua, loves all of the treats she makes! For the allergic dog, The Paw Pantry lineup includes wheat and gluten-free treats. Sabine has added recipes with coconut flour, coconut oil, and even coconut water. For hot summer days, she offers special icy treats made with fresh fruits and yogurt. Sabine also offers doggie shampoo and soap, fashion items like bandanas, gift baskets, and spa and wellness baskets online. Currently, Sabine is working on a Doggie Cookbook, which is due out later this year. Paw Pantry treats have traveled as far as Greece, Germany, Japan, and the mainland. A K9 military unit in the Middle East even received a generous donation of treats from her kitchen. You can buy The Captain’s Paw Pantry treats at the Poi Puppy booth at the Ho‘oulu Community Farmers Market at the Sheraton Kona Resort on Wednesdays and at the South Kona Green Market in Captain Cook on Sundays. The treats are also available on Saturdays at the Keauhou Farmers Market at the Keauhou Shopping Center and at arts and crafts fairs around the island. The Royal Kona Coffee Museum in Captain Cook and the Punalu‘u Bakery in Na‘ālehu also carry the treats. The Captain’s Paw Pantry PO Box 5093, Kailua-Kona, HI 96745 808.896.0289 July/August 2015

Clagett Galleries—Waikoloa


have often been asked why I developed a painting style Over the past four years, I have that so closely resembles mosaics. My favorite response is that also been fortunate to appear in after working in the federal government for more than 30 years, the “Best of theWest” show (2014, I find it hard to color outside the lines. Sometimes true, and 2015) at the Kona Oceanfront mostly not. Gallery, Rainforest As an Army brat and then later for my job, I Gallery at Volcano traveled extensively. When I landed in Hawai‘i, Art Center, Volcano it was the first time that I felt in my heart I was Garden Arts, and where I was supposed to be. Blue Sea Artisans, Here my shift to become an artist and to as well as numerous arts and crafts shows. open my heart began. All around me were rich Hawai‘i is a powerful island for creativity. jewel and earth tones and beautiful flora and I have expanded my creative endeavors from fauna. I knew that whatever I could imagine, I simply painting to providing tile canvases for the would find living somewhere on the islands. I bath and kitchen, as well as gifts for the home. was called to paint. Loving mosaics, I developed Most recently, with my business partner, I’ve the reflective, multi-dimensional acrylic painting launched Ignite Your Creative Passion, LLC to  style that has become my signature. My subjects provide a fun and safe haven for women to range across all aspects of Hawai‘i’s nature.  awaken dormant passions, play, and begin to Unsure of the response I would get from create the lives they desire as I have. galleries, I was thrilled to find that when It’s been quite a ride so far. Please join my I moved to Hawai‘i Island in 2011, I was blog for a little bit of inspiration and fun.  welcomed with open arms by Linda Dunn of There are endless possibilities and The Dance the Dunn Gallery of Wood Art. Linda has been a opportunities here on Hawai‘i Island, and wonderful mentor and cheerleader. I look forward to exploring them all! Clagett Galleries 410.908.8061

Anuhea July/August 2015


The Gathering Triptych


Hawai‘i Island Farmers Markets North

Saturday and Tuesday 2–6pm, Tuesdays 8am–6pm, Saturdays * Hawi Farmers Market, North Kohala, across from Post Office and Nakahara Store under the banyans. Saturday 8am–1pm Waimea Town Market at Parker School, 65-1224 Lindsey Rd., Waimea/Kamuela. Saturday 7am–noon Waimea Hawaiian Homestead Farmers Market, 64-759 Kahilu Rd., located at Kuhio Hale Bldg. (off of Mamalahoa Hwy., two miles east of Waimea town). Saturday 7:30am–2pm Honoka‘a Farmers Market, Mamane St., Honoka‘a, Honoka‘a Trading Co., Old Botelho Bldg. Tuesday and Friday 2–5pm Kekela Farms Organic Farmers Market, 64-604 Mana Rd., Waimea. 100% organic. Wednesday 9am–4pm Waimea Mid-Week Farmer’s Market at Pukalani Stables, site of the Paniolo Museum. Pukalani Road in Waimea.


Sunday 9am–1pm Laupāhoehoe Farmers Market. Next to the Minit Stop on Hwy. 19. Local products. Daily 8am–5pm Pana‘ewa Hawaiian Home Lands Farmers Market, Puainako and Ohuohu Streets by Walmart, Hilo. Sunday, Monday, Tuesday and Thursday 7am–4pm Hilo Farmers Market, corner of Mamo and Kamehameha Ave., downtown Hilo. 30 vendors. Wednesday and Saturday 6am–4pm * Hilo Farmers Market, corner of Mamo and Kamehameha Ave., downtown Hilo. 200 vendors. Saturday 7am–noon * Kino‘ole Farmers Market. Kino‘ole Shopping Plaza, 1990 Kino‘ole St., Hilo, Sunday 7am–2pm Pāhoa Village Farmers Market, Luquin’s/Akebono Theater parking lot in Pāhoa. Sunday 6am–2pm * Maku‘u Farmers Market, Kea‘au-Pāhoa bypass road.


Daily 7am–5pm Kea‘au Village Market, 16-6550 Old Volcano Rd., Kea‘au Wednesday Evenings 5–9pm Farmers Market Kalapana end of Kalapana-Kopoho Rd, (Rte 137), next to Kalapana Village Cafe. Local grown produce, ono grinds and live music. Saturday 7:30am–4pm Keaukaha Pana‘ewa Farmers Market. Railroad Avenue, across from Home Depot, Hilo. Homegrown produce offered by Hawaiian Homelands lessees. Saturday 8am–noon * Outer SPACE Ho‘olaulea at Uncle Roberts Awa Club, Kalapana Saturday 8am–1pm * Hilo Coffee Mill, 17-995 Volcano Rd., Mountain View (on Hwy. 11 between mile markers 12 and 13).


Sunday 6:30am–10am * Volcano Farmers Market, Cooper Center, 1000 Wright Rd., Volcano Village. Saturday and Wednesday 8am–2pm Na‘ālehu Farmers Market, Ace Hardware lawn.

Saturday 8am–noon * Keauhou Farmers Market, Keauhou Shopping Center, Keauhou. Saturday 7:30am–10am Waikoloa Village Farmers Market, 68-3625 Paniolo Ave., Waikoloa Community Church parking lot across from Waikoloa Elementary School. Saturday 9am–noon Holualoa Gardens Farmers Market 76-5901 Mamalahoa Hwy, Holualoa Sunday 9am–2pm South Kona Green Market Captain Cook, Amy Greenwell Ethnobotanical Garden Wednesday 8:30am–1pm Kings’ Shops Farmers Market Waikoloa Beach Resort Kohala Coast Wednesday 9am–2pm Ho‘oulu Community Farmers Market, Sheraton Kona Resort at Keauhou Bay Wednesday 2pm-Dark Kona Sunset Farmers Market In front of K-Mart, Makalapua Center Wednesday–Sunday 7am–4pm Kona Village Farmers Market, corner of Ali‘i Drive and Hualālai Rd.

* EBT accepted: Please send info on new markets or changes to 74

July/August 2015

The IncrEdible Coconut | By Sonia R. Martinez


oconuts have been cultivated for so long and become so naturalized on tropical shores all around the world that the origins are unknown. The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) is one of the most useful tree species to mankind and was one of the canoe plant crops brought by the early Polynesians settling the Hawaiian Islands. There is a South Seas saying that, he who plants a coconut tree plants everything he needs. Considered the “tree of life” because it can provide food, drink, fiber, material for habitation and roofing, cooking and serving utensils, musical instruments, clothing, and medicine, it can also be a source of heat and much more. Buttons, hair ornaments, and so many other tools can be made from the coconut shells, with baskets, hats, and other useful items woven from the fronds. Although peak season is from September through January, ripe coconuts can be found year-round across the Hawaiian Islands. Vendors sell and will cut open the stem end in front of you at markets and other island events so you can quench your thirst with the delicious juice in the freshest way possible. The coconut is not really a nut, but a seed, belonging to the family of fruits called drupes, or stone fruits, and are thus related to dates, apricots, plums, nectarines, and peaches. The edible part of the seed is inside the inner “nut.” Before it ripens, the internal flesh is jelly-like and can be eaten with a spoon scraping it right off the shell (wonderful with a sprinkle of brown or coconut sugar). As it matures, the flesh solidifies, turning into coconut meat; the meat is kept moist by the thin, opaque coconut juice or water. Coconuts found in markets have usually had the green outermost husk removed. This is a labor-intensive step in the process and takes someone who is highly skilled with a machete to do it quickly. The brown hairy shell inside the husk surrounds and protects the fruit’s meat and juice. There are three germination pores (stoma) or “eyes” that are clearly visible on the outer surface of this shell. It takes about a year for the green coconut to ripen and harden to the stage where it can be broken in pieces and grated. When buying fresh ripe coconuts, make sure that there is no moisture in the eyes of the nut, that the shell is not cracked,

nor does it emit any sour or acrid smell. It should feel heavy, and you should also be able to hear the water sloshing inside when shaken. They can be stored at room temperature for several weeks after harvesting, sometimes even months, if kept in the shade.

Cleaning out a coconut shell to use as a serving vessel

Punch out the “eyes” at the end of the “nut” with an ice pick; drain the juice or water, reserving for other uses. With the claw end of a hammer, working along an imaginary line, tap sharply all around the middle of the nut, until both halves come loose. Scoop out the coconut meat and grate for other uses.

Making Coconut Milk

Grating the meat across the grain or using a fine blade in a food processor makes coconut milk. Add the coconut water and 1/2 cup of warm water; let stand an hour, and then squeeze through a jelly bag or several layers of cheesecloth. It may be frozen for later use.

Freezing Coconut Meat

Coconut meat can be frozen in chunks or grated. If you wish, you can lightly sprinkle with sugar and store in a freezer bag or in any airtight container. It can last for one to two years if all air is taken out. Be sure to date the container. Although the traditional coconut dessert in Hawai‘i is haupia, a pudding-like custard originally thickened with the grated root of the pia (Polynesian arrowroot), another of the ‘canoe plants.’ I would like to share a typical coconut dessert from Cuba; the dulce de coco, a very simple coconut sweet.

Dulce de Coco

2 C grated coconut 3 C sugar 1 can of coconut milk (13.5 ounce) 1 stick cinnamon (optional) Dissolve the sugar in the coconut milk in a saucepan at medium high on stove. When it starts boiling and gets glossy looking, add the coconut, stir, and turn heat down. When the liquid has evaporated by about half and the mix is thicker, remove from the heat, let cool, and refrigerate. It will thicken as it cools. Serve in individual dishes as is, over pound cake or ice cream. Note: The older and harder the coconut meat, the whiter the dulce. If using fairly fresh coconut meat, as I did, the meat will start turning a bit brown by air oxidation, sort of like an apple or pear, but the hot cooking syrup will stop the browning. Contact writer Sonia R. Martinez: 75

Hawai‘i Island Happenings

Wondering what’s happening around Hawai‘i Island? Visit these businesses and organizations websites for the most up-to-date event calendars.

Konaweb Shirley Stoffer, 808.345.2627

Hawai‘i The Big Island Sherry Bracken, 808.334.1521

Quick Eventz

Akebono Theater–Pāhoa 808.965.9990

Aloha Theatre–Kainaliu

Aloha Performing Arts Company 808.322.9924

Amy B.H. Greenwell Ethnobotanical Garden Peter Van Dyke, 808.323.3318

Basically Books 808.961.0144

Donkey Mill Art Center 808.322.3362

Downtown Hilo Improvement Association 808.935.8850

Food Hub Kohala Karla Heath, 808.224.1404

Friends of NELHA 808.329.8073

Hawai‘i Homegrown Food Network

‘Imiloa Astronomy Center of Hawai‘i

Hawaii Museum of Contemporary Art/ EHCC

Kahilu Theatre–Waimea

Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park

Kailua Village Business Improvement District 808.961.5711

Volcano Art Center Julie Callahan, 808.967.8222

Holualoa Village Association 808.969.9703 808.885.6868 808.326.7820

Kalani Oceanside Retreat 808.965.0468

Honoka‘a People’s Theatre

KAMA Hawaii Keiki Guide

Hulihe‘e Palace

Kona Historical Society 808.775.0000 808.329.1877 808.987.3302 808.323.3222

a wealth of wisdom


Book Publishing with Aloha

Author Mentoring B ook Editing, Layout, and Design Book Publishing—Hardcover, Softcover, eBook

808.896.3950 PO Box 390038, Keauhou, Hawai‘i 96739 76

July/August 2015

Hawai‘i Island Happenings

Wondering what’s happening around Hawai‘i Island? Visit these businesses and organizations websites for the most up-to-date event calendars.

Kona Choral Society

Resort and Shopping Center Cultural Events

Palace Theatre–Hilo 808.334.9880 808.934.7010

Kona Stories Bookstore

Log onto websites for event calendars

Keauhou Shopping Center 808.322.3000

Society for Kona’s Education & Art (SKEA) 808.324.0350 808.886.8811

UH Hilo Performing Arts Center Emily Benton, 808.935.5021

Nā Wai Iwi Ola (NWIO) Foundation

Kona Commons Shopping Center 808.974.7310 Kumu Keala Ching

Waimea Community Theatre

North Kohala Community Resource Center

West Hawaii Dance Theatre and Academy Virginia Holte, 808.329.8876

One Island Sustainable Living Center


Kona International Marketplace 808.329.6262 808.885.5818 808.889.5523 808.885.9501

Kingsʻ Shops–Waikoloa 808.328.9392

Lyman Museum

The Shops at Mauna Lani

Prince Kuhio Plaza 808.959.3555

Queens’ MarketPlace–Waikoloa 808.886.8822 808.328.2452

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Reserve your  spot  soon! The  deadline  for  the   Sept./Oct.  issue   is  July  20. Call  for  more  info: EH:  808.935.7210 WH:  808.329.1711

July/August 2015


Kona Marketplace 75-5729 Alii Drive, Suite C-110 Kailua-Kona ♦ Hawaii 96740

808-329-6653 ♦

open Mon - Sat 9:30 am - 5:30 pm


To submit volunteer information for your nonprofit,

AdvoCATS Methodist Church Palani, Kailua-Kona

3rd Saturday, 10am Trap, neuter, spay, community education, colony feeding, management. Contact Cathy or Nancy 808.327.3724

Boys & Girls Club of the Big Island Hilo, Kea‘au, Pāhoa, Pāhala Oceanview, Hāmākua

Monday–Friday, 2:30–5pm Volunteers needed for after-school youth programs 808.961.5536

Calabash Cousins Hulihe‘e Palace Grounds, Kailua-Kona

2nd Tuesday of the month 1–2:30pm Men and women who support the mission of Daughters of Hawai‘i. Contact Sabine Andresen 808.329.9555

Community Kōkua Volunteer Opportunities

Community suffering from cancer, medical hair loss, domestic abuse. Contact Tiana Steinberg 808.326.2866

Donkey Mill Art Center Holualoa Holualoa Foundation for Arts and Culture

Tuesday–Saturday, 10am–4pm Volunteers help in arts education program. Contact Anne Catlin 808.322.3362

Hawaii Museum of Contemporary Art (aka East Hawaii Cultural Council) Hilo

Monday–Friday, 8am–3pm Volunteer in the art galleries, performing arts, classes, workshops, festivals. 808.961.5711

Friends of NELHA Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawai‘i Keahole Kona

Client: Flyin Hawaiian Coffee/Judy Knapp Project: CMYK Ad for Ke Ola Magazine Size: 3.5” w x 2.25” h (1/8 pg H) Ad: “Traveling” CommUNITY cares Monday–Friday, 9am–noon Agency: CKMP Creative | Designer: Christine - Mobile: (925) 895-9098 - E-mail: Date: 24may15 Deadline: 26may15 Share Ocean Science/Technology using deep Kailua-Kona

Monday–Friday, 9am–5pm Saturday, 9am–2pm

Use provided contacts for information (Listings provided on a space available basis)

ocean water. 808.329.8073

Hamakua Youth Foundation, Inc. Hamakua Youth Center, Honoka‘a

Daily, Mon. Tue. Fri. 2–5:30pm Wed. 1–5:30pm, Thu. 2–8pm Serving Hamakuaʻs school-age kids. Contact T. Mahealani Maiku‘i 808.775.0976

Hawai‘i Island Humane Society Kona Shelter, Kailua-Kona

Monday–Saturday, 9am–5pm Need volunteers 16 or older, parent/child team 6 or older. Contact Bebe Ackerman 808.217.0154

‘Imiloa Astronomy Center of Hawai‘i Hilo

Tuesday-Sunday 9am–5pm Assist with tours, shows, education programs and membership. Contact Roxanne Ching 808.969.9704

Kahalu‘u Bay Education Center Kahalu‘u Beach, Kailua-Kona

Daily 9:30am–4:30pm ReefTeach Volunteers educate visitors on reef etiquette and protection. Contact Rachel Silverman 808.887.6411

Hawai‘i Wildlife Fund Wai‘ōhinu Coastline, Ka‘ū

SE Hawai‘i Island beach cleanups. Ongoing 7:45am Contact Megan Lamson 808.769-7629

Hospice Care North Hawai‘i Hospice, Waimea

Contact Catrinka Holland 808.885.7547

Kalani Retreat Center Kalapana

Monday–Friday, 8am–4:30pm Care for families facing serious illness.

Varied Schedules Seeking volunteers: skilled trades/ maintenance, housekeeping, kitchen, horticulture. Contact Volunteer Office 808.965.7828

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To submit volunteer information for your nonprofit,

Kohala Animal Relocation & Education Service (KARES) Kamuela/Kona Shopping Area

Community Kōkua Volunteer Opportunities

Contact Lani 808.325.1973

Saturdays and/or Sundays, 11am–4pm Volunteers needed to assist with pet adoption events. Contact: Deborah Cravatta 808.333.6299

Make-A-Wish Hawaii

Kona Choral Society Kailua-Kona

North Kohala Community Resource Center Kohala Welcome Center, Hawi

Seeking volunteers for help with box office and ushering at our concerts. Contact John Week 808.334.9880

Kona Toastmasters Kailua-Kona

1st and 3rd Tuesdays, 6pm Lynn Bell 808.989.7494

Lions Clubs International Various Locations, Kailua-Kona

2nd Tuesday, 5:30pm “We Serve” is the motto of Lions Clubs International.

Ongoing Granting wishes for children with life-threatening medical conditions. 808.537.3118

Daily 9am–noon or noon–3pm Greet people to North Kohala with aloha. Contact Juanita Rivera 808.889.5523

Paradise Ponies, Carousel of Aloha Hilo Coffee Mill, Mountain View

Ongoing Seeking volunteers to create the Carousel of Aloha Pavilion. Contact Katherine Patton 808.315.1093

Use provided contacts for information (Listings provided on a space available basis)

Parrots in Paradise Sanctuary Kealakekua

Sundayʻs Child Foundation Kamuela

Rainbow Friends Animal Sanctuary Kurtistown

The Pregnancy Center Kailua-Kona (serves the entire island)

Snorkel Day for People with Disabilities Kahalu‘u Beach Park, Kailua-Kona

Therapeutic Horsemanship of Hawaii Kailua-Kona

Flexible hours Monday–Friday Sanctuary for displaced parrots. Contact Dorothy Walsh 808.322.3006

Ongoing Volunteers needed to help care for the animals, repairs and maintenance to the Sanctuary, and help with the office paperwork. Contact Mary Rose 808.982.5110

3rd Friday, 10am–2pm Volunteers needed. Contact Stephanie Kovatch 808.326.4400 x 4017

Serving at-risk youth aged 6 to 17 Volunteers needed islandwide. Contact Lauren Rainier 877.375.9191

Monday–Friday Volunteers needed and appreciated! Free pregnancy testing, ultra sound, and client support. Contact Matthew Schaetzle, Director 808.326.2060

Volunteers are the heart and soul of this program. All levels of expertise needed. Contact Nancy Bloomfield 808.937.7903

Soroptimist International Kona Kailua-Kona

Monthly Meetings Enriching the lives of women and girls in our community for more than 40 years.

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The Spoon Shop, LLC

Talk Story with an Advertiser

| By Le‘a Gleason


racy Ackerman has always enjoyed food and being in the kitchen. From an early age she remembers her parents entertaining on a regular basis and has fond memories of the kitchen and dining room being a focal point of her childhood, and place of comfort. Owning a business in the culinary industry came as a surprise. She took over Kona’s The Spoon Shop after working there for just over two years. She says it just felt right. The previous owner’s lease was set to expire June 1, and by October, she purchased the business with a partner, rebranded it, doubled the size, and relocated near Costco and Home Depot in the Kaloko Industrial area. The Spoon Shop sells kitchen supplies, pots and pans, Stonewall Kitchen products, and gadgets and gizmos for all expertise levels. It has a bake center and a bar section, cookbooks, and a bulk olive oil and balsamic vinegar refill program. Amateur and professional chefs, culinary students, serious home cooks, and anyone passionate about being in the kitchen love the store because it’s got a little something for everyone. Tracy thinks that what makes the store unique is the fact that it’s staffed by people who truly appreciate and enjoy what they do. “We have a steady base of regulars who come to us first, often time for answers and knowledge about products they heard about or have seen on TV. If we don’t know or don’t have the answers we always research and assist as best we can. I believe customers appreciate our honesty and our willingness to help,” she says. Tracy says there’ve been a few bumps in the road while learning how to run her first business. “It’s been in a lot of ways a learn-as-you-go venture for me. I’ve worked closely from the beginning with the Small Business Development Center, and they have been extremely helpful,” she says. Tracy hopes to soon expand the business by completing a demonstration/catering kitchen where local chefs will offer recreational cooking classes to the public. The Spoon Shop, LLC Mon–Sat 10am–5pm 808.88SPOON (808.887.7666) 73-4976 Kamanu Street, #105, Kailua-Kona Hale Kui Plaza, Kaloko Industrial Area These stories are special features for our advertisers. If you have a business you would like to have featured, please call 808.327.1711 x1. 80 July/August 2015

Paradise Found Boutique

Talk Story with an Advertiser Keauhou store

| By Le‘a Gleason

Kainaliu store


aradise Found Boutique first opened its doors in March of 1974. Debbie Wielt DeBernardi and Patti Vaughan-Butler decided to open “a little boutique” in Captain Cook in the former Dillingham building. With the old Captain Cook post office next door, the store managed to attract a little attention and was soon up and running.  It was stocked with imported fashions from India. And then on a quick trip to Mexico by Debbie and her husband Bill, they rounded out the “edgy” look. Within a year the store relocated to Kainaliu, and after a short trip across the street, has remained in that vicinity for 40 years. Debbie moved into teaching and education, and Patti, her two sisters, and now her daughter, Bridget, have all been involved in the store’s operation since. Her sister, Kathleen, has traveled to Bali numerous times to oversee the sewing production for their exclusive and very successful clothing line, “Wasabi.”   Patti says her only preparation for the retail clothing industry was on-the-job training in the department stores, shops, and boutiques of New York City, her hometown. After graduating from an all-girls school, she went into a banking program with First National City Bank, which offered continuing education at NYU. Her next stop was an Investment Advisory firm in the Wall Street district, and then traversing the country later brought her to Hawai‘i.  “Hawai‘i was a great place to be an entrepreneur starting out in the seventies. An early mentor was Lester Hoffman, a retired consultant to the retail industry, and his wife, Winnie. Winnie had a clothing wholesale showroom on Kapiolani Blvd. This was where I was introduced to the fashion buying process,” Patti remembers. She began traveling inter-island to attend buying shows. One of the first was at the ballroom of the Hilton Hawaiian Village. She remembers being dizzy from the hundreds of Hawaiian prints available to be translated into the fashion designs. “I always attribute the longevity and success of Paradise Found Boutique to being surrounded by great associates. Every employee and vendor has given me a take-away,” she says.

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Paradise Found Boutique Keauhou Shopping Center, 808.324.1177 Kainaliu Village Rt.11, 808.322.2111 July/August 2015


Indich Collection

Talk Story with an Advertiser


| By Le‘a Gleason

midst the sea of buildings in KailuaKona’s industrial area is one store that’s a peaceful haven of art from around the world. Inside Indich Collection, thousands of colorful, hand-woven rugs from India, China, and Nepal are waiting to be discovered. They are stacked and hung beautifully around the store, displaying intricate designs unique to each rug. Banana Leaves Kona store manager Barbara DeFranco explains that the Indich Collection is a direct importer of rugs, so there’s no middleman. Instead, they deal directly with the people who hand-weave the rugs. “Weaving is a time-honored tradition with different cultures around the world,” she explains. “For rugs you need wool, and we don’t produce wool here, so you have to go to India, China, or Nepal. From there you have century-old traditions of people that passed this weaving down through Heliconia Bamboo generations. [These rugs] are pieces of art from all over the world.” In addition to traditional Middle Eastern patterns, Indich also offers rugs with Hawaiian-inspired patterns. “We developed the Hawaiian rug using tropical designs about 20 years ago, so we use Hawaiian lei, flora, and fauna to depict the beauty of Hawai‘i using the ancient techniques found worldwide of weaving,” Barbara says. Indich also works with clients who prefer a custom design. A dedicated design team on O‘ahu creates the design in full color two- Stacked Stones dimensional art, and once approved by the client, the rug gets sent to a weaver to be made by hand. Barbara says it’s fulfilling to do this kind of work, partly because choosing a high quality rug means bringing something into a person’s home that is going to last for generations. “People come in, and we can either do a rug presentation in their home or they can take samples. Buying a rug really pulls the design of your home together, so it’s important that people get the quality, texture, and ambience that they want to create in their home. It’s a great opportunity for me to work with people [to help choose] a rug they’re going to have for a very long time,” she says. The Indich Collection has five stores throughout the state, and was started by Bill Indich, who Barbara laughs, “just can’t stop collecting.” Indich Collection 74-5599 Luhia Street, Kailua-Kona 808.329.6500 82

July/August 2015

Talk Story with an Advertiser


| By Le‘a Gleason

amping on Hawai‘i’s beautiful beaches is special, however falling asleep at home in your own soft, comfortable bed is unparalleled. HomeWorld and SlumberWorld stores are just the place to find the Owner/Executive Team perfect bed, and they’re L–R standing: Wendell Wo, Robert Wo, Bennett Wo, Scott Wo full of options for other L–R seated: Michael Wo furniture pieces too. Robert Wo (son of founder), Betty Wo Frank Sublett manages the Kailua-Kona branches, and explains that both Kona and Hilo locations offer Hawai‘i’s largest selection of fine furniture and mattresses including Tommy Bahama, Stressless, LazyBoy, Ashley, Howard Miller, Hammary, Kincaid, Universal, Human Touch and Inada massage chairs, among others. In addition, SlumberWorld stores carry Tempur-pedic, Beautyrest, Serta iComfort, TechnoGel, Organicpedic (certified organic), and Island Dreams. “We know that the rooms in your home are more than just a bedroom, dining room, or living room, both in how you use them and what they mean to you and your family. Those rooms and the beds, dining sets, and sofas you use to furnish them are an expression of you, your style, and your unique family needs,” Frank says. Also, this is more than just a furniture store chain. It’s representative of a long family history. Ching Sing Wo opened a general merchandise store on North King Street in Honolulu in 1909. As Hawai‘i grew and prospered, so did the C. S. Wo general store. In 1942, the general store was transformed into a furniture store. At the same time, the sons of Ching Sing Wo, Bob, Jim, and Bill joined the thriving family business and the company was renamed C. S. Wo & Sons. For the next three decades, the business grew. The dock strike in 1949 inspired the brothers to open up the CSMF upholstery and casegoods factory. In 1954, the brothers bought out their largest competitor, Vans Furniture, and broadened their retail operation to the neighbor islands. In the early 1980s, the third generation joined the company. Robert Wo’s sons, Bob, Wendell, Mike, Ben, and Scott brought their own ideas and knowledge to the business. C. S. Wo & Sons, Ltd. continues to offer a variety of furniture to Hawai‘i consumers today. ​ HomeWorld/SlumberWorld Kailua-Kona: 73-5593 Maiau Street, 808.326.7591 (across from Costco) Hilo: 94 Kinoole Street 808.935.2917,

July/August 2015

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Showcase Gallery and Beads


Celebrating a Long Time Advertiser with Ke Ola

rom its start in 1981, Showcase Gallery and Beads dedicated their business to supporting art and fine crafts, especially works created in Hawai‘i. Owners and partners Emily and Gary Brown began selling their handmade designs to the then-owner in the early nineties. The couple took over the business in 2004. After existing in several locations, the gallery now resides in Kainaliu town. Today, their mission is much the same as the original intent: to carry local art and fine crafts, support local artists, and share their love and knowledge of both. “My husband and I are artists also, so we know both sides of the business. We know the labor of love that is involved in each piece, and we’re very familiar with many of the processes our artists use to create their work. Many times customers ask, ‘what is this made of?’ or ‘how was this made?’ and because of our own experiences, we can explain in detail what they’re looking at or purchasing,” Emily explains. Emily says part of the joy of operating the gallery is in working with local artists and products. “I love being surrounded by the art of so many fabulous people. The vast majority of our artists are from Hawai‘i Island and it’s a joy working here, surrounded by all this beauty and creativity. Dealing with the artists is wonderful. I know many of them personally, and it’s nice when you’re working with friends, and of course, we have many great customers as well,” she says. The gallery currently carries the works of over 100 local artists and a select group from the mainland. It offers a wonderful selection of handmade jewelry, ceramics, woodwork, art glass, photographs, metal and koa sculpture, baskets, gourds, wearable art, paintings, prints, and intricate ship models. Emily explains that part of her goal has been to make customers feel comfortable when they see all the gallery has to offer.

| By Le‘a Gleason

“We want them to enjoy their shopping experience, and even if they don’t buy anything, we want them to understand what they’re looking at. Some customers don’t realize that almost everything in the gallery is handmade, so we like them to know about the art and the artists we represent and the time and effort that went into each piece. And we want them to be happy with their purchase,” she says. Another element of the gallery is a bead and jewelry supply boutique that was added to the business in 2010. “My husband and I made jewelry for many years, and we know many people who bead and make jewelry, too, but they can’t always find what they need locally. Prior to adding the bead boutique, we talked it over with some of our beading friends, and they were very encouraging. We started by selling off our own personal stock and that of other beading friends, and we discovered that there was a need for what we offered, so we added new stock and supplies that our customers were asking for,” Emily says. She explains that she loves beads, so it’s just another extension of being surrounded by work she truly enjoys. “When you’re a small family business, it’s important to really enjoy what you’re doing, and I feel like I’m surrounded by everything that I love, so the bead shop is an extension of that,” she says. With such a big stock of local products (including Gary’s fascinating handmade ship models) Emily assures people that there’s something for every style and budget at Showcase Gallery and Beads. Showcase Gallery and Beads Mon–Sat, 10am–6pm 79-7407 Mamalahoa Hwy., Kainaliu 808.322.3203

July/August 2015





Tax planning is a year round event!

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Ka Puana–The Refrain

Author Kamamaikalani Beamer, PhD is a Kamuela resident. These excerpts are used with permission.

No Mākou Ka Mana Liberating the Nation | By Kamanamaikalani Beamer

Page 3 Recognizing the complex identity of ali‘i such as Lili‘uokalani is an important part of this study; however, the examples of how the ali‘i exercised their agency are perhaps of greater significance for contemporary ‘Oiwi (Native Hawaiian)5 and other indigenous people. This book does not suggest that one should live like and make the same decisions as the ali‘i; rather, it discusses what can be learned from how the ali‘i confronted their challenges. This study builds on three related themes: (1) how a group of Hawaiian ali‘i confronted Europeans and Americans to form a nation-state in the nineteenth century, (2) how natives exercised their agency even while Hawaiian nationalism began to decline following the illegal overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom government in 1893, and (3) how ‘Oiwi today can be emboldened by gaining a better understanding of the wisdom of our ali‘i and the choices they made to benefit the lāhui. The essential argument of this book is that ali‘i selectively appropriated Euro-American tools of governance while modifying existing indigenous structure to create a hybrid nation-state as a means to resist colonialism and to protect Native Hawaiian and national interests. Essentially, I am saying that ali‘i took what they wanted to use from the Euro-American world while maintaining their identity as ali‘i and Hawaiians. See, for example, Trask, Native Daughter; Kame‘eleihiwa, Native Land; Osorio, Dismembering Lāhui; and Silva, Aloha Betrayed.


Page 5 This book offers a new framework for viewing and understanding Hawaiian history, leaders, and lands. It offers a new perspective of Hawaiian leadership and the creation of the Hawaiian Kingdom. It places the ali‘i at the center of the narrative while examining critical moments of their reigns as they grappled with Euro-American imperialism. As ali‘i forged the nation and held on to critical pieces of an ‘Oiwi past, they formed a country. The Hawaiian Kingdom—recognized as an independent state in 1843 and acknowledged as a member of the family of nations—was a country built on a foundation of both indigenous Hawaiian and modified Euro-American principles to protect Hawaiian national interests. Later, in 1893, US officials and a small oligarchy of lawyers and businessmen overthrew the Hawaiian Kingdom precisely because it successfully safeguarded Hawaiian interests. The overthrow was not a culmination of a sustained set of colonizing events that began with James Cook’s arrival in the islands; rather, it was a critical assault on indigenous Hawaiian governance and the beginning of the US occupation of the Hawaiian Islands. 86

Page 194 One frequently overlooked reason for American involvement in the overthrow was that the Reciprocity Treaty of 1887—and thus the exclusive use of Pearl Harbor by the United States—was set to expire in 1894. On November 20, 1892, British Consul Wodehouse wrote, “Up to the present time no steps have been taken by the U.S. government to render Pearl Harbor available for U.S. warships.”11 Overthrowing the constitutional Hawaiian Kingdom government in 1893 allowed Pearl Harbor to be developed by the US military without interference or oversight from the Hawaiian Kingdom government. 11 Wodehouse, Correspondence, November 20, 1892.

Page 195 ‘Oiwi Opposition to Annexation Groups of Hawaiian nationals mobilized to defeat the proposed treaty. Hawaiian historian Noenoe Silva has written extensively on the astute diplomacy of Queen Lili‘uokalani, the Hui Kālai‘āina, and the Hui Aloha ‘Āina in demonstrating the Hawaiian population’s disapproval of this treaty.13 The two hui conducted large-scale petition drives, collecting the signatures of nearly forty thousand Hawaiian nationals who opposed annexation. The hui and the queen were successful. The treaty of annexation was never passed in the US Congress because it was not able to attract a two-thirds majority. Still, the US administration pursued annexation of Hawai‘i and resorted to a domestic joint resolution in 1898, known as the “Newlands Resolution.” To this day, it remains unclear how the United States annexed a foreign country through a domestic joint resolution, since a domestic resolution is not a treaty, and its jurisdiction is within the nation-state. The legality of this action therefore continues to be debated by academics, Hawaiian organizations, and legal experts.14 13 Silva, Aloha Betrayed 14 Sai, “American Occupation . . . A Century Unchecked.” See also Coffman, Nation Within and Sai, “The American Occupation.” In a related vein, some historians may argue that Texas was acquired through joint resolution, but in fact it was acquired through the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Contact author Kamanamaikalani Beamer: No Mākou Ka Mana is available from the author and local bookstores.

July/August 2015

July–August 2015  
July–August 2015