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News.........................................................03 Energy......................................................13 Agriculture....................................................17 AWEsome.....................................................23 Digita Era......................................................33 Water/Environment........................................37 IEK................................................................43




A Definitive Publication of Engineers in East Africa & Beyond, since 1972

MARCH/APRIL 2014 Editorial Board: M Kashorda - Chairperson N O Booker - Secretary J Mutulili F W Ngokonyo J N Kariuki S M Ngare A Muhalia A W Otsieno S K Kibe M Majiwa Managing Editor Kevin Achola Editorial Assistant: Peninah Njakwe Editors: Articulate Edits Design & Layout: Daniel Wakaba Ndung’u Sales & Marketing: Joyce Ndamaiyu Phylis Muthoni Teresa Atieno Cover photo courtesy of: Athi Water Services Board Published by:

P O Box 45754-00100 Nairobi Tel: +254 20 4443649/50/72 Cell: +254 719 207 712 Fax: +254 20 4443650 Email: Kenya Engineer Magazine


Editor’s Note T

is year 2014 is the year that many of the projects that were launched last year will take off in earnest. Most of the projects demand much from engineers to realize their potential. Projects like Lamu Port Southern Sudan-Ethiopia Transport, the Standard Gauge Railway line, the Green Field Airport Terminal, and energy projects that target 5,000 megawatts of electricity in the next 36 months depend on engineers. In this issue we focus on water and agriculture, for us to meaningfully develop we must be able to feed and provide water for our people. Over 1.6 million Kenyans face imminent starvation, a quarter of Kenyans are poorly nourished while another 40 per cent have no access to clean water, a new report by relief agency Oxfam says. Agriculture The potential for agriculture to drive inclusive economic growth, improve food security, and create opportunities for Engineers and millions of Kenyans is enormous. About two-thirds of Kenyans depend on agriculture for their incomes. Investing in agriculture now could help lift tens of millions of people out of poverty. It is noticeable that there is increasing investment by the government and the private sector in Agri-business initiatives. President Uhuru Kenyatta recently performed ground-breaking for the development of a 10,000 acre model farm in Galana and Kulalu ranches. In this farm various enterprises will be demonstrated to reveal the great potential investment opportunities that exist in Agriculture. It is part of the Kenyan government plan to irrigate one million acres of land in the next five years. The project will involve water storage, utilization of the available water and utilization of other natural resources to ensure economically, socially and environmentally viable crop, livestock and fisheries enterprises alongside eco-tourism activities. Engineers form an integral part of Agricultural projects through design and infrastructure development. They also ensure increased efficiency in agricultural production by use of mechanization, automation and modern technologies in farming. In our feature article titled ` Irrigating the arid and semi arid areas in Kenya’, Eng. Odede of National Irrigation Board gives an insight on the irrigation schemes carried out by the Kenyan government towards realizing the promise of a million acres of land under irrigation. Water The reliable availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods and production relies on Engineering. Engineers take part right from harvesting, distribution, usage, to waste water disposal. Sustainable development will not be achieved without a water secure world. Towards water usage sustainability must be considered. We feature various water services boards and their efforts in ensuring reliable supply of Water. M. Kashorda – Chairman Editorial Committee Next issue will be out by 1st May, 2014

Correspondence should be addressed to the Institution. Kenya Engineer is published every two months. Views expressed in this Journal are those of the writers and do not necessarily reflect those of the Institution.

©Copyright: Reproduction of any article in part or in full is strictly prohibited without written permission from the Institution of Engineers of Kenya. Disclaimer: To our readers, verify all the advertised courses with Engineers Board of Kenya. KENYA ENGINEER - March/April 2014



22 firms selected to build power plants in Kenya

Cooling fins at Olkaria IV geothermal power generating plant


enya’s Ministry for Energy said that it had selected 22 local and international firms for the development of two power plants with a combined output of 1,800MW from coal and natural gas. Cabinet Secretary for Ministry of Energy and Petroleum Davies Chirchir told a news conference in Nairobi that 12 firms are interested in the coal power plant while 10 are interested in natural gas-fired power plant. “The sourcing of the coal will be from the government as well as competitors while the gas will be from the Qatar government,” Chichir told journalists in Nairobi. He said the contenders included China’s

Shanxi International Electricity Group, Sinohydro Group Ltd, and South Korea’s Samsung C&T Corp among others. Chirchir said the government would build two major power plants at the Coast to the tune of 4 billion U.S. dollars in a bid to lower power tariffs. The first, a coal-fired power plant power construction with a capacity of 960 Megawatts (MW) will be built in Lamu County at a cost of 1.95 billion dollars while the other is a 700MW plant at Dongo Kundu in Mombasa County worth 1.46 billion dollars which will be powered by natural gas. Chirchir said that the tendering process commenced in September 2013,

adding that the first phase of the process had already been finalized. According to the cabinet secretary, the projects will be completed in the year 2015 and 2016 for the natural gas and coal powered plants respectively. The East African nation has a huge mineral potential but its exploration efforts have only picked in the last five years with the awarding of commercial licences in prospecting for oil, gold, coal, geothermal and rare earths. The coal and gas fired power plants are projects under the 5000+ MW program launched by the energy ministry aimed at putting an additional over 5000MW into the national grid by 2016.

Private Sector propose to have refinery turned to storage facility


o n t h s a f t e r t h e s h u t d ow n of Kenya’s refinery, Kenya Petroleum Refineries Limited (KPRL), the private sector is proposing that the facility be turned into a storage facility. The Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KePSA) proposes that the facility be converted to a storage terminal as it can no longer continue being a refinery.The refinery was shut down last year following the pulling


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out of Essar Energy Oversees Limited after its studies showed that upgrading the facility to continue cleaning crude oil was not viable. KePSA proposes that since Kenya does not have any strategic facility to store petroleum products for usage, the facility be turned to a storage terminal and that the private sector takes its back in the cause of getting financing and efficient management.

Since the KPRL does not fit into the Lapsset project which envisages a new refinery in Lamu, making it a storage facility is seen as the most viable alternative rather than shutting it down. With the discovery of oil fields in Northern Kenya and the strategic location of the refinery, the value of it for the country is even much more.


Planning the country cities afresh Kenya Power to overhaul electricity distribution network


n a venture valued at Sh55 billion, Kenya Power seeks to overhaul its electricity distribution infrastructure in the next three years. The venture is aimed at strengthening its distribution system to reduce frequent unplanned outages. Following the revision of the distribution master plan, dedicated lines will be set up for large consumers to ensure they still have power even in instances where there are planned power interruptions. According to Kenya Power Chief Executive, Ben Chumo, the existing distribution network that has been in place for years is worn out and requires a lot of strengthening.


he Nairobi City Council (NCC) in January announced plans to develop the Nairobi Integrated Urban Development Master Plan (NIUPLAN).The council body then, in conjunction with the Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA), called upon the public in Nairobi to participate in scheduled consultation meetings that were to happen around the Nairobi County from 20th Jan to 13th February. “The purpose of the consultations is to share with the citizenry the current city development situation, challenges and opportunities”, said NCC in a statement. The objective of the NUIPLAN is to provide an integrated urban development framework for coordinated city development. The plan seeks to integrate all existing sectoral plans in the city and align them to Vision 2030.

Kenyatta International Conference Centre, Nairobi

“The direction of urban development is not clearly defined as the urban development plan of Nairobi city has not been updated since 1973”, says a report by JICA on the urban plan. The meetings would discuss development options in order to build consensus, agreements and way forward. Planning the port city again Barely a week after the Nairobi City Council announced the plans to develop the Nairobi Integrated Urban Development Master Plan (NIUPLAN), Mombasa County also made similar plans. The Mombasa masterplan expected to be take between 18-36 months to develop came after the Japanese donors gave positive indications towards the project.

According to Mombasa county government executive secretary for Lands and Physical Planning Francis Thoya, Mombasa city had been without a master plan since 2006, leading to rapid growth of slums and unplanned development. The same also led to traffic congestion and poor sanitation infrastructure. The current masterplan for the city is 38 years old having been developed by McLoffin Company of Britain in 1976. The plan was to cater for a population of 300,000 for 30 years but the population has since increased to 1.2 million. The proposed masterplan is set to last for 50 years. It will provide for mini cities to help decongest the port town. It will also assist in planning the multi-billion Dongu Kundu port expansion and proposed railway.

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Works on Eastern missing link roads to begin in April


he Kenya Urban Road Authority (KURA) is set to begin construction and rehabilitation works on the Nairobi Eastern Missing Link roads by April this year.The road authority made the announcement in late January in an advert giving notice to all project affected persons, service providers and the public to vacate the road corridor in the next 60 days. The works will cover Likoni road extension (1.8km), Enterprise road (2.2km), and dualling of Lusaka road from Mombasa road junction to DT Dobie (2.5km).Footpaths and cycle tracks on Rabai and Lusaka roads from Enterprise road junction to Jogoo road junction will also be set up.KURA will also start improvement of the Outering Ring Road from the junction with the Eastern Bypass up to the junction with Thika Road and adjacent roads. The Outering Road is one of the Vision 2030 Flagship projects for the capital. The road projects are among other missing road links rehabilitation and construction projects in the capital with the latest, Western Ring Road, having been completed

A section of the Nairobi-Thika Superhighway

and commissioned late last year. The missing road links were identified in 2004 with the aim of reducing traffic congestion in Nairobi and making increase in economic growth. Multi-billion by-passes set for the North Rift region Elsewhere, a move to ease traffic on the highways in the North Rift region, the government announced plans to build two multi-billion by-pass roads with works expected to commence this year.The bypasses will be built along the Kenya-

Uganda highway to ease traffic especially for trucks ferrying goods through the route. One of the by-passes will be built in Timboroa to connect the Kenya-Uganda highway to the Eldoret-Kabarnet highway. The roads are expected to aid East African countries using the route to transport goods from the port of Mombasa. With the roads, long distance trucks could avoid passing through Eldoret town which is currently a traffic gridlock. It also expected that the roads will boost agricultural farming in the region.

Wildlife among those to be affected by SGR project ut of the total 5,567 acres of land needed for the construction of the Standard Gauge Railway (SRG),a total of 250 acres of land under the Kenya Wildlife Services will be used. The land in Taita Taveta, Kwale and Makueni counties will be acquired through a compulsory acquisition gazetted last Friday by the National Land Commission.


expected to have great economical benefits to the country.

The Sh448 billion railway project had attracted a lot of controversy following the pricing, design and tendering process of the project where China Road and Bridge Construction won the tender. The president however said the project would go on in spite ongoing probing was the project is

The railway line will be built to the American Standard of 39 inches between rails as the Chinese standards of 56 inches are not applicable outside the country. An inland container depot at Embakasi will also be set-up to a tune of Sh11 billion plus consultancy services adding up to Sh3


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Another 70 acres of land will be acquired from private land owners, bringing to 320 acres the land being annexed for public use in the first phase. A total of Sh8 billion will be used in the acquisition of land needed for the construction of the railway.

billion. A 1.5 per cent Railway Development Levy on imports for use in Kenya was introduced in the last Budget to finance the railway. The levy raised Sh10 billion in the first half of the financial year against the target of Sh6.2 billion. The levy is however set to be reviewed following several institutions claiming that their imports should not be taxed. The second phase of the project will run between Nairobi and Malaba with a branch line to Kisumu.

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Construction authority begins countrywide registration of contractors


nauthorized contractors will now have their days numbered as the National Construction Authority (NCA) announced plans to start a country wide registration and inspection of all skilled construction workers in the country. The registration scheduled to begin on the 3rb of February would see NCA travel in all counties to undertake the exercise. This is considered as NCA’s one ambitious project. The initiative is in a move to curb the rising number of unqualified persons in the sector who have attributed largely to the rising number of collapsing buildings in the country.NCA will ensure that all contractors are skilled and legal before registration. It will also ensure that projects are registered, fully paid and that they comply with the law. This announcement was made by NCA’s executive director, Daniel Manduku who was speaking during the Engineer’s monthly luncheon hosted by the Institution of Engineers of Kenya (IEK) at Sarova Panafric on 31st January.

Manduku also commended the government for its contribution in ensuring some sanity and professionalism in the sector.“I am pleased to note that our government is committed to enhancing educational reforms that will support scientific academia”, said NCA’s boss, Daniel Manduku.The parliament has enacted

several acts such as the Universities Act of 2012, the Science Technology and Innovation Act of 2013 and the Technical and Vocational Education and Training Act of 2013.Having now become law, these acts will initiate a rapid and significant take-off in innovation and technology in the country.

Raising construction standards for national development: Engineers monthly luncheon


he institution of Engineers of Kenya on 31st January held their first monthly luncheon for this year. The event graced by engineers from different sectors and from government authorities was held at the Sarova Panafric in Nairobi from 12pm to 2:30pm.

engineering in the country.

The attendance was not as much as last year’s last luncheon but the number was close to seventy engineers. The luncheon, hosted by the Institution of Engineers of Kenya (IEK) was introduced as a forum for engineers to meet and interact as well as discuss matters of interest relating to

NCA boss Architect Daniel Manduku called on engineers to make strides in the technology sector so as to provide solutions to the country’s contemporary problems such as urban congestion, improper infrastructure, substandard constructions among others.


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The luncheon, graced by Eng.Joseph Njoroge as the chief guest- was themed “Raising construction standards for national development”. It was sponsored by the National Construction Authority (NCA).

The Chief Guest, Eng.Joseph Njoroge also pointed on the importance of setting standards in the construction sector especially at this point when the country has so much investments happening in the construction sector. In a move to enhance the engineers welfare in the country, engineers were also called upon to register in the newly formed engineers Sacco dubbed Mhadisi S a c c o .” Th i s c o r p o ra t e s o c i e t y h a s been created in the spirit of welfare for engineers”, said Eng.J.M Riungu who is the current chairman of the IEK.


Oil licenses halted till new law is passed


mid the ongoing discovery of oil in Kenya, the government halted the issuing of further licenses in early February until a new law regulating the sector is signed. The new law will be sent to parliament by June for assent. “We want first of all to get the policy and the Act in place which will happen before the end of this financial year that is, before June. And then from there we will be able to know how to move,” said Energy and petroleum principal secretary Joseph Njoroge. Consultants Hunton & Williams and Challenge Energy - employed to help review the law - have recommended the Act includes clearly defined policies for upstream, midstream and downstream sections to avoid overlaps and reduce inefficiency.


The new law will also allow for the creation and management of a sovereign wealth fund for petroleum revenue, and specify how revenue will be shared between national and local governments and communities

where discoveries were made. The PS said that seven new blocks would be up for licensing once the new energy law is in place. Kenya has previously said it will introduce licensing rounds with an auction-style format and move away from a first-come, first-served basis to award exploration blocks.

Oil explorer considering renewal of license

hile the government had halted issuing of new licenses to interested oil explorers, Vanoil Energy Ltd ,a Vancouver-based Canadian international oil and gas development company, confirmed ongoing discussions with the Kenyan Government with regard to its license renewals in Kenya. “These talks are now at a key stage and the Company expects them to conclude imminently. At such time, Vanoil will


It is also expected to provide guidance on natural gas exploitation, which is not adequately covered under existing law.

provide an immediate information update to the market”, said Vanoil in a statement.

geographically in close proximity to the recent PaiPai discovery in Kenya.

Vanoil is negotiating to renew its interest in onshore Blocks 3A and 3B, originally acquired in October 2007 through the signing of a Production Sharing Contract (PSC) with the Government of the Republic of Kenya. These blocks cover 24,912 km2 in Kenya’s Anza Basin and are geologically analogous to the prolific Muglad and Melmut Basins of South Sudan and

In offshore Kenya, the Company anticipates the receipt of its 10% working interest in the highly prospective 5,110 km2 Block L9 alongside Dominion Petroleum Kenya Limited (a wholly owned subsidiary of Ophir Energy plc) and FAR Limited. This block lies directly south of Block L8 which hosts the Mbawa gas discovery made in 2012.

Kenya firm awarded 2D seismic survey contract

merican oil company, ERHC Energy Inc awarded BGP Kenya Limited a contract to conduct a 2D seismic survey of Block 11A in north western Kenya. The seismic survey, expected to start in early spring, will be used to identify drilling targets on the Block.BGP was chosen from a shortlist of several companies that met the

strict criteria for conducting a 2D seismic survey of at least 1,000 line kilometers in the Block in compliance with the Company’s work program. BGP has completed similar surveys in numerous Blocks throughout Kenya. The 2D seismic survey in Block 11A will be premised on structural mapping of

prospective basins enabled by ERHC’s recently completed FTG survey of the Block. The FTG survey covered 14,943.8 line kilometers of the Block. Block 11A is located to the northwest of the Lokichar Basin where the significant Ekales-1, Ngamia-1 and Twiga South-1 oil discoveries were drilled.

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Kenya’s Economic update; Year in Review - 2013


ast Last year Kenya saw robust economic growth, thanks in part to a smooth conclusion to the March presidential elections as well as to the discovery of new hydrocarbon deposits and aquifers. Planned reforms and devolution look set to improve the overall business environment over the course of 2014, although the East African nation still faces challenges, including the end of tariff exemptions for key exports to the EU and continued instability in its northern neighbours. The IMF estimates GDP growth for 2013 at around 5.9%, with expansion forecast to continue at a healthy pace in 2014, rising to 6.2%. Growth came on the back of rising domestic consumption as well as an increase in capital inflows, brought about in part by an increase in infrastructure activity. It was not all smooth sailing however, particularly for the agriculture sector, which accounts for around a quarter of GDP. The country is a major producer of flowers, tea and coffee, which represent the country’s second, third and fourth largest foreignexchange earners respectively. Although production in the first part of the year increased and revenues were comparatively stable, a decline in international prices for cash crops combined with droughts in the


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east and northeast, and outbreaks of disease, made for a much tighter environment for farmers. The Westgate shopping centre attack in September also represented a major concern for the country’s economy, but fears of investor flight did not materialise – as of late December, the value of the NSE All Share Index was up around 10% since the attack. Indeed, headline indicators in most sectors were generally fairly strong. In the financial sector, the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) boomed last year, with the value of the NSE All-Share Index up nearly 45% for the yearto-date as of late December. Looking ahead, 2014 should bring more opportunities for financial investors seeking exposure to the country, through the planned issue of the first Kenyan Eurobond. The government reportedly aims to raise $1.5bn through the bond, making it sub-Saharan Africa’s largest debut issue to date. The funds will be used largely to finance infrastructure developments. The government has also overseen a gradual devolution of power to a new set of governmental entities. Shortly after

Uhuru Kenyatta’s narrow victory during the presidential elections in March – which avoided a repeat of the violence that followed the previous round of polls in December 2007 – new county-level governments were established, as set out by the 2010 constitution, with local authorities now responsible for administering some tasks previously carried out by the central government. Although concerns have been raised over the governance capacity of the new counties, it is hoped the devolution will help improve local oversight and strengthen development, particularly in rural areas. Important natural resource discoveries The economy received a major boost from a series of underground developments. In September the government announced the discovery of two large water aquifers in the arid Turkana region in the northwest. Together these are estimated to contain around 250bn cu metres of water, more than 80 times the country’s annual consumption. Furthermore, the aquifers have an estimated annual recharge rate of 3.4bn cu metres, exceeding estimated yearly usage, suggesting they can be drawn upon for an indefinite period. The burgeoning oil industry also saw


important new finds. Following two discoveries by partners Tullow and African Oil at wells in the Lokichar basin in Turkana in 2012, the two companies together struck oil in three more locations in the basin in 2013, in July, September and November. Commercial production of oil is expected to begin in 2016 and the discoveries have sparked interest in remaining licences from some of the largest international energy firms. Global and regional trade 2014 will prove a crucial year for exporters, who have been grappling with the low levels of growth in the EU, the country’s primary trading partner. Agriculture accounts for a large share of exports, which overall were down 0.7% in the first nine months of the year on the same period in 2012. Exports to Europe, which accounted for around 40% of overseas sales in 2012, may come under further pressure in 2014, with the EU saying it could terminate a temporary trade agreement with the East Africa Community (EAC), of which Kenya is a member, this year. Without special terms, Kenya will face tariffs of up to 16% on its exports to the EU under the General System of Preference. The higher tariffs are based on Kenya’s UN classification as a “developing country”. The other members of the EAC – Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi – are classified as “least-developed countries”, and so can continue to export goods to Europe with no duties or quotas under the EU’s “Everything But Arms” initiative. Meanwhile, efforts continue apace to further integrate the EAC community. Among other initiatives aimed at reducing non-tariff trade barriers, a single Customs territory among Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda came into effect in September. At the 15th EAC Summit, held in Uganda in December, leaders of the five member states endorsed a monetary union protocol, which will pave the way for a common currency. According to a joint statement read at the conference by Kenyatta, who recently took over the group’s chairmanship, a single currency will reduce transaction costs and minimise currency fluctuations, boosting levels of trade and investment.

Car dealers battling for a share in the motor industry

Hon. Aden Mohammed, Cabinet Secretary for Industrialization speaking during the launch of New 6th generation Isuzu D Max by General Motors


GM launches a 6th generation of pickups eneral Motors East Africa (GMEA) on 12th February launched the 6th generation of Isuzu Dmax in a glamorous event held at the Ivory Burning Site in the Nairobi National park. Seven models of the pickup were unveiled to an audience hailing from businessmen, corporates and other car lovers.

The launch of the new 6th generation Isuzu D Max in the highly competitive pick-up segment follows growth of the commercial vehicle segment in the region. 2013 saw an increase of 15% in the commercial segment, in comparison to the previous year. This increase is largely driven by growth in the agricultural, telecommunication, transport and construction sectors, GMEA managing director Rita Kavashe said. “The 6th-generation Isuzu D Max which builds on Isuzu’s iconic heritage of innovation, toughness, durability, reliability and functionality, is ideally positioned to meet this demand.” added Kavashe. “Isuzu has successfully dominated the Kenyan market for most of its 50 years in the country, offering perfect partnership to

our customers. We are proud to continue offering a strong vehicle to a strong nation,” Kavashe said. Speaking at the launch, The Vice President, Product Engineering-Africa, Wendle Roberts, said “General Motors has an excellent partnership with Isuzu, which we will continue to maintain as we grow our light commercial, truck and bus business across the continent.” “We are proud to be bringing vehicles to market that are of global standard, engineered for African conditions, that meet our customers’ expectations,” he said. Roberts emphasized that the launch signaled GM’s confidence in the East African economy, where it invested over US$2-million last year in a plant upgrade that improved production capacity by 30% and a bus body technology centre that is a benchmark for safety, quality and technology in the industry. Also in attendance was the Cabinet Secretary for Industrialization, Trade and Commerce, Hon. Aden Mohammed who was also the chief guest.

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Bulk shipment of titanium underway

Continued from page 08 GMEA’s 26.1% share of the Kenyan vehicle market is built on its excellent reputation for product performance and after-sales support, Kavashe concluded. The Dmax The new Isuzu Dmax is bigger and longer than the previous one. The increased size allows for wider, ergonomic doors for easier access to the pickup. It boasts one of the lowest coefficients of drag (Cd) in its class. The roof has been designed to direct airflow over the tailgate and reduced drag means improved fuel economy, performance and levels of cabin noise. One of the differences you notice on the new model compared to the previous one is the design. It has a new style front grille and bumper with an aerodynamic shape and new Isuzu logo. The new Isuzu comes with improved driver seating position that enhances good visibility and comfort. The suspension technology in the car includes an independent doublewishbone design with coil springs and gas shock absorbers which ensures superior front-end grip and steering control. The terrain Command Dial simplifies the selection of different 4WD modes from a convenient position. You can turn a dial between 2WD and high/low 4WD mode at speeds of up to 100km/h.


The new pickup will be available in 7 diesel models while the engine has been upgraded and refined coming in options of 3.0 litter and 2.5 litres. An improved 100kW of power propels the 3.0 litre engine with ease while the 380Nm of torque is delivered on a flatter curve to aid drivability and make towing easier. New 5-speed automatic transmission engines have also been made available in the LX models. The new model pick-up comes in varieties of single cab and double cab. Colours range from Athenian white, star silver, armour grey, maranello red, magna bronze, vector blue and thunder flash.


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itanium ‘hunter’, Base Resources in February announced that plans were underway to have the first bulk shipment of the mineral exported after an export permit was given by the Ministry of Mining. “Base expects to export its madian shipment of 25,000 tonnes of ilmenite over the weekend on the bulk carrier MV African Eagle…”, said the firm in a statement. The MV African Eagle carrier is said to have docked at the company’s Likoni marine facility days before the announcement was made. The Likoni marine facility was completed in December last year and deliveries of finished ilmenite and rutile product were being stockpiled in the 60,000 tonne capacity storage shed in advance of shipment. The titanium miner earlier indicated that sales of the mineral amounting to $4 million would be made in January and February. The $305 million project is seen as integral

A pile of Titanium ore at a processing plant

to Kenya’s plans to derive a bigger share of earnings from its relatively modest mining sector. The firm confirmed that all work packages were now complete and operational, with expectation of the zircon circuit of the mineral separation plant which was undergoing feed commissioning. Zircon production was expected to commence in the next couple of weeks. Some 330,000 tonnes of ilmenite a year, about 10 percent of world supply, will be produced at the mine. The mine will also churn out 80,000 tonnes of rutile per year and 30,000 tonnes of zircon. The minerals are used as pigments in paper, plastics, ceramics and titanium metal. Kenya’s first large-scale international mining project began production in October after being delayed since 2006 due to cash constraints, environmentalist protests, compensation disputes with local farmers and government red tape.


Increasing access to Electricity in rural areas;The Role of Green Mini Grids by Izael Da Silva (Strathmore Energy Research Centre) James Wafula (UoN) & Isaac Kiva (Ministry of Energy and Petroleum)

Prof. Izael Da Silva Strathmore Energy Research Centre Prof. Izael Pereira Da Silva holds a PhD in Electrical Engineering - Power Systems from the University of Sao Paulo (Brazil). He is also a Certified Energy Manager by the Association of Energy Engineers (AEE) since 2006. He was born and educated in Brazil and has been living in East Africa since1997. At present he is an Associate Professor at Strathmore University and the Deputy Vice Chancellor Academic affairs. He oversees the university’s academic division, which consists of six schools of fering various degree programmes at undergraduate, m a s t e r s a n d P h D l e v e l s. H e i s a l s o t h e E x e c u t iv e Director of Strathmore Energy Research Centre (SERC). Prof Da Silva was previously lecturing and doing research at Makerere University (Uganda). There he created the Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC) which does training, research and consultancy in energy and development related issues. Over the past 17 years he has undertaken various projects on renewable energy and energy efficiency sponsored by the World Bank, GIZ, UNIDO, Sida/SAREC, NORAD, etc. One of the highlights of his recent work is that in March 2012 Prof Da Silva, together with other partners, won a World Bank project sponsored by DFID and DANIDA to set up the first Climate Innovation Centre (CIC) in the world. This multimillion project is now housed in Strathmore University and serves SMEs financially and technically to solve challenges posed by the adverse impact of climate change. His topics of interest are: Rural Electrification, Renewable Energy, Biomass, Small Hydro, PV power, Energy Efficiency, Demand Side Management and third level education development in Africa.

A farmer attending to newly hatched chicks; Electricty is increasingly being used in modern day farming

Eng. Isaac N. Kiva Ministry of Energy and Peterloeum Eng. Kiva is currently the Director of Renewable Energy in the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum. He is a registered engineer and a member of IEK. He has wide experience in design of building services, as well as in policy formulation and development of renewable energy. He is a member of the board of Kenya Power and Lighting Company, as an alternate to the Principal Secretary. He graduated with a BSc degree in electrical engineering from the University from Nairobi in 1990. He has attended many courses, both locally and internationally on renewable energy development


James Wafula University of Nairobi James C. Wafula is cur rently a Tutorial Fellow at t h e I n s t i t u t e o f N u c l e a r S c i e n c e a n d Te c h n o l o g y. He obtained an MSc degree in Renewable Energy from the Oldenburg University with a thesis titled “PV Systems, theoretical background and design examples”. He obtained a Post graduate diploma in Energy Economics from the same University and earlier, a Bachelors degree from the University of Nairobi. Current research interests include PV mini-grids, Grid connect systems and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Systems.


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urrently, 30% of Kenyan households have electricity. The government plans to increase this to 65 % by 2020 and to 100% by 2030. To this end, the government’s has formulated an energy policy and a regulatory framework (Sessional Paper No.4 of 2004 and the Energy Act of 2006). With development partners’ support, Kenya has allocated resources for energy infrastructure development including the exploitation of renewable resources. Green mini grids will be invaluable to increasing access to electricity in rural Kenya.

The World Bank has selected Kenya to benefit from the Scaling-Up Renewable E n e r g y P r o g ra m ( S R E P ) . S R E P w i l l support Kenya towards achieving a major transformation including a low greenhouse gas emission development pathway. Also, Kenya’s Investment Plan identifies the Hybrid (solar and wind) Mini-Grid Systems

as a project which supports pilot programs in rural areas. According to the Investment Plan, the Hybrid Mini-Grid Systems can increase electricity access and reduce green house gas emissions. Kenya receives an average solar radiation of 4-7 kWh/m2/ day, the highest amount of which is in offgrid areas. These areas are largely rural and have enough space for solar installations. The provision of quality energy services to all economic sectors in a sustainable and cost effective manner is a key Government objective. The Government is, therefore, funding distribution network development through the Rural Electrification Authority, privatizing Government-owned offgrid power stations, and progressively connect off-grid systems to the national grid. In providing affordable energy to all, the Government will also support the development and use of modern and efficient emerging technologies.


The Ministry of Energy is responsible for formulating and articulating policies which create an enabling environment for the sector’s efficient operation and growth. The ministry of energy tasks includes national energy planning, human resource training and mobilizing financial resources. The Energy Act of 2006 is one of the policies. It established the Rural Electrification Authority and restructured the Electricity Regulatory Board into the Energy Regulatory Commission. It also expanded the Energy Regulatory Commission to encompass the entire energy sector. The energy policy also led to the creation of the Geothermal Development Company (GDC) and Kenya Electricity Transmission Company (KETRACO). The ministry also created the Rural E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n Au t h o r i t y t o e x t e n d electricity to rural areas, manage the rural electrification fund, mobilize resources for electrification and promoting the development and use of renewable energy. The REA objective is to provide electricity in areas that are far from the national grid and where electricity supply projects are not commercially viable. REA’s greater vision is for electricity to improve the social and economic lives of people in those areas. The Kenya Power & Lighting Company (now known as Kenya Power) is a State Corporation that is currently the only offtaker in the power market which purchases

bulk power from all power generators on the basis of negotiated Power Purchase Agreements (PPA) for onward transmission, distribution and retail purposes. Kenya Power owns most of the existing transmission network while KETRACO is developing new transmission systems. The country’s power supply consists of the national interconnected system and several mini-grids which serve areas far from the national grid. The interconnected system has a total installed capacity of 1,695 MW made up of 812 MW of hydro, 646 MW of thermal, 205.8 MW of geothermal, 5.1 MW of wind, and 26 MW from cogeneration. As of now, there are fourteen existing minigrid diesel power stations. Kenya Power manages twelve of these while KenGen manages the other two. . The total installed capacity for these mini-grids is 19.16 MW: 18.1MW thermal, 0.55 MW wind and 0.51 MW solar. , Kenya Power has connected one of its off-grid diesel stations, Moyale, to the Ethiopian national grid and expects to connect a second one, Mpeketoni, to the national Kenyan grid. The KenGenoperated stations in Garissa and Lamu are comparatively large, and there are plans to extend the Kenyan national grid to these areas.

supply to rural areas, the introduction of renewable energy in various mini-grids and supplying electricity to public institutions. In 2009, the Government carried out the Rural Electrification Master Plan update study in order to improve the national rural electrification strategy. The study identified a total of forty-four new sites for off-grid power stations. The REA is in the process of developing ten of these sites and five additional sites which are not included in the REMP 2009. The REA’s challenges include managing diesel stations as transportation and on-site fuel storage are problematic. Additionally, spare parts are not locally available and have to be imported causing major delays while diesel stations’ emissions and oil spills contribute to environmental degradation. As a result, oil as a source of electrification in off-grid areas is not ideal and green energy sources are necessary. To this end, the Government has undertaken some pilot projects using solar and/or wind. These are the Lodwar, Marsabit, Mandera, Elwak, Habaswein and Merti stations.

In 2003, the Government embarked on a program that led to the expansion of grid Figure 2: Lodwar Hybrid Power Station

Figure 3: Habaswein Hybrid Power Station

Figure 1: Population density and electricity grid coverage.

The total capital expenditure for retrofitting the existing stations and those under construction is US$ 43 million while that for developing the forty-four greenfied stations is US$ 173.8 million.

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ADVERTORIAL Energy Government budgetary support and development partners’ financing will meet this expenditure. The World Bank, Agence Française de Développement (AFD), KfW – GIZ, DFID, and JICA have already made financial commitments.

AfD committed Euros 30 million to fund retrofitting of existing mini grids including the expansion of existing hybrids. These funds will provide a sustainable supply of electricity in off-grid regions while enhancing the contribution of renewable e n e r g y s o u rc e s i n t h e e n e r g y m i x . Additionally, many smaller units can easily

be installed to cover more rural households and capacity can be scaled up as demand grows. Over the years the Government has been developing off-grid power stations and handing them over to the national utility, Kenya Power. The cost of operating these off-grid stations has varied due to fluctuation in fuel costs. To alleviate this problem, the Government has embarked on a programme to install renewable energy into the existing stations. The Kenyan government and international organizations are committed to increasing electricity access in rural areas. Green mini grids have promising roles to play in this endeavor and are included in the institutional and regulatory framework for expanding the energy infrastructure. This enabling environment coupled with low electrification rates in rural areas heralds a promising future for green mini-grids.

Figure 1: Energy mix per mini-grid as at March 2013

















































































































































Table 1: Proposed greenfields mini-grids as per the Rural Electrification Master Plan, REMP


KENYA ENGINEER - March/April 2014

Africa’s Energy

Global climate and energy prices considered top critical issues; African Energy Leaders


frican energy leaders see global climate framework uncertainty, high energy prices, and commodity prices as the critical issues driving Africa’s energy agenda this year, according to the 2014 World Energy Issues Monitor, released by World Energy Council ( The African views are in contrast with the global view, where high energy price volatility has for the first time replaced climate framework as the top critical uncertainty. Bonang Mohale, WEC ViceChair Africa, commented at the report launch at the Africa Energy Indaba: “Our African survey finds that, in contrast with the global findings, climate framework has become an even more critical issue. Africa is dramatically vulnerable to climate change, and Africans are becoming more aware that climate change is an urgent and real issue rather than something that only countries with large emissions should worry about.” In Africa, electricity supply remains a critical concern, with growing demand, lack of required investment, and increasing power shortages across the continent. Renewable energy remains a high-priority issue. As a change from last year’s findings, African national governments and regional institutions are taking actions in energy efficiency and regional interconnection,

while investment cooperation with China and India is viewed with increasing importance. The report captures the views of over 800 energy leaders including ministers, chief executives and the heads of the WEC’s national members committees covering 84 countries.

In its global findings, climate framework uncertainty is now perceived by energy leaders to have less impact than in the previous three years of the study. Meanwhile, carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) continues to be viewed as a technology having limited impact. Energy leaders are also increasingly concerned about the sector’s ability to access the capital markets for funds towards energy infrastructure, when set against a continued recessionary backdrop. Christoph Frei, WEC Secretary General, said: “The fact that both climate framework and CCUS are perceived to be issues of less impact is bad news not only in terms of emissions mitigation, but also for the development of robust and resilient energy infrastructure. Our energy systems are in a state of massive expansion and transition, and the signals we see today provide clear evidence of the urgent need for more robust, coherent, long-term frameworks for planning our future investment.”

KENYA ENGINEER - March/April 2014



Agriculture in Kenya; Policy and Role of


by Samuel Eyinda About the Author He is an Editorial contributor to the Kenya Engineer magazine and the business manager at Intercontinental Publishers limited, the publishers of Kenya Engineer. He is an Electrical & Electronics Engineering graduate with a particular interest in online and broadcast media.


Workers picking tea at a tea plantation, the process is now modernised by the introduction of tea picking machines

griculture is defined as the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, drugs and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. This definition is a good indication of the importance of Agriculture in the survival of the human race. Agriculture is also a leading employer worldwide with averagely 35% of the global population directly employed in the sector. Employment in the agricultural sector is probably the most secure form of employment. In developing countries like Kenya, employment growth is driven mostly by demographic changes. The majority of workers do not enter into formal wage employment, but instead are engaged in self-employment, such as in agriculture, and especially subsistence farming. Consequently, economic downturns tend to have only a limited impact on overall employment growth. Considering that the large share of the working poor are engaged in agriculture, developments in that sector have a major impact on welfare.


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Agriculture has been ascertained as the backbone of the Kenyan economy contributing approximately 25% of GDP and employing 75% of the national labor force. Further, at least 80% of the Kenyan population make a living from agriculture. The sector is important for poverty reduction. Growth in agriculture will have a significant impact on a larger section of the population than any other sector. According to a policy brief document jointly written by Patrick Alila and Rosemary Atieno in 2006, Agricultural policy concerns in Kenya included but were not limited to the following: 1. Increasing agricultural productivity and income. Decline in agricultural sector productivity observed over the last two decades has far-reaching implications for employment, income inequality and food security. One reason for low productivity levels is that many farmers cannot afford readily available, modern farming technologies. Poor institutions, marketing and storage facilities

reduce incentives to produce. High transport costs due to dilapidated roads, and improper handling and wastage of crops also contribute to the malaise. 2. Enhanced food security and equity. Agricultural production in Kenya is largely rain-fed and vulnerable to weather related fluctuations. Droughts and floods have often led to high crop failure and livestock deaths. Over-reliance on rain-fed agriculture is one of the major causes of food insecurity. Less than 7% of Kenya’s cropped land is irrigated, while as much as 83% of land is arid or semiarid and classed as ‘low potential’. Increasing the irrigated area could stabilize agricultural output and reduce dependence on rain-fed systems. 3. Commercialisation and intensification of production of small scale farmers. Kenya’s narrow base of agricultural products and exports makes incomes increasingly vulnerable to international market trends. Limited

Agriculture diversification and low value-added in agricultural exports are the main culprits. The sector is weakly vertically integrated, made worse by ineffectual institutions and support services for agricultural exports. A handful of commodities provide livelihoods for over 85% of the population, with coffee and tea alone providing 45% of wage employment in agriculture. 4. Diversification into non-traditional agricultural commodities. Kenyan agriculture would benefit from exploiting potential in agro processing, regional markets and encouraging private-sector-led development of the sector. But constraints to commercialization, diversification and investment in agriculture need to be addressed. These include: inadequate and declining research in agriculture; ineffective extension and delivery systems for research; and lack of finance to the agricultural sector and related activities. Lack of access to credit, especially for small-scale farmers and women, limits the range of activities, types of technology and scale of operations that farmers can adopt. Way forward Some of the challenges the Kenyan government faces in ensuring sustained agricultural production include reduced land for agricultural use due to subdivisions. In his proposed change of policy article

published in the Business Daily Newspaper in September 2013 Dr. Bitange Ndemo, A former permanent secretary, proposes change of policy on land subdivision to ensure availability of land for agriculture. He further suggests intensification through better management and use of technology to improve production for countries, like Kenya, that face a shortage of suitable land. Th e Ju b i l e e c o a l i t i o n , c u r r e n t l y i n government, made enormous promises with regard to the agricultural sector in the run up to their election into office. There are indeed visible efforts to realize these dreams in an effort to improving Agricultural production. However most of the pre-election promises remain just that, promises. They for instance promised to introduce affordable state loans to subsidize fertilizer and farm equipment as a way of ensuring food security. The government has since had a go at various attempts to cut down on fertilizer prices including leaving out private companies from the fertilizer importation process. A 50KG bag of Diammonium Phosphate fertilizer currently costs Ksh 2,500 if purchased from the government run National Cereals and Produce Board. This is less by almost Ksh 1,000 in comparison to private traders. The government further disbursed Ksh 180 million through the youth enterprise development fund to be lend out to the youth in an effort to woo them towards Agribusiness. They also promised to establish a vibrant national irrigation scheme to open up

more arable land. Further they promised to within five years, put a million acres of land under modern irrigation and further expand agricultural production by employing modern technology on currently cultivated land and on the 2.5 million acres presently not in use. The president did indeed launch a multi-billion shilling irrigation project at Tana River and Kilifi counties early in January. Engineers’ role Engineers have a crucial role to play i n e n s u r i n g i m p r ove d A g r i c u l t u ra l production. Engineers are expected to help in making farming sustainable, safe, and environmentally friendly. They are expected to analyze agricultural operations and weigh the use of new technologies and methods to increase yields, improve land use, and conserve resources like seed, water, fertilizers, pesticides and fuel. The engineer recommends strategies to protect the health, safety and security of worker’s, animals and agricultural products. Engineers must develop methods and design equipment for land preparation, planting and harvesting. They incorporate automation, precision and smart technologies to new and existing equipment. They must find better ways to reduce crop loss from field damage, during handling, sorting, packing and processing. The warehousing of food and fiber are an important part of the agriculture industry. In terms of policy implementation, engineers’ input will be appreciated if the government opts to consolidate land for farming purposes. Engineers will be expected to build smarter cities with adequate supply of water, energy, broadband and food for the general population while most of the land is used for Agricultural purposes.

A water pump at the Delmonte Factory Farm in Thika

It thus goes without saying that Agriculture is a major contributor to the economic growth of any given country. Investment in Agriculture is a wise move, particularly at the height of the global employment crisis. While many young people will leave there rural areas and settle in the urban areas in search of ‘decent’ jobs, there is a real opportunity in agricultural business for the folk at the rural areas both at small and large scales.

KENYA ENGINEER - March/April 2014



Irrigating the Arid and Semi-arid Lands of Kenya by Eng. George Odede

About the Author

A section of the project area to be irrigated - NIB

Eng. George Odedeh is the Chief Engineer, Planning and Design of the National Irrigation Board. Heattended Maseno National School and


Nakuru High School before joining the University of Nairobi where he graduated with a BSc Hons in Civil Engineering. He then briefly worked with Engineering Design Consultants for six months before joining the then Ministry of Roads and Public Works in the Roads Construction Division for one year, which time he spent on the supervision of the Musoma-Sirari/MukuyuIsebania Road Project. He later joined the National Irrigation Board in 1994 where he has been to date. He has been involved in the design and/or construction supervision of many irrigation projects including but not limited to the Mwea Irrigation Development Project (10,000ha, Thiba Dam and Sand Trap Dam), the Lower Kuja Irrigation Project (8,000ha and Nyatike Dam), Bura Rehabilitation Project (6,000ha), Lower Sio Irrigation Project (7,000ha), Lower Nzoia Irrigation Project (8,000ha), Kaagari-Gaturi Irrigation Project (7,000ha), Upper Nzoia Irrigation Project (10,000ha), Greater Bura Irrigation Project (140,000ha) and Galana-Kulalu Food Security Project. Eng. Odedeh has attended several post graduate training courses at Japan’s Tottori University and JICA Training Centres at Tsukuba Science City and Tokyo Metropolitan. Eng. Odedeh has also attended and completed classes for ESAMI Executive MBA at their Nairobi Centre. Eng. Odedeh was one of the key architects of the National Irrigation Board’s reform programme executed in 2002-2003.


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Introduction he agricultural sector has and continues to play a predominant role in influencing Kenya’s economic performance. An assessment of the performance of the Agricultural sector and that of Kenya’s overall performance shows a very strong correlation when analyzed over several years. The influence of the agricultural sector in the economy is multilevel in that it provides employment, food and income at the primary (farming) level. The second level is in trade and commerce where traders in agricultural inputs, outputs and materials rely on the performance of the farming level. At the tertiary level, agroprocessing, manufacturing, value addition and export enterprises come into play with their activities completely dependent on the supply from the farms. It is instructive to note that the first three highest foreign exchange earners for the country are all from the agricultural sector. Agricultural production is therefore a key ingredient in the economic takeoff of the country providing a foundation upon which the transformation of the country’s economy to middle level by the year 2030 will be built. Investment in agriculture is an attractive and assured way to achieve Kenya’s growth path into a middle income economy for a

number of reasons which include: a. High employment rate: Agriculture employs large numbers of people on temporary, seasonal and long term basis. When invested in strategically, it can engage quite a large number of the population. b. Flexibility in space: Agriculture, with all its variants including livestock and fisheries production, can be practiced in almost every corner of the country. Therefore, it can socio-economically empower and uplift populations that would otherwise be unreachable with any other economically empowering intervention. c. Multiplier effect: Agricultural production has a very strong multiplier effect on the economy provided production is steady, reliable and predictable. This allows for investment in other sectors such as trade and commerce, transport and communication, finance and banking, industry (formal and informal), health, sanitation, education and other social services, etc. In this way, a single investment in agricultural production to the tune of millions of shillings can generate

Irrigation an economy around it worth billions of shillings. d. Distributive effect: Agriculture, through mass employment and the multiplier effect is a very efficient and effective method of distributing income to a large number of people who legitimately earn the money. These start with those engaged

to have thriving economies. Why Irrigation? Irrigation is the artificial provision of soil moisture to enable plant growth. This can be achieved through a range of interventions from simple ones like manual collection and application of water by water cans to fairly complex ones involving the construction

confined to the large fresh water bodies and the coast line. 80% of Kenya’s land is classified as either arid or semi-arid which then makes it imperative that artificial water supply to enable crop, livestock and fisheries production is one of the most attractive options to secure the livelihoods of the population living in these areas. With rainfall becoming erratic even in

Schematic presentation of the project concept- NIB

on the farm to carry out farming activities to input, materials and equipment suppliers to transporters of traders, workers and goods, to those providing financial services, ad infinitum. The money so earned then circulates within the local economy engaging local artisans (furniture, farm implements, metal work, masons,etc), sellers of consumer products such as bicycles, catering, entertainment, residential housing, accommodation facilities, etc. In the end, so many people get engaged and earn their living because of that primary investment in agriculture, even if they arenot conscious of it. It is for this reason that many towns located within agriculturally productive areas tend

of water storage reservoirs or ground water extraction, large weirs or pumping stations, conveyance systems or pipelines, selfregulating water measurement and control structures and sophisticated application systems among others. The appropriate intervention is determined by a host of factors such as location, nature and condition of the water source, amount of water available, topography, crops, capacity of farmers, soil characteristics, environment, social considerations, etc. Kenya’s land is predominantly arid and semi-arid which makes it unsuitable for crop production and difficult for optimal livestock production. Fisheries production has for a long time not been considered as a serious economic activity and even then their economic use has been largely

the traditionally high rainfall areas and existence of pockets of semi-arid areas all over the country, irrigation then becomes a useful tool to ensure that communities are meaningfully engaged in economic production where it is technically, economically and environmentally feasible so to do. Secondly, empirical studies the world over have shown that irrigation multiplies production per unit of land by a factor of three to four when compared to other methods of production, with all other factors remaining constant. Therefore, from the same area of land, a farmer can realize a three to fourfold jump in yields just by engaging in irrigated rather than rainfed agriculture. In some areas where there is hardly any production because of

KENYA ENGINEER - March/April 2014



inadequate soil moisture, this factor could be higher. Irrigation, as enabler for agricultural production, allows for the most reliable form of agriculture which in turn makes such areas very stable centres of economic growth and stability. This has been well demonstrated by the symbiotic relationship between the economic wellbeing of such towns as Wanguru, Hola, Bura, Ahero, Marigat, and Nyadorera to the performance of the irrigation projects around them. Targeting Arid and Semi-arid lands (ASALS) Th e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f Ke n ya p l a c e s responsibility on the Government to guarantee certain basic rights to her citizens. These rights include food and water among others. The Government therefore has to find ways through which each citizen will be in a position to either buy or produce the food. Secondly, the constitution recognizes that socio-economic development in the country has not been equitable and requires government to execute affirmative action to redress these disparities. The arid and semi-arid areas form the biggest chunk of the areas that require such affirmative action. Third, the Vision 2030 prioritises irrigation interventions as one of means that is key to achieving the country’s economic pillar. In the Vision’s first and second Medium Term Plans, irrigation interventions in the lower Tana basin and northern Kenya, including Turkana and the former North Eastern Province have been prioritized as flagship projects. In view of these, the National Irrigation Board (NIB), the Government Agency whose sole role is the development of irrigation infrastructure to enable communities engage in irrigated agricultural production, has adopted a multi-pronged approach to realizing the targets of the Vision while responding to the letter and spirit of the Constitution of Kenya. This approach involves: i.

Rapid assessment, design and construction of new small scale projects especially in the ASALs through a special programme called the Expanded National Irrigation Programme (ENIP). ii. Rapid assessment, rehabilitation and extension of collapsed, incomplete,


KENYA ENGINEER - March/April 2014

stalled or underperforming small scale irrigation projects or schemes, especially in Turkana and North Eastern, under the same programme. iii. Adoption and execution of river basin approach to master planning of large irrigation projects for the Daua, (North Eastern), Tana (North Eastern and Coast), Athi (Coast), Kerio and Turkwell (Turkana) rivers. iv. Feasibility Studies, detailed design and construction or rehabilitation of medium to large irrigation projects all over the country, with special focus of empowering communities experiencing crop failure due to inadequate rainfall such as in Rahole Canal, Bura, Hola, Mitunguu, KaagariGaturi, Rapsu, Muringa Banana, Katilu, Nyatike, Kieni, Kavunyalalo, Lower Nzoia, Ahero etc. The adoption of the multi-pronged approach was to ensure that quick wins for expanding the area under irrigation were achieved as more elaborate basin-wide planning, designing and execution of irrigation programmes were being undertaken. A list of the ongoing projects in Turkana, North Eastern and Coast Provinces are provided in Table 1. Of all the programmes planned or under execution, the Galana-Kulalu Food Security Project is the most complex, ambitious, exciting and challenging. The Galana-Kulalu Food security project The Galana-Kulalu Food Security Project is located in Tana River and Kilifi Counties of the former Coast Province. It involves the planning and development of the 1.75 million acres ADC Galana and Kulalu Ranches with a view to optimizing returns from the vast land belonging to the Government of Kenya through irrigation and other interventions. Irrigation infrastructure development is the key driver to all other envisaged and possible enterprises including livestock, fisheries and tourism. The project seeks to not only facilitate and enhance agricultural production but to also introduce on-site value addition as part of the project’s value chain. The project’s conceptual framework is to harness the water resources from the

Tana and Athi River Basins for irrigation, livestock and fisheries production on the Galana and Kulalu Ranches. This involves land use planning of the project area to clearly delineate the areas that will be best used for various enteprises or activities such as irrigated crop production (by crop), livestock production (beef, dairy,breeding), fisheries production, industry (post-harvest handling, processing, value-addition), tourism (circuit,hotels,camps, lodges), environmental/wildlife protection, human settlement, etc. The land use plan is being developed on the basis of the soil map of the project area, topography, source of water supply, community interests, threat from wildlife, etc. The biggest challenge for the project is water availability and the project is therefore carrying out an indepthstudy of the water resources available in the Tana and Athi River Basins; the existing water demand; the demand from equally high priority Vision 2030 Projects like Konza City, LAPSSET Project, Machakos City, etc; need for equity in water use along the basins and the demand from the GalanaKulalu Food Security Project in order to determine the maximum area that can be put under irrigated agricultural production. This area will of course depend on crop choice, the on farm irrigation technology to be adopted, the water conveyance method to be used, the economic viability of each option considered and the possibility of water storage. Currently, NIB has engaged a consortium of consultants made up of Agri-green Consulting Ltd (Israel) (Lead), Environplan and Management Consultants Ltd (Kenya) and Amiran (K) Ltd (Kenya) to carry out a pre-feasibility study of and plan the project. The pre-feasibility study involves semidetailed soil surveys, detailed topographic survey and preliminary designs of the most viable option. The preliminary designs will be carried out to the extent necessary to enable quantification of the works for an EPC contract. The target date for achieving this project is 2017 and, therefore, its realization therefore calls for innovation, precision and drive.


Cement: The New African Commodity

Perspectives on training for Africa’s construction sector Across many of Africa’s nations, substantial budgets have been allocated to infrastructure development, including the construction of roads, schools, univer¬sities, harbours, power stations and other key infrastructure projects. The lack of skills and adequate training in the building and con¬struction industry, how¬ever, has been hindering these much needed infrastruc¬ture projects and has been increasing implementation costs. Skills development is one of the industry’s greatest battles, which, so far, has been fought through importing skills. Professional development is key As the importing of skills is not sustainable in the long-term, African countries need to make a concise effort to increase the number as well as the level of skills available. The construction industry has to be made attractive to young people. South Africa, for example, launched the “Decade of the Artisan” programme, a campaign that

Continuous professional development opportunities abound at the upcoming African Construction Expo and Conference


ement is used in 65% to 75% of all construction projects in Africa and demand for the commodity is on the rise in the sub-Saharan region. In Nigeria the cement industry has grown by 95.6% since 2005 and in Kenya cement consumption per capita has increased 60% over the past five years. The scale of this burgeoning industry is reflected at the Totally Concrete Expo, where cement and construction industry magnates are convening this May for access to government stakeholders and investors who can facilitate commercial access into Africa’s high growth markets. During round table discussions held at Totally Concrete, East African personalities such as HE Vincent Karega, High Commissioner of the Embassy of Rwanda and Eng. Daniel Manduku, CEO of Kenya’s National Construction Authority provide invaluable insight into doing construction business in the African marketplace. News of Africa’s growing cement demand is already worldwide, attracting international

promotes artisanship as career of choice to the youth. At the same time, there needs to be a focus on the development of existing construction professionals. In the age of

and multinational players who are ready to pump millions of dollars into new projects in the sub-Saharan region. Totally Concrete provides an outlet for construction business development for new entrants into the African marketplace by offering practical insight into managing daily operations in the African context. Wouter Trollip, Project Manager from Consolidated General Minerals (CGM) in Mozambique will highlight the requirements and obstacles to building a cement plant in Africa and Brett Botha, Lead Principal for Infrastructure at Nedbank Group South Africa will educate participants with proven exit strategies for high growth, high risk markets.

mega projects and a rapidly changing environment, ongoing skills development is more important than ever. Training and skills development for construction professionals coming up in South Africa The market has demanded a platform that caters for the construction industry’s professional development needs. The African Construction Expo and Conference, taking place 26 – 28 May 2014 in Johannesburg, South Africa, offers such a platform. Over three days, the event brings together 5000 construction experts from across the continent to facilitate an interactive exchange of knowledge and to

Incorporating both strategic and technical elements, Totally Concrete has practical tools and techniques for all professionals active in producing cement or using concrete, is endorsed by over 60 industry associations and sponsored by PPC, Lafarge, AfriSam, CCS, PMSA, Reimer, Nyeleti Consulting and WBHO.

advance professional development. The African Construction Expo, together with its sister event, covers issues around strategic business management and the production and use of concrete and cement products. An interactive exhibition floor with 40 freeto-attend training workshops over two days completes the educational programme. Please visit

for more information.

KENYA ENGINEER - March/April 2014



IEK commissions Kenya’s first Engineering TV Show


Former Prime Minister, Eng. Raila Odinga in an Interview with Ms Njakwe of AWEsome TV Show during the Premiere of AWEsome Season 1 .

he Institution of Engineers of Kenya (IEK) on 29th of November 2013 launched Kenya’s first Engineering TV documentary show dubbed AWEsome at Nairobi’s Sankara Hotel. The Launch was attended by at least 250 Engineers and representatives of various engineering organizations and companies in Kenya. The event was addressed by among others; Eng. Booker Ngesa the AWEsome project Manager, Eng. Julius Riungu the IEK chairman, Prof. Ayanna Yonemura the Executive Director of LIWA Kenya Trust, Eng. Sylvester Makaka from Athi River Mining, Eng. Michael Kamau the Cabinet Secretary for Transport and Infrastructure and Eng. Raila Amolo Odinga Kenya’s former Prime Minister. AWEsome is a joint initiative of the Kenya Engineer magazine, the Institution of Engineers of Kenya (IEK) and Linking Industry With Academia (LIWA) Kenya Trust. The first series of AWEsome is sponsored by Athi River Mining Company Limited through their cement brand, Rhino Cement and airs on NTV every Saturday from 6.30PM. AWEsome TV episodes are scripted to educate and entertain while highlighting Kenya’s rarely celebrated engineering a ch i e ve m e n t s . Th e s h ow i s g e a r e d towards celebrating various engineering achievements as part of the Kenya@50 celebrations. The first of its kind television series highlights the engineering contributions and hallmarks that currently reflect


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Kenya’s heritage. The TV series captures the construction of Kenya’s outstanding buildings, defining agricultural projects, ICT, Housing, Education, Transport and Financial technologies among other developments. Speaking at Sankara Hotel during the series launch, the Institution of Engineers of Kenya Chairman, Engineer Julius Riungu said that engineers in Kenya had made significant milestones since independence and it is imperative to showcase them, as Kenya is comprised of different generations that need to appreciate their history. Engineers in Kenya, Riungu, noted have been instrumental in the development projects cumulatively valued at more than Kshs 900billion in various economic sectors. The ten AWEsome episodes, Eng Riungu disclosed, were to cover diverse topics such as energy, water, industry, roads, communication, transport, agriculture, business & finance, housing and education. All the episodes, he added have been carefully scripted to educate and entertain, while providing inspiration on the possibilities available to make better lives for all Kenyans. “Kenya has celebrated engineering minds that have developed game changing solutions that are slowly but surely pushing us towards becoming a middle income economy. We have come of age to showcase our engineering developments as the world economies become more competitive and innovative. As an engineering institution,

we are ecstatic to be part of Kenya@50 celebrations and we will use the TV series to showcase the developments that the engineering sector has achieved thus far,” said Engineer Riungu. Kenya’s growth through the years has been largely supported by private sector investments with distinct engineering elements, with major projects springing up in the mining, hospitality and tourism, manufacturing, transport and ICT sectors. “I am optimistic that with sound national development blueprints such as Vision 2030, we will undoubtedly achieve our growth plans especially with the current level of government allocated resources towards improving infrastructure in counties, cities and urban centres,” said Engineer Irungu. Asserting the government’s commitment to attaining the goals specified in the Kenya vision 2030 Eng. Michael Kamau, the Cabinet Secretary in the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure lauded the efforts to air an engineering show on a National TV. Engineers, for a long time, he said had taken a back seat and allowed negative publicity by both the local and international media to cloud the good work “The program will dig into the history of Kenya from independence. With a special focus on engineering, it will trace the history of Kenya’s development. In this program you will see a Kenya in darkness to a Kenya in light; a Kenya in hunger and thirst to a Kenya full and quenched; a Kenya struggling with joblessness to a Kenya of opportunities; a hopeless Kenya to a Kenya full of hope and determination.” Said Engineer Kamau. The 10 - episode TV series explores engineering feats from over 200 locations across the country, in over 50 years of engineering. It is layered with film and photo archives to tell the story of our engineering achievements. The new documentary, will serve as a channel through which the country can sell its capabilities globally. “We are telling a powerful, entertaining, and uplifting story, and we wanted it to come from the engineers,” says the show’s producer, Justus Tharao. “For entertainment purposes, we have chosen to tell this story from the perspective of the results we can see and touch in order to bring out a

AWEsome believable and emotional narrative that resonates with Kenyans. And just like in any other world-class documentary, AWEsome is about more than just processes and accomplishments. It is a story worth telling.” As the saying goes, ‘Everything around you has been engineered in some way,’ Every day, engineers work tirelessly to transform Kenya and present solutions that make Kenyan lives comfortable from the

How Should the Kenyan Government Foster the Construction Sector’s Economic Growth?

obvious engineering feats such as roads, buildings, dams, houses and other infrastructure. Kenyans are beneficiaries of engineering solutions sometimes customized for local use every time they do simple everyday things such as; making a phone call, travelling, sleeping, working, eating, drinking and even what we wear. AWEsome is an exemplary must-watch documentary even as we finish season one and look forward to season two.

way? Are the current procurement laws sufficient to promote capacity building? What about non-governmental contracts such as those from donors and development partners? Does it behoove the government to direct international stakeholders to set aside contracts for Kenyan firms or to guarantee the public that joint ventures between Kenyan and foreign firms will implement construction jobs? How might such legislation contribute to capacity building in engineering, and is it possible to implement such policies while also struggling with transparency and corruption? Some industry players argue that Kenyan firms will miss out on opportunities to build capacity as foreign firms construct projects such as the Standard Gauge Railway Project and the Greenfield terminals at Jomo Kenytatta International Airport. Economists warn that nations lose out when construction profits get sent abroad. The long term implications are enormous if young engineers, other professionals and skilled laborers do not get the experiences during which they can develop their capacities.


enya Engineer invites its readers to contribute to our debate on the role of government in fostering economic growth in the construction sector. In this volume, Kenya Engineer is initiating this debate, and in the next issue, we will publish readers’ and expert opinions about this controversial topic. Currently, the Kenyan government sets aside or ring fences, for Kenyan firms, its projects valued at less than one billion shillings. Is it helpful for the government to protect Kenyan firms from competition in this

This controversy relates to the vital issues of national policy and capacity building, not only in regard to construction, but also, in regard to closely related sectors and professionals such as engineering and banking. Furthermore, this debate has international implications as development experts and politicians all over the world struggle to fight poverty by nurturing economic growth and increasing the number of middle income countries. What are the global lessons which apply to how governments should nurture sectors of their economies? To what extent, if any, does setting aside infrastructure building contracts for local companies help in driving economic growth? Do economies, such as those of the Asian tigers, which have recently blossomed have best practices which Kenya should adopt? If you would like to weigh in, send your opinion to Please keep in mind that in selecting opinions to publish, we will consider the quality of the writing.

KENYA ENGINEER - March/April 2014



State anticipates low cost electricity in 2014’s 3rd quarter

Power Engines at the power house in Kipevu III thermal power station .


enyans have something to smile about with the cost of electricity set to come down as of July or latest August this year with the completion of the 280 Megawatts (MW) Olkaria I and Olkaria IV plants in Naivasha, Kenya. This was mentioned by the Cabinet Secretary in the Ministry Of Energy, Davis Chirchir when he led a high powered government team to the site in January this year. In attendance was the Ministry’s Principal Secretary Joseph Njoroge, Kenya Power Generating Company (KenGen) acting Managing Director, Simon Ngure and Kenya Power acting Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Ben Chumo. “The completion of these two projects will significantly address the issue of power costs in Kenya. This will help to further boost the competitiveness of the Kenyan economy,” said Mr. Chirchir. Mr. Chirchir said that the first phase


KENYA ENGINEER - March/April 2014

of 140mw from Olkaria IV plant was supposed to be complete between January and February 2014. “We shall be coming back to the site on the 24th of this month (January) to review the progress made by the contractors and we hope they will be working on the final touches,” he said. Mr. Chirchir said that they expect works on Olkaria I to be ready between July and August 2014 for the second phase of the project. “We have spoken to the contractors and we expect the remaining works to be ready within the set timeline,” he said. According to the Cabinet Secretary, the government is keen on lowering the cost of electricity supplied to consumers to as low as KSh6 per kilowatt hour from the current KSh16. “The cost of producing electricity using geothermal steam can go as low as two US cents making it possible to lower the cost of energy substantially to spur economic

growth,” explained Mr. Chirchir. Olkaria I and IV will produce 140 Megawatts each and are expected to be commissioned in the first quarter of this year with plans to build additional plants at Olkaria V, VI and VII sites to generate an additional 350MW of geothermal power. In addition, Suswa will produce 600MW and the Baringo-Silale area the Cabinet Secretary (CS) said had the potential of 140MW. On Coal, the CS said that the plant in the Coast was in the last stages noting that once complete it would produce 960MW. He said that the projects would be carried out in phases adding that the cost of power was one of the major challenges facing the country. The Liquefied Gas (LG) plant is also expected to add another 700MW into the national grid. Currently, the country is producing about 1700 megawatts, which Mr. Chirchir says is way below what the local economy needs to spur growth.


Global steam market set for steady growth by 2020


e se a rch a nd c o n s u ltin g firm GlobalData, says the global steam turbine market is forecasted to grow at a moderate rate, climbing from $14.1 billion in 2013 to $19 billion by 2020, at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 4.3%. According to the company’s report, the steam turbine market has been boosted by the increasing demand for electricity, caused by the growing global population and economic development. Power consumption is expected to increase from 19,133.2 terawatt-hours (TWh) in 2012 to 25,747.1 TWh by 2020, at a CAGR of 4.3%. Sayani Roy Nath, GlobalData’s Analyst covering Power, said, “Although the focus on renewable is increasing, it has so far been difficult to achieve a major shift towards alternative sources, because they are either

A 3D model of a Steam Turbine

uneconomical or incapable of generating sufficient power to meet demand.” “Furthermore, global coal reserves are much larger than oil and gas reserves, reaching almost 861 billion tons in 2012. Therefore, thermal power is still the dominant source of energy, and with clean coal technology gaining ground, the steam turbine market is set for steady growth in the future.”

China’s Harbin Electric Machinery Company has led the global steam turbine market for the last few years. In 2012, it accounted for a share of 20% in the 120-350 Megawatt (MW) segment and a 31% share in the 350-660 MW segment. Shanghai Electric Group Company and Dongfang Electric Corporation were the other two important Chinese players boasting considerable shares.

State includes Shs 250bn 1 million acre irrigation project


ood insecurity in Kenya is set to be a problem of the past with the launch of the one million acre Galana-Kulalu irrigation scheme, one of jubilee government’s flagship projects, in Tana River by President Uhuru Kenyatta. In the groundbreaking ceremony of the development of a 10,000 acre model farm, President Kenyatta said that the project would employ modern agricultural technology. “We will utilize our well-trained manpower in engineering, agriculture, livestock, fisheries and research to exploit the opportunities created by this project in modern integrated irrigated agriculture and adoption of the latest irrigation technologies,” he said. According to the Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Cabinet Secretary, Felix Kosgei, 200,000 acres will be put under sugar cane, 500,000 acres under maize, with

the manifesto. The irrigation scheme is intended to address poverty in the area and enhance food security with maize output from the pilot expected to be 30 million bags. Currently, Kenya’s production stands at 38 million bags. The government is President Kenyatta drives a tractor during the Launch of Galana Irrigation scheme also investing in an energy project in Lamu to produce 2,000MW of power to the first maize crop being planted on the distribute to the scheme and coastal areas. farm in March, and 150,000 acres would be reserved for ranching and a game reserve. The Galana project that is estimated to cost Fruit orchards, horticulture, and dairying in excess of Sh250 billion, will also serve would be assigned 50,000 acres each. as a practical training centre of excellence for the country’s young professionals, said The government promised to put one million the President. acres of land under irrigation by end of its term in 2017, this project covers that bit of

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About WRMA The WRMA is the lead Agency in Water Resources Management which began its operations in July 2005. The Water Act 2002 has given WRMA the following powers and functions:•

• •

• •

To d ev e l o p p r i n c i p l e s a n d guidelines for the allocation of water resources To monitor and from time to time reassess the National Water Resources Management Strategy To r e c e i v e a n d d e t e r m i n e application for permits for water use To monitor and enforce conditions attached to permits for water use To regulate and protect water resources quality from adverse impacts To manage and protect water catchments To determine charges to be imposed for the use of water from any water resource To g a t h e r a n d m a i n t a i n information on water resources and from time to time publish forecasts, projections and information on water resources To liaise with other bodies for the better management of water resources To advise the Minister on any matter in connection with water resources.

At t h e Reg i o n a l l eve l W R M A h a s operationalized Catchment Area Advisory Committees (CAACs) to advise the Regional staff on water allocation and Catchment protection. At the local Level, WRMA mobilizes and supports the formation of Water Resources Users’ Associations (WRUAs).


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Preamble WRMA in partnership with the institutions below applied for and received financial support for the NCF Project: “Building adaptive capacity to climate change in Kenya” • • • • • •

The Water Resources Management Authority The Water Services Trust Fund DHI (with the UK Met Office) Rural Focus Ltd. ORGUT Consulting AB (Grantee) ORGUT Consulting Kenya Ltd.

Project Objectives Objective 1: Improved knowledge on the impacts of CC on water resources. • To conduct Regional Climate Modelling to provide knowledge of possible future climate change throughout Kenya up to 2100, and uncertainties related to such predictions. • To assess the climatic changes affecting the availability of water resources in different hydroclimatic regions in Kenya. • To develop water resources allocation models in two pilot

catchments to be used for impact scenario analysis in relation to prevailing circumstances and support capacity to adapt to future climate conditions. To d e v e l o p a f r a m e w o r k f o r examining and adapting to climate change scenarios. To provide WRMA with the tools and capacity to explore additional scenarios and/ or regions in the future.

Objective 2: Robust strategies for CC adaptation. • To communicate the results of the activities under Objective 1 providing a practical guide (strategy document) for WRMA, WRUAs and other stakeholders in addressing adaptation to climate change. • To strengthen capacity to supporting stakeholders in setting out priorities a n d a p p r o a ch e s n e e d e d i n addressing adaptation to climate change, including aspects of flood forecasting, information dissemination, identification of land use controls in flood prone areas, determining impacts of sea level rise on coast aquifers

and water bodies, reducing water demand through improving enduser efficiencies, and increasing water resource availability through improved storage and catchment conservation measures. To address issues of hydrological design criteria for water resource infrastructure. To identify gaps in capacity and skills needing to be addressed.

Objective 3: Improved adaptive capacity at the WRUA level to implement CC measures. •

To build the adaptive capacity of selected WRUAs (Community Based Organizations) through a “handson” program of implementation of specific activities that have been prioritized as climate change adaptation measures. To provide a platform for training, where 2 sub-catchments are to become “Centres of Excellence” as example in the implementation of their SCMPs. Through linkages with Component 1 and 2, to strengthen implementation capacity and influence priorities and approaches so that SCMPs are more responsive in their consideration of future climate change impacts

Results for each of the components. Component 1: Improved knowledge on the impacts of CC on water resources. Component one consists of three key activities: 1) RCM simulations: An estimate of the future changes in the climate for key parameters in relation to water resources: 1) Precipitation, 2) Potential evapotranspiration and 3) Temperature. 2) R a i n f a l l - r u n o f f m o d e l l i n g i n selected catchments throughout the country: The key purpose of this activity was to assess the impact

of the climate change on the flow regime and availability of the water resources in different parts of the country. 3) Water allocation in two selected catchments: The key objective was to develop a methodology and tool to be used for impact scenario analysis in relation to prevailing circumstances and support capacity building to adapt to future climate conditions. Among other things it is used to assess the impact of various water development and adaptation measures.

Climate Modelling for Kenya”. 7) The model selection is primarily based on regional analysis of global climate simulations for Africa and its sub-regions with a focus on Kenya. Members of the QUMP ensemble are selected in order to capture the spread in outcomes produced by the full ensemble, whilst excluding any members that do not represent the African climate realistically. 8) his set of RCM results is a unique set of CC simulation results for assessing the impact of CC on the water resources in Kenya.

Training activities, especially on-the-job training, has been an integral part of all the activities. The progress of each of these key activities is briefly described below.

A report has been prepared which summarizes the key results from the RCM simulations. The key output is a number of grid layers / maps for the whole of Kenya in 50 x 50 km resolutions for each of the 12 months (month on month) show the following:

Regional Climate Modelling The results consist of a unique set of climate modelling data and are the first such set of detailed regional climate modelling results for Kenya. Some important key details of the RCM models are: 1) The simulations have been carried out by UK Met Office / Hadley Center, UK – a leading agency in Europe on weather forecasting, c l i m a t e a n d c l i m a t e ch a n g e research. 2) The model simulations were run using the Regional Climate Model, HadRM3P, with the MOSES2.2 tiled land-surface scheme. 3) It is has been done on UK Met office new super computers. 4) The simulations were run based on the A1B SRES scenario. 5) A total of 5 ensembles were run for the period 1950-2100, i.e. a total period of 5 x 150 years, which also is the reason that the simulations have been so long underway. 6) A r o b u s t m e t h o d o l o g y w a s developed to select a sub-set of 5 members sampled from the Hadley centre’s QUMP perturbed physics ensemble. This is described in the attached output called “Regional

The change in temperature (absolute) for each ensembles by 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Consistency plots showing the change in temperature (absolute) as the median of the five ensembles for areas where 4 out of 5 ensembles agree on the sign of the change.

The General trend is an increase by 1 degree in the near future (upto 2050) and two degrees in the far future (2100)

The change in precipitation (relative) for each ensembles by 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Consistency plots showing the change in precipitation (relative) as the median of the five ensembles for areas where 4 out of 5 ensembles agree on the sign of the change.

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Annual Changes:



Monthly Changes:



Nov - Jan



Feb - Mar









Future Trend


Central, Western, Eastern, Coast



The change in potential evapotranspiration (relative) for each ensembles by 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 Consistency plots showing the change in potential evapotranspiration (relative) as the median of the five ensembles for areas where 4 out of 5 ensembles agree on the sign of the change.

• •

Changes are generally much smaller than for rainfall, typically from 5% to +15% For most of the months there is an increase in ETO The increases are most pronounced in the Western / North-Western part of the country During the months of December and January there is an increase in most of the country, except the Central-Western part of the country November and March show very little variation in ETO

Rainfall-runoff modelling Rainfall-runoff (RR) modelling has been completed in eight catchments. The different activities in relation to the RR-modelling are described in detail (Reference: Part 2: Runoff-Modelling – Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on the Water Resources in Kenya (Final report) in WRMA Website: The final results from the catchments have been compiled and summarized in that final report. This work represents a considerable undertaking by the Project and by the WRMA staff that have benefitted through continuous “on the job training” in achieving this task. In Figure 1 below shows the calibration results from one of the eight catchments, namely 1HA04 (Kibos), which is located in Lake Victoria South Region. Water allocation modelling in two pilot catchments The water allocation modelling (WAM) was a key activity and the detailed description of

model setup and results are found in (NCF Project Reference Library, Report #103, Part 3: Final Report- Water Allocation Modelling in Naro Moru and Burguret Catchments (Final report). •

MIKE BASIN model provides a platform to examine different scenarios of water resource availability and water demands. • 2 catchments selected: Naro Moru & Burguret. This was mainly due to Data availability (WRMA, CETRAD, Research studies e.t.c) and are typical of many catcments in Kenya; Where èWater è demand is greater than availability èCompetition è between upstream downstream user exists èLow è level of compliance to WRM regulations is common èUndefined è reserve flows èPoorly è defined water balance èWater è use conflicts

Figure 1: Calibration of the rainfall-runof f model for

The information above is included in the final report (Reference: Part 1: Regional Climate Modelling–Assessing Climate Change in Kenya (Final report) in WRMA Website:


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1HA04 (Kibos) for a 20-years p e r i o d f ro m 1 9 6 0 - 1 9 7 9 . Observed runof f (Qobs) is shown with red, while the simulated runoff (Qsim) is shown with black.

Figure II: Flow duration curve (2021 - 2050 1HA04)

Estimation of water availability and water demands The necessary data on water availability has been collected and processed. A methodology for the modelling has been developed, including methods for estimating historical as well as present and future water demands and the necessary raw data in terms of abstraction data, population data, etc. has been collected and the demands and uses from the different users estimated. Identification of scenarios In order to demonstrate the opportunities available when working with the MIKE BASIN water allocation model, four scenarios were selected as part of this project. These are summarized in Table 2 and briefly described below.

The four scenarios basically include the following issues: 1) Scenario 1: Baseline situation. This scenario assesses the present situation where all water demands should be met, including all irrigation demands during the dry season. 2) Scenario 2: Baseline situation + law enforcement. This scenario assesses the present situation as above, but looks into a simplified way of improved law enforcement where 100% water for irrigation is only permitted during the wet season while it is reduced by 50% during the dry seasons when the flow is often rather low. There have been examples during the last few years when the rivers have dried

out during the dry season leaving no water for environmental flow and also not meeting the domestic water demands at the lower end of the catchments and serious conflicts have evolved. 3) Scenario 3: Climate change (202049) + law enforcement. This scenario takes its point of departure in the available water resources in the “near future” (2020-49) as simulated by the rainfall-runoff modelling and the RCM results. Like in scenario 2, the 2012 water demand estimates are used as well as law enforcement where irrigation demands are reduced by 50% during the dry seasons. This makes it possible to isolate the effect of climate change in the “near future” by comparing this scenario with scenario 2. 4) Scenario 4: Climate change (207099) + law enforcement. This scenario takes it point of departure in the available water resources in the “far future” (2070-99) as simulated by the rainfall-runoff modelling and the RCM results. Like in scenario 2, the 2012 water demand estimates are used as well as law enforcement where irrigation demands are reduced by 50% during the dry seasons. This makes it possible to isolate the effect of climate change in the “far future” by comparing this scenario with scenario 2.



Domestic demands to be met

Irrigations demands to be met

Issues Discovered

Scenario 1


2012 (100%)

2012 (100%)

Baseline: Describing the present situation where all the water demands for domestic and irrigation are aimed at being met.

Scenario 2


2012 (100%)

2012 (dry season demand reduced 50%)

Improved law enforecement: Same as scenario 1 but reducing the dry season irrigation water demand by 50%.

Scenario 3

2020 - 49

2012 (100%)

2012 (dry season demand reduced 50%)

Climate change + improved law enforcement: Same as Scenario 2 but with water availability (discharge) based on RCM- and RRmodelling results for the near “future” (2020-49)

Scenario 4

2070 - 99

2012 (100%)

2012 (dry season demand reduced 50%)

Climate change + improved law enforcement: Same as Scenario 2 but with water availability (discharge) based on RCM- and RRmodelling results for the near “future” (2020-99)

Table 2: Summary of the scenarios carried out as part of this study.

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Component 2. Robust strategies for CC adaptation The CCA Guidelines referred to as “Practical guidelines and measures for Climate Change adaptation” have been prepared and included in the WRUA Development Cycle (WDC) manual. In respect to this component the following key activities have been undertaken: 1) Positioning WRMA within the government climate change forum. There are various CC forums to support GOK efforts to coordinate CC initiatives and approaches. On the key bodies is the National Climate Change Forum. WRMA, being the lead agency in WRM is represented in the forum. 2) D a t a s h a r i n g w i t h K e n y a Meteorological Department (KMD). One of the emerging issues that were identified early within the NCF CCA Project was the lack of a functioning framework for WRMA and other stakeholders to access sufficient rainfall from KMD. Various efforts were made to engage KMD on this issue with some good results 3) Engagement with stakeholders active on CCA activities. Project partners were continually engaged and consulted with GOK departments and NGOs active in CCA activities to understand current initiatives and experiences on CCA approaches and measures. 4) Further developments on the Draft CCA Guidelines. The CCA Guidelines have been developed under the direction of WRMA National Office with Regional and Sub-Regional offices participation, together with the participation of the 6 Show Case WRUAs. Work initially focused on the Regional Level and where WRMA staff were familiarised with the issues and acted as facilitators in consideration of CCA measures at the WRUA level. This process resulted in reconsideration of the Sub Catchment Management Plans (SCMPs) of each of the 6 Show Case WRUAs. 5) WDC Training Module on CCA.


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The development of this module was not initially an anticipate output of the NCF Project however the module was developed in consultation with the six show case WRUAs and supports the WRMA staff and other facilitators in having a logical discussion on CC issues and identification of CCA measures appropriate to their areas. 6) National CCA Workshop. This event brought all CCA stakeholders together in a national forum to consider not only the CCA Guidelines but the inter- linkages and all the contributions of the NCF Project. Component 3: Improved adaptive capacity at the WRUA level. The NCF Project has supported the identification and support provided to 6 Show Case WRUAs for improved adaptive capacity to implement climate change measured being facilitated by the WRMA and financed by the WSTF. The support provided under Component 3 dealt with the identification of challenges and constraints to the system of proposal preparation, processing by the WRMA and WSTF and the implementation of the Sub Catchment Management Plans (SCMPs) by the WRUAs. Capacity Building: • WRMA staffs from the Sub Regional offices provide front line support to the WRUAs. • The reporting requirements under WDC are unclear to all the WRUAs. This is an area that has been noticed by WRMA headquarters and regional staff and efforts were made during the project to clarify the reporting requirements with the sub-regional staff and WRUAs; • Very few of the WRUAs have made use of private sector or NGO Support Organizations (SOs). Most of the technical support being provided to the WRUAs comes from WRMA. WRMA is worked on a structured procurement framework to ensure easy SO engagement by WRUAs. The key issue has been that

WRMA capacity was not designed to meet the technical needs of all the WRUAs nationally. There are now some 500 WRUAs and while this is a hugely encouraging fact it also places considerable stress on the capacity of the WRMA/WSTF staff. The SOs will increasingly become an important source of technical support to WRUAs Th e W R U A s n e e d s u p p o r t t o identify income generating activities outside of WSTF funding. One of the dilemmas faced by WRUAs is how to generate funds for internal costs which are not covered by the WDC funds (e.g. office rent). While WRUAs can and do obtain funds through membership fees, these fees are insufficient to cover all the internal WRUA costs. In practically addressing this constraint the NCF project prepared the WDC Livelihood Module that has been developed in such a way in that the WRUA and its member Common Interest Groups (CIGs) can be supported to develop income generating activities that may help to cover WRUA costs. In addition the NCF Project prepared

voiced their commitment and keen interest in the skills acquired during the joint work with DHI in relation to the results of the Regional Climate Modelling and the use of the results in Rainfall-Runoff modelling and water allocation scenario analysis. Another important initiative, presented by WRMA and widely discussed by donors, was the starting of a livelihoods support model as an element within the WDC, to compensate and encourage farmers in WRM related livelihoods. This module is of interest to donors such as IFAD, as it conforms to the strategic objectives in supporting farmers.

a detailed Livelihood Training Module to support the WRMA staff as facilitators in training in all aspects of the Livelihood Grant application process. G e n e r a l l y, W R U A s l e v e l o f awareness on CCA is low. The initial focus of the CCA project has been to support the WRUAs in SCMP/WDC Implementation. The next set of engagement with the WRUAs has been to develop and utilized the WDC CCA Module. These activities have provided the WRUAs with information on CC and a greater appreciation of the kind of adaptation activities that the WRUA may focus on, in their subsequent round of WDC Proposal development. It has resulted in the WRUAs reviewing their SCMPs in light of additional options and with a view of future extreme weather events.

Activities undertaken by WRUAs financed by WSTF and facilitated by WRMA staff. Each WRUA has prepared a Sub Catchment Management Plan and SET 1, SET II and SET III activities have been prioritised and financed by the Water Services Trust Fund

activities are focused on: 1) Catchment Characteristics 2) SCAMP Development (sub catch mgmt. plan) 3) Water Balance & Water Demand Management 4) Water Allocation and Use 5) Water Resource and Wetland Protection 6) Wetland Riparian and Catchment Conservation 7) I n s t i t u t i o n a l D e ve l o p m e n t & Collaboration 8) WRMA Infrastructure Development 9) Water Rights 10) Water Resources Monitoring 11) Financial sustainability and m Management Conclusion The NCF project achievements so far were presented in the meeting of donors in the Water Resources management Sub Sector where a good ownership of the NCF support was voiced from WRMA. There were discussions linking the JICA funded Water Master Planning Process and Flood Management capacity strengthening and the NCF Climate Change modelling on regional and local level. WRMA experts

Impact to climate changes; especially in water resources, is felt by the farmers at the grassroots level. By targeting this group, WRMA wants to remain relevant to the most pressing needs of the society. The development of the Climate Change adaptation guidelines for training them on possible interventions is one such effort.

1) Capacity Building - WRMA staff have improved skills to evaluate & use hydrological data; èè Detailed Security of discharge and rainfall records èè Utilisation of Database, Rainfall-Runoff & MIKE BASIN 2) Better Understanding of: èè Nature & Scale of expected climate changes including the associated uncertainity èè Impact of CC on water resource availability èè Impact of changes in water resource availability on water allocation & ability to meet different demands

Water Resources Management Authority NHIF Building, 9th Floor, Wing B P.O Box 45250 - 00100, Nairobi-Kenya Tel: +254-20-2729946/2729048/9 Fax:+254-20-2729950 Email:

KENYA ENGINEER - March/April 2014


The Digital Era

The Future of Terrestrial Free to air TV Broadcasting: The Digital Era by Eng Obam

Daniel Onyango Obam About the Author He has a MSc in Engineering Management from University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA and a BSc (HONS) in Electrical Engineering, (TELECOMMS) University of Nairobi, Kenya. He is actively involved in the development of the digital broadcasting plan for Kenya and served as expert, delegate and the deputy leader of Kenyan delegation to the Regional Radiocommunication Conferences which developed the GE-06 Digital Broadcasting Plan. He is the Chairman, ITU Radiocommuncation Advisory Group (RAG) for period 2012-2015 and an ITU Expert on spectrum management.

Introduction lobally, it’s an interesting time in the world of digital broadcast television. On one hand, some countries in Europe, Asia and the USA have already switched over their broadcasting systems to the digital platform. On the other hand, a few countries in Africa and other parts of the developing world are in various stages of finally switching off analogue signals, thus ending long digital/analogue simulcast (simultaneous broadcasting) periods. Meanwhile, broadcasters particularly in Africa are still cautiously contemplating the massive task of migration from analogue to digital TV broadcasting. Add to this the vast numbers ranged somewhere in between, and the result is an industry undergoing metamorphosis one gradual element at a time.


Importance of migration to Digital TV Analogue TV transmission platform has been in use for several years now enabling broadcasters to air their programs and viewers to watch their favourite TV programmes. Despite being popular for such a long time, the analogue platform is limited in terms of features, quality of signal reception and sound; and therefore,


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the need for a better technology: digital broadcasting. The transition to digital broadcasting doesn’t have to be all pain and no gain. By being innovative, broadcasters can leverage digital technologies to deliver enhanced services that can not only help with audience share, but also lead to revenue sources. Yet it is not only the advent of digital that has changed the broadcasting industry. For several decades, pay TV platforms such as cable and satellite have enjoyed high penetration in many countries. Moreover, new services such as Internet Protocol TV (IPTV), mobile TV and internet download have dramatically altered the way in which TV audiences view their favourite programmes. The audiences are demanding more choice and voice as to where and how and when they watch TV, inevitably preferring those platforms that provide the greatest flexibility. Terrestrial free to air (FTA) TV has been the default option for years in many countries. FTAbroadcasters have often scheduled their programmes at their own convenience with

their target audiences having very little say as to when their favourite programmes would be aired. The advent of digital broadcasting has caused the ground to shift with many more nimble players coming into the market. Therefore, confronted by stiff competition and a tough economic climate, it is perhaps little wonder that some FTA broadcasters are dragging their feet in making the transition to digital. At first glance, it might appear that not much is gained for the significant cost. However, as evidenced by several highly successful digital terrestrial TV (DTT) launches in Asia, North America and Europe, creative and strategic use of the DTT platform can lead not only to broadcasters regaining market share, but also to new revenue sources as aresult of the enhanced services. Infrastructure Sharing Although the cost of digital transmission is significant, it can be mitigated by several factors. For example; infrastructure sharing can reduce the total capex by around 40% for two broadcasters sharing common radio frequency (RF) infrastructure, with greater savings achieved through a shared multiplex. There are opex efficiencies as

The Digital Era

Figure 2: Integrated Digital TV (iDTV)

well since staff costs, electricity bills and monthly maintenance costs for transmitting stations can be reduced significantly.


Figure 1: Infrastructure sharing saves cost

In Kenya, infrastructure sharing is not common as our broadcasters more often than not tend to compete on coverage instead of content provision. But this mentality will have to change in the digital broadcasting where coverage is legislated by having designated broadcast signal distributors (infrastructure providers) and competition is on the basis of content alone; not to mention the huge cost benefits of using a common network. In Kenya there are two (2) licensed and designated signal distributors: SIGNET, a subsidiary of the Kenya Broadcasting Corporation (KBC) and Pan African Networks Group (PANG) Limited. Both can provide services to FTA and pay TV service providers. Content is King Given the inevitability of the transition to digital – and the increased need to compete on the basis of content - the onus is on the broadcasters to make the most out of content So, although the timeline and approach in Kenya, as is in most countries; has been significantly influenced by the government seeking, among other objectives; the “digital dividend”, the transition is now gaining momentum among broadcasters, who are keen to get something out of it as well.

We have new broadcasters who operate only on the digital platform and who, making full use of their imagination and the capabilities of the digital technology, will soon start reaping the many benefits that digital brings. First, digital will enable them to deliver more than one channel, which then allows them to offer special interest programming; secondly, it could give them a route into pay TV. Special interest (or thematic) channels, such as movies and sports, have traditionally been a stalwart of subscription cable and satellite services, and are proven audience – and advertiser – attractions. Moreover, the ability to broadcast more than one channelopens up opportunities for cross-promoting and crossscheduling. The challenge for terrestrial broadcasters, who have been providing conventional free-to-air (FTA) services, is competing for the necessary content rights. This is where the “pay TV” element comes in. By introducing specialised channels such as major sporting events, movies, drama, comedy, news, farming, etc; pay TV can be a viable top-up option for terrestrial broadcasters. Nevertheless, it is still the battle for audience that lies at the heart of the terrestrial TV business challenge-and here again the functionality of the digital platform offers new opportunities. High-definition TV (HDTV), interactivity and catch-up TV are

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The Digital Era

new services that can allow broadcasters to potentially offer enhanced services at par with other platforms. Visually, HDTV captures viewers with crystal clear resolution and razor sharp detail akin to movie-theatre screens. Combined with the capacity to deliver enhanced Dolby Digital surround sound, HDTV produces an advanced home theatre effect. With HDTV, broadcasters can offer far higher resolution and picture quality than exists with analogue technology. Hence HDTV can be used to differentiate between platforms while interactivity technology though being there, it isstill premature to determine what its’ impact will be. “Catch-up TV”, on the other hand, where programmes are available for free download for a set period after airing, is already proving popular in many countries. The rise of “catch-up” TV and video-ondemand, exemplify the viewing habits of a new generation of TV viewers who demand greater flexibility in viewing – in terms of both time of day and video platform. Here, the Internet is playing a significant role as well. One way of leveraging this trend in the favour of terrestrial broadcasters is to

embrace hybrid personal video recorders (PVRs). Hybrid services are the merging of television and Internet and they can

Figure 3: The PVR

enable terrestrial FTA broadcasters to offer similar services to pay TV. Viewing habits are changing as people want to watch TV when they want and when they are ready, and smart PVRs simplify the process. Yet it

Hazards of Machinery


Machinery Hazards very year thousands of people are injured, maimed or killed by the machines they work with or use, both at work and home. Moreover, some are affected by machines in their vicinity, even though they do not work with these machines. What is a hazard? A hazard can be defined as the potential to cause harm or a situation that poses a threat to safety. Anything that has the potential to cause harm is a hazard. Most hazards are dormant, only with a theoretical risk of harm. What is a machine? We have all heard of the machines and have used them in one way or another. A


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leaves control with the broadcaster, who can also reap extra revenue through ,for example, paid downloads of movies. Conclusion Despite tough competition from other platforms, digital terrestrial television is expected to stand firm particularly in its “free” incarnation in today’s digital environment. There are many new ways of consuming TV and broadcasters must be open to these and make sure they are part of it. The traditional model of selling advertisements around programmes will hold, but broadcasters need to build other things onto that. In many ways, broadcasters need to reinvent themselves – they are no longer limited to delivering simple programmes by terrestrial means alone, they can consider a range of new services and platforms to provide a complete entertainment solution. Those that adapt to change and respond innovatively to competitive pressures will be the ones that survive in the long term.

by James Oloo

machine is basically a device that converts or transmits energy from one form to some other useful form. In the process, some work is done. Machines facilitate production of goods in industrial setups and make work easier in our homes, farms, schools, offices and many other places. In basic terms, machines make work easier. Did you know that your mobile phone is a machine? Or your cooker? As useful as they are, machines can be very dangerous. Sources and types of machinery hazards As machines convert or transmit energy, there are risks which are generated and can harm those in contact with the machines, such as the operators or maintenance personnel, or those within the vicinity of the

About Author Mechanical Engineer

machine. Risk is the likelihood or possibility of a hazard to cause harm. Common hazards in a machine are; Mechanical Body parts that come into contact with moving parts of machine can be stabbed, sheared or crushed. Limbs can also be drawn in between two counter rotating surfaces such as wheels, shafts, drums, gears or rollers, leading to severe injuries. Such rotating surfaces can also draw in jewellery or loose fitting clothing such as ties or long sleeves. Another source of risk in a machine is injury

Safety Hazards

from an ejected part or material, or high fluid pressure injection. A moving part can accidentally come off from the machine if it is not securely fixed or due to wear and tear. Due to a fault condition, fluid such as water, oil or air can accidentally come off the machine under high pressure. These can cause serious injury or death to those around the machine. Electrical Many machines use electrical energy to perform work. Due to a fault in the machine, metal surfaces can become live due to contact with electricity. This can result in electric shock when body parts come into contact with these surfaces. Exposed live wires in a machine can also electrically shock those who come into contact with them, either during operation or maintenance. Other areas of machines such as control boxes have live contacts and wires. Working on such areas can result in electric shock, electric burns or death, depending of the magnitude of currents generated. Thermal As machines convert or transmit energy, heat is generated. The magnitude of heat

generated will depend on the magnitude of energy converted or transmitted. The heat generated is naturally dissipated directly into the surrounding air either through natural or forced ventilation. Some machines have components known as heat sinks which act as a medium between the machine and the surrounding air. The heat sink absorbs the heat from the machine and dissipates it into the surrounding medium. Other parts of the machine surface can also get very hot due to a fault condition. Such areas can cause severe burns when they come into contact with body parts. Noise Some machines generate loud sounds (noise) during their operation. When these sounds exceed the threshold that can be tolerated by human hear, hearing loss can result. The accepted threshold is between 75 -90 dB (A) in many countries. Those who operate machines that generate such loud sounds or those in the vicinity are at risk of losing their hearing especially if they are exposed for long periods. Vibration Generation of noise by machines is always accompanied by vibrations. Vibration can be hand transmitted or whole body. Hand

transmitted will mostly affect those who are in contact with the machines, either for operation or maintenance. Whole body vibration would affect both those in contact and those near the machine. Vibration of the whole body can cause low back pain, digestive system disorders, female reproductive problems, variations in blood pressure, fatigue or headache. Hand vibrations can lead to numbness of fingers and loss of sensation. These effects will all depend on the magnitude, duration, oscillation and frequency of the vibration. Radiation Some machines emit energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation which propagates through the air at different frequencies. Although some form of this radiant energy is safe, some can damage body tissue on impact or cause changes in the cell structure, leading to cancerous growth years later. Next time you use any machine, bear in mind that it has the potential of harming or killing you.

KENYA ENGINEER - March/April 2014



Water is Environment and Environment is water


enya has just celebrated 50 years of independence. Unfortunately, the country is faced with the same challenges it was faced with at the time of independence and especially in relation to water, environment and food security. In recognising the importance of water in improving the living conditions of Kenyans, the government came up with a National Water Master Plan Initiative that was initiated in 1974. This came with the slogan “Water for all by the year 2000”. If this plan had been implemented effectively, people would have clean water within reasonable distances. Thirteen years down the line (after the year 2000), this has not been achieved. Over 15 million people in Kenya out of a population of about 40 million still do not have access to safe water after 50 years of independence. In Chapter 2 Article 42 of the Kenyan c o n s t i t u t i o n , e v e r y b o dy i n c l u d i n g future generations is entitled to a clean environment. To achieve this, everybody has to be mindful of their activities as they have an impact on the environment either directly or indirectly. Whenever the word environment is mentioned, the first thought we have is of an area with green,


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by Reuben Mutiso

About Author An Associate Expert with Environmental Solutions Limited Department of Water, Sewerage and Sanitation Green Hse Bldg, off Ngong Rd, 4th flr suite 23 Tel: +254-20-3862204, Cell: +254 726 876 253

Overhead Sprinkler Irrigation scheme, one of the major type of irrigation scheme commonly used in Kenya

healthy plantations, and fresh air. Most of us do not realise that such an “ideal” environment cannot thrive without water, and those who do, focus more on the beauty of the environment and forget about the water component. Most environments are categorised based on the presence or absence of water. In short, it can be said that environment is water. Th e l a t e P r o f . Wa n g a r i M a a t h a i dedicated much of her efforts fighting for environmental conservation. It is yet to dawn to most of us that Prof. Maathai fought for our lives and those of future generations. She realised early enough than most of us that environment is water and water is life. In 2008, the then Prime Minister, Right Honourable Raila Odinga found himself tangled in a political row with the residents and leaders of lower rift valley for evicting people from Mau Forest. Stakeholders and especially the government and politicians have done very little to address this issue. Most of the efforts have originated from civil societies such as Non Governmental Organisations who have at times been frustrated by those in leadership. Researchers and academicians have had their little efforts ending up in the shelves.

To date, it has never occurred to most of us that water is environment. This is because without water, we cannot have the kind of “environments” we envision, and there can never be life whether in form of flora or fauna. This will in turn slow the country’s economic growth as it largely relies on agriculture and tourism. The basic way of handling this issue is by all stakeholders recognising the importance of protecting the environment and that environment is water and water is environment. To ensure all have access to safe water, we must acknowledge that, the quality and quantity of water will always play a critical role in determining the state of an environment and the quality of our lives. Conservation of the environment and water sources by extension is the responsibility of each and every person as the state of our environment will dictate the quality of our lives while our lifestyles will also dictate the state of our environment. This includes being mindful of how we use and dispose water. In whatever activities we undertake, let us remember that water is environment and environment is water, and that it is our duty to conserve and protect the environment.


The Changing face of the African construction industry


A sample of a housing unit constructed by English Point .

he face of the African construction industry is changing. Construction projects on the continent are getting bigger and more complex due to factors such as economic growth and a rising middle class in many African nations. This makes for the ever increasing demand in Africa’s construction industry, as big infrastructure projects get underway. This development leaves industry stakeholders with new challenges. Infrastructure finance is one of the first issues that come to mind. Funding from traditional sources such as Development Finance Institutes has become increasingly

competitive. Project owners are, therefore, looking at alternative opportunities. At the same time, projects have become increasingly complex which makes the project management a lot more demanding.

It is more difficult to deliver a project on time and on budget and cross-border collaboration often adds to the complexity. Furthermore, companies are struggling to access the African market – from project information, how to tender and complying with different rules and regulations to skills availability. To address these issues, collaboration between all stakeholders is inevitable. The market has expressed a need for a platform that encourages networking and the exchange of knowledge. The African Construction Expo and Conference provides such a platform to the industry.

Over three days, the event brings together 5000 construction experts from across the continent – architects, contractors, designers, engineering firms, investors, property developers, project owners, quantity surveyors and specifiers - to facilitate an exchange of knowledge and to advance collaboration. The conference covers issues around project finance, project management and property development and covers case studies of infrastructure projects. An access briefing with representatives from various African countries completes the programme.

The African Construction Expo and Conference takes place at the Sandton Convention Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa from 26 – 28 May 2014. The event hosts a conference that addresses strategic issues around large scale construction of infrastructure projects. An interactive exhibition showcases the latest products and solutions that help deliver projects on time and on budget. A free-to-attend workshop programme provides educational content and encourages a change towards a more sustainable approach to construction.

Totally Concrete prepares construction professionals for industry boom


ot only does 2014 mark a time of growth for Africa, but also a time of distinct development for the cement, concrete and construction industries. This year Totally Concrete, taking place in Johannesburg, South Africa from 26 to 28 May 2014, offers unprecedented access to growth markets across sub-Saharan Africa where rapid infrastructure development and construction business opportunities promise high return on projects of all sizes. It is estimated that US $940 million will be invested into the cement industries of South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe alone by 2018 with new cement plants also being built in a number of other African countries. The promise of better access to quality cement even in remote areas is laying the foundation for the

development of myriad projects to build Africa to the apex of its economic potential. To t a l l y C o n c r e t e w e l c o m e s participation from 25 African countries and over 40 countries overall with expanded content focusing on sustainability and innovation. Totally Concrete provides the African construction industry with a crystal clear picture of what lies ahead, recognising that next generation tools and technology are required to enhance the local and regional built environment. Clem Sunter, Chair of the Anglo American Chairman’s Fund and renowned conversational model strategist, will deliver the keynote address and Daniel Silke, leading political analyst and futurist, will give a presentation that sets the stage for shaping the future of Africa and defining

the role that the construction industry will play therein. Incorporating both strategic and technical elements, Totally Concrete has practical tools and techniques for all professionals active in the construction sector. Stakeholders from over 40 countries worldwide will have an opportunity to access cutting edge technology as it arrives for the first time on African soil. Totally Concrete is endorsed by over 60 industry associations and sponsored by PPC, Lafarge, AfriSam, CCS, PMSA and Nyeleti Consulting. Martin S. Owuor, First Secretary of the High Commission of Kenya, says of the event, “Totally Concrete is very informative and very important at this critical time when Africa is trying to improve infrastructure necessary for development.”

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LAKE VICTORIA NORTH WATER SERVICES BOARD Expands Water Supply in Uasin Gishu County

George Kwedho

Chief Executive Officer Lake Victoria North Water Services Board


ater supply in Eldoret is set to drastically improve courtesy of a development partnership between the World Bank and the Government of the Republic of Kenya through Lake Victoria North Water Services Board under the Water and Sanitation Improvement Programme – WaSSIP. The development programme targets to increase access to reliable, affordable and sustainable water supply and sanitation services in areas of jurisdiction of Lake Victoria North Water Services Board. The WaSSIP programme was designed to provide major facelifts to various t o w n s w i t h i n t h e B o a r d ’s a r e a by undertaking infrastructural developments and rehabilitations to enhance water supply in selected urban areas. In the first phase of the WaSSIP programme, Lake Victoria North Water Services Board pumped over Kshs300 million in the Eldoret Water Supply system targeted at increasing water and sanitation service coverage in this fast growing town. The Chebara treatment works, the main source of water for Eldoret town and its environs, has been expanded to produce an additional 10,000m3 per day, raising the total production of water from the Chebara treatment Works alone from the current 18,000 m3 to 28,000 m3. The phase one also expanded the reticulation systems within Eldoret town to increase distribution pipeline network and therefore the number of people connected to water and sewerage lines in the town. However, even when


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A section of Chebara treatment plant that was recently upgraded to produce an additional 10,000m3 water

complete and fully operational, the Chebara treatment works alone cannot produce sufficient volumes of water for the demands of Eldoret Municipality and its environs. In order to cope with the growing demand for Water and Sanitation Services in the town, it has become imperative to find alternative sources of water to address the anticipated d e f i c i t . L a k e Vi c t o r i a N o r t h Wa t e r Services Board has continued to source for funds from its development partners for more water and sanitation services infrastructural expansion in the town. Major Water supplies for Eldoret town; Chebara, Ellegrinini and Kipkarren Water Supplies to be expanded by the Board under the World Bank funded WaSSIP programme. A l r e a dy, t h e B o a r d h a s e a r m a r k e d Ellegrinini and Kipkarren water supplies for expansions in the near future, and has secured financial support from World Bank in the WaSSIP programme - Additional Financing. Upon completion, the two water supplies shall contribute immensely towards addressing the existing gaps in water supply in Eldoret town. The two projects are at advanced stages of procurements for contractors and are intended to be rolled out before the end of the year. The Ellegrini water project, which upon completion shall have a production capacity of 9,000m3per day, shall have a production cost of up to USD 3,500,000. The annual Operation and Maintenance costs have been estimated to be Kshs.14, 816,540 per year

and shall produce enough water to serve a population of 500,000 people with an annual revenue collection of 112,675,500. The Kipkarren water project which has been designed to produce enough water to serve a population of 500,000 people will have a production capacity of 12,000m3 per day and an annual operation and maintenance shall be implemented at a cost of $9,000,000, and shall have an annual operation and maintenance costs of Khs.20, 781,560. The annual revenue collection is expected to be 125,195,000 as the per capita costs amount to USD 20. Water Supply in Eldoret Eldoret Municipality, the apple of Uasin Gishu County, has come a long way in water and sanitation services provision. The town, an agricultural centre situated 321km North –West of Nairobi along the KenyaUganda highway, is currently served by the Eldoret Water and Sanitation Company Limited, one of the Water Services Providers contracted by the Lake Victoria North Water Services Board to serve on its behalf. Eldowas was established in 1997 by the then Eldoret Municipal council to manage water services provision on its behalf. However, the company started operations in the year 2000. With the operationalization of the Water Act 2002 which drastically changed water service provision landscape in Kenya putting water services provision in the purview of the Water Services Boards. Eldowas became an agent of the

LAKE VICTORIA NORTH WATER SERVICES BOARD Expands Water Supply in Uasin Gishu County LVNWSB charged with the mandate of service provision in Eldoret town and its environs, a function the company has executed effectively since its formation, thanks to its multiple sources of water and modern supply system which have been constantly undergoing rehabilitation and expansion, courtesy of Lake Victoria North Water Services Board. In deed Eldoret has been one of the few towns in Kenya that hardly had any water shortages up until recently, due to high growth and population increase in the town, the demand has slightly outshot the supply. According to the Kenya Bureau of Statistics, Eldoret is one of the towns with the fastest population growth rates in the country. This is attributable to centrality of location in the expansive Rift Valley making it the business hub of the region. In addition, the town is a pathway to the neighboring towns of Uganda and South Sudan and plays host to numerous transit in Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and South Sudan. Due to the rapid population growth and corresponding increase in demand for water in Eldoret town, the company in 2009 began to ration water supply to the chagrins of its customers. During the same time, plans had been put in place to address the situation and revert to the old order of regularity in water supply. Chabera treatment works expansion was rolled out to reverse the situation upon completion of the project. Water supply in Eldoret, a historical perspective The first water supply in Eldoret was developed by the colonial government

in 1928 on River Ellegerini, a tributary of Sosiani river that passes through Eldoret town, in the Kaptagat catchment area (followed in 1933 by a power generator installed by the East African Power and Lighting Company, the forerunner of the power distribution monopoly, Kenya Power and Lighting Company. The Ellegerini intake had a capacity of 2,300 m3 per day and took water to the Kapsoya Treatment Works also constructed in 1928 and upgraded in 1981. Kapsoya currently receives very little flow, although its capacity is 3,450 m3 per day due to deteriorated pipe works and illegal draw-off along the pipe route. In 1960 the Two Rivers’ Dam was constructed with a capacity of 6,100 m3 using gravity flow in the same area. The Ellegerini in-take was upgraded to 3,400 m3 in 1981 and in 1987 the Ellegerini dam with a capacity of 9,000 m3 per day was constructed. All these dams together carry 14,950 m3 per day to the Sosiani Water Treatment Works constructed in 1960 and upgraded to a capacity of 14,950 m3 per day in 1986. The latest dam to be developed is the Moiben dam with a capacity of 26,000 m3 per day constructed on River Chebara in Marakwet district in 1993-1997 periods. It supplies the Chebara Treatment Works, constructed in 1995 with a capacity of 26,000 m3 per day but is currently supplying 18,000 m3 of water per day. In terms of access to potable water, the above statistics and historical reasons translate to 60% of the population served by piped water and only 40% served by a sewerage system. Majority of people served by Eldoret Water and Sanitation (ELDOWAS) Company, are through domestic individual

A modern sewerage treatment plant for Eldoret town

connections. The company has however lately adopted water kiosks as alternative connection arrangements in order to access more people. The kiosks are meant to serve the poor majority who cannot afford the water connections. The company also has significant number of industries and institutions including academic institutions and hospitals in its client list. It is further expected that many more access the services through these institutional connections. Existing water supply The service area currently has three water sources. Ellegerini river in-take has a maximum capacity of 3,450m3per day with the Kapsoya treatment plant current production capacity being 500m3/ day. Two river dams has a maximum capacity of 14,950m3per day with Sosiani treatment plants current production of 14,950m3per day. On the other hand, Moiben dam has maximum capacity of 26000m3per day with the Chebara treatment plant currently producing a capacity of 18,000m3per day. The total maximum capacity of the three sources is 44,000m3per day with the total current production capacity being 32,450m3/day. Sewerage Services Sewerage service in the town is however wanting. Majority of the residents in the town use pit latrines. The existing sewer lines only connect to very small number of residents, with a few using septic tanks. Water demand Present water demand within the service areas is estimated at 40,106m3/day. In 2012, the population of 421,565 had a water deficit of 9,706m3/day. While the production was 32,450m3/ day, the demand was 42,156m3/day. In 2014 the population is projected to hit 473,670 people. With the production being 39,450m3/day and a demand of 47,367m3/ day, the town is expected to have a deficit of 7,917m3/day. A similar projection forecasts the population of the town in the next three years, 2016 to 532,246, with a demand of 53,224m3/day served by a production of 39,450m3/day bringing the deficit to 13,774m3/day. Finally, in 2018, the population of the town is projected

KENYA ENGINEER - March/April 2014


LAKE VICTORIA NORTH WATER SERVICES BOARD Expands Water Supply in Uasin Gishu County to be 597,998 people, with a demand of 59,799m3 of water per day served by production of 39,450m3/day causing a deficit of 20,349m3/day. All of the above data is based on a per capita consumption of 100 liters per day and a population growth projection at a rate of 6%p.a. About Lake Victoria North Water Services Board Lake Victoria North Water Services Board is one of the eight Water Services Boards established under the Water Act 2002 with the mandate of ensuring efficient and economic provision of water and sanitation services within their respective areas of jurisdiction. The Board serves about twenty percent of the entire population of Kenya, approximately 7

million people, in an expansive geographical coverage of about 14,000 square Kilometers in eight counties including Kakamega (the second most populous county after Nairobi County), Busia, Bungoma and Vihiga Counties in the Western region; and Uasin Gishu, Trans-Nzoia and parts of Nandi and Elgeyo Marakwet Counties in the North Rift. The mandate of the Board is to contract, monitor and enforce agreements between the Board and water service providers in accordance with regulations set by the Water Services Regulatory Board.sEnsure effective and economical provision of water services within its area of jurisdiction, monitor and acquire assets; plan, manage and develop water and sewerage services; and take custody of water services provision assets. Like other water service Boards in Kenya, the Lake Victoria North Water Services Board

has the mandate of ensuring efficient and economical provision of water and sewerage services within its area of jurisdiction. Direct provision of water and sewerage services is undertaken by Water Service Providers (WSPs) who are the Board’s agents.

Lake Victoria North Water Services Board, “ Maji Safi Maisha Bora”

Lake Victoria North Water Services Board Kefinco Hse, Off Kakamega-Kisumu road P.O Box 673 - 50100, Kakamega-Kenya Tel: +254 56 30795/31552 Fax:+254 56 31506 Email:

LVNWSB is certified to both Quality Management System, ISO 9001:2008 and Environmental Management System ISO 14001:2004

The IEK Constitution: Proposed Changes


n April of this year, members of the Institution of Engineers of Kenyan (IEK) will vote on adopting changes proposed to the Institution’s Constitution. This vote will take place during the annual general meeting at which all members and branches are expected be present. The upcoming vote will follow a deliberate process which adheres to established IEK practices and the current Constitution. As per the Constitution’s Article 11.08, the most recent annual general meeting took place on 12 April 2013. The IEK held this meeting at the Silver Springs Hotel in Nairobi, and during this meeting, members agreed to revise the Constitution according to the Zero Draft Constitution Review. After this vote, corporate members had one month, or until 15 May 2013, to put forth their analysis of the Zero Draft. On 16 May, 2013, the Constitution Task Force met and


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reviewed Draft One. The Task Force then circulated Draft One to members and gave stakeholders until 30 September, to assess the draft. At that point, the Constitution Task Force compiled the stakeholder’s assessments and circulated them to all IEK members. There was a Special General Meeting during which those members who were elected to attend voted to adopt the alterations. At the time of this publication, IEK’s lawyers are reviewing the draft. In mid March 2014, IEK will send all members and branches the final document so that they can evaluate it before the April vote. The proposed change to Section Three is to add a new class of membership, the “Life Member.” According to the Section Four proposal, in order to qualify as a Life Member, one must have been a Corporate Member for at least ten years, be at least sixty-five years old, they should also be on the register of Engineers board of registration EBK or have been a Fellow. Changes to Section Four pertain to the “Fellow,” “Member,” “Associate,” “Graduate” “Affiliate Firms” and “Military” member classes. Currently, one qualifies as a Fellow if one “has such knowledge of the science or practice of Engineering and has acquired such eminence in their profession that in the opinion of the Council their admission as a member would conduce to the interests of the Institution.” With the proposed change, one can also qualify as Fellow if one “is engaged in the science or practice of Engineering,” and “is current on the register of Engineers Board of Kenya,” or one “is a Fellow of an Engineering Institution in Eastern Africa that has ratified the Mutual Recognition Agreement as deposited at the East Africa Commonwealth (EAC) offices Arusha.” If this change is adopted, Section 4.03 may include that one may be a “Member” if one “Is a Corporate member of an Engineering Institution in Eastern Africa that has ratified the Mutual Recognition Agreement as deposited at the EAC offices.” Whereas now Associates need only have five years experience in a “position of responsibility,” the proposal is to change this to ten years. In regard to Graduates, the proposal is that, “No person shall remain a Graduate after 10 years in

this class or on 31st December in the year in which they have attained 40 years of age.” “Affiliate Firms” and “Military” are proposed as new membership classes. The proposal for affiliate firms is that, “Membership to this class shall comprise engineering consulting firms, construction firms, institutions of higher learning or engineering organizations/companies which the Council may elect to this Class” and that “every applicant to this class shall, at the time of application, have in its management at least one engineer who is a Corporate Member or at least five Corporate Members employed by the firm.”Military Membership is proposed to apply to any person in the Kenya Armed Forces provided that the military member pay all entrance fees and, thereafter, the subscription fee appropriate to his or her class (as though he or she were a non-military member). When admitting military members, the Council shall grade candidates according to Bye-laws 4.01, 4.02, 4.03, 4.04, 4.05, 4.06 and 4.07. The proposed changes to Section Six pertain to entrance fees and subscription fees. The new member’s classes of Life Member and Affiliate Firms are assigned no entrance fee and a fee of Shs. 10,000 respectively. Also proposed is that “a member of any class elected or transferred before the 1st day of July in any year shall pay the Annual Subscription of their new class of membership for that calendar year. A Member of any class elected or transferred after the 1st day of July in any year shall continue to pay the annual Subscription of their previous class until the next Annual Subscription is due.” Other proposed changes in regard to Annual Subscriptions include that, “Each member of the Institution shall pay the Annual Subscription set by the Council from time to time and approved at the annual general meeting (AGM) of the Institution.” It is also proposed that the Fellows’ fee be increased from Shs. 4000 to 7,500; Members’ fees from Shs. 2000 to 5000; and Associates’ from Shs. 2000 to 5,000. Th e r e a r e t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l A n n u a l Subscriptions changes proposed. The first encourages members to pay on time

as “annual subscriptions which remain outstanding by 30th June of a particular year will attract a late- payment penalty of 50% of the Full Annual Subscription for that class of membership.” The second is that any Corporate Member, Companion or Associate “resident Overseas may compound their annual subscription by paying TEN times the appropriate annual subscription to become a Life Member.” Currently, the annual subscription need only be multiplied five times to count as a Life Membership. Lastly on membership, as Section 6.10 allows the Council remit annual subscription fees, it is proposed that, “A member who has retired from active engineering practice, with no employment or income not exceeding Shs. 60,000 per month on attaining the age of 70 years may apply for remission of annual subscription partial or full remission of the subscription.” Section nine concerns the Council and Office Bearers. Whereas currently the Council includes a Retiring Past Chair, a Chair and two Vice-Chairs, the proposal is to eliminate these offices, replace them with an Immediate Past President, President and two Vice Presidents and that the Immediate Past President “shall be the surviving member who last held such office and who is willing to serve on the Council.” Currently, the Council may, optionally, include two additional members “who shall be Corporate Members.” The proposal is that these additional members be added “biannually preferable from Specialist groups or Affiliate Firms.” It is proposed that IEK add an Eminent Fellow Engineers Forum and that the Forum be comprised of the following officers: the Chair, the Past EBK Chairpersons, the Past IEK Presidents, Past EBK Registrars, the President, the Vice Presidents, the Honorary Treasurer, the Honorary Secretary, current Council members and other Fellows as the Forum may elect. In regard to elections, the proposed changes apply to the offices of the President, Hon. Treasurer, Hon. Secretary and ordinary members of council and to ballot and scrutineers. In reference to the election of President, it is proposed that candidates

KENYA ENGINEER - March/April 2014


IEK must be Fellows (as well as current or former Vice Chairs/Presidents) and that, “in the event of more than one candidate being nominated for the office, a secret ballot of the whole Council shall be held; otherwise the nominated candidate shall be declared duly elected.” Whereas currently, the Chair holds office for one year, it is proposed that the President shall hold office for two years “except where he assumes office one year before the ensuing term or midway a preceding term, in which case he may hold office for more than the two years.” Similarly, whereas currently the Hon. Secretary, Hon. Treasurer ordinary members of Council stays in office for one year, it is proposed

that their elections be bi-annual. Now, the Constitution calls for “ballot paper” to be used for elections but, adjusting to changing technology, the proposal is that IEK may issue either electronic or paper ballots and that electronic ballots may be used in all circumstances which call for ballots. Section 9.11 requires the scrutineers to report election results to the Chair, but in a move toward greater transparency, the proposal is for scrutineers to report to the Annual General Meeting. The proposed Section Ten changes address frequency of Council meetings, their quorum and notice. Currently, the Constitution

requires that the Council meet at least twice a year and requires only six members for a quorum whereas the proposal is for the Council to meet “every three months” and stipulates that seven members constitute a quorum. It is also proposed that instead of written notice of meetings that IEK use electronic mail for this purpose. There are numerous other proposed changes in the constitution and members are encouraged to source for a copy, scrutinize it and give their response to the IEK constitution taskforce even as the April vote comes closer.

The IEK Women Chapter by Eng. Jane Mutulili

Mission Encourage women to achieve full potential and benefits in careers as engineers and leaders and promote the image of the engineering profession as a positive force in improving the quality of life.


he Women Engineer’s chapter within the Institute of Engineers of Kenya (IEK) is devoted to the training and advancement of women in the engineering profession. Its members are corporate women engineers and graduate women engineers. This chapter seeks to encourage women to


KENYA ENGINEER - March/April 2014

achieve full potential in careers as engineers and leaders. Members seek to expand the image of the engineering professional as a positive force in improving the quality of life and the value of diversity. It allows members to connect and maximize their experience and aims to provide the necessary skills to ensure their professional success and satisfaction.

Activities towards this • P r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t workshops and trainings • Opportunities to attend Women Engineer’s conferences • Corporate information sessions and networking opportunities • Promote the study of engineering to secondary school students through outreach work. • Provide career and academic development opportunities for our graduate members • Interaction with industries where industries are allowed to promote their products and enlighten engineers on new innovations • Corporate Social Responsibilities works • Social interactions and talks including talks on how to deal with men in a male dominated field.

IEK IEK COUNCIL NAME POSITION J Riungu Chairperson R K Kosgei 1st vice Chair M E Okonji 2nd vice Chair M Shiribwa Hon Secretary R K Chepkwony Hon Treasurer D M W Maina Retiring Past Chairperson W R O OGW Member C A Ogut Member H S Amaje Member R Kungu Member C G Juma Member G L Apiyo Member E Mwangi Co-opted J Mutulili Co-opted

MEMBERS OF IEK COMMITTEES MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE M E Okonji Chairperson O Nyaguti Member R Kungu Member S Charagu Member W Okubo Member

It was found necessary to form this chapter within the other chapters in the IEK council, for two major reasons. a) Encourage girls to take up engineering as a careers Universally, university intake for women engineering is still very low. In Law, medicine, science etc. women have made progress but not in engineering.

b) Encourage women to stay in the engineering careers Why do many women choose not to stay in engineering careers? Conventional wisdom gives us one answer, telling us that many women engineers leave their careers to devote time to their families. But this is not the case, and the engineering culture is often more to blame. Workplace climate is a strong factor in their decisions to not enter engineering after college or to leave the profession of engineering. As a start, a baseline study will be done to give the proper statistics of university enrolment against graduation of women engineers in the last 5 years, the graduate women engineers against the current practicing engineers in the last 10 years, and the reason for the discrepancies if any.

MEMBERS OF IEK COMMITTEES FUNCTIONS & CONFERENCE COMMITTEE J M Riungu Chairman D M W Maina Retiring past Chair C Juma Vice Chair E K Mwongera (CBS) Member H Amaje Member J Mutulili Member E Mwangi Member G L A Onyango Member R Kosgei Member M Okonji Member R K Chepkwony Member TRAINING & CAPACITY BUILDING J M Riungu Chairperson C Ogut Vice Chair P O Okaka Member S Ouna Member G Njorohio Member DISCIPLINARY & DISPUTE RESOLUTION W R Okubo Chairperson E K Mwongera (CBS) Member C. M Ndonga Member F W Ngokonyo Member A Rogo Member WELFARE & DEVELOPMENT R K Kosgei Chairperson A Kosgei Member J Riungu Member D M W Maina Member R Chepkwony Member WOMEN ENGINEERS CHAPTER R W Kungu Chairperson J Mutulili Member G L A Onyango Member C A Ogut Member E C Ruto Member YOUNG ENGINEERS CHAPTER C Juma Chairperson G L A Onyango Chairperson ADVOCACY AND PUBLICITY E Mwangi Chairperson J Mutulili Vice Chair

INDUSTRIALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT H S Amaje Chairperson K W Makudiuh Member O Jura Member B Wamaya Member G L A Onyango Member

KENYA ENGINEER - March/April 2014


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