ENVS10003 BRIGITTE KELLEHER #699043

LOGBOOK

01

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

MASS CONSTRUCTION/ SOLID SYSTEMS. The task required each group to construct a structure as high as possible, using the least amount of resources (MDF blocks) as possible. Following the lecture, our team had decided that we would construct our tower with a circular base, as this would provide more stability. (Below are my sketches of concepts leant in the lecture.)

Initially our plan was to build the structure according to the sketch above, by alternating between layer 1 and 2. After trialing this we decided that this method didn’t offer enough stability, and we changed our technique (as seen in image below) to ensure our structure was sturdy. In the photograph above, it can be seen that the walls of the structure slightly curve inwards. This happened the blocks weren’t placed exactly in line with the block below. As soon as we noticed the structure creeping inwards, we began to open the circular structure back out so that the top of the structure wouldn’t close up.

01

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

As we reached closer to the top of the structure we decided to use a method that although was less stable, would use less resources and get taller at a faster speed. We alternated between laying the blocks flat, similar to a slab on ground, where its weight is distributed evenly over a large area and laying the blocks vertically, similar to a strip footing, where the weight is distributed vertically, in a linear manner.

Using the theory behind load paths, the cylindrical towers were able to form arches. A select area was demolished to create the arches.

This is our completed structure. This is a miniature example of mass construction, and this is a solid system. The weight of the top blocks is distributed evenly through the structure. The load paths go downwards evenly until they hit the reaction force from the floor.

Once blocks had been pushed out of the structure to form an arch, a new load path was formed (as shown in sketch above).

01 Cone shape forms at top of tower through the sue of wedge shaped gaps.

One group used an interesting technique to bring the top of their construction in narrower. This method (shown in my photograph above, and sketch below) essentially used wedge shaped gaps to decrease the circumference of the tower.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook This group started their structure with an oval shaped base. Their structure was significantly wider than every other teamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structure. Because the structure was so much wider, it used many more resources and took much longer to gain height. This very wide base gave the team a large disadvantage and their structure could not keep up with other structures.

Similarly to the structure on the left, this structure started with a very wide base. As shown in the image above, this team created a spire at the top of their tower by slowly moving the blocks inwards. This allowed the structure to get taller using minimal resources.

02

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

FRAME CONSTRUCTION: This task required us to construct a structure using thin strips of balsa wood, as high as possible, using the least amount of resources as possible. We decided to make the base of our structure a triangle, as this is a rigid shape, and would save resources (as apposed to a square base).

Above is a photograph of the beginning of our frame construction. We noticed that balsa wood is quite a flexible material and can be bent to some degree. (shown below)

(Development of our plans is shown in sketches above) To save resources, we only used full triangles for the base and the second horizontal frame. For the remainder of the horizontal frames, our triangles had one side missing (as shown above). The empty side alternated to balance the structure.

02

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

MASS CONSTRUCTION/ SOLID SYSTEMS.

As we we were running short of time, we halted the vertical expansion of our structure and added in details to stabilize it. We added a small brace near the corner of the triangle so that the frame became rigid. We noticed a small brace like this was almost as effective as having a full triangle, but was also effective in saving resources.

It was difficult for the structure to balance while it was being constructed because when members were not attached, the load paths were distributed unevenly throughout the structure.

As our structure got higher, it began to twist because it was lacking diagonal bracing.

Our completed structure

When the structure was completed however, the load paths were distributed evenly throughout the structure.

02 Another group used a square base to create their structure.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook To avoid twisting, and crease a strong, rigid structure, the team (images shown on left) used a bracing technique.

To avoid having a structure with weak joints, this same group glued the joins between the vertical members together in the areas between the horizontal members. This was different to how our group glued our joints and was more effective, as when force was applied to the structure, it was very difficult to break.

A separate group created a star shape frame by placing two triangles on top of each other. This group used pin joints to secure the triangles together. Although pin joints only restrict vertical and horizontal movement, this group combined multiple pin joints so that the frame was fixed. To make their any pin joints rigid you must place two or more of them on the same member.

02

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

To the left is a photograph of a frame structure being put under stress and deforming. As balsa wood is a very flexible material, it was able to bend quite a lot before breaking.

I noticed that when force was applied to the top of the structures it was able to be seen that the breaking point of the structures would be the thinnest part of the wood. Another spot the structures would break was at joints if they werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t glued very strongly. Typically the long members were the most susceptible to breakage.

Because the joints were fixed joints, when the structure was put under enough pressure, the structure buckled and broke.

03

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

03 WALK AROUND CAMPUS The task required us to walk around campus and take note of different construction techniques and materials that we had learnt being applied in reality.

Pictured above is the entrance to the car park beneath south lawn. This is an example of how sedimentary rock is used to create detailed finishes, as it is easily carved.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook The inside of the car park juxtaposed the classic outside. The structure was made many concrete cone shaped columns,

As shown in the sketch above: There were lines on the columns which indicated that formwork had been there. It was evident that the concrete had been poured in-situ from looking a the formwork lines and by the size and multitude of columns. A number of layers were visible and it was evident that the columns were poured in sections rather than in one go.

03 Whilst observing the carpark I noticed that is was situated beneath the University’s ‘South Lawn’. In order to have the ability to grow trees on south lawn, the carpark had to be designed to create a ‘pot-plant’ like structure. the

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook As illustrated in the sketch below, the columns have been constructed so that there is a large ditch above to fill with soil, which the trees can be planted in. This design has allowed the university to grow trees above concrete.

At the other entrance to the car park a retaining wall could be seen. On the other side of the retaining wall was the south lawn and the inside of the car park.

Above is the majestic entrance to the carpark, which I believe would have been made out of bluestone.

03

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook The structure is pulled together into a steel ring which is attached to a drain on the ground, using multiple steel chords. This is so that the water caught in the sail can be discharged through this circular opening and into the drain.

This large circular sail outside Union House is an example of a membrane structure. The structure provides this outdoor area shelter from sun and rain. The material is tied to areas on the top of buildings and then meets down at a circular ring which is attached to the ground with steel chords. Each end of the membrane is pulled to create tension, which holds this structure together

A cafĂŠ (pictured above) outside union house has used a steel beam as a lintel to help redirect the load paths of this wall. As demonstrated in the sketch below, the weight from the brick wall is transferred into the lintel and then distributed to either end to prevent the windows below the lintel from bearing any weight. This technique has been used because the glass and aluminum frame of the windows are too weak to carry the load of the wall.

03 At this café, many materials and techniques could be seen. The image below shows a brick wall. The mortar from the bricks had an iron finish. This wall was mainly an aesthetic feature, but also provided some structural quality by supporting the steel beam above it. However this steel beam is not structural, it is purely for aesthetic purpose.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook The top of the café was made using concrete and glass panels. The concrete was poured in situ. This was evident because there were lines visible where there were joins in the formwork.

The concrete walls were part of the structural system, as apposed to the glass panels that were a part of the enclosure system.

An interesting feature of this café was the AstroTurf on the ground. The reason that real grass wasn’t used could be for reasons of maintenance and convenience. However, it would not be possible to grow grass over this area because there is a large concrete slab underneath the AstroTurf that supports the whole structure. Real grass can not be grown on concrete!

03 Sandstone Structure

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook Below are close up photos of the intricate details on this structure that were achieved by using sandstone.

Arts West Building

This building (above) also showed another great example of the way sedimentary rocs are used because of the way they are easily ably to be carved to create beautiful and intricate aesthetics. This building was made from what appeared to be sandstone. By looking at intricate, smooth carvings around the doors, windows and roof of this building, I understood the purpose of using a sedimentary rock to create a structure.

The footings of this structure were made of bluestone as the sandstone used on the rest of the structure is too weak to be used as footings.

The Arts West building had a very interesting Truss feature (shown in image above). The truss is mainly used for aesthetic purpose, creating a very trendy industrial look. However the large, strong steel truss also serves structural purpose. The truss assists in holding up the metal roof and timber beams behind it (shown below).

Bluestone footings on sandstone structure Truss holds up Roof and beam

This almost gave the illusion of a gravity- defying cantilever. The weight of the truss and the elements bearing weight on the truss are distributed onto the granite blocks underneath it on either side. (sketch on next page).

03 Sketched below is an explanation of how the truss was used as a load bearing structural element.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook Textured feature wall Bluestone bricks

This structure, which was located at an entrance to Union House, had many interesting elements. (Structure pictured below).

Granite Clay Bricks

Cold formed steel plates

Hot formed steel beams

A variety of materials were able to be identified in this section of the Arts West building. (Labeled in photos below).

Steel

Timber

Stainless Steel (very shiny)

The strong materials were almost all used for structural purposes, for example the steel truss and the Granite blocks. Weaker materials were used for aesthetic reasons, for example glass, stainless steel sheet and timber.

As seen in the photograph above, there are tensioned steel chords running from the cantilevered beams, to the sides of the stairs. The Steel cables were used on this structure for aesthetic purpose. They give the illusion that the stairs are being suspended in the air, held by the cables. It is evident that they are not structural, and do not hold up the stairs, as the stairs are secured to the ground.

03

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

At the top of the structure, there were a number of cantilevered beams protruding from a brick wall. These beams served only aesthetic purpose, again achieving a trendy industrial look.

On the structure there were a number of steel Universal Beams (I-Beams). It was evident that these steel beams had been galvanized for protection. This could be seen because the the Steel has a speckled coat on it. (Close up photo below).

Cable Anchorage

The steel chords running from the beams to the sides of the stairs were attached at either end using cable anchors, which are used to tie tension elements down. These fit into a pin joint category and they allow rotation. (Photograph and sketch in middle column).

Galvanized Steel Beam

By noticing this steel was galvanized, I could then identify that it was cold form steel.

03 The Universityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new architecture building is a perfect example of the way cantilevers can give the appearance of a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;gravitydefyingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; structure.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook The sketch below shows how using continuing singular beams supports the cantilevered section.

Diagonal Steel Bracing.

The sketch below illustrates how the diagonal bracing supports the cantilever. This sketch is drawn from a side view.

Cantilevered overhang on the new architecture building

The cantilevered section of this structure is supported in a few different ways. Firstly the beams that run along the sides of the structure are all continuous singular beams rather than broken down into different parts. i ng inu ams t n Co r be ula sing

Another method used to secure the cantilevered section of this structure is diagonal bracing. There are two large steel beams on either side of the cantilevered section that is attached at one end to the bottom, front corners of the cantilever and at the other end to the top end of where the fixed building ends (before the cantilever section). This bracing works by using tension, and pulling the bottom front corners upwards, supporting it.

The light, flawless concrete is special pre cast concrete that has been imported from SA and used for finished surface.

03

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

BRICKWORK: Here is an example of an expansion joint being used in a brick wall. The purpose of an expansion joint is to allow the brick wall some movement as the bricks expand or contract due to thermal variations.

Expansion Joint

On the building below, we were asked to consider whether the brickwork was structural, or just cladding.

Weep holes on hollow wall

Above is an example of weep holes. Weep holes allow for any moisture, usually caused from condensation inside the brick wall, to escape. Weep holes like this were seen in a number of places, and it became easy to tell what wall would have weep holes by the way they had been laid. Below is a 3 dimensional sketch of how the wall pictured above had been laid with a hollow in the wall.

From looking at the inside of the structure, it was evident that the thin layer of bricks was just cladding on the outside, and the structure was made from perhaps timber framing.

03

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

METALS Steel and aluminum were found in a number of structures around the university. However, there was one copper, and one cast iron pipe found on the walk.

Cast Iron Pipe

MOISTURE ELEMENT

Copper Pipe

When visiting the Sports Pavilion, we saw an agricultural pipe on the ground, waiting to be installed.

The copper pipe above could be recognized by its brownish coloured base, and distinctive light blue-green rust. The cast iron pipe (shown in next column) was distinguished by its heavy, dense, thick feel, which could be seen and felt when touched/tapped on.

DETAILING

Agricultural Pipe

Here is an Agricultural Pipe (Agi Pipe) that is waiting to be installed into the earth. Agi Pipes provide a secondary waterproofing system to ensure that no water goes into the structure. Agi Pipes have small holes in them which allow water from the earth to seep into the pipes and be pumped out. Agi Pipes are installed at the base and around a structure so that any moisture in the earth is redirected away from the structure. Sketched below is illustration of how Agi Pipes work.

04

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

04

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATION TOUR QUESTIONNAIRE TITLE BLOCK

DRAWING CONTENT â&#x20AC;&#x201C; PLANS

List the types of information found in the title block on the floor plan page.

What type of information is shown in this floor plan?

Names of consultants, Key plan section, Client name, Project name, Description, Drawing Title, Drawing number, scale, Orientation, Architect, Date and many more details concerning the project.

The floor plan is a birds eye view of the entire ground floor plan. This drawing cant show a lot of detail so it uses a grid, and references to other drawings to guide the reader to other pages that give closer detail. Ground floor plan shown below:

Why might this information be important?

The scale of the whole floor plan is 1:100, as shown below. This means the pavilion is 100 times larger than this drawing.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) There are also sections where area has been indicated using meters squared, an example of this is below.

These are important because they firstly indicate the general specifics of the plan (What the project is, who is it for etc.) As shown below.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013)

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) But they also include details that are required to read and comprehend the drawings (Scale, drawing number and Orientation.) Shown below:

There is also a Legend and Abbreviation legend included on the page.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013)

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013)

Provide an example of the dimensions as they appear on the floor plan. What units are used for the dimensions?

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) Is there a grid? What system is used for identifying the grid lines? The grid is vertical lines, numbers, and which are letters.

made up of labeled with horizontal lines labeled with

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013)

04

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATION TOUR QUESTIONNAIRE What is the purpose of the legend? The function of the legends are to show what materials, heights, and techniques have been used, without overloading the plans with writing. One is able to look at the plans, see an abbreviation or pattern/drawing technique, and then refer to the legends to find out what it means. An example of this is shown below, where the legend indicates how different walls have been drawn differently.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) Why are some parts of the drawing annotated? Illustrate how the annotations are associated with the relevant part of the drawing. There are some annotations that are abbreviations. These are used in combination with the legend to identify what what is being shown in the drawing.

There are other annotations that label what a room is to be used for. (shown below)

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) Other abbreviations explain something that doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t occur frequently (so shouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be included in the legend) and example of this is below.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) Illustrate how references to other drawings are shown on the plan. What do these symbols mean? Referencing is used to direct the reader to a different page of the plans to show them a more detailed or different angled view of something. This is done using circles, sometimes with arrows around them as shown in images in the next column.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) The number on the top half of the circles refers to the number of the section on the page (there are usually multiple sections on a page). The number in the bottom half refers to the Drawing Number or page number. For example, for the image on the left (above), I would be directed to Drawing Number A66-01, and then on that page I would find the section number 3. How are windows & doors identified? Provide an example of each. Is there a rationale to their numbering? What do these numbers mean? Can you find the answer somewhere in the drawings? Doors and windows are identified as shown below. The top number refers to type of door and the bottom refers to room number. Shown below is Door 1 and Window 2 in room 2.04

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013)

04

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATION TOUR QUESTIONNAIRE Explain how Floor levels are noted on the plan.

DRAWING ELEVATIONS

Floor levels are labeled with FFL (Finished Floor Level) and a number which indicates meters above the datum.

What type of information is shown in this elevation? How does it differ from the information shown on the plan?

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) The image above shows a finished floor level that is 47.570m above the datum. Are some areas of drawing clouded? Why?

the

CONTENT

The elevation drawings show a side view of the structure. These are different to the plan drawings because they are on a different angle, only show the outside of the building and do not give a view of the entire building. The elevations drawings are shown below.

The clouded areas refer to sections that have been revised. This means that the section has had changes made to it on the final drawings. A clouded section has been shown below.

There are finished floor levels, spot levels and finished ceiling levels indicated on the Elevations. The key for these is shown below.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) (Refer to image below) ‘Level G’ is a finished floor level that is 27.100m above datum. ‘Existing Pavilion’ is a finished floor level that is 46.600m above datum.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) (Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013)

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013)

What types of levels are shows on the elevations? Illustrate how levels are show in relation to the elevation?

Are dimensions shown? If so how do they differ from the dimensions on the plan? Provide an example of dimensions as they relate to the elevation? Similarly, the scale is 1:100, however there are no indications of area, or any annotated dimensions.

Is there a grid? If how/where is it shown?

so,

There is a grid, however unlike the Ground floor plan, the grid only includes vertical lines which are labeled with numbers. These lines correspond to the grid lines shown in the Ground floor Plans.

04

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATION TOUR QUESTIONNAIRE What types of information on the elevations are expressed using words? Illustrate how this is done. Words have been used to give information about a section or element that doesn’t occur frequently (so shouldn’t be included in the legend) an example of this is below.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) Illustrate how the doors and windows are identified on the elevations. The doors and window have been identified by using fronton drawings, and by including the same coding system that is used on the Ground floor plans. This is a tag with a door or window number and the room number below it.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013)

Find where this elevation is located on the plans.

DRAWING SECTIONS

There is referencing used in the Ground floor plans to direct the reader to the Elevations Drawings.

What type of information is shown in this section? How does it differ from the information shown on the plan and elevation?

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) The tag shown above is from the Ground floor plans, and redirects the reader to drawing A (South Elevation) which is shown on drawing number A30-01 (Elevations).

CONTENT

This section shows the structure from a side on view, sliced through a point in the building (point indicated in the Ground Floor Plans). This is different from the elevation drawings because you are able to see into the building. It is also different to the Ground Floor Plan because it does not give an entire overview and is looked at from a different angle. Below is a copy of this section.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) Illustrate how the section drawing differentiates between building elements that are cut through and those that are shown in elevation (beyond).

04

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATION TOUR QUESTIONNAIRE To differentiate between sections that have been sliced through, and sections in the background, different thicknesses of lines have been used, as well as different shades. The sliced section has a thick border around it, and as the building recedes, the lines become thinner, and the shading becomes fainter.

Below is an example of how different materials are indicated using different patterns. Structural Steel

Not cut through, (Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) but close

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) Provide examples of how different materials are shown on the sections. Different materials are identified in the Sections drawing by using different patterns to fill in elements. Unlike the Plans and Elevations drawings, the Sections do not have abbreviation tags for materials.

of

things

are

Concrete Block

Earth

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) Find where this is located on the plans.

Cut through (closest)

What sorts detailed?

Timber

Concrete Slab Furthest

DRAWING CONTENT â&#x20AC;&#x201C; DETAILS

There are tags on the Ground Floor Plans that indicate where the sliced section starts and finishes (the Line that it is cutting through). Shown below are the tags that indicate the start and the finish of each Sections Drawing.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013)

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) These drawings show a closer view of the walls, including details such as insulation, timber framing systems, some roof details and some waterproofing details. The Detail drawings also show materials used. Are there details compressed using break lines? Why? These are used to indicate that a section continues on, but will not fit on the page. Highlighted below is an area compressed with break lines.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013)

04

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATION TOUR QUESTIONNAIRE Provide examples of how different materials are shown on drawings at this scale. Materials are shown both using pattern in-fills and also using a tagging system.

The commentary lists all the codes used, and what they mean. Below is the code and its material for each of the codes tagged in the previous image.

Highlighted below is the reference for Wall Details, Drawing number 1.

Find the locations of these details on the plans, elevations and sections.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013)

Details are referenced in the sections drawings. This is done by using the regular circle tag, and a dotted line surrounding the Detailed area. Below is reference for Wall Details drawing 3 and 4.

Using the image above as an example, you can immediately notice that BLK02 is a concrete block from looking at the pattern, but you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know the specifics of it. FL-12 and TIM-04 are quite difficult to tell what they are. To tell what each material is, you must look up the tagged code in the Commentary, which is located at the very back of the construction drawing set.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013)

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013)

05

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

05 TO-SCALE MODEL: This task required us to build a to-scale model of a given section of the Sports Pavilion. The scale of the model was to be 1:20.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook I then found the second level of this section by looking at the and lines, and locating the position on the Ground Floor Plans (A21-02)

Next I found a side view which sliced though the section, facing towards the west. This was drawing number A46-03. Section is highlighted below.

The section was shown to us on the Basement Plan (A2101). Highlighted below is the section allocated to us.

Zoomed In:

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) And finally, I found another side view which showed detail on the structure of the roof. This was drawing SO4.02, and highlighted below is the top of my section, between grid lines 6 and 5.

Zoomed In:

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) (Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) (Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013)

05 To understand where the top level is placed on the bottom level, I created this image which shows the Basement Walls and the Ground floor walls for this section. The basement Walls are in blue, and the Ground floor walls are in black (refer to image below).

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook After analyzing the range of views provided in the drawings, I was able to sketch what the basement should look like.

The wall at the far back in the sketch above is thicker than the other walls because it is a retaining wall. Below is a sketch of how this section of the wall looks from a side view (showing materials).

By using the grid lines (labeled above) it is very easy to align aspects shown in different drawings with one another.

Above I have sketched what the top level should look like. I had some difficulty in this as I could not find all the information I needed. In particular I couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t find what the cantilevered ceiling joists rested on. (Highlighted below).

05 Finally I was able to devise an image of what the entire model should look like. Sketch is below with floor plan below..

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook MODEL MAKING: Firstly the concrete slab was made using foam core. The foam core was already the same depth as the slab in the drawings. A shallow footing had to be added, as indicated in the image below.

Slab and footing in basement

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) The photograph below shows how we imitated this footing on our model.

Thickness of retaining wall

To create the core filled retaining wall in the basement, we used a double thickness of balsa wood (shown above), and then cut the wall to the correct height. The rest of the walls were made from a singular balsa wood layer (Photo below).

Basement slab & footing

To indicate ground level, we added a hidden footing underneath the slab, which is why it looks as if it is floating (refer to photograph above)

Thickness of all other concrete block walls

05 A slab for the ground level floor was cut in the same shape as the basement floor, but made thicker by adding another layer of cardboard on top of the foam core.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook We made the steel elements out of black foam core, and the timber elements (Stud wall) out of white foam core.

Below I have illustrated how load paths are distributed on the Basement level. Loads are transferred from the slab, down into the walls and to the ground.

Once all the basement elements had been cut, they were assembled to create the lower level of the structure. This is shown in the photo below. Assembled basement

Top floor assembled

We found it too difficult to achieve the cantilevered roof, so only cut out and assembled some of the top floor On the top level, loads are distributed differently. Rather than going down walls (Which are mainly insulation and cladding etc.) the load paths are carried down each of the columns, as shown below.

The next step was cutting the framing elements for the top floor. To find the thicknesses and types, we had to look up what their codes meant. For example, B4 was a Universal Beam (Shown below). We then cut the elements in the shapes and sizes given.

Completed Model

05

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

The other groups were assigned the canopy section to construct. Below are is the canopy section final model.

Canopy Model (Side View)

Another difference between the two models was that almost all of the elements in the Canopy frame were the same thickness. This differed to our model, where hardly any of the framing elements had the same thickness. Sketched below is an illustration of how load paths have been distributed in the canopy section. Loads travel down the elements, ending up at either side of the Canopy, and into the ground. Canopy Model

This structure was very different to our structure. The Canopy sections entire structural system is a frame or skeletal system. This was unlike our model which also included a solid, masonry structural system.

06

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

06 WEEK 6

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook ksdfndskfnslkdng

kjdnfdsjngjdfnlndf

06 kdjgnkdfjng

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook ksdfndskfnslkdng

kjdnfdsjngjdfnlndf

07 FOR WEEK 7 ONLY NEED KNOWLEDGE MAPS

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook ksdfndskfnslkdng

kjdnfdsjngjdfnlndf

08

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

08 Pavilion Construction Drawings re-drawn to life size scale: This task required us to re-draw a section of the Sports pavilion to real-life scale (1:1 scale). Below is an image of the section I was allocated.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook I was then guided to the drawing on page A46-02 which showed the detail from much further away, assisting me to find the position of this detail on the pavilion (refer to image below).

My photograph above is taken to depict a similar view as drawn on page A46-02, being reasonably far away from the detail. I was easily able to identify elements on the building with elements in the drawing.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) This drawing is at a 1:5 scale, however it has been photocopied and shrunk, meaning it is now at a 1:10 scale. This means that my drawing would have to be 10x the size of this drawing. Just from looking at this drawing I could see that this was depicting a parapet roof. The drawing did not have another page reference, so in order to find its location on the pavilion I used the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Câ&#x20AC;&#x2122; marking to direct me on the map of the entire floor plan, and then narrow down to a position on the pavilion.

(Cox Architecture Pty Ltd, 2013) I then went to the Pavilion to see how the drawing would translate in real life. I went to the eastern side of the building and was able to find the section that my drawing corresponded to. Similarities are shaded in the same colour above.

08

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook To understand my section I drew a number of sketches that helped me understand its function, what different elements were and what it looked like in 3D.

The shaded section of the photograph above indicates the approximate span that my drawing section covered. Below is a basic outline of what the construction drawing looks like compared to that the real parapet roof on the pavilion looked like. Although a basic outline could be seen from the outside, there were many details on the inside that were not visible.

The sketch below helped me understand the function of the section. I left the inside details in feint pencil so that I could focus on its function and more easily connect it with what I saw at the pavilion in real life.

My final sketch was 3 dimensional and basically combined what I saw in real life (A 3D view of the outside of the building), with the hidden construction details I had been provided in my section. (Sketch is below). The next sketch helped me to identify what elements purposes were. I was able to draw a basic sketch of my section and then look at the photographs I had taken of the pavilion to identify things such as the angled hollow ceiling and the glass window that I saw when I visited the structure.

08 Before starting to measure up and re-draw my section of the pavilion, I scanned through the drawing and found all the materials used. I did this by looking at the codes listed on the image, an then going to the Commentary index of the Pavilion construction drawing set and reading what each code meant. I made a list of these and then labeled them on this diagram.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook Finally I began to measure my 1:10 drawing and re-draw it on a 1:1 scale.

Below is an image of my finalized 1:1 drawing (bottom image), in comparison to the real construction drawing (Top image).

Section being drawn

While drawing this, I noticed another water detailing technique (Other than the fall and flashing). This was a drip detail located underneath the fascia, and made from a sealant with a backing rod. Below I have sketched how this drip works to keep water entering the structure.

Real Construction Drawing

My 1:1 Construction Drawing

A Larger copy of the image is provided on next page. A3 copy is attached at back of logbook. (Above is the list of codes and their meanings that I created and used in this task.)

08

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

FINAL 1:1 DRAWING

09

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

09 SITE VISIT: UPPER WEST SIDE APARTMENTS, SPENCER STREET. Computer generated image of Project outcome

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook The top floors of tower 2 are almost finished, and are undergoing mostly finishing touches such as painting and cleaning. Tower 2, almost complete

The image below is of a finished feature wall on the outside of one of the towers. Our guides said that the material used on this was â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;metal sheet claddingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, which perhaps meant that aluminum sandwich panels had been used as cladding. Cladding on tower exterior

(Brookfield Multiplex, 2013) BACKGROUND INFORMATION: 4 Apartment Towers Tower 4 budget is approximately \$60 million, and the budget for tower 3 is approximately \$150 million.

(Karadimas, 2014) The Construction Program needs to be managed and monitored carefully to ensure it is finished on time. There is almost daily tracking for this.

CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM:

CONSTRUCTION

The Apartments are built from the bottom, upwards so that the apartments can be occupied as soon as possible.

This site demonstrated an overwhelming amount of construction materials and techniques. Ahead is an explanation of some of the many processes, techniques and materials seen.

Tower #2 has the apartments on the bottom levels completed, and residents have already started moving in.

The sketch above shows how Aluminum sandwich panel cladding can achieve a high quality finished look whilst using materials efficiently and saving money.

09 The structure of the towers is made from in situ concrete. In Situ Concrete walls

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook As the complex was not finished, but there are some apartments that are occupied, The complex had a temporary opening, pictured below.

Our guides explained that Post tensioning had been used in slabs rather than steel reinforcement because it is quicker and cheaper.

Temporary Opening

(Karadimas, 2014) It could also be seen that structural steel columns had been used on the basement levels Steel Columns on basement levels (Circled)

(Karadimas, 2014) There was an interesting finish used on the finished foyer outside the elevators. This was created using a composite material, made from a MDF base and the finished look achieved by adding this textured, brown rustic looking material over the top.

As illustrated in the sketch above, there are cables within the concrete slab that are pulled very tight, causing stiffness through tension. This acts as reinforcement, increasing the concretes tensile capacity just like steel reinforcement bars do. The cables are secured at either end In an anchorage block. Below is an anchorage guide that was waiting b be used Cable Anchorage

Composite Material used as an interior wall finish

(Chu, 2014)

(Chu, 2014)

09 The sketch below shows how a cable anchorage holds the cables so that they can be tensioned, and feeds the ends out into the Post Tensioning Tray.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

Post Tensioning Tray

Although the bulk of Concrete slabs were reinforces using the P.T. technique, There were still some small sections that used Re-enforcement bars. Below is a photo of reinforcement bars being assembled inside formwork. Rio Bars

(Chu, 2014) The image above is a photograph looking into a Post Tensioning tray.

My sketch below illustrates how Post tensioning trays enable access to the cables after the slab has been poured.

Once the concrete has been poured, the cables must be tested with a Post Tensioning jack, which measures how much tension has been achieved in the cables. To ensure safety, this ditch from the PT tray is covered with a steel plate (shown in photo below).

(Karadimas, 2014) Because this site structure is so large, The re-enforcement bars are incredibly thick, as apposed to re-enforcement bars I have seen in small scare constructions, such as houses.

Thick Re-enforcement bars

09 Before pouring of the slab takes place, Formwork and reenforcement needs to be assembled. The formwork (Black wooden boxes) is assembled to create the shape of the concrete. Reenforcement is then added in the middle to increase the concretes tensile capacity. Once the slab has been poured, vibrated and cured, the formwork is taken off and the concrete slab remains. Sketch below illustrates this process:

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

Starter Bars

(Chu, 2014) Shown above are starter bars protruding from a concrete wall Starter bars give the next slab or wall something to latch onto. Bu using starter bars you avoid shearing at weak joints. For example the sketch below shows how â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Shaped starter bars prevent shearing.

When pouring concrete onto old concrete, you have to ensure that the two are connected well, or there will be a weakness in the structure. To to this, the old concrete section should be made rough (before curing) at the edge where the new concrete section will touch it. By having a rough edge, the concrete travels into nooks and has something to latch on to. This is illustrated below.

Rough edge to create a structural connection

09

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook There were giant columns that went all the way through the structure. These columns were made from reinforced concrete.

Bracing

(Chu, 2014) Temporary bracing has been assembled on some concrete panels. This bracing is has been bolted to the Floor slab ad the panel. The purpose of this bracing is to ensure that the walls donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t move while they are waiting for the ceiling slab to be poured (which will hold the walls where they need to be. Sketched below is what the entire brace looks like.

The steel reinforcement bars are literally tied to one another, using tiny steel threads, or by simply being wrapped around one another.

On the higher levels of the structure that were incomplete, the steel reinforcement bars were protruding from the ground, ready to be filled. (Refer to Photo below). Reinforced column

Reinforced column

(Karadimas, 2014) These columns are poured floor by floor. The set of steel reinforcements would have been assembled, and then the concrete would have been poured. After the concrete has been poured, there is still a short section on reinforcement sticking out the top, which is used to tie on the next section of reinforcement. (This is illustrated on next page.)

(Chu, 2014)

09

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

The sketch below shows the way that each section of the reinforced concrete columns is poured, one by one.

The mechanical system of the structure, and other trades were able to be identified when walking around the site. For example, below part of the structures plumbing system has been spotted. There is also a glimpse of the structures mechanical system on the roof on the very bottom image.

It was evident that there was thousands of dollars spend on temporary work. For example the temporary entrance to the Apartments (referenced earlier). There was also an incredible amount of temporary elements that were used for accessibility (scaffolding and stairs) and also These giant, strong columns take the loads from the structure and deliver them down to the ground, An illustration of this is shown in the next column.

Plumbing

Mechanical system Scaffolding

(Chu, 2014)

Stairs

10

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

10 1:1 DRAWING FEEDBACK After receiving feedback, I was made aware that there were a few errors I had made in my 1:1 drawing.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook I did not recognize that the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Câ&#x20AC;&#x2122; shaped structural steel element was a Parallel Flange Channel (PFC) Beam. Highlighted in red below is the PFC.

3 DIMENSIONAL DRAWING To better understand our 1:1 Drawings, we were asked to draw them in 3 dimension. To do this I pinned my 1:1 Drawing on the wall, and then pinned a layer of tracing paper on top of it. On the tracing paper I drew a 3D version, by adding extra lines outwards.

I Did not draw a section properly, and as it had no label on it I was not able to identify it as a Z Purling. Corrections in red below:

Below is my completed #D Drawing. (Larger copy of this is on last page of Week 10)

I had left out sectioned off beam (in the background) because I thought it was a grid line. This beam is crucial to the detail, as it holds up the Z Purling above it. Corrections in red below:

Although there were only a few errors, each of these were crucial elements in this section. For example the sectioned beam and the PFC are main structural elements in this section.

After looking at my detail in 3D I could more easily comprehend its function, and visualize it. I could also see a top view of hidden elements such as a Metal Sheet roof decking.

10

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

WATERPROOFING DETAILS:

The top sketch (below) shows how this section is detailed using a drip system. This causes water to fall earlier, when it is away from the structure. The bottom sketch (below) Shows the consequence of not having a drip here. The water can travel into the structure and would likely cause moisture or condensation within the glazed glass.

Here I have considered 3 different moisture detailing techniques in my section, and what effect they have on the building. I have shown how water can penetrate a structure if it is badly detailed. Below I have illustrated how an overlap prevents water penetration. The bottom sketch demonstrates how water can seep into a structure if elements are overlapped the wrong way around.

In the top sketch (above) I have illustrated how flashing carries water away from a spot that can be penetrated. The sketch on the bottom (above) shows what can happen if flashing has not been added where it is needed. The water seeps into the small capillary that exists in the corner of the Parapet Section. The water can then seep further down and into the building.

10

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

3 DIMENSIONAL DRAWING

CW

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

CONSTRUCTION WORKSHOP

To keep the angles of the edge at 90 degrees, we had to use a set angle ruler (Shown in image and sketch below).

The task required us to build a strong structure that spanned 1000mm, with a maximum height of 400mm. The structure would then take a point load at its center to test its strength. The materials given to our group were: 1 x Plywood (1200 x 3.2 x 90 mm) 3 x Radiata Pine (1200 x 42 x 18 mm) Screws, nails, hammers, screwdrivers, set angle ruler. We originally came up the idea of creating a truss shaped structure, and using triangulation in the truss to create strength and the plywood as a brace. We abandoned this idea because we realized that is would take too much time so cut each diagonal web element on the correct angle. (Truss plan sketched below).

Above is a sketch of our final plan, which was to create a structure similar to a stud wall. To do this we would use one Radiata Pine as a top plate, the other as a bottom plate. We would then cut the third piece of pine and use this to create studs, The plywood would then be attached to the back of the structure as a secondary bracing system.

We recognized that plywood was very strong and rigid when laid upright and very flexible when laid flat (As sketched above). This is why we decided to keep it upright as a bracing system for our structure.

Whilst beginning construction, I found that the wood was very tough and difficult to saw. This contrasted building with modeling materials, which are light and easy to shape.

CW To determine the size of the studs we measured the distance between the top and bottom pine members, while they were aligned with the plywood.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

We then nailed these studs in between the pine top plate and bottom plate. By using 2 nails at either end to secure the studs, this avoided any rotation or displacement.

Measuring distance for studs

To avoid differentiation of size for our studs we made a template stud and used this to measure off.

Cutting Studs using template to determine size

We continued to nail the studs into place, gradually spacing them closer to one another as they reached the center of the structure. The idea behind having the studs move closer to one another near the center was to add more strength to what we believed would be the weakest point of the structure. By using this technique we used our materials efficiently.

The sketch below shows how using 2 nails rather than one nail creates a fixed joint, and prevents any rotation.

CW We decided to nail plywood to the rest of structure by using 2 nails hammering them into studs rather than the top bottom members.

to the and the and

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

Below is a sketch I drew illustrating the difference between a flathead nail and a bullet head nail.

We noticed that some of the nails were actually weakening our structure, for example the image below shows how the nail has split this pine and weakened it.

The areas above the studs were marked with pencil before they were nailed.

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC; Below is an image of the plywood once it had been attached to the structure.

After nailing all the plywood to the structure, we were advised that we had used the incorrect nails. We had used bullet head nails which are used to attach a sold member to another solid member, where as flat head nails should be used to attach a sheet member to a solid member. Our plywood was a sheet member and the pine a solid member, meaning the correct nail to use is a flat head nail.

This confirmed that using more nails does not mean that the structure will be stronger. Nails create breakage points in the timber which will likely cause a failure point in the structure. Nails should be used efficiently and sparingly rather than excessively.

CW OUR GROUPâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S PERFORMANCE:

STRUCTURE

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

The sketch below shows the moment of inertia on the plywood.

GROUP #1 PERFORMANCE:

STRUCTURE

Strength

170kg before failure.

Strength

320kg before failure.

Deflection

15mm

Deflection

65mm

Points of failure

- Knot - Nails

Points of failure

Peak of pines bend

Our structure was quite strong and very rigid, meaning the deflection was low, reaching 15mm before the first breakage, which was a shearing of the plywood. This point of failure occurred under 170kg of weight. Shearing in the plywood

The photo above shows the shearing in the plywood, which looks like a tear. The shearing in the plywood was caused from compression at the top and tension at the bottom.

We then applied weight again to test where the rest of the structure would break. The pine was very flexible, deflecting 70mm and taking 140kg before failing. The pine snapped because there were weaknesses in it that were caused by an excess of nails and a knot in the wood.

FRONT

BACK

Above is a sketch of that group 1â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structure looked like. It was essentially a truss system with a plywood bracing at the back, and a top chord made from plywood. Both the bottom chord and the diagonal webbing elements were made out of Radiata Pine.

CW When force was applied, elements in the structure kept falling out and distorting, which allowed for a great amount of flexibility. The structure deflected 65mm under 320kg before reaching its point of failure.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

GROUP #2 PERFORMANCE:

STRUCTURE

Strength

45kg +

Deflection

Unlimited

Points of failure

None, the structure just continued deflecting.

Group #2 Structure

The plywood did not break, it became distorted, bending and deflecting to avoid failure. The point of failure was in the center of the pine as this was the peak of the bend.

This structure was held by gauges at each end to hold it up. Gauge holding structure

The plywood was very flexible and was able to be bent, twisted and distorted an incredible amount.

Structure distorting & deflecting

The sketch below shows how the structure was distorted when force was applied. There were no points of failure in this structure simply because it continued to deflect under any weight. Above is a sketch of what this structure looked like. The structure was made of two upright parallel sheets of plywood, with pine studs sandwiched between them.

KEY TERMS Axial Load This is a weight load that is applied along the axis of an element. Alloy A mixture of two or more metals for example alloy steel. Beam A long horizontal member which is designed to hold vertical loads. A beam is able to hold vertical load because it uses bending resistance. This is a structural element Bending This is when an element is distorted under force. Flexible materials will bend more, and still materials will bend less. Bending Stress This is when a load is applies to an element, causing it to deflect. When bending stress is applied to an element it causes both tension and compression. Braced Frame This is a bracing system used to deal with lateral forces of earthquakes and winds. Frames are braces usually in a diagonal or triangular way. The elements used to brace work in tension and compression and are usually steel.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

Bracing This is a technique used to support a structure. Bracing is where a member is placed diagonally to support an intersection.

Cornice This is the molding placed at the top of a wall (on the inside) that is used as a finishing technique. (Ching, 2008)

Buckling When an element is deformed and manipulated due to stress from an applied load.

Composite Beam This is a beam that is made from a composite material. The composite material is generated by combining steel and concrete.

Cable Anchorage This is what is used to tie a tension element down to another element. It allows movement. (Ching, 2008) Cantilever A beam, joist or similar element that is fixed at only one end. The force at the fixed end has to support the applied force at the cantilevered end for this to function. The overhang of a cantilever looks almost as if it is defying gravity. Column A long vertical member. Usually used to support horizontal structures for example ceilings. Corrosion This is when a material is gradually destroyed over time because of its reaction against another materials or chemicals. (Cameron, 2014)

Concrete Plank This is a concrete member in a long, rectangular and flat shape. Plank is simply referring to the geometry – flat, long, rectangular. Compression When materials are pressed together with an external force. This causes most materials to contract. Defect This sis a fault, imperfection.

issue

or

Deflection The amount of movement and flexibility an element has when put under a load. Ching (2008) describes this technically as “.. The perpendicular distance a spanning member deviates from a true course under transverse loading…’

KEY TERMS Diaphragms This is a wall that has been braced to reduce the impact caused by lateral loads of earthquakes and wind. A shear wall makes the whole structure move as a whole rather than having weak elements taking all of the impact. (Newton, 2014) Door Furniture These are the various fixtures that can be added to a door. For example locks and handles. (ching, 2008) Down Pipe These collect water from gutters and redirect to water tanks or drainage. Drip This is a moisture detailing technique used on the underside of an overhang to prevent water entering and angle. For example the underside of a windowsill will have this, it is a little groove in the surface which causes the water to fall before the angle. (Ching, 2008) Eave The overhang or cantilevered edge of a roof. Eaves can be used to detail a building to prevent moisture entry. (Newton, 2014)

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

Frame The banes of a structure is made from a frame. For example a house is constructed around a timber frame. Some structures are simply made from frames, for example the Eifel tower. Fascia This is boarding that is used around the edges of a roofing system. For example there is an aluminum fascia on my section of the pavilion (refer to wee 8 logbook entry). Flashing (Ching, 2008) Uses continuous sheets of material (mostly metal) to prevent water passing into an angle or joint. (Newton, 2014) Using a double wall, any moisture that penetrates the first surface will then be redirected by the flashing out of the structure. Gasket A pre-formed rubber shape used for moisture detailing. (Newton, 2014) Girder This is a major structural beam that supports vertical loads. Gutter This is a technique to prevent water penetration. Placed at the edge of roof to catch water and discharge into a downpipe, redirecting the water away from the structure. (Newton, 2014)

IEQ This stands for â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Indoor Environment Qualityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, which regards the health of the people inside the building. The materials used can affect the IEQ and can cause shortened life span, asthma, nausea, headaches and many more health issues. Materials should be carefully selected to improve a structures IEQ. (Hes, 2014) Insulation This is used to control temperature. For example, walls of a building are insulated to keep temperature in or out. There are many forms of insulation from polystyrene, to double glazed windows. Jamb The side members that make up a window frame. Joist This is an element which is used to hold up the flooring itself Lifecycle The time that a material can last before deteriorating. It is good to choose timeless, long-lasting Materials or the structure will be very high maintenance. (Hes, 2014)

KEY TERMS Lintel Carries vertical loads from a large area and distributes them to the sides of a given area. For example A lintel on a brick wall above a window carries the loads of the bricks above it and distributes them to either side of the window, so that the weak glass does not carry any load. Load path When a weighted load is applied to a structure, the weight is distributed to find the quickest way to the bottom/reaction force. Masonry This is a style of construction using stone. For example bricks, limestone granite etc. Moment Moment= force x distance A moment is caused when an element does not have equal pushing and pulling force on it, causing it to rotate. Moment of Inertia This indicates how the area of an element is distributed. When an element is bent, the furthermost deflecting side is pulled by tension and the closest deflecting side is being pushed by compression.

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

Nogging This is the horizontal bracing system which is used on a stud wall . This stops the wall from buckling. (Newton, 2014) Pad Footing Individual footings which are used to distribute the weight of a slap over a large area. These look like a column with a pad underneath them. These are a type of shallow foundation. Parapet Dictionary.com, 2014 describes a parapet to e a very low wall or extension which is used as a protective barrier for a wall, roof or balcony. PEC: Pressure Equalization Chamber. Pressure inside is equal to outside which prevents water from entering structure. Pitch: All roofs must have a 3 degrees pitch. Tiled roofs must have over 15 degrees pitch. Point load Where a weight is applied to only a specific area. For example if a block is placed on a bridge, this is a point load.

Portal Frame A simple, rigid structural frame that is usually made out of steel elements. Portal frames are usually in a square or pentagon shape. Purlin There are horizontal elements that support rafters. These generally run parallel tp the Ridge Board. Rafter The horizontal (but pitched) beam elements that are used to construct a roof frame. (Ching, 2008) Reaction force This is the resistance that a surface gives in reaction to a load. For example if a table is on a floor, the surface of the floor has a reaction force to the bottom of the table. Retaining Wall A wall designed to stop the movement of soil. It is used typically against earth to prevent landslide and erosion. Retaining walls resist against GROUND PRESSURE (Horizontal force from soil mass).(Ching, 2008)

KEY TERMS Sandwich Panel This is a composite material that combines a metal sheet exterior, with a rigid insulation interior. The metal commonly used for this is aluminum. (Newton, 2014) Sarking: Wrapped around a building to prevent air and water leakage. Detailing strategy. (Newton, 2014) Sealant Sealant is used when detailing for moisture. Sealants are applied to openings to remove them and avoid water penetration. Sealants are a flexible, easily manipulated material such as silicone. Sealants deteriorate over time and need to be maintained. (Newton, 2014) Seasoned Timber The process of seasoning timber involves removing all the water from the material. This can be one by air drying, or kiln drying. Seasoned water has less than 15% of its â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;growing tree moistureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. (Newton, 2014)

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

Shear Force This is created when one side of a member is having force applied from the top, and the other side is having force applied from the bottom. Shear force can cause members to shear which is a type of failure. Shearing is when an element is split from the pressure of compression.

Skirting This is a detailing technique used to protect the bottom of walls from damage caused by frequent contact. (Newton, 2014) Skirting boards are easily replaceable and durable. They also conceal any gaps underneath them, improving a structures aesthetic quality.

Shear Wall This is a wall that has been braced to reduce the impact caused by lateral loads of earthquakes and wind. A shear wall makes the whole structure move as a whole rather than having weak elements taking all of the impact. (Newton, 2014)

Spacing This is a measurement of the distance between two joist, measured from the center point of the first joist to the center point of the next joist.

Shadow Line Joint This is when there is a very small gap placed between elements. This allows a structure to age more gracefully. For example a shadow line joint would be used between to timber elements on weatherboard cladding. (newton, 2014) Slab A slab of plate covers a large wide surface, and is usually places on top of beams, where the weight is distributed to.

Span This is the distance between any two members, starting from the edge of the element. Soft Storey According to WiiseGEEK.com (2014), A soft storey building is characterized by having a large amount of open area, windows and doors, and lack of bracing. Each story must not be under 70% of the stiffness of the storey above it, or it will be categorized as a soft story building. Soft story buildings react very badly with lateral forces, in particular earthquakes.

KEY TERMS

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

Stability Not able to collapse. The state of being stable and fixed.

Pin Joints: These restrict both vertical and horizontal movement.

Steel Decking This is created by folding a sheet of steel. Usually a layer of concrete is poured over the decking. The steel decking then assists in providing additional tensile strength needed.

Tension This is when a material is pulled with force from either side so that it is stretched and taught. This can create strength and stiffness in of the material. For example a tightrope is pulled on either end to create tension.

Fixed Joints: These restrict all movement.

Tempered Glass Glass that has been strengthened. This is done by heating the glass very much then cooling it rapidly. This increases bending strength but also causes the glass to break into small blunt pieces rather than sharp pieces. (Newton, 2014)

Stress This is when a material or element is put under an immense amount of force. Strip Footing Using walls or columns to distribute weight over an area in a linear way. Structural Joint There are three structural joints:

types

of

Roller Joints: These restrict only vertical movement. These are used in places such as large bridges where a lost of movement is needed to account for the expansion or contraction of materials.

Soffit The underside of an eave in a roof system. (Ching, 2008) Stud A stud wall is made up of a number of studs. These are vertical members which take a horizontal load, spreading weight across a large area. By using studs. (Newton, 2014) Substructure The foundations of a structure are called the substructure. A substructure supports a superstructure.

Top Chord This is the top horizontal element in a truss (Ching, 2008) Vapor Barrier These are used to protect a building from moisture. For example a polyethylene membrane or aluminum membrane may be wrapped on a building as a vapor barrier. Window Sash This is the frame that glass panes are put in, to create a window. (Ching, 2008, pg 8.22)

KEY TERMS STUD WALL

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook

PITCHED ROOF

FLOOR dksngkdfjngldsfjn

TRUSS

DOOR WINDOW

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ENVS10003 Brigitte Kelleher - Logbook