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Explore the large prefabricated construction buildings in various case studies for different materials, wood, concrete, steel, plastic and non-metal, etc. The knowledge in prefabricated construction system and technology in high-rise building design as in the criterion of basic structural design(basement & foundation, retaining wall, wall bearing, shear wall, structural framing technology, structure curtain wall, escalation core, metal sash and the fitting and roofing structure & sun-shading devices), transportation and construction process, and detail design (continuous, simply support or hinged, moisture & thermal protection, freedom of movement, thermal movement, shrinkage and erection procedure).

September 6, 2011 By A.Bhumi Semester 1– 2011, Montfort del Rosario School of Architecture and Design Assumption University


Prefabrication system and Technology in High-rise building design.

Categorizations of the systems or subsystems that comprise a building are in existence, is defined in four systems:

1. 2.

Structure Envelope

3. 4.

Mechanical Interior

 The systems and assemblies of the envelope are one of the four main parts of the building in their contribution to overall building performance.  The envelope protects the other systems from harsh aspects of the outside. It also works in conjunction with the other systems to ensure a safe and benign environment for the building occupants.  Thus the envelope is a gatekeeper, allowing certain aspects of the exterior into the building, rejecting some and changing the nature of others.  The design of the envelope is very complex and many factors have to be evaluated and balanced to ensure the desired levels of thermal, acoustic and visual comfort together with safety, accessibility and aesthetic excellence.


Building collapse in Japan, caused by Sunami

September 6, 2011 Semester 1– 2011, Montfort del Rosario School of Architecture and Design Assumption University


September 6, 2011 By A.Bhumi Semester 1– 2011, Montfort del Rosario School of Architecture and Design Assumption University


Inadequate foundation structure Poor construction method and materials September 6, 2011 By A.Bhumi Semester 1– 2011, Montfort del Rosario School of Architecture and Design Assumption University


Building collapse caused by the landslide and foundation failed.

September 6, 2011 By A.Bhumi Semester 1– 2011, Montfort del Rosario School of Architecture and Design Assumption University


Four limit states when designing a wood beam

Shear Failure

oThe design of wood beams is similar to the design procedure for beams made of other structural materials. oThere are four limit states that must be considered when designing a wood beam. Bending Failure

1. 2. 3. 4.

Shear Bending Deflection Bearing

oBearing capacity is used to determine the required bearing length at the supports of the beam. oThis module will focus on design for bending, shear, and deflection, all of which may govern the size of a wood member.

Deflection Failure


Steel Bars (ก ) for Concrete Reinforcement •

Reinforcing Concrete Beam

September 6, 2011 By A.Bhumi Semester 1– 2011, Montfort del Rosario School of Architecture and Design Assumption University


Steel Bars (ก ) for Concrete Reinforcement •

Reinforcing Concrete Beam

September 6, 2011 Semester 1– 2011, Montfort del Rosario School of Architecture and Design Assumption University


Steel Bars (ก ) for Concrete Reinforcement •

Reinforcing Concrete Beam

September 6, 2011 Semester 1– 2011, Montfort del Rosario School of Architecture and Design Assumption University


The Concept of Reinforcing Concrete ( ภ ภ) for BEAM •

Concrete has no useful tensile strength and was limited in its structural use until the concept of steel reinforcing was developed.

•

The basic theory of concrete reinforcing is extremely simple: Put the steel where there is tension in a structural member and let the concrete resist the compression.

September 6, 2011 Semester 1– 2011, Montfort del Rosario School of Architecture and Design Assumption University


The Concept of Reinforcing Concrete ( ภ ภ) for Column •

However there are some important exceptions: Steel is used to resist some of the compression in concrete columns and in beams whose height must be reduced for architectural reasons.

•

It is also used to resist cracking that might otherwise be caused by curing shrinkage, and by thermal expansion and contraction in slabs and walls.

September 6, 2011 Semester 1– 2011, Montfort del Rosario School of Architecture and Design Assumption University


Significant Criteria on Building Structure and Building Envelope For Prefabrication system and Technology in High-rise building design.

1.Structure of Building:

Failure of structure > being bent or crack

Structure of building should be designed for Balance of loads. : Most of high-rise building use post-tension floor slab system.


1. Structure of Building:

Failure of structure

> being bent or crack

Structure of building should be designed to prevent crack and being bent.


1.Structure of Building:

Failure of structure > being bent or crack

Structure of building should be designed to resist the compression load.


1.Structure of Building:

Failure of structure > being bent or crack

Structure of building should be designed for Building Sway Protection

Strength against winds is an essential factor for superhigh-rise buildings. Wind tunnel tests and detailed computer simulation have been repeatedly performed to seek a shape least susceptible to winds. Substructures composed of a trussed framework of SRC columns, steel girders and braces piled up to form the tubular outer frame curbs the fundamental period of the building sway to less than six seconds, making the 121-story building sway as modestly as a 60-story building. Assembled H-beams are used inside the SRC columns for optimal dispersion of stress in the joint areas of columns, girders and braces. An analysis of the impact of wind in relation to seasonal storms through a numerical simulation technique on the basis of stochastic data confirms safety against the predictable fatigue of steel frames. September 6, 2011, By A.Bhumi, Semester 1– 2011, Montfort del Rosario School of Architecture and Design Assumption University


Structure of building should be designed for the appropriate Connection Joint.

Steel Connection Design

Steel Structural Elements


External Prefabricated Wall System For High-rise Building in Japan


External Prefabricated Wall System For High-rise Building in Japan - Possible for precast concrete or aluminum composite cladding systems.


2. Building Envelope Thermal performance & Moisture protection The following performance issues are examined for the envelope systems: • Thermal performance • Moisture protection • Ventilation system • Fire safety • Acoustics • Daylighting and perimeter visual environment • System maintainability • Material durability


2. Building Envelope VENTILATION SYSTEM


2. Building Envelope

Building should have the ventilation system for the whole building performance. Then detail of the building skin pattern, such as cladding, glazing, grill/ louvre, flashing, groove, spacing gap, etc., should provide the balance of the aesthetic surface and the mechanical & electrical performance.


Building Envelope

Thermal performance Moisture protection Require the balance of pressure inside and outside the building envelope .


PRECAST PANEL: Details of groove & weep holes, and drainage for temperature and moisture protection Remove moisture from behind panels, by providing Grooves & Weephloes

Thermal performance & Moisture protection

Drainage Groove


PRECAST PANEL INSTALLATION SYSTEM:

panel stiffening

Method of adjustment with Various combinations of dowel and cleat fixings by offering movement in x, y and z axes.

-Vertical strengthening ribs -Alignment and fixing


2. Building Envelope Standardization of Modular size and transportation system


Principal lifting devices:

Modular size and Lifting Provision System

shackle

Loop

Collared eye

Clip-on

Size of panels; •Ease of manufacture •Method of transportation •Weight of lifting


2. Building Envelope Equipment to lift up the panel to higher levels of high-rise building: •Crane & crane jib •Core structure of the high-rise building


2. Building Envelope PRECAST PANEL: ERECTION

Height of each Story allow Standard size Of panel.

Avoid 3 fixings At different levels

Because of thermal movement and inaccuracy


Wall Section

Stone panel support and detail joints

2. Building Envelope

Wall Section

FLOOR

Inner skin

CLADDING SYSTEM

Insulation Outer skin


2. Building Envelope METAL SHEET JOINTS

a. Crown fixing

b. Trough fixing

Side-lap joints with secret fixings: Without accessory section

With accessory section


METAL SHEET at corner

2. Building Envelope

METAL SHEET as Linear tray assembly


2. Building Envelope CURTAIN WALLGlazing system Box type panel joints


2. Building Envelope

WallGlazing Frame Installation


CONNECTION JOINT Connection joint

is the way of structural section is connected to each other.

Detail connection joint is needed for:1.

Building Structure o Steel structure is composed of steel which becomes a standard of industrialized building. o Structural section has a quality of prefabricated structural member. o It is useful for wall structure, or floor structure.

1.

Building Envelope


Floor-Wall Panel connections & joints Panel concrete slab

Wall-Wall Panel connections & joints

PRECAST


PRECAST

Details of Floor Connections


PRECAST

Details of Floor Connections


PRECAST

Details of Floor Connections


PREFAB

CONCRETE WALL COMPONENT

1. Wall Edge Castellated. This is an illustration of connecting wall elements structure which uses concrete filled in toothed line orientation. It is called, Wall Edge Castellated.

150 mm.

A Gap between Two Concrete Panels

Advantages: - It is highly strong and does not need anchorage bar or steel loop bars to support. - Suitable for heavy construction which the wall panel is 150 mm. in thickness.

Modular Grid Line


PREFAB

WALL COMPONENT

2. For high rise buildings, it is necessary to use “ Tensile Reinforcement.” Therefore, “tensile connection,” should be located at assembly bolt, between floor and wall component, in panel system.

Component tolerance

This structure composes of anchorage bar which is joining panels together. However, this procedure is not practical for wall-wall connection.


WALL COMPONENT DETAIL SHOWING Exterior Wall Components and Joint.

WALL Interior wall

Exterior wall

Insulation

Interior wall

Exterior wall


WALL COMPONENT CONNECTION BETWEEN SPINE AND CROSS WALL COMPONENTS

Spine wall

Spine wall

Cross wall


WALL COMPONENTS DIAGRAM OF WALL-COMPONENT LAYERS

OUTER SKIN STRUCTURE It is necessary to have insulation and outer skin material cover exterior wall structure.

INNER SKIN STRUCTURE It is necessary to have surfacing material in order to cover to connection joints between wall to wall.


FLOOR-FLOOR and FLOOR-WALL JOINTS There are 2 systems of arranging floor components: 1. Floors rest on column and beam… FLOOR-FLOOR JOINT 2. Floor rests on wall or loading bearing wall…. FLOOR-WALL JOINT 1st TYPE OF FLOOR-FLOOR JOINT

:

1.1 Repetitive Tee-beams as floor, sitting on support as beam

Reinforcement is suitable for concrete filling and connecting floor together


FLOOR-FLOOR JOINT Blow up area of 1st type (1.1)

Concrete filling is necessary for Joining and support. Also, it helps to stabilize “Load transmission.�

This tube should not be hard material. Blow-up: Insert this metal sheet at every joint. It prevents cement leaking.

Arrange it with the distance of 3 mm.


FLOOR TO FLOOR JOINT 1st TYPE OF FLOOR-FLOOR JOINT :

1.2 Ribbed floor slab has legs sitting on the support as beams.

1.3 Hollow-core floor panels sitting on support as beams.


FLOOR-WALL JOINT 2nd TYPE OF FLOOR-WALL JOINT 2.1 Repetitive Tee-beam floor rest on bearing brick wall. The distance between floor components must have an enough distance in order to suit concrete filling procedure.

W P FLOOR

Mi WALL Bearing brick

Weight of W and P is transferring to wall below through in situ concrete.


FLOOR-WALL JOINT 2nd TYPE OF FLOOR-WALL JOINT

2.2 Hollow-core floor panels rests on load-bearing brick wall.

WALL

FLOOR This piece must not be wider than the next piece.


FLOOR–WALL JOINT 2nd TYPE OF FLOOR-WALL JOINT 2.3 FLOOR PANELS RESTING ON REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL.

Long Section: (Interior Wall)


FLOOR – WALL JOINT THIS IS AN ILLUSTRATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL RESTING ON HOLLOWED-CORE FLOOR PANELS.

Cross Section:

Interior Wall ( REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL)

Cement Grout Floor component ( HOLLOWED-CORE FLOOR PANELS)

In situ concrete filling Interior Wall ( REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL)


Column joint

Concrete Footings

Foundations joint


CONNECTION JOINT CLOSED JOINT Closed joint is another way of combining two elements together. It helps to protect the building from moisture.

CLOSED JOINT For concrete panels

Modular Line Mortar Concrete Concrete Wall panel

Inside

Sealant

Outside

Inside

Concrete Wall panel

Outside


CONNECTION JOINT OPENED JOINT

Opened joint is as flexible structure, expansion of material, tolerant of wind force and vibration, and also the storm water flow.

OPENED JOINT For concrete panels

Baffle or Flashing

Outside

Concrete Wall panel

Inside

Concrete Wall panel


Inside

OPENED JOINT

For concrete panels

Outside

The disadvantage of closed joint is that it doesn’t release moisture from inside. Therefore, opened joint is invented to solve this problem. This opened joint is suitable for large precast concrete panels.


Steel: Column-Beam detail connection joint

September 6, 2011 Semester 1– 2011, Montfort del Rosario School of Architecture and Design Assumption University


Steel: Column-Beam detail connection joint


CONNECTION JOINT

Aluminum composite panel

Inside

Aluminum composite panel Insulation

Outside


Steel and Wood Structural Elements

Light gauge steel structures have been brought and widely use in Thailand for many years. Mostly, it is used as roof truss for factories and buildings with wide span.

Examples of light gauge steel structures that are used as truss.


STEEL CONNECTION JOINT Light gauge steel structure can be used widely in residential buildings, school, vacation house, and etc. Examples of column-floor joint. C Section


STEEL CONNECTION JOINT Examples of column-floor joint. I or H Sections


STEEL CONNECTION JOINT Examples of column-floor joint.

Box Sections


Steel Column-Beam Connections

Steel Column-column Connections

Steel Column-Base Connections


Wood Post-Beam Connections


STEEL CONNECTION JOINT EXAMPLES OF WIND BRACING IN DIFFERENT DESIGN.

Steel Rod and Bracing

Details of connecting element as bracing


STEEL CONNECTION JOINT Examples of multipurpose uses

Column-beam joint

•Steel plate •Bracket •Angle bar •Truss-like


CONNECTION JOINT for Wood and Steel Elements

CONNECTION JOINT for Wood Elements

Laminated timber

Steel plate connection joint for hexagonal wooden members in geodesic dome structure.

CONNECTION JOINT for Steel Elements Steel tube connection joint for hexagonal steel tube members in geodesic dome structure. This example is the external frame structure holding the fabric skin of the dome.


CONNECTION JOINT for Wood Elements


Eight basic type of joint for wooden Furniture and interior finish construction.


Thai traditional house In the modern style


Steel Container Corner of single box Plan: 6 containers

Plan Two boxes connection

Elevation


Steel Container

Conhouse 2+


Corrugated side wall of the container

Internal wall finishes

Detail of WALL

Shall put insulation between inside and outside walls

Vertical post support of the container

CONTAINER HOUSE 1st floor plan 2nd floor plan


PREFAB

CONNECTION JOINT

CONCRETE COMPONENTS CONNECTION JOINTS FOR STEEL/WOOD COMPONENTS

The reason that each components, such as floor,wall,beam, needs to have a variety in size and section is because of varieties of their locations ( at the corner, the middle, the central area,etc.) within the building , type of structural components and materials, types of each connection joint and type of joint sealant, and how the finishing appearance that the designer want it to be like.

Lecture 13 Construction  

prefab construction

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