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GEN-BIO

TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

RMUTL: | Chollada Kulwat


TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

Gen-Bio

ภ   

 (Transport of Materials Across Membranes)   ภ       !  "ภ # â&#x20AC;˘   # (nucleus) â&#x20AC;˘ , - ! (cytoplasm) â&#x20AC;˘  4ภ5 67#8, - ! (organelle) â&#x20AC;˘ #;< (cell membrane) ภ  ;  >5   ? @5   ภ; Aภ  ภ  < -;>-

 ?< 88 4" ภ ?  # ภ!BAภภ" ภ 4!7#8ภภ  5 6<5B4"ภAภ #>5#;< ! #;;ภ>5 (selectively permeable < ; differentially permeable < ; semipermeable membrane) ##8<B?4"  ภ >5 ภAภ,#5  " 5    ภ8<@5 5   ,G  -   4"ภ  ภ ภ,ภ-HI #5 8ภ ?   ภ5 4"ภAภ #;< ภภI"-;BJ<;ภ ;   ,  Fluid Mosaic Model ; ภ  4"-#M5#5 ภ"Aภ"A##;<  #  ภ  B (bilayer)  "ภ, #

*+ 4-1 / 01 2 3 42



ภ.  +5ภ6 7ภ;

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TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

Gen-Bio

- O O- (Phospholipid)  #    B -   ภ 4 ภ#M5 "< 5 B O O- .  +5ภ6 8 ภ

  ,G ภ"ภ ภ  4" ภ O O- ?8<ภ  ภ8<5 #ภ5 ,ภ   (glycoprotein) 4",ภ - (glycolipid) ? ภ   ,G ?<8ภ  @@< ;5ภ;6 ?8< ภ   < ;  ภ 4!7#8ภ!B 5  ภ O O- 4" ภ  ?<  ภ >5ภ  Aภ   #;< #8<   #5 >5ภAภ,B #ภ5 Selectively permeable < ; Differentially permeable # ภ O O- ?<#8<   "7 B?4" >5 5B 4" ภ   ?<;ภ8<   #5 ภ4"ภAภ 4"# ?<      ภ >5ภ  >5#;< # 4.1 1:;ภ   3 42

 T-A AภH ภ  ;   4ภ5 ภ 4"  ภ -

Aภ A?4ภภ, 2 V ; 4.1.1 - O    (Passive Transport) ภ ?#  >5#;<  #,58-

AภATP (Adenosine triphosphate) ,4ภ5 - ภ 4- 5 (Diffusion) -   (Osmosis) - ภ 4- 54 - (Facilitated Diffusion) 4.1.2 4ภO    (Active Transport) ภ ?#  >5#;< #8-

AภATP 7#84"H#ภ ?   - (carrier) - 4ภO    (Active Transport) - ภ,  (Exocytosis) -  ,  (Endocytosis)

4.2 61ภ=>+ ? (Passive transport)  3


TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

Gen-Bio

 ภ ภ ภ  ภ!B#5  " ,5H#-

 Vภ B  ,<>5#;<, #H# 4ภ5 

  (concentration gradient) ! ภ  A",<>5#;<Aภ   ภภ5, M5

  #ภ5 4.2.1 ภB= (Diffusion)  V8< ภ  ,<>5#;<ภ 8 ภ - O    # ภ  A"ภ ,<#5  ">5#;<Aภ  <45  ภ, M5 <45  #ภ5 #,5A? -

 ATP 5 #  A",<>5  Aภ"

 ภ  B        5ภ 7 "B #ภ5  ภ 4- 5 (dynamic equilibrium) 7?ภE  = 7?ภE ภ Gภ



*+ 4-2 ภB=+Hภ   /2 ภ4  ?8B 5IJ 3 226 E223 ภKEL ภB=G5:I4L 2 2 122 M3NB 5M3 ภภ7

+OGG73 2 ? 7?ภB=  1. L/2 ภ4   ภ 4- 5A"ภ!B, T ภ  8<@5   ภภ,5 5 A"ภ_ < ;  < A"ภภ 4- 5,ภ4"  2. 4PM*2:

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TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

Gen-Bio

 A"ก "8<กก  ;,<  ก  ก -  ก 4- 5 #A"ก  "; ก  A!  ก 4- 5 3. 12B?ก?  122  T   ก<;ก45#M5  5 ก   5 ก ก A"ก - ก 4- 5 4. M= 

 4! M #;<A"   T8ก 8<  >5 4"กAก,ก 5. 12L7 /2: (osmosis pressure)    M A"?8<  "#7#ก4- 5,8 ,ก 0:L กB= ก. กB=E23 226 ก 4- 5Aก!B,B  ?"# < ; TMก"#4- 5Aก     ก, M5     # #,5 >5  . กB=3 226 ก 4- 5Aก!B,B  ?"#< ; TMก "#4- 5Aก     ก, M5     # # >5  # ก 4- 5,55ก !B#M5ก  4"      4" #;  ก 4- 5Bกก  4.2.2 /2: (Osmosis) ก 4- 5>5#;  ก B?Aก    <45 B?ก (  "#A;A ) ,#    <45 B?#ก 5 (  "#) Aก " T! A  7?กB= IJ = 7?กB= IJ ก

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TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

Gen-Bio

*+ 4-3 61ภ /2:+HภB= /2 ภ4 IJ3 42

E2ภ 31ภ76/2 ภ4   

 ; ;8H!ภIภ ภ   #ภ5    (osmometer)  "ภ #7"8 5B?  V`#M57#ภภ7"8 5  "# "ภ ##; 6   #8<B?>5, " ภ45,5#8< TMภ"#>5< ;>5,#ภ;  >5,B?  V`#M57#ภA"  

5 87"8 5  "#A"  -!B4  5ภ    B?ภ!B 4"4   TB?#M587"8 5  "#8<-!B #ภ5 4  ภ(osmotic pressure)

*+ 4-4 BL   /22:?  33 N0NภTUภVภภ:L /2:B 5BL7 /2?:ŕ¸

BL7 /2?:ภ(osmotic pressure) ;4 ?8<ภ   B? < ;4 ภ!B7#8  "#; ภ B?4- 5,8  "# 4   ภA" M < ;? !B#M5ภ <45 ภ< ;,  "##M58  "# B 4  ภA" 5 M ;  "# ภ4"A"?; # B?  V`A"4  ภ?  BL7? (turgor pressure) ;4 ภ!B7#8; AภB?4- 5 , ! 4 5 M A" 55ภ4  ภ  "# ;T! 7 " 

ภ 4- 5 +OGG73 ภ 31 ภ76 /2: 1. 122  5 3

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TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

Gen-Bio

ภ B?A"4- 5>5#; Aภ "#  # (  "#A;A ) ,#  "# ภภ5 (  "#) 2. M= ?71ภ  5 3 3*M3 ภ

 7-  ภ 7#ภ ; ##   ภ 7#8  T45 ภ, 3 7- ; 122 M3 ภ= 122 M3N

  #ภ5  5 3E //:ภ(Isotonic solution) 8 7-5B ภB= IJE+N

 = ภB= IJ ภGภ



*+ 4-5    Hypertonic , Hypotonic B 5 Isotonic solution ? 61ภ /2:

 "#7#ภA"4  ภ5ภ  "#7#8  T<ภ?458  "#,  ภA",5ภ #4 ภ!B BA"   4" M

  "#8ภI"B  ? @ภ8    #b-"ภ

M 5     5 ;4 ,< ##M58B?;  T

M 5 #M5, # ,5- A4ภ< ;,5<# 4O ; Aภ  "#B?;,   ภ5  "#7#8;4

122 M3 ภ< 122 M3N

  #ภ5  5 3E]/+/:ภ(Hypotonic solution) 8 7-5B >ภ!B ; 4ภภB= IJE+N

 > ภB= IJ ภGภ



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TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

Gen-Bio

 "#7#ภ4  ภ#ภ5  "# 7#8 ?8<B?4- 5Aภ7#ภ M5  "#7#8 A"?8<- < ; 5 (turgid)  #ภ7-5B 5 - , (plasmoptysis) T?8 58  "#,G  ภA"- 5 ภ B?Aภ7#ภA"4- 5 M5 ?8<7#85  ; AภB?7#8B #ภ5 4 5 (turgor pressure) T   A"## !B ;#6 AA?8<4ภ, 4"8   ภ H##M58B?A; B?A" 4- 5 M5,    - ภBA" 4 ภ, 4   (contractile vacuole)   ?<ภ?AB?ภภ  ภ ภAภ 45 ?< -; 4A" , B?ภภ,ภ,5?8<ภ #5ภ   ; Aภ-;> 4 4

4 5 7#8 M 5ภ4  ภ?8<ภ 7 "  ภ 4- 54" A",5 B?,ภ122 M3 ภ> 122 M3N

  #ภ5  5 3E]+ /:ภ(Hypertonic solution) 8 7-5B >ภ!B ; <# ภB= IJE+N

 < ภB= IJ ภGภ

  "#7#ภ4  ภภภ5  "#7#8 ? 8<B?7#84- 5ภAภ M5  "#7#ภ ?8<4"  ภ (ภภ <# < ; flaccid)  #ภ7-5B 5 - , (plasmolysis) 45T? ภ- , 4 ,45B?  V`< ;  "#A;A A"ภ5 !B8<5  #ภ7-5B 5 - , (deplasmolysis)

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TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

Gen-Bio

*+ 4-6 ก. 

 = 0 3*NM=+ก?: . 

 = 0NM= *`3IJก:L= /2E : . 

2KL LBL 7?1 3*NM=+ก?: . 

2KL LBL 7?1NM= *`3IJก:L= /2E :

T?8 5 ,8  "#,G  กA"- 5 ก

B?7#8A"4- 5ก M57#ก 4 5 8A" 5#6 T   A"<# - " M@ #B?, 5 ;4 ; M@ #B?กAก,4 กA"?8< M 5  #, # 45 ?< -; A",5<# ; Aก>  (cell wall) 8< 4 4 ; M@ #B?กAก > A" 5 #,58< M 5  #, 4" 5  #;<4", - !A"< ก

3.

12L7M3N



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TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

A

Gen-Bio

B

*+ 4-7 BL    12L7? กก:L /2: 

 A 12L7 3*NM152L4

B M15 2ก=:2 12L7

;#M58  "#   5ก 4  ก 7#85ก7#ก A"ก ,<4"ก B?5ก 45Tก -  A"   B?ก!B 4.2.3

กB=B662?71= (Facilitated Diffusion) ก ?#  >5#;< # - (carrier)     Aก     ก, M5     #ก 5 5# ก ก 4- 54V  45  T?# ,  ก 5  -B ก  

A?-"5  TMก- ;  ก   -A"# M 5 ?8< 5  ,8 , AกB -A" ; M5 7- - A"?#  ก8<55,  TMก?#

 M5 # ก 4- 54 -B ,4ก5 กM ก "  4"  ,ก, #M58 M,  , (HCO-3)  ! -,8ก ?#   > ?, ก 4";4 8ก ?# กM   #H# ก B-;?, 

-

- 5 ก ?# กM ,  4"  M 5ก 8 -;8<กก 

-

, 8? # ก- 5 ก ก " กM 8 M ,ก A ; 5 ก##M58 7-4 B? A"ก #,ก A4"?# B?กM Aก ก8 # ก 4- 54 -

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TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

Gen-Bio

*+ 4-8 ภB=B662?71= (Facilitated Diffusion)  ?  T73?71= 3*6:1P3 42



4.3

61ภB ภ>+ ? (Active transport)  ภ ?#  >5#;< #H#-

 ภ#M58 M ATP !

A"8?#  Aภ     # ,#      ภภ5 # H# - (protein carrier) 4.3.1

ภ   B66B ภ>+ ? (active transport)  H#  4 ภ#M5 #;< ?< ?#

5# ภภ 4- 54 - (Facilitated diffusion) 455 ภ  8-

Aภภ #-V"  -

 M ; ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) -;4 >ภ8 ภ ?#  4"A"ภb-"8#  #M55B

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TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

Gen-Bio

*+ 4-9 ก   3 42

B66B ก>+ ? ?  T73?71=B 5= 7 (ATP)

 #5 ก  ;  #8-

 ,4ก5 1. # -4 #gh (sodium potassium pump)   ก;B4" "  #  T? #, (Na+) กAก, ;#6 B 6 #,ก กก 5 #,8#5 ก 8 "# กก  T? -4 #,#M5ก M5,B 6 -4 # ,8กก 5ก<#5 ก ? #,กก4"? -4 #, M5 8-

5 # # 2. ก M!< B ก 4- 54,5 8-

>8<ก ก M!  < Aก - ?,  M5 5 ก# ก M!B ก 8-

5 #  # ,4ก5 ก M!กM ก "  4"ก;4 5 3. ก Mก  <,  5 6"##M58;4"TMก ก  ,4  ก  ,BA"- กกM ก "  #,#M5 # 4"A"  ก M!  <5Bก M5ก "4 ;ก<! #8-

5 # 4. ก ?# 4 5VAก, M5 ก -; ก ?# 4 5V H ก   ;8 กA"   กก 58 45H#  ก 4กO    ?8<ก ก " 4 5V8 ก,

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TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

Gen-Bio

*+ 4-10 61กB ก>+ ? ก:LUIN6:1Pก= 0

? 4-1 +3636 12B?ก?51B ก>+ ?ก76กB=B662?71= B ก>+ ? กB=B662?71= 1.  - 1.  - 2.  ก  8-

 2. ,5 8-

 3. ?#  Aก ?, M

3. ?#  Aก  M ,? 4.3.2

ก J 3/L3กh4Gก3 42

 (bulk transport) ก,กก  ;  #ก  T Aก#;< ก ?#

  "ก ก8<@5< ;กAก>5#;< ; Aก#;<     T#4 M 5  #ก  ก< ;4#ก กAกก, ?8<  T ?#   "ก ก8<@5, ก ?#  ก8<@5 #ก  T Aก#;< 45

ก 2  ; ก ?#  ก8<@5กAก  #ก 5 ก ,  (exocytosis) 4"ก ?#  ก8<@5 M5  #ก 5  ,  (endocytosis)

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TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

Gen-Bio

4.3.2.1

 ก/E/: (exocytosis)  ก ?#  ก8<@5กAก < ; ก?A  กก #  A"TMก 5 ก,กA"TMก A#M58T    (vesicle) ;   > ก#;< #;   A"  ก#;<  #M58   A"TMก5#ก,ก -;,?<  B65, ก ?#  ก ก # VB-8<# ก 5 #;> ก "-"< 4"?, < , ก ก?A  ##5#,5,กAก ก <    !B4 5 กก 5 ก < , G   

 *+ 4-11 ก. BM=BLก    กGก

/L361ก ก/E/: . M=h3กก:L ก/E/:Gกก  G4 T : Kก? 

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TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

Gen-Bio

4.3.2.2

 /LE/: (endocytosis)  ภ ?  Aภ7#ภ M57#8  B A < < ; 4  ภ8<@5ภ, #  #M57#ภA"ภ"8<#;<    B?8<ภT ภ6 5T BA"<ภAภ#;< "#M5 8, - ! 4"  8T A"TMภ#5# #ภ   ,  ภT    ?8<, T 8<5  ภ  ,   (lysosome)  #ภT B 5   (endosome) ภ #5#A"ภ!B7#8   #ภ 5#B?#5#, , Aภ,   ภ#5#8<  8T  ภภ  TMภ#5#A"TMภ?# >5ภภ # ภ 4ภO    < ;ภ 4ภ T     #5 ภ ?#  4 ,  -8    5 O ภ,  (phagocytosis) - ,  (pinocytosis) 4"ภ ?   M5 #H#  (receptor- mediated endocytosis) 4.3.2.2.1 >/ภE/: (phagocytosis) phago = eating = ภ  Vภ ?  8<@58 M 4  M5  ##; 5   (, - !)  #ภ5 # < ; M  -# (pseudopodium) ภ7   ! A< < ;;B ?8<ภ 

#T ภภภ5A"? M58 M    4  ภ,  7#8  ภ5  7#8  A"TMภ#5# # #,7#8,    #5#4 A"TMภM! M5, - !  <;Aภภ #5#A"TMภภ?Aภภ # ภ ภ ,   ภ O ภ,  -,8A?- ภ4"; ?< -; 5 8<@5,5O ภ,  - "> <4"4

*+ 4-12 61ภภ:B66>/ภE/: /L332  26

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TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

Gen-Bio

*+ 4-13 ภJ 30 I / B66>/ภE/: 

2KL L1

4.3.2.2.2 =:/E/: (pinocytosis)  Vภ ?   <  M5 ##; <A" 4"<  ภ  B ?8<ภT   ภ6 #ภ5- ,ภ   !   B#M57#8 ? 5 pino = T ภAภภ ;  (cell drinking) Vภ B-, <5 #, < ; O  (nephron) 4"ภ ?  < Aภ5<  M5 #;?,  

*+ 4-14 61ภ=:/E/: (a)  G5Jภ5?:L3 42

 ; (b) ภ21?71 3 42

JNภ:L+H1: :  3ภ1=://2 (pinosome) ; (c) ภภ:L=://2 ; (d) ภ3E+ +5 0 63 42



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TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS ACROSS MEMBRANES

Gen-Bio

4.3.2.2.3 ภJ*

/L3 T73?7176

(receptor-

mediated endocytosis)  ภ  ,  ภ!B #  (receptor) #;<  B  4 ภ#M5#;<4" A?-"ภ  TMภ?#  # # A"?<Aภ  A"? M5 ภ5A"ภภ   #;< 4;B6 ; Aภ  ?4 #;<A" ภ# !BA8 #;< 5  BA"<,8  TMภ? M5A"  A?-"8ภ Aภ  #M5#;<

; 45"ภA"Aภ  ?B5B,5A  ;  #5 5 ภ ?  A?- ภ, -   ! ภI"7  M5,5! # A @,5  ,ภ5

*+ 4-15 BM=BL61ภJ*

/L3 T73?7176

+OGG73 2 ? ภ   

 1. L   7 ภA">5ภ,  5    7 8<@5  T ;>5,#ภ5 2. 122hNภ 5 3   8  T"#,8,A" ; >5ภAภ, 5#ภ5  ,5"#8,  B 4ภG V   O  A!  M5, 5# 3. 122hNภB?ภ?71+HE   4ภ ,A">5ภ, 5#ภ5  ,54ภ ,

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Transport of Materials across Membranes  

About Passive Transport and Active Transport