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Barnard and Columbia Colleges Architecture Program Architectural Design III Studio, Fall 2010

DESIGN FOR DIPLOMACY

Single Unit of = Universal Currency

= X?

= X?

Architectural Design III Instructor: Kadambari Baxi

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REDESIGNING CURRENCY

ENGINES OF DIPLOMACY Propositions for sites in Amman, Jordan

RE-FILMING “GLIMPSES OF THE USA”

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND SPECIAL THANKS: Barnard College President Debora Spar Provost Elizabeth Boylan Dean Hilary Link Associate Provost and Dean for International Programs Columbia University Dean Mark Wigley Dean, GSAPP (Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation) Dean Michelle Moody-Adams Dean of Columbia College Dean Peter Awn Dean of School of General Studies CUMERC (Columbia University Middle East Research Center, Amman) Prof. Safwan M. Masri Director Christina Hawatmeh Program Assistant Barnard and Columbia Colleges Architecture Program Karen Fairbanks Department Chair David Smiley Assistant Professor Raleigh Elizabeth-Smith Department Assistant STUDIO PARTCIPANTS: Students Alex Bancu Skylar Cozen Casey Granton Alice James Anushka Jhaveri Britt Johnson Ruben Gutierrez Alexis Oppenheimer Oscar Tena Flora Vassar Yshai Yudekovitz Faculty Kadambari Baxi Associate Professor of Professional Practice Marcos Garcia Rojo Teaching Assistant Karen Fairbanks (Visiting Faculty in Amman) Ann Whitney Olin Professor of Professional Practice and Chair

B+C|A Barnard and Columbia Colleges Architecture Program

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500 Diana Center 3009 Broadway Barnard College • Columbia University New York, NY 10027 USA Telephone: 212 854 8430 Website: www.columbia.edu/cu/archprogram/


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Barnard and Columbia Colleges Architecture Program ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN III (Senior Studio, Fall 2010)

DESIGN FOR DIPLOMACY TABLE OF CONTENTS Studio Overview

Project 1 6 REDESIGNING CURRENCY

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Project 2 20 RE-FILMING “GLIMPSES OF THE USA” Travel Documentation 28 AMMAN, JORDAN Project 3 38 ENGINES OF DIPLOMACY (Propositions for sites in Amman)

STUDIO SUMMARY Design for Diplomacy was an optional advanced studio for undergraduate seniors majoring in architecture. This semester long studio explored “diplomacy” as an overall topic with a short research trip to Amman, Jordan. Issues of national identity, international interactions and cultural exchange in relationship with design and architecture were investigated through multiple studio projects titled: Redesigning Currency, Re-Filming “Glimpses of the USA,” and proposing Engines of Diplomacy for sites in Amman. The trip to Amman was mid-semester for nine days. While there, students mounted an exhibition based on studio work at the Studio-X GSAPP (Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation), CUMERC (Columbia University Middle East Research Center); participated in discussions with regional experts and urban development agencies; visited the US embassy and attended a Public Diplomacy Office briefing; and researched the city and surrounding archeological sites. This folio compiles selections from students’ studio work and images of activities in Amman. 3


STUDIO OVERVIEW

DESIGN FOR DIPLOMACY The emergence of a global culture has transformed design into a vital tool for promoting cultural understanding across cultural borders. Moutamarat International Design Initiative for The Arab World

Are embassies to be fortresses, cultural landmarks or simply offices? The answer is up for grabs. Jane C. Loeffler, Author, The Architecture of Diplomacy

Design for Diplomacy was structured as a research studio incorporating an international travel component. Formulated as an optional studio for undergraduate seniors, it explored diplomacy as an overall thematic with a short research trip to Amman, Jordan, where the studio was hosted by the Columbia Global Center. Through out the semester, both in New York and in Amman, the studio explored design and architecture in relationship with issues of cultural/ national identity, transnational exchange, and public as well as political engagement of diplomacy. The studio projects focused on design analyses of objects, films, spaces, and buildings as national and cultural symbols, as well as activators of international political, economic, and social interactions. The role of design in engaging public forms of diplomacy was explored through multiple projects: Redesigning Currency, Re-Filming “Glimpses of the USA,” analyzing selected embassy buildings, and proposing Engines of Diplomacy for sites in Amman.

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The semester was divided in two parts with a trip to Amman in the middle. During the first part, students worked on three short assignments. They investigated the design of international monetary currencies and analyzed visual elements such as symbols, inscriptions, patterns, and colors of a given paper bill to deduce what and how they represent and communicate. They imagined ways to redesign currency to reflect contemporary global, cultural and technological transformations. The second project reconsidered the multi-screen film Glimpses of the USA (made by Charles and Ray Eames for the Moscow World Fair, 1959), and proposed updated materials for remaking this film for an imaginary World Fair in 2010. Students worked in groups on five short films focusing on “glimpses” of American food, cinema, city grids and timeline of four cities. One project reformatted a world fair icon–a Ferris wheel–into a film-machine for viewing the Eames’ film.

Simultaneous to working on these two projects, an analysis of American embassies all over the world was also undertaken through individual student presentations and class discussions. Selected case-studies considered to be exemplary works of architecture (especially the embassy buildings designed in 1950s-70s) were analyzed. This reserach included buildings designed by significant architects including Eero Saarinen, Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer and others, and embassies that were once well known for their openness, and public art and cultural programming. These precedents aspired to respond to both national representation and regional contexts and strived to create a productive exchange between countries and cultures. More recently, however, the new embassies and US pavilions for world fairs have been criticized for their “fortress” type architecture or as “celebrating Corporate America” (e.g. the proposed embassy in London by Kieran Timberlake Architects and the US pavilion in Shanghai 2010 World Expo). The case-study analyses and the first two projects (proposals for currency redesigns and short films) were short exercises to explore issues of diplomacy through multiple facets. The materials from these assignments were compiled as an informal exhibition for the Columbia Global Center in Amman. Amman is one of the important cities in the Middle East, known for its cosmopolitan and multicultural mosaic, and its influential role in regional and international relations. It is also emerging as a vital center for arts and culture–some refer to it as “the new Beirut” which was once known as “the Paris of the Middle East.” Amman’s complex and long history involves inhabitation by several civilizations. The city was a central point in the nineteenth century as an important stop along the Hejaz railway from Damascus to Medina. Amman reemerged as a regional hub in transportation, education, tourism and economic activities following the 1994 Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty. In the 2003 Iraq War, Amman was a major service stop for US operations. In the last few decades, it has received Palestinian as well as Iraqi refugees, affected by the first Gulf War and the recent Iraq War. Its multi-ethnic inhabitants, a very large expatriate population, and diverse mix of residents and visitors has resulted in its qualifiers as


one the most liberal cities in the Middle-East. While it has found itself amidst conflict and crisis, it has also been at the forefront of peace-making processes. The future plans of the city are focusing on its development as a cultural, business, educational and diplomatic center. According to The Metropolitan Growth Plan by Greater Amman Municipality, the city has established itself as “the Capital of Agreement and Reconciliation” within the region, and the Amman vision plan for 2025 aspires to making the city “an international East-West cultural bridge.” The nine-day studio trip to Amman included research throughout the city, and events at Studio-X GSAPP at CUMERC (Columbia University Middle East Research Center). The students mounted an exhibit there and participated in a review based on the first two studio projects. The review led to a discussion on contemporary issues in Amman. The invited guests included: Leen Fakhoury, Professor, Architectural Conservation, University of Jordan; Ali Maher, Filmmaker and Commissioner, The Royal Film Commission; Al Kably, Urban Designer, Planning Alliance; Ammar Khammash, Architect; Ibrahim Nimeh, Urban Designer, Amman Institute. After the review there was an informal exhibition opening with additional guests. On another day, the students attended a panel discussion organized by CUMERC on Global Free Press with local journalists and authors (and with a live-video feed of a talk by President Bollinger at Columbia University in New York). The research in Amman also included a visit to the US embassy where an architectural tour was given by the local architect and engineer, and a briefing session hosted by the Public Diplomacy Office. In this session we learnt about educational, cultural and security functions of the embassy, and about its outreach efforts all over Jordan. Another activity took place at the City Hall in Amman with a presentation by Hania Maraqa, Vice President of Research and Outreach at the Amman Institute of Urban Development. She discussed future plans for the city and other critical urban issues. Two other class-trips were to reserach sites outside Amman (Petra, Salt, The Dead Sea). In addition to these planned activities, the students explored urban areas and buildings through out the city, and selected potential sites for their final projects. In smaller groups, they visited museums, mosques, markets, malls, refugee housing, archeological sites and ruins, etc.

The second part of the studio after the trip was devoted to developing proposals on individually selected sites in Amman. These propositions titled as Engines of Diplomacy were explored through additional research and conceptual ideas for interventions at different scales: urban, architectural, bi- or multi- national. They incorporated a range of topics including “national” architectures; the role of religion, gender, and language in shaping institutions; informal economies and urban regulation; social-media and communication; global recycling networks; conservation and active reuse, and others. The projects were summarized with visual presentations, and concluded with redefinitions of the term “diplomacy” as re-imagined by the individual students’ proposals. The collective work of the studio and documentation of the trip to Amman also resulted in a second exhibition at the Diana Center on Barnard campus in Spring 2011. This intensive research and travel studio was a significant capstone experience for undergraduate senior students. The overall pedagogical impetus was to expose students to a different culture and to engage design issues that are both local and global in scope, especially in geopolitical terms. It was therefore important that aspects of the research were comparative, reflecting on both Amman/ Jordan and New York/USA. Another objective was to conduct an architectural studio in which designing graphics, making films, and designing buildings and urban interventions are all seen as opportunities for cultural exchange. The Design for Diplomacy studio, in summary, resulted in students and faculty negotiating between multiple territories: domestic and international; graphic, filmic, architectural and urban; historic, traditional, modern and post-modern; western, non-western, middle-eastern and other. Their negotiations charted these overlapping yet distinct (physical and imaginary) territories re-inscribing multiple forms of diplomacy–in Amman and in New York. Kadambari Baxi, Studio Faculty

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Project 1

REDESIGNING CURRENCY Currencies are national symbols that also participate in an internationally recognized system of exchange. Every single currency is an object that is designed to function at symbolic and pragmatic level–it is an object that is governmental yet personal, commercial yet communal; it is widely circulated but remains precious and dependent simultaneously on national borders and international circulation; it is a historical object has been a constant presence in our society, but its value is in constant flux, fluctuating to “live” data and future speculation; its physical form seems essential, but perhaps also outdated, as transactions become electronic. The way a currency is designed facilitates exchange on an everyday basis, but reflects, more than anything, how a nation-state wants to represent itself to the world. These varying, and often conflicting, demands on its design and function capture both problematic and possibilities of visualizing national

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representation and international exchange with a physical object. Project 1 focused on redesigning and reimagining currency. Students selected currencies from different countries and through design analysis and redesign proposals, explored a series of questions, including: What does the current currency (of a given country) look like and what does it represent? What are the symbols, patterns, inscriptions, colors integral to the graphical design, and what do they communicate? Can it, should it, be based on parameters other than national boundaries? How can its aesthetics be reconceptualized to facilitate a financial as well as cultural exchange? What do new technologies offer for designing money–as an everyday object, as a system, and as a cultural icon of the present? How might it be redesigned and reimagined to reflect the current global dynamics and contemporary society?


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Black lines and numbers are raised to make the bills tactilely distinct. Black coastline indicates watermark.

ENVIRONMENTAL CURRENCY Amerind as “Euro” for the Americas Flora Vassar Currencies are mired in supposedely representative symbols, but ignore critical and urgent issues for the nations–such as the sea level change. This project proposes a regional currency for the Americas. It integrates the current conditions and environmental policies on common geographical features. With each reprinting, the bills’ background images are changed to reflect changing coast lines.

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Art // Architecture Currency

Redesigning the Chinese Yuan to reflect the modern Chinese landscape

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 1966-1976 or simply the Cultural Revolution was a violent mass movement that resulted in social, political, and economic upheaval in the People’s Republic of China starting in 1966 and ending officially with Mao’s death in 1976. It resulted in nation-wide chaos, economic disarray, and stagnation.

The 3rd edition of Chinese currency (released on April 20, 1962)

Gaoshan and Manchu men

Era of Reconstruction 1976-1989 In September 1976, after Mao Zedong’s death, the PRC was left with no central authority figure, either symbolically or administratively. The Gang of Four was dismantled, but Hua Guofeng continued to persist on Mao-era policies. After a bloodless power struggle, Deng Xiaoping came to the helm to reform the Chinese economy and government institutions in their entirety.

1989-2002 The 1990s saw healthy economic development, but the closing of state-owned enterprises and increasing levels of corruption and unemployment, along with environmental challenges continued to plague China, as the country saw the rise to materialism, crime, and new-age spiritual-religious movements such as Falun Gong. The 1990s also saw the peaceful handover of Hong Kong and Macau to Chinese control under the formula of One Country, Two Systems. China also saw a new surge of nationalism when facing crises abroad.

The fifth edition of Chinese currency (released on Oct. 1, 1999)

The 4th edition of Chinese currency (released on April 27, 1987)

Buyei and Korean girls

Xihu Lake in Hangzhou

Miao and Zhuang girls in red

Taishan Mountain: in Shandong province UNESCO world natural and cultural heritage site

Dong and Yao girls in red

Three Gorges

Great Wall of China Uyghur and Yi (Nuosu) girls in green

South China Sea

Tibetan girl and Hui elder

Yangtze River, the longest in China

Lijiang River

Potala Palace in Lhasa

Han and Mongol men

An intellectual, a farmer, and an industrial worker, characteristic Chinese communist images

Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, and Zhu Be, four important men to the founding of the People’s Republic of China Architectural Design III

Great Hall of the People Hukou Waterfall on the Yellow River

Chairman Mao Zedong

Jinggangshan Mountain in South China

Evolution of the YUAN 1962-present Political Propaganda, International Influence, Functional Security

Instructor: Kadambari Baxi

ART / ARCHITECTURE FOR THE (Chinese) YUAN Oscar Tena The new Chinese Yuan must reflect the country’s modern urban and artistic cultural icons. The project proposes a two-sided graphic strategy: on one side the modern architectural icons (designed by western architects) are used to reflect the role that architecture plays in “nation branding” (the images of architecture function as advertisements for country’s progress); on the other side contemporary art by internationally well-known Chinese artists is used to convey artistic freedom and political subversion. This double-sided currency represents coexisting realities of the modern Chinese politics and society.

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The modern Landscape of China (as seen through Beijing) ARCHITECTURE

National Stadium “Bird’s Nest” Herzog and de Meuron

National Aquatics Center “Water Cube” PTW Architects

Beijing Capital International Airport Terminal 3 Foster and Partners

National Centre for Performing Arts Opera House “The Egg”

Advertisement Political Propaganda National

Artistic Expression Political Subversion International

ART

Yue Minjun The Symbolic Smile

Zhang Huan's "1/2."

Cai Guo-Qiang Gunpowder drawing

Ai Weiwei Descending Light 156" by 180" by 268" Architectural Design III Instructor: Kadambari Baxi glass crystals/stainless brass, electric lights 2007

Zhang Xiaogang A Big Family CCTV Headquarters OMA

Forbidden City

1995 Oil on canvas 179 x 229 cm

Yang Shaobin

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DOPPELGANGER DOLLAR The Panamanian Balboa Ruben Gutierrez The Panamanian Balboa shares the same size coinage to the United States’ Dollar. This relationship functions so that the Balboa can be used interchangeably with the Dollar within daily transactions. However if this relationship is manipulated, an advantage can be gained over unsuspecting American visitors to Panama. After various trials an iteration appeared which took full advantage of the situation’s potential. Low value coins, such as pennies, swaps values with the half dollar: a 49% increase. Certain coins are unaltered which increase the potential for confusion.

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MONEY: CONSUMED BY ME CONSUMED BY YOU CONSUMING THE OTHER

MONEY: CONSUMING ME CONSUMING YOU CONSUMED BY THE OTHER

OTHER MONEY Portraits of the other US Dollar Yshai Yudekovitz

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Project in Use

FAITH-BASED CURRENCY Skylar Cozen Can faith-based practices be integrated within economic exchange? Many religions promote specific practices related to money. A currency is imagined where individual choose credit, debit or cash cards based on nationality and religion. The card integrates religious practices, such as, rules regarding borrowing/lending money, or automatic donations to charities. It allows people to represent their individual identity based on nation and religion. An “Atheist� card is also an option.

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Nationality: American

Faith: Christianity

Nationality: Israeli

Faith: Judaism

4573 4890 9938 3420 exp. 10/15 Jane Doe

4573 4890 Jane Doe

9938 3420

4573 4890 Jane Doe

exp. 10/15

(5% automatically donated to the homeless because related to buying food)

Groceries Total :

$25.00 + 1.25 = $26.25 (Total cost spent)

9938 3420

exp. 10/15

(Any % may be donated to ANY charity)

Groceries Total :

$25.00 + _______ = $25.00

+ _____

(Total cost spent)

Skylar Cozen


MULTI-LINGUAL CURRENCY Anushka Jhaveri The Indian Rupee is redesigned to include multiple and under represented languages used all over India. The ornamental patterns are retained to represent the “Indian aeshtetic� often found in texiles and jewelry, now popular all over the world. The outdated historic events are removed. The paper bill is also resized for a more practical usage.

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$5

$1

$10

$20

$100

Natural Resources

95% Landfill

Digital

Mint issues charm every 6 months

Charms worn outside or inside

Beads

Guest Designers

Gold Paper

Shells Leather Coins

Barter

Other FormsLogo of Currency BANK 9000 1200 700- 800 1500- Present BCE BCE 100 AD 1800 BCE

Return to Bank = Recycling

Wearable Wealth Perceived Networth

Retailer logo stamps : size = value of purchase : de-values

Retailer stamp tracks purchase amount : bank transfers $ to retailer

0 Monetary Value

Save as Record of Retail Experience

Digital Breakdown

Charm bears record of purchases Further de-valuation

WEARABLE CURRENCY Casey Granton Paper currency is not recyclable and 95% of the bills end up in landfills. A wearable currency is proposed in the form of charms, pins, or pocket chains. These objects, issues by the Government Treasury, are distributed by banks, stamped by retailers, and returned to the banks for recycling. These wearable objects are also a reflection of our cultural obsession with forms of display of wealth (often on our bodies, as jewelry or branded accessories).

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World Map & Language

World Template

China

United Kingdom

National Symbol

Russia

European Union

National Site

Numerical Value

WORLD TEMPLATE for a COMMON CURRENCY Alice James A common world template is proposed for a new currency that can be used internationally. An analysis of the currencies from the United Nations member countries show usage of many common graphical elements, such as national symbols, sites, maps and leaders. These elements are remixed to create a world template, so that all countries use the same currency.

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Berlin €

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Linz €

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100 100

€ €

PARAMETRIC CURRENCY: The UNI Bill Alex Bancu The UNI Bill is a parametric currency based on a unique pattern printed on individual bills. The pattern is based on an input of geographical and personal data. Information such as time, location, climate, color is used as parameters to generate a unique binary code and grid pattern. These bills can be printed by anybody, anytime, anywhere, and they record a stamp of the event itself, and create an electronic encrypted unique as well as universal currency.

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SUPRANATIONAL CURRENCY Global Hysteria Indices and Relative Temprature Britt Johnson Currencies’ fluctuating exchange rates and relative values against one another are captured as live data to create a binary code, which in turn is converted into a color gradient. This results in a new currency with an embedded chip that changes its color according to the market movement, showing live data and the “true” but relative economic value at a given moment. Thus this supranational currency represents the global hysteria generated by the prevailing current market-based economy.

Alex Bancu, Fall 2010

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Money Around the world

CHROMA CURRENCY Alexis Oppenheimer All symbolic, national or numeral Unit of = = X? = X? Currency representations are removed in favor of a minimal, universal currency with a single, solid color. The shape has a jagged edge (allowing the visually-impaired to sense the denomination by touch). While this can be used internationally as a universal standard, the value within each country varies depending on the local economic conditions, thus the same color may buy a product within a vast range (e.g. a cycle or a car). The Chroma Currency values color, as it can generate a universally understandable system, and the money retains the essential numerical representation. Beyond that no symbols, text, or patterns are needed.

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Visiual Identification

Security Features

Physical Identification

Ultra Violet Hidden World Map

Single Unit of = Universal Currency

= X?

= X?

CHROMA CURRENCY Alexis Oppenheimer

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Screenshots: Re-Filming “Glimpses of the USA” (Interior: Ferris Wheel Film-Loop Machine, Yshai Yudekovitz)


Re-Filming “Glimpses of the USA” screening at: Studio-X, GSAPP at CUMERC, Amman

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Project 2

RE-FILMING “GLIMPSES OF THE USA” “Glimpses of the USA” was a multi-screen film made by Charles and Ray Eames in 1959 for the Moscow World Fair. The film incorporated thousands of slides, Charles Eames described the selection of images for the film as: ...fifty clover-leaf highway intersections are shown in just a few seconds. So are dozens of housing projects, bridges, skyscraper scenes, supermarkets, universities, museums, theatres, churches, farms, laboratories and much more...

The second studio project explored how this film may be updated for 2010. Students worked in groups to make short films (a rough sketch idea for a screen-based display). The display was recontextualized as a prototype that travels to the World Fairs in different countries. Four films focused on “glimpses” of American food, cinema, city grids and timeline of four cities. A fifth film reformatted a world fair icon–a Ferris wheel–into a film-loop machine for viewing the original Eames’ film. The films were screened and discussed with invited guest critics at the Studio-X at CUMERC, Amman.

“GLIMPSES OF THE USA” Charles and Ray Eames, at the Moscow World Fair, 1959

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GLIMPSES OF NYC (through internationally popular US films) Casey Granton, Anushka Jhaveri, Oscar Tena Selected cinematic excerpts are slowed down, or manipulated with color changes, and projected on buildings in the city hosting the World Fair.

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GLIMPSES OF THREE LEVEL NEW YORK GRID Alex Bancu, Skylar Cozen, Alexis Oppenheimer The film is based on the New York grid at three levels: underground-the subway level; street level; roof-top levels. It shows an international audience how to navigate these levels at different speeds. It highlights New York as a “sectional city.”


GLIMPSES OF AMERICAN AND NEW YORK FOOD Ruben Gutierrez, Alice James Samples of found footage from cooking shows and food documentaries are combined to show the changing food culture in the US. A four screen format is used, audio is remixed (e.g. how to make pizza video is mixed with how to make curry voice-over).

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GLIMPSES OF CITIES in the US Britt Johnson, Flora Vassar Historic timelines of New York, Chicago and San Francisco are displayed on three monitors with color coded images. An audio+color time counter with sounds of cannon-shots marks the passage of time.


FERRIS WHEEL FILM-LOOP MACHINE Yshai Yudekovitz The Ferris Wheel film machine is a new large scale viewing device for the Eames’ original film from 1959. Ferris Wheels are icons of the World Fairs. It’s structure is enclosed to show parallel film-loops. The original gigantic scale projections of the film is retained via the size of the Ferris Wheel. However with this new device, the veiwers are “inside” the film.

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ITINERARY, RESEARCH TRIP, AMMAN, JORDAN 31 October-06 November, 2010 Day 1: Day 2: Downtown Day Trip: Roman Wadi Mujeeb Theater Karak Citadel Petra Markets

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Day 3: Review and Exhibition of student work at GSAPP StudioX CUMERC (Columbia University Middle East Research Center)

Day 4: American Embassy Architectural Tour and Briefing from the Public Diplomacy Department, Panel Discussion at CUMERC: Global Free Press

Day 5: The Amman Institute for Urban Development: Presentation on urban issues, Darat-Al-Funun, Wild Jordan

Day 6: Day 7: Day Trip: Individual Salt, sites and final The Dead project Sea research and documentation


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Day 1: Downtown, Roman Theater, Citadel, Markets

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Day 2: Day Trip: Wadi Mujeeb, Karak, Petra

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Day 3: Review and Exhibition at Studio-X (GSAPP) at CUMERC, Amman Guests Leen Fakhoury, Professor, Architectural Conservation, University of Jordan Ali Maher, Filmmaker and Commissioner, The Royal Film Commission Al Kably, Urban Designer, Planning Alliance, Amman Ammar Khammash, Architect Ibrahim Nimeh, Urban Designer, Amman Institute 33


Day 4: US Embassy, Global Free Press panel discussion at CUMERC

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Day 5: Amman Institute for Urban Development at City Hall, Darat-Al-Funun, Mosques

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Day 6: Salt, The Dead Sea

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Day 7: Site visits for individual final projects

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Project 3

ENGINES OF DIPLOMACY

Site-specific propositions for multiple sites in Amman

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Project 3

ENGINES OF DIPLOMACY The final project reconsidered forms of diplomacy through architectural, urban and cultural propositions. Based on research in Amman, and explorations in Project 1 and 2, students selected different sites around the city, and propsed projects that redefined diplomacy through design ideas. Their projects incorporated a range of topics including “national� architectures; the role of religion, gender, and language in shaping institutions; informal economies and urban regulation; social-media and communication; global recycling networks; conservation and active reuse, and others.

The 40 US Embassy in Amman


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Two sites for a redistributed US Embassy

The changing sizes and programs of US Embassies

SOCIO-DIPLOMATIC DEVICES Yshai Yudekovitz The project attempts to exasperate the problem inherent in any diplomatic endeavor by highlighting the ideology used to cement it.

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It reconfigures essential components of an embassy building on two sites. The current site retains the security functions.

The cultural, symbolic, and infrastructural elements (e.g. flag pole, lawn, helipad, water tank, Ambassadors house, theater etc) are relocated to a new site near the Widaat Refugee camp. They form the infrastructure for the embassy and the camp. The components can be reconfigured as needed. This is the New American Cultural Grounds.


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SOCIO-DIPLOMATIC DEVICES Yshai Yudekovitz

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Juxtaposition

Exterior vs. Enclosed Volume

Volume* * Enclosed Place where religion comes together

FAITH-BASED DIPLOMACY Skylar Cozen A unique site with views to a church and a mosque is selected to propose a religious center promoting diplomacy and peaceful solutions. Diplomacy: • negotiations between nations • delicacy: subtly skillful handling of a situation • demonstrating consideration and kindness • the practice of multinational groupings negotiating with each other over matters of interest.

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Windows

Viewing, Light, + Reflections

STEP 1 : Shape Light Horizontal

Light Light Vertical

STEP 2 : Orientation

STEP 3 : Material

Solid

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Mirror

FAITH-BASED DIPLOMACY Skylar Cozen

Glass

View Horizontal

View Vertical


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MULTI-LINGUAL DIPLOMACY     "  Anushka Jhaveri Multi-lingual diplomacy is an understanding between people of different cultures facilitated through lingual exchanges. A library is proposed as a new annex in front of the existing US embassy. It promotes cultural diplomacy by offering language workshops and translations of literary works. It expands one of the main functions of the Public-Diplomacy Ofice (languagetraining) with a new embassy annex. This semi-public zone becomes the new entrance to the main embassy.

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DIPLOMACY through GLOBAL RECYCLING Ruben Gutierrez The project proposes redesigning and remarketing the process through which used American clothing is sold to Jordan. It focuses on exposing the inherent biases in the second hand clothing industry so both countries become aware of where the clothing is coming from and where it is ending up.

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Castoff start their journey at a local Thrift Store or clothing donation location where the unwanted clothing is donated by American citizens. The clothing is then put on the sales floor, and after a season unsold clothes are taken off the rack and sold to wholesale buyers.

Wholesale buyers take the clothing and sort it into 3 grades: PREMIUM, Grade A, and Grade B. After sorting the donated clothing is packaged, shipped, and sold (at a profit) to private merchants in Third World countries.

GRADE A: Clothing with Light Wear and Stains sold to Middle East and Northern Africa PREMIUM GRADE: Clothing in Like New condition sold to Asia and Latin America

GRADE B: Evidence of Staining and Tear sold to SubSaharan Africa

utiĂŠrrez

HRIFT mbari Baxi

Design III fall 2011

Private castoff merchants sell their purchases (at profit) to smaller local merchants who then sell the goods to the individuals who will wear the clothing. While the existing system does provide inexpensive clothing to the people who need it most, it does so at the expense of the native culture. Wearers are often unaware that these garments are castoffs and hence do not associate shame with wearing these clothes. Because of this, traditional forms of dress are extinguished as American second-hand takes over.

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GRADE A Clothing would be recycled by giving it to contemporary Jordanian designers for redesign. These new designs would be sold out of a New York City boutique which would also serve as a donation location for unwanted clothing. Not only would the recycled garments generate revenue for the project, but would also establish an unbiased cultural exchange between the two countries.

PREMIUM GRADE Donated clothing would follow the existing system where it is pa Third World countries. However, garments would be tagged wit biases of the existing second hand clothing system. Garments w would also explain the existing castoff clothing market. This gra hand clothing, which would potentially instill shame on the wear

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GRADE B The lowest grade garments would be reprocessed into ‘fabricks’ made out of clay and fabric mulch. These bricks would we used to build a perimeter wall around the existing second hand clothing souk in Amman, simulating the wall surrounding the United States embassy in Jordan. This wall would cause the clothing buyers to reconsider the clothing as a diplomatic object and in effect to reconsider their relationship to the US.

ackaged for resale in second-hand markets throughout th an American ‘Passport’ which would explain the would also be labeled with a Iron-On graphic which aphic will serve as a means of identifying the second rer, encouraging a return to local traditional dress.

DIPLOMACY through GLOBAL RECYCLING Ruben Gutierrez

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DIPLOMATIC (Roof-top) GARDEN Alexis Oppenheimer

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Wild Jordan’s location atop Amman’s seventh hill, provides a sweeping view of the city, orienting its visitors to numerous attractions and historical sites.

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Norway

Sweeden

Netherlands

Wild Jordan Center, Amman, Jordan

Russia

Norway

Turkey

Sweeden

Netherlands

Czech

Turkey

United Kingdom Italy

Czech

Belgium United Kingdom

Switzerland

Italy

Syria

Belgium

Azerbauan

Syria

Switzerland

Canada Canada

Jordan University Albania

Amman Mall

Located in the heart of Amman, Jordan, the Wild Jordan Center was established inorder to spread environmental awareness and protection to Jordanians and tourist.

United States

Tunisia

Jerash

Morocco

Algeria

Western Sahara

The Citidal Tunisia Royal Palaces Roman Amphitheater Al-Husseini Mosque

al-Azraq

al- Shaumari Saudi Umm ArabiaArrasas Oman

Algeria Mujib Egypt

Libya Western Sahara

Mauritania

Senegal

Egypt

Niger

Mauritania

Self-contained Green Houses for display of foreign Plants Path ways and observation areas for the Green Roof and Botney Displays

Guinea

Wild Jordan Site

Dana

Shobak Sudan

Shobak

Senegal

Guinea

Site Lines

Iran

Al- Hussein Youth City Iran

Jerash

China

Ajioun

Desert Castles

c. 8 c. 7 c. 6 c. 5

Salt Rainbow street Afghanistan

The Citidal Royal Palaces Roman Amphithea c.Pakistan 2 c. 1 Al-Husseini Mosque

c. 4 c. 3

Abdoun Circle Mujib Egypt

Libya

al-Az

al- Shauma Saudi Umm Ban ArabiaArrasas O

Phillipin

Kerak Mali

Tajikistan Irbid (the Decapol

Suk Al-Sultan

City Mall Mecca Mall

Salt Rainbow street

c. 4 c. 3 Abdoun c. 2 c. 1 Circle

Turkmenistan

Amman Mall

Ajioun

c. 8 c. 7 c. 6 c. 5

Morocco

Jordan University Kyrgyzstan Albania

Al- Hussein Youth City

City Mall Mecca Mall

United States

Uzbekistan

Irbid (the Decapolis)

Suk Al-Sultan

Yeman

Kerak Mali

Egypt

Niger

Yeman

Dana

Somalia

Shobak Sudan

Indonesia

Somalia

Shobak Petra

P

In th

PIn

Petra

Rum

Rum

Wadi Rum Due to its environmental concerns, forward thinking initiatives, and unique design, Wild Jordan has become a top destination and information center for the city of Amman, placing it not only in a local discourse, but an international discussion preservation Jordan is on 92% Muslim and sustainability.

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Austr

Aqaba

Wadi Rum Aqaba

Countries 86% Muslim or more Jordan is 92% Muslim The cases would be oriented in such a way as to direct the visitors path and view toward Amman’s main attractions.Countries 86% Muslim or more

Self-contained Green display of foreign Plan

The use of greenhouse cases to display foreign flora and the open air flower beds for local plants, provide both an educational and aesthetic exerpience for visitors.

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DIPLOMATIC (Roof-top) GARDEN Alexis Oppenheimer The project proposes an addition of a diplomatic garden on the roof of the Wild Jordan Center. It expands the center’s environmental goals and international interests by adding greenhouse cases displaying local and international flora, and framing selected distant city views. Flowers are often a symbolic part of diplomatic ceremonies, but are background decorations. By displaying flowers as precious objects in vitrines they move forward to reframe background views.

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Path ways and observ for the Green Roof an Displays Wild Jordan Site

Site Lines


In order to more fully explore Wild Jordan’s environmental goals and international interest, this proje the addtion of rooftop gardens and greenhouse cases, which would display both local and internation Plan

Project Proposal: Diplomatic Roof-top Garden

n order to more fully explore Wild Jordan’s environmental goals and international interest, this project proposes he addtion of rooftop gardens and greenhouse cases, which would display both local and international flora.

Plan Self-contained Green Houses for display of foreign Plants Path ways and observation areas for the Green Roof and Botney Displays

Self-con display o

Path way for the G Displays

Wild Jordan Site

Wild Jo Site Lines

Site Lin

Self-contained Green Houses for display of foreign Plants Path ways and observation areas for the Green Roof and Botney Displays

Self-contained Green Houses for display of foreign Plants Path ways and observation areas for the Green Roof and Botney Displays

Wild Jordan Site

Wild Jordan Site Site Lines

Site Lines

Section

n Houses for Green Houses for ontained nts y of foreign Plants

vation areas nd Botney

ways and observation areas e Green Roof and Botney ys

Jordan Site

ines

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CULTURAL DIPLOMACY through CARAVAN EXCHANGE Alice James A caravan-like cultural exchange travels country to country... ...Adding two units at every stop– built, curated, stocked, and run by the people of the nation... Inspired by ancient trade routes, this project seeks to provide an avenue for cultural exchange through a traveling and expanding festival and exhibition using portable display units showing objects contributed by the general public.

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Cultural Diplomacy: A new way of making diplomacy by involving non governmental and non professional actors Cultural Exchange: Cultural exchange has existed as a practice for centuries: explorers, travelers, teachers and artists can all be considered as examples of informal ambassadors or cultural diplomats.

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1

2

3

4

5

...Culminating in a festival to present and receive/ exchange selected cultural representations.

CULTURAL DIPLOMACY through CARAVAN EXCHANGE Alice James

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Rainwater runoff, and under-used and under-appreciated stairs

42 days of rain, 4,687 square feet 2,920 gallons of rainwater per 1 inch of rainstorm or over 11,000 litres, 10.7 inches of annual rain

LOCAL DIPLOMACY Flora Vassar The project proposes a canopy+canister network over stairs as a rainwater collection system. The water is reused for tea carts, and the canopy nets and canister fixtures provide shade in the daytime and glowing way-finding fixtures at night. The under-used and under-appreciated stairs through out the city are activated changing the way residents and visitors interact with one another.

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Plan

Elevation 65


CONSERVATION

ACTIVATION

TEMPORAL DIPLOMACY Alex Bancu The empty vessel-monument reactivated, reengaged, reused An acoustic shell conserves and activates The Roman Theater becomes a contemporary performance space. Temporal diplomacy is a negotiation between the past, present and future.

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FILMIC DIPLOMACY Casey Granton

Amman

New York Amman

New York

NEW YORK

Call to Prayer - Call to Diplomacy

FILMIC DIPLOMACY CA Casey Granton Two abandoned film theaters, one in Amman and the other in New York, are re-designed as channels for citizens communicating through submissions of short films. Similar to a call to prayer, a call to diplomacy is broadcasted on urban communication stations announcing a topic for discussion. The citizens upload videos on the topic which in turn are collectively viewed and discussed in the film theaters in Amman and New York. Old film theaters are activated with new media. Social networks and crowd-sourced media present new opportunities for citizens to be diplomats.

AMMAN

L L TO P R A Y E R C A L L TO D I P L O M A C Y

FILMIC RESPONSE

NEW YORK TOPIC

CITIZEN DIPLOMAT

AMMAN COLLECTIVE VIEWING

C A L L TO P R A Y E R C A L L TO D I P L O M A C Y COMMUNICATION

FILMIC RESPONSE

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TOPIC

CITIZEN DIPLOMAT

COLLECTIVE


NEW YORK

AMMAN

FILMIC DIPLOMACY

New York

Amman

FREEDOM OF PRESS

COMMUNICATION TOPIC FREEDOM OF PRESS

COLLECTIVE VIEWING

URBAN COMMUNCIATION STATIONS

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Engines of Diplomacy: Water Diplomacy in Amman

proposing a distinctive water feature for local fruit vendors to utilize

sacred water space

statue niche

As a city, site division wall

Amman is greatly affected by the water shortage ancient well location underground passage entrance crisis in Jordan and throughout the Middle East. Wasteful agriculture irrigation plays a large part in depleting both regional and local water supplies. This project intervenes on the small scale urban fabric of Amman to introduce a functional spectacle to bring water practice issues to the public view. By analyzing the chosen site’s surroundings and proposing an alternative irrigation system for locally produced crops, the goal is to arrive at an architecture that addresses ideas regarding the diplomacy of water sharing and distribution in the Middle East. Architectural Design III

ruins of the Nymphaeum - Roman fountain in the ancient city of Philadelphia (built 191 C.E.) historical symbol of the sanctity of water

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WATER DIPLOMACY Oscar Tena The project proposes a small scale urban installation, a functional spectacle that bring water issues to the public view. The installation is comprised of an underground water tank and overground water tubes and planters. Architectural Design III Instructor: Kadambari Baxi The tubes and their configuration reflect the receding Dead Sea water levels. The water is used by the fruit market across the street, and an upside-down garden creates public space. Water Diplomacy displays and uses water to engage multiple publics with urban elements.

Instructor: Kadambari Baxi


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providing extended space for the local fruit market across the street

72Architectural Design III

Instructor: Kadambari Baxi


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Architectural Design III Instructor: Kadambari Baxi saltwater transportation truck entrance ramp to access underground passageway ideal access to feed water into the large storage tank

proposing a distinctive water feature for local fruit vendors to utilize

WATER DIPLOMACY Architectural Design III Oscar TenaInstructor: Kadambari73Baxi


VERTICAL SPRAWL AMMAN JORDAN | KADAMBARI BAXI FALL 2010 Pathways.

Minor Platforms.

Major Platforms.

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ITSBEE 03

VERTICAL SPRAWL: Market Based Diplomacy through Spatial Efficiency Britt Johnson It has been said that Amman was constructed along the path of a Donkey... It is a study of infomality and inefficiency, crafted through decades of use and habit. This proposal works with the forgotten yet critical sectional perspective of the city to reclaim functional vertical space. The land prices threaten traditional and informal methods of commerce–as reflected in the Soukks– in deference to formal, solid, interior, large retail environments. The project proposes a vertical market in phases based on a minimal infrastructure of platforms, pathways, canopies and electrical grid. The low-tech, low-cost, spatially efficient vertical market sustains and expands informal commerce.

It is a stu


ENSAIDTHATAMMANWASCONSTRUCTEDALONGTHEPATHOFADONKEY.

udy of informality and inefficiency, crafted through decades of use and habit. This proposal works with 04the forgotten yet critical sectional perspective of the city to reclaim used vertical space.

1

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01MAXIMIZESLOPE.

02 EXPANDED SLOPE.

03 SOFTENED SLOPE.

04 PATHWAY CREATION.

05 ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY CREATION

THE PROPOSED INTERVENTION IS BOTH SIMPLE AND EFFICIENT.

Platforms and Pathways: The horizontal sprawl of the city must find space in the vertical.

THEHORIZONTALSPRAWLOFTHECITYMUST FINDNEWSPACEINTHEVERTICAL

07

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SITE UNIQUE ISSUES FOR AMMANS VENDOR POPULATION | EL BALAD SOUKK SITE

STAIRWELLS

stairwell vendors. STAIRWELLS

stairwell vendors.

CURBLESS STREETS

motorist vendors

CURBLESS STREETS

motorist vendors

PEDESTRIAN TRAILS. PEDESTRIAN TRAILS.

fruit markets.

fruit markets.

11 11 PM. Amman PM. AmmanFRUIT FRUITMARKETS MARKETS

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VERTICAL SPRAWL: Market Based Diplomacy through Spatial Efficiency Britt Johnson

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Design for Diplomacy exhibition at The Diana Center Gallery, Barnard College, New York

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B+C|A Barnard and Columbia Colleges Architecture Program Design for Diplomacy Senior Studio, Kadambari Baxi (Faculty), Marcos Garcia Rojo (TA) From left to right: Anushka Jhaveri, Yshai Yudekovitz, Alexis Oppenheimer, Ruben Gutierrez, Britt Johnson, Alice James, Marcos Garcia Rojo, Skylar Cozen, Alex Bancu, Oscar Tena, Casey Granton, Flora Vassar

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B+C|A Barnard and Columbia Colleges Architecture Program 500 Diana Center 3009 Broadway Barnard College • Columbia University New York, NY 10027 USA Telephone: 212 854 8430 Website: www.columbia.edu/cu/archprogram/

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Profile for Kadambari Baxi

Design for Diplomacy  

"Design for Diplomacy" was a senior studio for undergraduates majoring in architecture at the Barnard and Columbia Colleges Architecture Pro...

Design for Diplomacy  

"Design for Diplomacy" was a senior studio for undergraduates majoring in architecture at the Barnard and Columbia Colleges Architecture Pro...

Profile for kbaxi
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