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A statement of the ingredients and procedure required for making something. Most often used when referring to a dish in cookery. The earliest written documentation of the use of the word recipe when referring to cooking, was roughly in 1631. The word was used in a play written by B. Jonson titled New Inne. “Thou art rude, And dost not know the Spanish composition... What is the Recipe? Name the ingredients.� Recipe becomes more commonly used in the 1700s, used mainly in correspondence. Over time, the word became more prevalent when referencing culinary dishes.


Danish Pas-try


Originally the definition of pastry was a stiff but malleable mixture of flour moistened with water or milk and kneaded to make dough. In later use butter, lard or other fatter substances was added to the dough to make a more flaky crust. This pastry dough was used to form a base and covering for baked dishes such as pies. Although the first written documentation was dated in 1442 by B. Marsh Rec. Worshipful Company Carpenters “Payed for j pastre bowrde,� it was somewhat rare to use the word before the 17th century. As seen in the sentence, the original spelling was different than the spelling used today. Pastre was used during the Late Middle English 15th century. 2

In-gre-di-ents Noun

Something that enters into the formation of a compound or mixture; a component part, constituent, element. Primarily used in artificial material mixtures. The first written documentation seen in 1460 in Bk. Nurture by J. Russell, a book documenting daily tasks. “Alle pese ingredyentes, pey ar for ypocras makynge.” Over time up through the 19th century, the word ingredient was used primarily when referring to objects, but never explicitly for recipes.


A mass consisting of flour or meal moistened and kneaded into a paste, with or without leaven, ready to be baked into bread. First used in C1000. Up until the 1830s, dough was only ever referred to in bread making, never extravagant baked goods. This falls in line with the socioeconomic status of most individuals of this time, which was poor, which means they didn’t waste their money and flower on baking goods.

2 t. yeast

A yellowish substance produced as a froth or as a sediment during fermentation. Used in the manufacture of beer and to leaven bread. The first written documentation was seen in C1000 Sax. Leechd. “Læt þonne hwon gestandan, do of þa gagellan, do þonne niwne gist.” The first time it was used when referencing the making of bread was in 1877 T.H. Huxley Physigr, “The Porous texture of bread is due to the presence of bubbles of gas evolved by the fermentation of yeast.



1/4 c. warm water

1/4 c. sug-ar


A sweet crystalline substanse, white when pure, obtained from a great variety of plant juices, but chiefly from those of the sugar-cane and sugar-beet, and forming an important article of human food. English adopted the word from Old French-çucre. Throughout the 12-14th century the spellings evolved: çuquere, zuchre, sukere, north-east. chucre. The closest relation to our now commonly used word “sugar” seems to be taken from Middle Low German “sucker”. The first written documentation is seen in J.T. Fowler Extracts Acct. Rolls Abbey of Durham in C1299. “Zuker Roch”.

1/2 c. sour cream 1/4 c. but-ter The fatty substance obtained from cream by churning. It is chiefly used for spreading on bread, and in Noun

1/2 t. salt


cookery. Old English most commonly used the weak feminine spelling of butere, but in compounds used buttor. The spelling we use today was taken from Middle High German, and modern German. One of the first written documents that uses butter was seen in Havelok dated a1300, “Bred an chese, butere and milk.

A substance very abundant in nature both in solution and in crystalline form, and extensively prepared for use as a condiment, a preservative of animal food. Salt for domestic use is manufactured from sea-salt. Common Germanic: Old English sealt. Old Frisian use the spelling we use today in Modern English “salt”. The first documented written use was seen in c1000 Sax. Leechd, “Wiþ blæce, wyl eolonan on buteran, meng wiþ sote, sealt, teoro.” In 1620 we see the first written documentation of our common spelling of the word, “The best and most common of all Sauces is Salt” seen in T. Venner Via Recta.


1 egg


An egg of a domestic fowl as an article of food. The common Germanic: Old English form is spelled ǽg. Modern English takes it’s spelling from Old Norse spelling “egg”. The first written documentation was seen in Chart. Oswulf in Sweet Old English Texts, dated 805-31, “gif hit ðonne festendæg sie, selle mon unege cæsu and fisces and butran and ægera.” The first time we see the spelling we commonly use today is seen in Shakespeare Henry IV, “They are vp already, and cal for Egges and butter.”

2 1/4 c. flour Noun

Fill-ing Noun

Originally, the ‘flower’ or finest quality of meal; hence, the finer portion of meal (whether from wheat or other grain) which is separated by bolting. Adapted from the French word fleur. In a1325 Gen. & Exod. we see the first documented use of the word, “Kalues fleis and flures bred And buttere.” It isn’t until about 15 years later that we see our spelling used, “Zuych difference ase þer bren and flour of huete.”

The action of the verb. in various senses. Also with advbs., as filling in, filling out, filling up. Among other definititions, this is the one that best suits the word in this context, as this filling will be filling up our danish. First used in 1440 in Promptorium Parvulorum, “Fyllynge, implecio.” Of all the definitions listed in the dictionary, none really referred to food. Most referred to filling cigars, mining, fillings in teeth. Because these paint a picture of filling a vacancy, the baking world adapted the word to use when referring to filling pastries, donuts, and other delicious goods.

1 (8-oz) package cream cheese, softened to room temperature 1/3-2/3 c. sugar (use less sugar if using a sweetened jam or jelly, more for an unsweetened fresh berry or fruit) 1 egg 1/2 t. almond extract pinch of salt 1 c. jam or jelly OR 2 cups fresh or frozen berries *If using frozen berries, let thaw and drain the juice before adding to the pastry




A mixture of sugar (or other sweetner) with water, egg white, butter, or margarine. Used for covering or decorating cakes, biscuits, or pastries. As you can see, the icing used in this recipe doesn’t use egg whites, butter or margarine. Currently we refer to icing as any sweet topping that dresses a baked good. First used in M.H. Young Cooks Monitor in 1683, a common 17th century cook book. “You must keep it stirring till the Cake is baked, then Ice it with a brush all over, and put it in the Oven to harden the Iceing.”

1 c. powdered sugar 1/2 t. almond extract a few Tablespoons of milk-enough to bring it to right consistency Optional 1/4 c. sliced almonds for garnish



An instruction how to proceed or act; an order to be carried out, a precept. First written documentation cited in A. Fleming tr. C. Plinius Novocomensis in Panoplie Epist dated 1576. “I set downe directions and precepts, how you should order and dispose your studies.” However, a more fitting use was described in J.S.C Abbott Napoleon dated 1854, “His instructions contained the following directions.”

1. In a large bowl, mix together sugar and warm water. Sprinkle yeast on top and proof for 5-10 minutes, or until the yeast becomes foamy. 2. Melt butter in the microwave in a small bowl. Mix in sour cream, and reheat if necessary until mixture is smooth. Add butter, sour cream, salt and egg to yeast mixture. Gradually add in flour. Knead a few times until just combined, do not over knead. Verb To mix and work up into a homogeneous plastic mass, by successively drawing out, folding over, and pressing or squeezing together; to make bread by this process. The modern form knead corresponds in spelling to tread. Different spellings over time can be seen as: knede, kneade, kneed. The first starting in the 15th century spanning on to the 17th century.


3. Cover, and refrigerate dough for 2 to 3 hours. 4. Before you begin rolling out the dough, beat the filling ingredients together until smooth. 5. After the dough has finished rising in the fridge, punch in down and dive into two pieces. 6. Roll each out into a 10 x 20-inch(ish) rectangle. Transfer to parchment paper and cut 1-inch slices along each side of the dough, about 1/3 of the way in. Cut off the last slice on each row. (Hopefully this picture makes it make more sense.) If you are not using parchment paper, transfer the pastry to a lightly greased baking sheet before filling - it will be very hard to move later! 7. Spread half of the filling on to each pastry 8. Then, top with jam or fruit. 9. Next, braid the dough by first folding over the end piece, then alternate sides, folding at a slight angle. Continue braiding until you reach the last two sections, then fold over the end piece. 10. Cover, and let the pastry rise for another hour. 11. Preheat oven to 375-degrees. Transfer pastry and parchment paper to a baking sheet.

Bake Verb

To cook by dry heat acting by conduction, and not by radiation, hence either in a closed place (oven, ashes, etc.), or on a heated surface (bakestone, griddle, live coals). In this case we would be referring to the first. First seen in a text titled Ælfric Ex., dated c1000. “Hí bócon þæt melu.” This spelling is the past tense of the Middle English bake. In 1393 we find the first use of the spelling we use today, “a capon in that one was bake.” found in the text J. Gowers’ Confessio Amantis.

for 15-25 minutes, until the pastry is a light golden brown.

12. Combine icing ingredients, using enough milk to bring it to a pourable consistency. Drizzle icing over pastry and Gar-nish To fit out with anything that adorns or beautifies; to decorate, ornament, or embellish. Verb First written documentation was seen in the text Alexander dated a1400-50, “An abite..þat was garnest full gay with golden skirtis.” The word was spelled most commonly with a ‘y’ until about the mid 1600s in a text titled Speculum Mundi by J. Swan.

with almond slices.



This document describes a recipe using etymology and definitions.