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ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO :AIR 350105 Katherine Petros


CONTENTS BRIEF W01 W02 W03 W04 W05 W06 W07 W08 W09 W10 W11 W12

The Case for Innovation

CUT Research Project

GATEWAY Design Project

Final Review


BRIEF


The Western Gateway Design project requires the design of a gateway into Wyndham for city bound traffic on the Princess Freeway. The proposed site for the Western Gateway offers a high exposure location to those entering the urban precinct of the municipality, as well as to those travelling along the freeway. The proposal must be a compelling, exciting, eye-catching installation, an installation that inspires and enriches the municipality.


centre pompidou paris france

A vast, unique cultural centre where architects Piano and Rogers play with themes of flexibility, mobility, colour and tranparency. This ‘alive’ and proud construction of steel and glass is a ‘parody of hightech’ stressing the factory image- built with function as its first priority and bare necessity. All functional components are seen from its exterior, including the main escalator. The interior exhibits the buildings services with no concealment of ceilings or walls. Colour is used to distinguish the different services-electrical, plumbing, air conditioning. A playful, simple and repetitive form, which is honest in revealing everything inside and out- it’s structural framework always visible. THE EMPHASIS IS NOT ON MASS, BUT RATHER TRANSPARENCY.. the importance is what lies within- housing an abundance of cultural and artistic displays. All interior space is free and open..each floor spanning two football pitches. Temporary displays and moveable walls highlight the flexibility and mobility in spatial use.

personal photographs, (Petros, 2012)

The forecourt is just as important as the building. This empty space insinuates that the centre belongs to the city. It exhibits the life of Paris, where movement is unrestricted and access is free. The court acts as a break away, an opeing from the surrounding narrow streets, reinforcing the true monumentality of the building. This spatial aspect can be related to our proposed gateway design.. it’s context is of high importance- the gateway is situated in a space connecting CITY COUNTRY and COAST.. the element of place, and MOVEMENT must all be taken into consideration. Instead of walkers by in the vast empty space which highlights the iconic nature of the Centre Pompidou, the gateway will not only be SEEN, but EXPERIENCED by drivers of 100km/hr.

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The Case for Innovation studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


doge’s palace venice italy

personal photographs, (Petros, 2012)

Situated on the Venetian urban waterfront, Doge’s Palace is an elegant example of Italian Gothic architecture, with obvious Byzantine influences. It’s memorable, symmetrical, planar fascade is a memorable composition of slender columns and arcs. The building is a representation of the city’s wealth and power, visibly shown in the delicate ornamentation and detail of the pillars, and the use of stone coloured marble (strength, stability, solidity). There is an openess and lightness to the structure, transparency of walls on ground level while solid walls above- quite indicative of medieval Venetian buildings. Fortification was not needed- a testament to the power of the city at the time. From the water, its simplicty yet intricacy is most intriguing..one must venture more closely towards it to grasp the vastness of the building, the repetitive design of its fascade and the elegance of the bearing masonrystone and marble. Although this was built before the time of computers, elements of transparency, repetition, pattering of a fascade can be explored and analysed. Each slender column, every opening was carefully measured and constructed by hand. Computer aided design would have created this structure quickly with perfect precision and accuracy where all human error is abolished. It would be extremely interesting to reverse engineer century old buildings, discovering more efficient ways through computational design. Would the design change? Would we achieve a better result, or would we negatively effect the design intent through such an automated process?

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The Case for Innovation studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


headpiece

personal project

A headpiece was required to be designed for first year studioVisual Environments; the client a pianist who will be playing Baroque, Classical and Romantic music for an upcoming performance in Melbourne’s prestigious art precinct. The design of the headpiece must: -Embrace and compliment one or more of these styles of music -Create an image to accompany the music being played -Represent the emotional complexity of the music -Interest the audience, yet not take attention away from the music -Explore aspects of light to compliment a stage lit environment -Ccomfortable to wear for long periods of time -Hide the identity of the pianist A series of developmental drawings and sketches were required, Sketchup program was implemented as a design tool as well as a 1:1 three-dimensional scaled model of the final design- purely for representing form, pattern, structure, sizenot material or colour.

It was necessary to research the styles of these musical periods, in order to firstly contextualise impression/mood and secondly to find out how to represent it in visual form. Baroque- mood, feelings of continuity, sudden dynamic changes and contrast, many textures Classical- gradual changes in dynamics, rhythmic patterns, controlled- no improvisation.

Using Sketchup as a computer aided design tool, I was able to design ‘as I go’, embracing FORM

FOLLOWS SOFTWARE.

The software tools determined how my design would change and adapt, it was no longer within the power of my pencil, it was a continuously changing file.. It enabled me to produce a complex design that my mind could not possibly conceive, then allowed me to SIMPLIFY and OPTIMIZE according to my desired fabrication method. The challenge was knowing when to stop..The possibilities are truly endless.

Regarding the Wyndham project, the computer must NOT take over the design.. it is A TOOL in effectvely resolving a pre-conceived CONCEPT.

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The Case for Innovation studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


nanning gateway china

The Nanning Gateway is situated along a freeway, in which driver’s in one direction of traffic view a stationary and iconic flower, while driv-

How can this be incorporated into Wyndham Gateseries of scattered detached petals, way’s Expression of Interest? Firstly, a distortion and play er’s in the opposing direction view a

grounded into the sloping topogra- of perspective can be further explored, focusing on an URBAN phy. Unlike other static gateways, EXPERIENCE, rather than merely looking AT a static structure. the Nanning Gateway involves a Also, this idea of ‘breaking down’/ detachment, can also be furspace/ time experience, where the ther explored...how can seperate components ultimately create

driver’s perspective plays a crucial one holistic form, visible from certain perspectives? And how can part in understanding the nature computation be used? A form can be generated using computer of the design. It’s both memorable aided software, its surface broken down, segmented and manipuand dynamic, one’s movement and lated in certain ways in order for it to be fabricated i.e trianguladirection ultimately change one’s tion, waffling and contouring. experience.

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The Case for Innovation studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


street art..

Street art, “art on the street” is artwork in an urban setting, a PUBLIC setting and in a sense is an appropriate area to research for the Wyndham Gateway project.

‘Street’ artists do not aspire to change the definition of an artwork, but rather to question the existing environment with its own language” This is essentially what the Wyndham Gateway project is in need of- a gateway which questions the existing environment with its own language.. ESTABLISHING WYNDHAM as a municipality through a visual structure. The examples shown here explore the principle of PERSPECTIVE, how ones placement and involvement within the setting is crucial in its COMMUNICATION. These images for example would be unreadble from any other viewpoint than shown. When one MOVES and changes their perspective, does the artwork SURPRISE. Can this element of SURPRISE through PERSPECTIVE, through MOVEMENT, be explored further for Wyndham’s gateway?

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The Case for Innovation studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


The lecture ‘Introduction to Computing in Architecture’, raised the question..How does computerization differ from computation and which one will we be adopting throughout our design processes this semester? Computerization is known, using it as a tool to develop and refine already conceived designs, while computation is unknown..exploring/ designing as you go.. Form follows software.

computeriz Comments from this weeks Tutorial..

-Inescapability of Architecture -Significant social importance of Architecture -Architecture as a visual practice -Apprehended in a ‘state of distraction’ unlike other visual practices.. -Architecture as a Sign.. an Observer-Object relationship Everyone understands it differently... -An Art Form? (An art form implies it is without function, has purely aesthetic values -A Sign? -A Symbol?

Is Architecture “trapped” w

Discussion and thoughts from analysis of Kalay’s, Architecture as New Media (2004) “Computers, by their nature, are superb analytical engines. If cor­rectly programmed, they can follow a line of reasoning to its logical con­clusion. They will never tire, never make silly arithmetical mistakes, and will gladly search through and correlate facts buried in the endless heaps of information they can store. They will do all that quickly and repeat­ edly, by following a set of instructions called a program, which tells them in minute detail how to manipulate the electrical impulses in their cir­cuits. They can present the results of these manipulations in the form most suitable for human comprehension: in textual reports, tables of numbers, charts, graphical constructions—even in dynamically chang­ing images and sounds.” --implications include, relying on computers/on these programs as the easy way/the convenient way to solve problems.. Although faultless, they lack creativity, the ability to create new, innovative things, they are merely TOOLS. --They can not relate a great graphical construction created through programming/parametric modelling to the real world-what we need/our social context/our environmental concerns etc etc.-- We must not put up our feet when these new faster/ easier ways of developing our designs arise.. the core of design/of architecture is a holistic one.. It requires one to be rational and creative..the computer is only capable of one of these. The paper has failed to mention this crucial relationship- from human to computer and vice versa..a neverending cycle. A good definition of design..calculated, considered, rational, ‘design as a process’ yet no mention of creativity, purpose, function .. “What follows is that to appraise design you need to show: 1. The current situation. 2. The desired situation. 3. That the new situation is better in some specified way.”

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The Case for Innovation studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros

“Buildings, prior to the Renaissance, were constructed\ not planned:” This reading highlights that architecture, or rather the process of architectural design, may well quickly return to this state--use of computation in contemporary practice. ‘there were no drawings, no models to follow’,, relates to the process of designing with computers..experimentation! exploring as you go.. difference being, it was a slow process, not resilient or adaptable to new technologies- however these days, computers are always changing, fast and open to new technologies (plug ins etc) When discussing architects as craftsmen- ‘from technicians to designers’.. are we heading backwards? designers to technicians?

“Drawings and scale models allowed architects not only to communi­cate with the builders and their clients, but also to experiment with alter­native design solutions and test them on paper for form and function before they were committed to stone. They allowed more people to become involved in the design process, and allowed the architects to devel­op more intricate designs.”.. although in the reading referring to the conception of scale models and drawings (14th 15th centuries).. our use of models and scale drawings(computerised for accuracy and intricacy) are still the same.


zation v. computation

s,..however art poses many questions for analysis.. it has an Analytical function)

within a world of technology.... a world with more data, more complexity, more quickly. “The major components of the architectural design process” • Problem analysis • Solution synthesis • Evaluation • Communication Interesting discussion into each stage of the design process. “Evaluation is a rational process. However, not all performance criteria can be evaluated rationally: aesthetics, human behaviour, and the overall “feel” of a building are qualitative aspects that have defied attempts at rational measurement and assessment.” Tutor comments “What a defeatist attitude!” however i don’t think so at all. Yes, evaluation is a critical stage-assessing if we have successful achieved what we had set out to create. However there are criteria as mentioned that simply can not be evaluated, by one at least. Aesthetics, behaviour, experience are all subjective. What one assesses as aesthetically pleasing/ beautiful may not with the next; what is beautiful anyway? As goes with the experience.. the designer has aimed to design a certain experience within his designed building, yet each and every person who walks through that space will personally experience something different. “The results of the evaluation are communicated back to the previous steps for improvement or adjustment of the solution,” and this ties in with the importance of COMMUNICATION.The design process relies on communication to adapt, improve, reflect, resolve, succeed.

“The recent addition of computers to the repertoire of means of comma­nication has expanded access to information and opened up the design process for more people to become involved.” BUT does this really mean more freedom in design? It means more complexity and ease in design adaptation and manipulation. More people and higher involvement make design an open forum.. its now not only one designer, computers and their expansion/access of information allow many designers/ many solutions. Design is after all, all about problem solving ..? “A paradigm of fitting given parts into a coherent whole.” “forming a kind of dialogue between goals and solutions” However, design is much more than this.. design can be an openended search for new possibilities. Depth first Breadth first Best first

“Much like other design methods, the use of prototypes, precedents, and metaphors is intended to provide the designer with a starting point from which to develop the new design. Each design method uses a differ­ent approach to accomplishing this task, whose purpose is to bridge the gap between the three main components of the design process: the analy­sis of the problem, from which design goals and constraints can be devel­oped; the synthesis of design solutions; and their evaluation vis-a-vis the goals and constraints.” Kalay, Architecture as New Media (2004)

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The Case for Innovation studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


eiffel DNA paris france

A conceptual generative design by Serero Architects in Paris to extend certain parts of the Parision icon- the Eiffel Tower. With the aim to reduce wait times and increase visitor capacity, Serero proposed an extension of the plateau of the tower. He proposed a carbon Kevlar structure capable of carrying the weight of visitors venturing out onto the various observation decks. Without any physical modification to the existing structure, it will double floor space. The generative script of three interconnected woven forms, was inspired by the cross bracing beams that give the Eiffel Tower its architectural signature. Through the conceptual drawings, we can see a nice balance between the current architectural trend of sub-divided surfaces and the original Art Nouveau intent. Serero Architects focus on generative design, digital manufacturing, fluid dynamics, crystallography, acoustics, genetics and topographical manipulation, so he is very much part of the architectural discourse of computational design. He is always trying to weave connections between these fields and architec

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tural practice always attempting to explore new paths for architectural design. The issues that arise out of this ‘concept’, is adapting an existing architectural icon- an icon of the Art Nouveau meovement and the temporary Exposition of 1889. Should we manipulate our historical/ architectural icons, enhancing them with these new computational and generative methods? We are functionally bettering them, however, will their heritage and importance lessen? Should computational design be kept within our present and future or should we go back to our past buildings and ‘enhance’ them? We can see here, tools of repetition of patterns, possibly inspired by the floral patterns of the Art Nouveau movement, generated using computer software.


Concepts of geometry, pattern and space through three installations. It concerntrates on the patterns and rhythms found in nature.. a clear link to the concepts made by Serero Architects for ‘Eiffel DNA’. Focusing on the second gallery, Balmond comprised a collection of H-haped aluminium plates supported by chains. The relationship between simplicity and complexity is being explored. This new geometry that he has created, making full use of modern computer and construction technologies, frees architecture from a closed, static paradigm (based on rectangles, trinagles, circles) and transforming it into something so organic, dynamic and complex. Balmond’s ideas stem from simple algorithms that code a building, just like genes build an organism. The whole structure seems fluid, flexible, in motion. However, isn’t the traditional mode of construction to ‘ground’ the building,..make a structure stable, strong and capable of withstanding loads? Has the whole purpose, or rather needs of architecture changed? How well does this structure that Balmond has created withstand the loads of an unforeseen earthquake? It may look impressive, generated from new technologies, new materials, new ways of construction through computers.. but how well do they respond with real world environments? This is an issue surrounding computational architectural design- experimentation must not only be done aestheticallymateriality and experience, but functionally..how well they are sustained within our world.. how they can better our world. All is well when we see these structures in galleries and installation displays, however they are just ‘art’, barely architecture, until they withstand in our natural environment.

element cecil balmond

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The Case for Innovation studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


Signage created by Emery Studio, that is completely distorted, only readable when one is in the right position. Very similar to the street art examples previously explored, where a two dimensional design/image is produced in an urban setting, on an urban surface. The occasional walker by, or in this case DRIVER’s MOVEMENT is crucial to the urban experience.

eureka tower

PERSPECTIVE is all-important, and an interesting path to follow especially when DRIVERS are who we are designing the gateway for.

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The Case for Innovation studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


shadow art Shadow art is a type of sculptural art, which the artistic effect lies in the twodimensional shadows that a three-dimensional sculpture casts. Computational tools have made a dramatic impact to shadow art, where any desired shadow cast can be specified and created. Through geometric optimization that computes a three-dimensional shadow volume whose shadows best approximate the provided input imagery. Optimization is essential in creating physically realizable three dimensional scultpres. Using a palette of editing tools, the resulting shadow can then be modified, still respecting

optical illusion/ bistable imagery the intricate shadow constraints.

Why look into optical illusions?

It may seem like an un-

likely field to look into further, especially when designing a freeway installation. However, My previous research has led me down the path of PERSPECTIVE, how depending on one’s PLACEMENT and DIRECTION can ultimately change the nature of an image, sculpture, structure, design. You may see Einstein in the picture to the right, however when standing from a signifcant distance, you are staring no longer at an elderly man, but Marilyn Munroe -a young woman. Bistable images are exactly that, they are not ONE STATIC IMAGE, they comprise of MULTIPLE IMAGES depending on ones movement and perspective. One image can NOT capture the true essence of the design intent.. it MUST BE EXPERIENCED. This is a challenge our gateway could strive towards.. its entire nature of the design cannot be captured by one photograph..it would need a SERIES of images (series of postcard) or better still.. EXPERIENCED IN PERSON. A BISTABLE STRUCTURE>?

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impossible objects Impossible objects fall under the umbrella of optical illusions however they move into a three-dimensional plane focusing on FORM rather than pattering and imagery. The gateway

penrose

will be a three dimensional “eye catching” structure, therefore focusing on how forms can create confusion, curiosity, incompleteness, visual interest can be beneficial. The difficulty lies in actually creating forms like this. This is where design through computation can be applied. Yet, a major debate in the architectural discourse is letting the computer DICTATE one’s form. One’s form should NOT be dictated by the computer, as ones concept and design intent has been automated and will eventually become lost through the refinement stages of this now automated design process.

escher Through quirks of PERSPECTIVE and PERCEPTION, Escher, a grafic artist, produces imagery where the impossible seems possible. Many of his drawings and prints depict subjects that MORPH into eachother, ultimately distorting and confusing the viewer’s perception. How can this be incorporated into the Wyndham project? MORPHING ELEMENTS TOGETHER? Can one structure produce different visual outcomes through a morphing of forms?

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threshold. “the starting point of an experience” “a level or point at which something would happen, would cease to happen, or would take effect event, or venture” “a phenomenon, ..a result” For the installation to be inspiring and exciting, one must actively be involved. By simply moving past the installation, one will experience a change of state, entering a threshold where there is a noticeable start, middle and end. At certain stages/ vantage points/ perspectives of the 40 second journey passing the installation, the driver should participate in a different experience. The gateway or rather ‘portal’, is only in effect when the driver is in motion.

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The Case for Innovation studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


dubai gateway Rather than merely appreciating a stagnant object (a sculpture, a sign), which is a common architectural trap, I seek to create an experiential journey- changing the way of ‘seeing’, into a ‘discovery’ of form, imagery and patterns. The challenge is to produce a performative and eventful gateway, which will be iconic and memorable, yet can be forgotten and continuously rediscovered by the passing driver.

an ‘event’ bridge An example of an architectural gateway.. progressive, ‘morphs’.. starts simple, increases in size and complexity, finally ending with an iconic form. This gateway does not have to be a static object.. leading to the thought of creating an urban experience. How could the urban experience be maximized through the proposed installation? Bernard Tschumi asserts that “there is no architecture without event, no architecture without action, no architecture without movement.” To say that there is no architecture without movement is to say that there is no architecture without people. The difference between the Dubai Gateway and the Wyndham city gateway, is the Dubai Gateway is a dynamic structure where one can immerse themselves between the walls, physically move through passageways, touch and observe the details of joints and gradation of materials. The proposed gateway is inaccessible, only experienced through a 40 second journey framed by the car window at speeds of up to 100 kilometres. The question from here is, how to actively involve the driver?

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This image in particular highlights how important the sense of perspective is. Upclose these white piers mean nothing. They are solid, heavy, simple and obstructive. Yet they ultimately morph into a bigger picture, part of a bigger design and network of elements- an intricate netting design/veil, with such lightness and complexity. Can this idea about ‘perspective’ and vantage point be used with the gateway project? When one passes the structure (ground level in the car), all one can see are large simple meaningless elements, yet from the distance you see the larger image of what it eventually forms/ morphs into/ creates? The idea of DISCOVERY, and realisation.. how detached elements, when viewed from a particular vantage point eventually form a complete image/ form/ design.

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matrix

Quick, simple way to create a pattern based on a pre-conceived image. An image of a sand dune was chosen with a high dark/ light contrast to maximise visual impact and recognition using the Brightness function of the Image Sampler association. Sand dune= relate s to Wyndham’s logo “Country, Coast. City”.. how to visualise ‘coast?’ Through the gradual organic curves of the dunes.

Image Sampler

Same image as above, however applying it to a lofted surface.. extrusions transform the surface into a three-dimensional plane rather than a ‘perforated’ flat surace as in the first example.

Image Sampler with Extrusion Output Quite a interesting tool- attracting points on a surface in relation to a referenced curve... affecting variables of density of geometries, in this case circles, and radii of circles. This would be a useful tool in our gateway project to draw attention to certain areas/ create a visual pathway/ create directional flow.

Curve Attractor Same concept as the curve attractor, yet creates a more linear effect. The number of points can be changed, not in relation to one continuous curve/ line. Can be controlled more. In this example, only one point attractor is involved to emphasise the effect between geometries within close proximity to the attractor compared to geometries further away.

Point Attractor

Maths function with the expression sin(x)*y was used for this example . Creates a linear effect, which can play with illusions of distance and complexity.

Maths Function Effective way in segmenting and partitioning surfaces, to then treat each ‘set’ with different variables and desired effects. In this example , three sets were created, each treated with a different level of extrusion. Wyndham’s COUNTRY COAST CITY logo involves these three elements which can be visually represented in different ways using this association. City could be treated with higher or denser extrusions while Coast can be treated ‘flatter’ smaller radiii.

Using Sets with Extrusion Output

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Radius Size 0.1

0.2

0.4

0.7

Extrusion 5

4

3

2

Max Radius Size 0.3

0.7

1.0

Max Radius Size 0.3

0.5

0.7

sin(x)*y 2

4

6

1.5

1.0

1

2.0

1.0

8

1.3

10

Varying extrusions

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City Coast Country

Wydham cannot be summed up by one image – it is many things at once: city, country, and coast.

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Given that the slogan for the City of Wyndham is “City, Country, Coast,” attributes of the city, the country and the coast will be incorporated into the design. The challenge from this stage onwards, is how to embrace these attributes within the design for a gateway.. Wydham is literally the centre point between the city (Melbourne) and the coast (Geelong) and thus has attributes of both the city and the coast whilst being located in a more regional setting and can be seen as country.


city

coast country Using the Brightness function of the Image Sampler association in Grasshopper... Images of “City, Coast, Country” - Wyndham City Council’s slogan were explored. Using own photographs taken along the Yarra River overlooking Melbourne’s ‘city’ skyline- skyscrapers, bridges, angular geometries etc. Sand dunes, shells and waves were explored for the ‘coast’, and hills and trees were explored for ‘country’. The higher the contrast in the image maximises the visual impact and recognition of the image.

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restaurant aoba-tei hitoshi abe CONCEPT: soft boundary surface

TECHNIQUE: perforation and abstraction from nature

sendai japan

A continuous interior wrapping of steel, uniting levels and mediating between existing shell and interior space, exterior and interior -- all about the relationship between these two spatial partitions. VISUAL DIALOGUE + SPATIAL DEVICE Adopting imagery of Sendai’s characteristic landscape - SITE SPECIFIC, panels are perforated using a CNC router - holes of different diameters create a backlit tree canopy.

Ben Pell, ‘Restaurant Aoba-Tei’, in The Articulate Surface : Ornament and Technology in Contemporary Architecture (Basel, London: Birkhäuser ; Springer distributor, 2010),

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pp. 54 - 59

Production difficulties- complex geometries, very thin steel plates(2.3mm), unfolding digitally-generated threedimensional shapes into a limited variety of two-dimensional sections, on site assembly.


colour brightness

colour saturation

colour brightness

red channel

colour saturation

red channel

Reverse Engineering Aoba-Tei Grasshopper Image Sampler definition exploring colour brightness, colour saturation and red channel in photographs of gum trees- relevant to our EOI- within an Australian context. We will be exploring perforation and abstraction of nature further, as our concept is based around Wyndham’s City Council logo- ‘City, Coast, Country’.. gum trees very much a part of the Australian countryside.

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Reverse Engineering To complete this process, using the curve tool in rhino, i created 2 curves similar to the form of the restaurant, then ‘lofting’ them to produce a curved surface. Instead of referencing a simple two-dimensional surface in grasshopper in the previous stages, I simply referenced the three-dimensional curved surface I created. The images automatically applied themselves to the new surface. The result, varying the circle radius and number of columns/rows,was very much similar to the restaurant Aoba-Tei.

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mccormick tribune campus centre oma

The McCormick Tribune Campus Centre exhibits many fascinating architectural attributes such as the architect’s use of ‘Image Mapping’ and the framing of views. However, what relates to the Wyndham Gateway the most, is the distortion, or rather, manipulation of PERSPECTIVE. Through the glazed window panels, one does not experience a clear view of the outside. The panel is in fact sgemented into equally sized cylinders of varying depths, choreographed in a way to DISTORT ones view of the outside- also playing with the idea of TRANSPARENCY. When looking from a particular vantage point and position, one’s view is clear, yet as one moves around looking from different perspectives, one’s view is unfocused, hazy and confused.

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Reverse Engineering A rectagular surface drawn in Rhino was referenced in Grasshopper. An attractor point was placed in the centre of the surface to choreograph the circle geometries in a way that would create a more clear view in the centre, slowly dispersing and becoming more compact.

An extrusion component was added to the definition, as the circles are in fact cylinders, their depth related to the thickness of the glass panel. The actual glass panels of the centre seem to have rotated the cylinders rather than played with depth. This can also be achieved by dividing the surface into a grid of points, which will in fact become the centre point for the circle geomteries, and therefore the starting point for the z directional lines (related to the extrusion variable). In order to rotate at different angles, a ZY plane is needed at each point. Once the rotated planes have been established, it is possible to rotate the lines. The circles will then extrude in the direction of the angled lines, using Grasshopper’s extrusion component.

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The image below shows a series of seperately referenced surfaces (similar to how a series of window panels would be assembled). Some panels share the same attractor point, quite an interesting effect, while others have there own. It shows possibilities that the whole entire window panel could share a holistic pattern, while a detached, seperate impression can also be achieved.


moire pattern The Moire pattern is created by two overlaying grids, where angles or grid sizes are different to create a unique ‘moving’ visual.

Why Moire for Wyndham?

1. To grab attention of driver’s by 2. To add a sense of movement through visual patterning 3. To evoke an experiential quality of the coast, the country or the city through imagery and representations 4. To reflect density (vertical --> flat= representations of a city to country skyscape) 5. An effective pattern to explore through Grasshopper,

FURTHER TRIALS.. Using the Brightness function of the Image Sampler association in Grasshopper... Images of “City, Coast, Country” - Wyndham City Council’s slogan were explored. Using images of skyscrapers, bridges, angular geometries etc. Sand dunes, shells and waves were explored for the ‘coast’, and hills and trees were explored for ‘country’.

ISSUES: Circle geomteries in these examples were TOO SMALL., altogether blurring the visual, EXTREMELY UNRECOGNISABLE. Images with a HIGH BRIGHTNESS CONTRAST need to be considered, also SIMPLE and CLEAR images, which there were apprently not.

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banq restaurant Reverse Engineering Banq METHOD: CONTOURING

Photographs of physical model.

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anamorphosis Perspective anamorphosis is a device which dis-

torts an image such that it is readable from a par-

ticular perspective. In a three-dimensional context – this implies a sculpture that looks distinctly different from different perspectives. The painting opposite, ‘The Ambassadors” (1533) by Holbein was created in the Early Renaissance when anamorphic perspective was first invented. It depicts an anamorphic skull, completely unrecognisable when looking at all angles except for 45 degrees (oblique view) from the top right hand corner. It is only from this one vantage point that the image is readable. The artist intended it to be a VISUAL PUZZLE, associating it with a narrative of mortality and death. Why focus on anamorphosis? The gateway needs to INVOLVE the driver to create the ultimate URBAN EXPERIENCE. The driver, continuously in motion, is the discoverer.. depending on his placement, on his MOVEMENT around the gateway (approaching it/ passing it by), one will discover the illusion of unreadable forms becoming readable.. the event of discovery.

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markus raetz

anamorphic sculptures Markus Raetz’s anamorphic structures are all about the concept of ILLUSION. As you walk around these sculptures, one finds delight in “walking around, putting it together and taking it apart in your mind”. They have really encapsulated the shift of anamorphosis from two-dimensional aplications through painting, to the third dimension. Above, one sees a small winebottle and a large wineglass, however as you walk around, the small winebottle forms a glass and the large glass forms a bottle. Similar concept is used when a man from one vantage point becomes a rabbit from another. The image below shows how two vases form a woman’s body through negative space- a different approach. When the vases spin, the woman appears to be dancing, continuously shifting from side- to side.

Raetz DISTORTS FORM and PERSPECTIVE. MOVEMENT IS NECESSARY.

http://www.crownpoint.com/artists/186/about-artist

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escher tower BIG architects

A perfect example in capturing the true essence of ANAMORPHOSIS THROUGH FORM, THROUGH ARCHITECTURE. Just like Big’s Escher Tower, the nature of the proposed Wyndham gateway design CANNOT be captured through one still image. A SERIES of images from each key perspective is necessary in truly capturing the overall anamorphic form. Or better still, one must PHYSICALLY move around the building to EXPERIENCE it.

“there is no architecture without event, no architecture without movement, no architecture without action”. People MOVING around the structure is crucial in fully understanding the design. From one side, the tower represents a wine bottle, from another an hourglass, a wine glass and even a painting! For the gateway to have similar anamorphic attributes, a SERIES of images/ postcards is needed to SELL the idea. One image is not enough.

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“Vertigata’s (Vertical Street in Swedish) exterior form is an example of ANAMORPHOSIS; the building assumes different appearances from separate perspectives. When viewed from Stockholm’s old city center the skyscraper appears continuous with the smokestack strewn skyline, while appearing more dominant when observed from the city’s developing periphery.” This is more of a metaphorical use of anamorphosis, as it is not as obvious as being expressed through differences in FORM, rather through its SKIN/ external cladding/ fabricated elements, which ultimately provide it with varying degrees of TRANSPARENCY.

vertical street vox architects http://www.archdaily.com/142930/vertigata-vox/

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tel aviv museum

preston scott cohen inc. This museum comprises of a network of subtly twisting geometric surfaces (hyperbolic parabolas) that connect the disparate angles between the galleries. These elements refract natural light into the deepest recesses of the half buried building. The building is composed according to multiple axes that deviate significantly from floor to floor. In essence, it is a series of independent plans and steel structural systems stacked one atop the other, connected by geometric episodes of vertical circulation. When looking at the images above of the interior, there is an evident confusion and distortion of perspective. One is not entirely sure how this complex space works based on one vantage point, - does that passageway lead upwards to that space or does it circulate to the ground floor exhibition area? Then again, once one is in a gallery space, everything seems clear, simple and ordered. It is an interesting example of how ones perspective can entirely change when viewing or rather experiencing the same structure/ building/ space.

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anamorphosis

from painting Still a two-dimensional application of anamorphosis, however pushed onto the street, incorporating real varying surfaces, bringing PEOPLE into the experience, i.e. ones’ involvement (movement, positioning) is crucial to the anamorphic experience.

..sculpture

Earliest forms of anamorphosis shown through a two-dimensional surface. Perspective was explored through painting and how one views that surface. Still a sense of detachment which we DO NOT want with the gateway- it must INVOLVE the driver...

to street art.. Through sculpture we see anamorphosis work on a three dimensional plane. This is a huge shift, as ANAMORPHOSIS is now FORM-BASED. The form completely chages from front view, to side view, as one PHYSICALLY moves around the sculpture.

to architecture The gateway will essentially be an architectural creation- a three dimensional form. Escher Tower by BIG Architects is a typical example of how anamorphosis has been captured through an architectural form- created completely different multiple images of the same building, depending on one’s perspective. A static photo could not encapsulate the nature of this design – the design would need to be captured through a series of images (as shown) or better still, experienced in person. This is the challenge for the Wyndham Gateway- to successfully create an anamorphic architectural form.

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“the sense of place is not to be recovered through any attitude, device, or style, but through the principles of pattern, spirit, and context.�

to melbourne

-Jonathan Hale, The Old Way of Seeing: How Architecture Lost Its Magic - And How to Get It Back., 1994

A

B

site A

B

A

to geelong

recapping the brief

The Western Gateway Design project requires the design of a gateway into Wyndham for city bound traffic on the Princess Freeway. The proposed site for the Western Gateway offers a high exposure location to those entering the urban precinct of the municipality, as well as to those travelling along the freeway. The proposal must be a compelling, exciting, eye-catching installation, an installation that inspires and enriches the municipality.

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Rather than merely appreciating a stagnant object (a sculpture, a sign), which is a common architectural trap, we seek to create an experiential journey- changing the way of ‘seeing’, into a ‘discovery’ of form, imagery and patterns. The challenge is to produce a performative and eventful gateway, which will be iconic and memorable, yet can be forgotten and continuously rediscovered by the passing driver. Unlike a fascinating building where one can immerse themselves between the walls, physically move through passageways, touch and observe the details of joints and gradation of materials, the proposed gateway is inaccessible, only experienced through a 40 second journey framed by the car window at speeds of up to 100 kilometres. The question is, how to actively involve the driver?

Bernard Tschumi suggests that “there is no architecture without event, no architecture without movement, no architecture without action”. For our

installation to be inspiring and exciting, one must actively be involved. By simply moving past our installation, one will experience a change of state, entering a threshold where there is a noticeable start, middle and end. Our gateway or rather ‘portal’, is only in effect when the driver is in motion. The design will be driven by the technique of ‘anamorphosis’, the evolution of a several images by a series of gradual changes. These images will be distorted in such a way that they become recognizable only when viewed from a specific angle and perspective. Our concept derives from Wyndham City Council’s slogan, ‘City, Country, Coast’. This is fitting to the context surrounding the location of the gateway, on a number of levels and can be interpreted in a number of ways. Its placement will embrace Wyndham as the unification of city, country and the coast- it’s most attractive attribute. Yet, Wyndham can also be seen as the centre point between city and coast, a country town between Melbourne and Geelong.

Elements of ambiguity competing with moments of realization will be explored through computergenerated pattern, imagery and form. Our concept, however, is not driven by these computational programs, such as Grasshopper. Form still follows function, the function being an active gateway in connecting Melbourne with Geelong and establishing the municipality of Wyndham. The software is a tool to efficiently and conveniently design parametrically, continuously adapt and quickly produce complex designs, easily test one’s perception of the design through different viewports, and to aid with optimization and fabrication to attain the most effective design. In brief, anamorphosis through computational design, is an exciting, challenging approach in morphing and distorting Wyndham’s three identities of ‘City, Country, Coast’ to produce one holistic design. When approaching Melbourne, one will discover an image associated with the city. When approaching Geelong, one will discover an image associated with the coast. At midpoint, from both directions, one will see an image associated with the country- a visual representation that Wyndham is the place where city and coast unite. In choosing Site A, we will direct all attention to one focal point, making use of the elevated mound located on this site.

An exploration into visual perceptions, pattern, movement, a change of state.

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group

EOI

What is the client’s aspiration? Installation needs to be:

• original and engaging in form • makes a significant impact - visually, experientially, culturally (To both Wydham and Greater Melbourne).

Argument: 1. Design to be located on Site A as its central location accommodates both east and west bound traffic. 2. Constraints of site: not physically accessible and our audience is in continuous motion. 3. Need to engage with architecture as a visual culture and this paradigm defines architecture as art/ sign and urban experience.

4. We asked ourselves how we could maximize the urban experience. So we turned to Bernard Tschumi who asserts that “there is no architecture without event, no architecture without action, no architecture without movement.” This idea lies at the core of our aim to maximize urban experience, thus increasing the potential of the design.To say that there is no architecture without movement is to say that there is no architecture without people. We aim to design a Gateway that could only be experience by movement of people i.e. a static photo could not encapsulate the nature of the design – the design would need to be experienced in person.

5. Thus far we have established the need for an engaging urban experience that involves movement but we also need to consider the fact that the design will be experienced from two directions/ perspectives simultaneously (east and west). Furthermore, within the general eastern and western directions, the curvature of the road implies that any given drivers’ perspective would be continuously changing. These parameters led us towards the three-dimensional application of anamorphosis. Perspective anamorphosis is a device which distorts an image such that it is readable from a particular perspective. In a three-dimensional context – this implies a sculpture that looks distinctly different from different perspectives.

6. Given that the slogan for the City of Wyndham is “City, Country, Coast,” attributes of the city, the country and the coast will be incorporated into the design.

7. Wydham is literally the centre point between the city (Melbourne) and the coast (Geelong) and thus has attributes of both the city and the coast whilst being located in a more regional setting and can be seen as country. Wydham cannot be summed up by one image – it is many things at once: city, country, and coast.

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group

identity

The above identity, standing for ‘KIS’, comprises of the first letter of each of our group member’s names: Katie Petros, Ivan Sulestio and Shervin Jaberzadeh. We believe a group identity is important in cementing ourselves as a team, and strongly communicating our ideas to a panel and wider public.

Generative sketches, considering the mound and considering the gateway as an iconic and memorable form.

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Generative sketches exploring form and how we will approach anamorphosis as a technique and driving concept.

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ana thr


amorphosis rough computation After spending precious time trying to MANUALLY conceive an anamorphic form, it was proven to be extremely difficult, even almost impossible with the time constraints of the course. We turned to the computer, fusing a definition which automatically CREATES an anamorphic form, yet one still maintains control/ makes design decisions. Curves are referenced and lofted in grasshopper, size, distance and shape all variable. Using axial rotations in selected viewports, one is able to manipulate the form in many different ways, while still maintaining a certain form in another viewport. A PARAMETRIC, responsive and continuously adapting/responding method for designing anamorphic forms, where by manually would be too complex for the human brain.

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After realising that the software in itself would generate the anamorphic form, simple geometries were used as a starting point. However, the front and side views are almost identicaldefeating the whole purpose of anamorphisis- two completely different sides. Therefore these trials were unsuccessful.

In the first trials, the process was still unfamiliar and unknown, therefore still attempted at manually trying to produce a recognisable form i.e. a shell. From one side it is severely compressed, yet from the front it is a vast form.

TRIAL 1

FRONT

SIDE

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TRIAL 2

TRIAL 3

TRIAL 4


These trials display forms where the front and side views have almost no recognisable characteristics from eachother- they seem to not belong to the exact same form. Trial 9 shows one side fully curvacious, while the side view is static and rectilinear. A successful anamorphic form.

These trials show definite signs of anamorphosis, the front and side views are considerably different. However, not as obvious as required. The gateway should be eye-catching and seek drivers attention..the strange anamorphic form creating intrigue.

TRIAL 5

TRIAL 6

TRIAL 7

TRIAL 8

TRIAL 9

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Grasshopper produced these series of floating circle geomteries based on the anamorphosis definition. This is however unfabricatable.

FRONT

SIDE Contouring the forma similar process to the Banq Restaurant in which was previously ‘reverse engineered’, the surface structure and actual form was able to be understood.

Remapping the surface, applying a surface grid allowed the surface to be equally segmented into separate components. The sever difference between front and side views has still been maintaned- Quite a relief, as sometimes fabrication can negatively effect and change the desired form.

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Each curve was offset to create ‘strips’, segmented surfaces. When placed together they should form the shape desired. Their thickness ultimately make up the ‘front view’.

method #1 PROBLEMS WITH THIS METHOD:

breaking down the surface

Anamorphosis is BASED ON FORM, however, this approach has stripped down the form to its bare essentials creating a ‘skeleton’ approach. It is TOO BASIC, the number of curves too little to successfully capture the nature of the design. From the front view, one can completely look through the structure, appearing as a series of sticks, the COMPLEXITY of ANAMORPHOSIS has not been communicated.

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method #2

triangulation

After realising that the FORM must be maintained, triangulating the surface seemed like an ideal approach. However an IMMENSE amount of triangles were needed to ultimately created the desired form. After simplyfying into a form deemed fabricatable, the beautiful curvacious became lost within the angular sharp planes.

Where do we draw the line between EFFICIENCY FOR FABRICATION and PRESERVING THE FORM? We stand by the notion that we ‘must NOT let computers DICTATE our design.’ Therefore, we have moved away from this methof of fabrication, seeking a better approach.

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method #3

waffling

Waffling seemed like a simple, common method to test for the anamorphic form. This was carried out by ‘CUTTING’ horizontally through the form, surfacing each individual slice.. ultimately forming the structure when alligned. Initially, 15 cuts were made, however this was maximised to 20 to preserve the form- the more cuts, the more fluid and continuous the form will be. We did not want a repeat of the first method of fabrication, where the model was stripped back so much that the form became almost unrecognisable.

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model In order to preserve the full height of the form, 4 x 2.7mm circle spaces were stacked in between each layer, the centre point remaining the same throughout the entirety of the structure. Although this was not factored into the design intent (and does visibly show quite dramatically) it provides a STABILITY (literally and metaphorically). The ‘structural column’ creates an extra level of visual intrigue- one moment its clearly visible, yet it becomes lost and DISAPPEARS within the form depending on where you stand/ view the form. It was a pleasant unintentional design quirk due to the method of fabrication.

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Below show the four different sides of the model, however front and back are similar while both sides are similar. The FRONT and SIDE views are totally different- the front view is rectilinear, stable, tall and slendour, while the side view is curvacious, heavy and dynamic. This is a successul reult of ANAMORPHOSIS.. creating 2 ddifferent images from the SAME FORM..thorugh distortion and manipulation.. ONLY COMMUNICATED THROUGH THE EXPERIENCE OF PHYSICALLY MOVING AROUND THE STRUCTURE. (or by a series of images shown below).


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surprises Look at the shadows the form casts! When viewing the rectilinear side, the shadow cast is full and curvacious (AN OPTICAL ILLUSION and really encapsulating the notion of anamorphosis! The same when viewing the curvacious side, a tall geomteric shadow is cast...quite intriguing and confusing all at once! This ties back in greatly with our research in optical and visual illusions, Mark Raetz’s anamorphic forms (rabbit> man) and shadow art! Every angle produces a COMPLETELY DIFFERENT IMAGE! When trying to capture the PERFECT HERO SHOT of this model, I came to the realisation that NOT ONE STATIC PHOTOGRAPH CAN CAPTURE THE NATURE OF THIS FORM. IT MUST BE EXPERIENCED IN PERSON THROUGH MOVEMENT. The form seemed to CHANGE right before my eyes with just one subtle movement- my perception and knowledge of the form is continiously and gradually changing/ evolving. HEIGHT- a factor we did not consider, yet ones perception based on HEIGHT significantly changes one’s experience of the form. When viewing from below (if the structure was very tall), the form is more transparent/ light as the surface segments are more noticable. Yet when looking down AT IT/ from above, the FORM is more prevalent.. a more SOLID structure where SHADOWS and LIGHT created by the enhanced crevices in the form are beautifully cast.

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mid-semester thoughts on learning Designing with Computers

At this interim stage to date, all the models my team and I have produced have been DESIGNED using the computer. Through reverse engineering of precedents (Banq restaurant, McCormick Tribune Centre, Restaurant Aobi-Tei) I have learnt and applied the technical skills attained with using the computer to produce a visually pleasing design. The model below was CONCEIVED using an anamorphic definition...almost IMPOSSIBLE to achieve with a human mind manually!

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Communicating Visually

A clear and COHESIVE journal showcasing the design process and individual progress has been a primary aim in this subject. I believe my work has been visually communicated in a mature and effective way- layouts not cluttered and information minimal and succinct. I believe my documentation has improved considerably from the first few weeks.


Arguing Persuasively

Persuasively making a point convincing to the reader is quite diffiicult when one is ultimately trying to work out what that argument is along the way! When cementing an argument with my team, I was able to structure my journal in a progressive way.. each week marked a different stage in the design process/ different level of progress. The Expression of Interest I believe is structured well, succinct and convincing in what is wanted from us as designers, what we are aiming for, and what we will achieve at the final stage.

Applying Technical Skills

Before this subject, I had never before used the software or Rhino, or even heard of Grasshopper! I am proud to say that I now have a basic knowledge of parametric modelling, which can only manifest and improve over time. I can create basic Rhino forms referencing components into Grasshopper in conjunction with many associations dependent on my design intent. I am able to look at a proposed structure, analyse HOW it has been constructed and reverse engineer it using parametric tools! From this, to digitally preparing a file for fabrication, to physically gluing the components together to create such a beautiful form as the one below, is a truly rewarding feeling!

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from here> Explore, develop and refine a more complex form which truly encapsulates Wyndham’s multiple identities (City, Coast, Country). Now that anamorphosis has been achieved, any form is possible. Decisions need to be made on whether a LITERAL portayal of an anamorphic form should be created, or a more ABSTRACT, REPRESENTATIONAL form as explored in this model. This abstract approach is more complex and visually intriguing in my opinion. Attributes of city, coast, country, will then need to be represented in other ways- through spacing of elements (a denser form when approaching the city?), through materiality (corrosive metal rusting at a different rate at different perspectives?) through vegetation (a continiuously growing, breathing ‘green tower when approaching the country’?). Also in terms of fabrication techniques, if the tower were to be overtowering, an individual structural column is not appropriate and the large spanning material components would ultimately ‘flap’..a more inconspicious structural support system should be investigated.

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mid-semester feedback and responses “Your project has developed along interesting lines that could potentially produce very unusual outcomes however, all that has eventuated is a extremely generic profile cut blob”

“you NEED to develop the technical skill to do the project justice”

At this interim stage, the model produced was a prototype in experimenting with the grasshopper definition to create ‘anamorphic forms’. As an interim submission, it in no way represents our final form or design, merely a product of the design generation process. It proves our case that we can create an anamorphic form- from one side it displays one image, and gradually changes into a completely different image when moving around the structure. From here, we will endeavour to conceive a form based on our concept, site constraints, and Wyndham’s requirements for a gateway.

As our form is very monumental- an icon, a beacon, an obelisque, the fabrication/ construction of it is very important. I.e. its structural integrity, surface treatments. It appears simple in form, yet the idea and concept behind it is complex. Our focus is on the gradual changes one experiences when moving passed the form. The technical difficulty lies in how to create such a complex form, which performs this change, subtely yet noticeably. We have successfully found a definition using grasshopper, which produces forms we could not have conceived on our own, while still giving us as designers CONTROL over the design. The next stage of technical difficulty lies in how to structurally support a tall monumental form, and choice of fabrication techniques to best compliment the main focus of the design- the anamorphic form.

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“You have mapped out the parameters of the site in terms of view angle and ideal locations, now you need to effectively digitize these and begin experimenting”

“is it understandably anamorphic? Does it engage with site? Does it consider cultural context?”

Although we have considered the site, angle and ideal locations, this will have to be rethought of when finalising the form. Through simple vector diagrams this will be effectively communicated and experimented.

Our interim model showed us that our choice of fabrication directly impacts the overall recognition of form. When stripped back to its bare essentials, (contouring technique with internal column support) the form became lost and the anamorphosis not as clear or understandable as we hoped. We relied on the visual impact of the rhino viewports, yet in real life, one does not view a three-dimensional structure from those direct views and angles- ones sees in perspective. Therefore we must use rhino and grasshopper as a TOOL, yet ackowledge the fact that once produced, those contrasting front and side views will not be as visually striking or recognisable. Our focus should not be on the start image and end image (created through anamorphosis- front and side) however, we must focus on the GRADUAL CHANGES the three dimensional form offers when moving around it in perspective.-A MORE REALISTIC APPROACH. As a monumental structure- a beacon, it is one point in space. It will be placed on the highest point of the site- on the 4 metre high mound, therefore definitely engages with the site- a centre point between the two highways. The cultural context will directly relate to

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considering form Using the Wyndham logo as a starting point.. “CITY COAST COUNTRY”, a continuous concept from the start of the design process 2 waves of Wyndham “Country” “Coast”

“city” represent by a vertical marker-a mast, the complete form representing a yacht

Spacing of elements, certain parts with more of a gap, varying degrees of transparency, focus would be more on the denser/ solid areas

Different methods of fabrication into one structure to emphasise certain elements- curves and the vertical straight line

Waffling through whole structure, material weathering on certain parts for emphasis

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considering site To have one monumental structure at one singular point in space, or multiple, spread out across the large site? Having on monument will be create a greater sense of awe.. all attention on the one form. The experience will begin when viewing from a far, then its passing will be quick.. the whole idea of THRESHOLD as previously explored.

from one perspectiveapproaching the site

from another perspectivepassing the site

considering angle

As it is monumental and needs to be seen from a far for a greater impact, it needs to be tall. However, when passing by, ones view from a car window is limited. An ideal height of 20 metres was calculated based upon the visible angle from a car, from a distance of 35-40 metres.

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generating form In order to successfully embrace anamorphosis, the monumental form must be conceived from two images. Taking the Wyndham logo and slogan ‘City, Coast, Country’, contrasting images were explored.. When one approaches the gateway, a wave will be recognisable, gradually morphing into a skyscraper when one passes by (signalling the threshold created between coast and city/ regional Victoria and the city of Melbourne. The same goes for other explorations, trying to embrace city, coast, country through different conrtasting images. Maybe taking the literal approach is too obvious and simple. Why not use representations to communicate the same idea, yet everyone will take on their own interpretation.

A defined shape, monumental, contained, solid = THE CITY. which then ‘breaks apart’, reveals itself, reaches out, becomes fluid, continous, unsteady = the concealed city relying on COUNTRY AND COAST for resources/ to run smoothly.. a continous cycle, a holistic image incorporating all three identities- city coast and country.

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Maintaining the first image- monumental, solid, contained, how will the second image appear? There are definitely restrictions with this form as it forms a small tip and needs to by structurally supported from all sides- treated as one whole form rather than two separate 2D images. Tapering in and out, fluid, continuous (as shown in the last example) is the most contrasting exploration so far, theoretically, conceptually and visually.

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to city Wyndham

Wyndham

to geelong

Wyndham is theh centre point between Geelong and Melbourne. It is a growing municipality, a growing city. Cities are formed using the resources/ inputs from its surrounds, other cities, the country, the coast.

CITY

City as defined, contained entity

When seen from afar/approaching the site. The Gateway as defined, contained entity

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City as continuous fluid network, formed by resources of the coast and country

When passing by, the Gateway is seen as a continous, fluid, undefined form.


creating the form on rhino and grasshopper A series of curves were manually drawn in Rhino and optmised using the ‘golden rule’. These were then referenced in Grasshopper using the anamorphic definition (see W07)

An unforeseen delight! The definition produced quite beautiful gradual changes when moving around the form/ looking from different vantage points. Although the two contrasting top images were a focus when conceiving the form, in real life the gateway will be seen in perspective, not 2 dimensionally.

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Placement on the site

2 images seen when

Gradual change as one passes.

-approaching the gateway

A series of moments.

-passing the gateway

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to city Wyndham

to geelong

Light changes ones perception of the form. Solidity v. Transparency.

An internal light will illuminate the form and radiate out into the landscape, a single point in space: a beacon.

Wyndham: a growing municipality, a point in space between Geelong and Melboune.

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Focus is no longer on the two flat images (start and end), but rather on the GRADUAL CHANGES created (the journey).

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Intoducing and implementing the structural support system- A series of angled supports at equal distances in between layers, the number on each layer is dependant on the size of platforms, while the angle of supports are dependant on maintaining a fluid continous form.

SIDE

SIDE

FRONT

TOP

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PERSPECTIVE 1

PERSPECTIVE 2

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Moment #1 First glance

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Moment #2 The approach


approaching the gateway Below are four visual snapshots of how one experiences the gateway driving along the freeway, from the car window.

Moment #3 Passing by

Moment #4 Looking back

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recap on requirements 1) Only one element of the design can change as the drivers perspective changes. Anamorphosis in a 3D context relies on the form, therefore only the form can change. 2) The process of change in form, as users drive pass, needs to be distinct to enhance experience. 3) A structural and elevated base situated on the mound will ground the design. 4) Structural system needs to be distributed evenly to make the structure stronger and prevent visual distraction.

...

5) There is a need for a facade to reinforce the form and allow for effective lighting at night.

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http://kkaa.co.jp/works/casalgrande-ceramic-cloud/

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casalgrande ceramic cloud italy

BY KENGO KUMA AND ASSOCIATES

“We took the challenge of involving the ceramic tile as an architectural element itself, avoiding its conventional use as a mere cladding. Just after developing a specific detail of how to panel and connect standard ceramic tiles, we understood the possibilities of how to assembly and organize them creating different structures.” I have looked into this precedent for its MATERIALITY. However it also follows a similar concept to the Wyndham gateway. It is situated along a freeway, when you approach it appears as a thin line (almost invisible) yet as you pass, it reveals its 45 metre length! Its concept is based on time, movement and sequential perception however there is a key difference in comparison to our Wyndham design proposal: Kengo Kuma and Associates have taken the anti-monumental approach, while we have taken the MONUMENTAL approach- a BEACON rather than a wall in the landscape.

“dynamically its light structure’s transparency and the subtle reflection of its fine glazed white ceramic where interacting with the surrounding site and the weather. This other way of dynamism appeared to us as a very unique soft, light and ever-changing phenomena..” TRANSPARENCY, SUBTLE REFLECTION, FINE GLAZED WHITE CERAMIC TILES, SOFT, DYNAMIC, EVER CHANGING, RESPONDS TO LIGHT / DIFFERENT ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS... all qualities we wish our design to showcase.

SO WHY TILES AND NOT ONE CONTINUOUS SURFACE? This is mainly a question of illumination and a play on light. During the day, these smaller tiles/ parts, define the many components of what makes up the city. At night, the spacings between the tiles contain the light, illuminate and define the form, representing the lively activity of the city’s nightlife.

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site plan Showing placement on site and proportionate top view of final gateway design.

construction TOP HATS

UNIVERSAL BEAM REINFORCED CONCRETE DECK

WHITE CERAMIC TILE

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN After deciding that white ceramic tiles will be implemented to treat the surface of the gateway (based on the Casalgrande Ceramic Cloud precedent on the previous page), decisions were made on how to construct this. Reinforced concrete decks at equal distances/ varying sizes and shapes, will be arranged to create the form, held up by reinforced concrete columns. These concrete columns are angled in a way to preserve the fluid/continuous form throughout, even though there are significant gaps. Universal beams are bolted to the concrete decks at equal intervals, top hats added to its angled surface. The white ceramic tiles are then attached to the top hats covering the construction details behind. From afar, one will only see an array of white tiles.

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calculations

Grasshopper was used to calculate the exact number of tiles needed on each layer, dependant on size of tile, distance needed to cover on each deck and spacing between tiles. The total number of tiles, for all decks was then easily calculated. Once having the exact number, it is sensible to always add a few more when fabricating. Pieces, especially when small, can be easily lost, the laser cutter may not cut all the way through the material (which we experienced first hand at a later stage), or more tiles are actually needed when assembling the model in real life. We attempted this calculation manually, and after a long while eventuated with a number completely different than when using the Grasshopper definition. We significantly over estimated. This would have resulted in a large waste of material and a higher cost for unecessary laser cutting.

section perspective

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studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


preparing for fabrication

Doubles were required of the top left layout, as the decision was made to stick two 3mm (thickness of perspex material) together to form a stronger angled support in between decks. We were unsure at this stage, the structural integrity of the form, therefore, doubling the thickness of supports seemed like a wise choice, even though it meant a higher costs in laser cutting and material. The top right layout shows all the supports (representing the universal beams) which the tiles eventually are attached to. Doubling the number needed, allows us to stick two together- doubling the width of support, meaning a larger surface area supported, ensures the tile can be more securely attached. We then optimised the file, joining together the small supports (top right layout) so only one laser cutting line is required to cut two supports- reducing laser cutting time and cost. If more time was available, further optimisation could have been implemented. In addition, one white perspex sheet was used for the tiles- all equally sized squares.

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studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


materials + model process Liquid cement- to adhere plastics White perspex tiles Clear perspex decks/ layers Various sizes of laser cut angled supports (tile supports) Various sizes of angled supports in between decks 1:500 model - white perspex

Note: Unforeseen burning of clear pespex due to a powerful laser cutting machine. Due to time constraints and hundreds of small pieces, it seemed unwise to attempt cleaning. In retrospect, they provide a rustic impression, very much similar to the weathering a structure in external conditions may endure.

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studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


placing, gluing, stacking, repeating

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studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


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studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


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studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


difficulties when assembling We did not encounter significant difficulties or problems while assembling our model. Learning from our previous model making experience, hatch lines as GUIDES were necessary to prevent ‘guesswork’ when placing certain parts. It quickened the assembling process having guidlines signalling the exact position each piece needed to be glued in. We doubled the supports (gluing two exact 3mm supports together to form a 6mm wide support) proved useful, as the structure was secure and structurally sound. However, the higher we stacked, the smaller the structure tapered to a tip, the doubling of supports were negatively affecting the overall structure. They were too heavy, therefore the choice was made to only use 3mm wide supports from a certain point to the tip. The computer nearby with the accompanying rhino file was extremely handy as a visual reference- double checking where certain parts go/ whether the overall form was taking its correct shape. We did not foresee how the supports would affect the placement of the white tiles. We assumed we could easily place them with equal spacings continuously all around each deck, however the supports obstructed the placement of certain tiles. We worked around them, however the resulting uneven gaps affected the overall visual continuity of the tiles. Higher up the structure, the tile supports in theory were meant to become smaller. Yet the glue was not as effective on such a small surface area. Therefore, we made the decision to continue using the full length hooks. The also disrupted the continuous placement of the tles, however necessary.

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studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


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studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


full stop motion available on wiki and accompanying DVD

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studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


model 1:50

not shown to scale


beacon bea-con |ˈbēkən | noun

a fire or light set up in a high or prominent position as a warning, signal, or celebration an intentionally conspicuous device designed to attract attention to a specific location”

How to effectively link the city of Melbourne with regional Victoria, whilst also highlighting Wyndham as a growing and enriching municipality? The Western Gateway design, due to site constraints will only be SEEN. Therefore, there is a need to engage with architecture as a visual culture i.e. as ART/ SYMBOL + an URBAN EXPERIENCE. Art/Symbol: Wyndham’s slogan “City, Coast, Country” insinuates that the municipality cannot be summed up by one image; it’s multiple things at once. Anamorphosis, the process by which an image appears distorted unless viewed from a particular angle, is an effective tool in exploring this. The city may appear as a DEFINED STATIC ENTITY, however when taking a different perspective, it appears as a CHAOTIC CYLCLE- continuously reaching out to the country and coast for resources. Our focus is on the DISTINCT CHANGES between defined entity and chaotic cycle. Urban experience: Bernard Tschumi writes, “There is no architecture without event, no architecture without action, no architecture without movement”. We have established that there is a NEED to create EVENT; our monumental design can only be experienced through a journey when physically moving around the structure. One cannot truly understand our structure through one static image. Threshold is experienced through MOVEMENT- it is not a mere point in space but an EXTENDED EVENT. A vertical marker from afar, the form appears more clear and evident as you pass by. Through an EVOLUTION of FORM,the driver enters a threshold. The beacon - a towering, radiating monument, symbolises this point in space, Wyndham as the point between city and country; a portal; A gateway.


model 1:50

not shown to scale


day

It’s a beautiful day in the outskirts of Melbourne and the clear, blue skies make a perfect backdrop for the Beacon. The clarity of its anamorphic form is at its best, the vivid white of the fine glazed ceramic tiles represent the many components of what makes up the city. They offer elements of softness, lightness and transparency, while creating different effects to varying weather and light conditions. Does one see a fragmented structure, or a complete, grounded form?


dawn The Beacon’s internal light has turned off at sunrise, a sign of a new day. It appears solid, heavy and large against the soft, clear backdrop. It relies on light to regain its transparency, lightness and whiteness. A mysterious form in the distance, emerging out of the landscape, almost haunting.


Without its internal light, the beacon becomes invisible at night. All that one sees when driving passed, is the subtle glisten of a tile here and there, a reflection off the moons soft light. They almost seem like stars, a complete un-obstructed sky.

The Beacon is lit and a brilliant, radiating white light illuminates the skyline. The spacings between the tiles contain the light, illuminate and define the form, representing the lively activity of the city’s nightlife. The light almost consumes the form, the tiles almost invisible in parts portraying smooth, continous surface. The tiles also create shadows, grounding the form, a contrast between solidity and transparency.

night


sunset At sunset, brilliant deep reds, oranges, yellows and pinks contrast against the dark horizon line. The Beacon has just been lit from within. Its bright yellow light illuminates and radiates out, competing with the setting sun. Parts of the structure almost ‘bleed’ into the sky, the form becoming ambiguous and indefinite. While in other parts, the tiles become black, solid and defined, contrasting against the soft sky. Does it appear solid, abrupt and structural, or light, continuous and fluid?


learning objectives and outcomes 1.1 Skills/ Ideas/ Thoughts upon commencement

1.2 Reflection on Progress and Design Process

Coming into this subject, I had very limited computer skills and had never used Rhino or Grasshopper before. I was quite anxious- how would I keep up with new skills, being marked and assessed against others who were much more proficient? I was somewhat excited in learning something new, however basing a whole design studio on newly learnt skills simultaneously did scare me. Coming straight from studying overseas a week into this semester, I was eager to start a design studio again! I was disappointed to find that there had been a massive change to the ADS3 Air curriculum and that we were the first cohort to take on this change. I found it quite hard to settle into this subject and grasp its expectations. Relying on online tutorials, the content was complex, fast paced and personal help was hard to come by. The focus was on grasping Grasshopper skills, yet felt my own skills were not improving. Studio class sizes were so large that I could not gain tutor help for small technical questions. As a new course with big changes, it was handled with well. Looking back on the progress journal, however, has shown me how much knowledge I have gained since commencement. I am more aware of how parametric modelling is conceived, from concept to production, even though at commencement I

This subject has a very different approach to design process than in previous design studios. Instead of starting with the brief, constraints, requirements> site context> idea generation> refinement> production over the duration of 12 weeks, these stages were compressed into a shorter timeframe of 2 weeks. The first part of semester was spent on grasshopper skills, researching precedents on computational design, quizzes and a matrix which, according to my design, was quite irrelevant. I see the logic behind this change- learning the computer skills and then applying. However, the tasks seemed wrongly allocated in accordance with time and marks. I struggled trying to condense a 12 week design process into a short time span- generating the final form in week 10! (see W10 and W11 pages) It has made me realise that in the real world, not all design projects will be a neat, simple 12 week process.. teaching me how to organise my time under pressure, prioritising tasks and adhering to deadlines.

was doubtful.

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studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


1.3 Final Product

1.4 In Future >

There was a large focus placed on the model- the final product. Previously, it has been all about progress/ the concept/ the idea continuously forming and evolving. Our concept is very strong, yet every time we were excited by an idea and improvement, it seemed we were always sent back to the drawing board. We always sought for something better, taking on all advice given to us (see W10 pages). It was a little unfortunate, due to limited time, that our model did not seem extravagantly fabricated or executed. Our concept proved strong and hopefully not all focus will be placed on the model. I am extremely proud of the photos produced. With time and attention paid to detail, lighting conditions and positioning, produced extremely realistic representations.

In future, I am excited to put these new computational skills to good use- producing complex designs, digitally fabricated and assembled in a systematic and refined manner. I will still only using computers as a tool, making sure it does not dictate my concept and design, but rather enhance it. This was my first attempt at using this software and the laser cutter to produce refined, exhibition quality models. Although out final product was not as refined as we would of liked, I am proud of our creation! It effectively communicates our concept. (It was rewarding to stick with our concept all semester long, although we were told otherwise). Now that I know all the positive and negative factors of the ‘from rhino to fablab’ process, in future I will allocate more time to optimising the file for fabrication (to improve cost, time and assemblage) and sending the file well before the due date! This ensures plenty of time to build the model and deal with any issues and problems that may arise. Knowing the real- life construction of the design (structural details/ materials etc) is crucial when fabricating the modelas it must not only self support itself, but communicate materiality as in real life. (see W11-W12 pages) For example, transparent Perspex in a model should not be used to represent concrete! All in all, the skills learnt, adapting to a new design process, the well executed presentation panels, model and beautiful atmospheric photos, make a memorable architectural studio that will positively influence my future endeavours in architectural design.

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studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


studio air 2012 350105 Katherine Petros


references ‘Anamorphosis’ (definition) http://www.anamorphosis.com/ ‘Banq Restaurant’, University of Melbourne Studio Air LMS, http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-3493375-dt-content-rid-10433692_2/courses/ABPL30048_2012_SM1/Case%20Studies/BANQ%20Restaurant%20-%20Office%20DA%20%28Miscellaneous%20Images%29.pdf Bjarke Ingels Group, www.big.dk/ Denton Corker Marshall architecture and urban design. http://www.dentoncorkermarshall.com/projects.aspx?p=0&projectID=932&catID=2&f1=location&f2=asia&pg=1 Design Magazine for Middle East and North Africa, DesMena, (2008) Dubai Gateway by Coop Himmelb, http://desmena.com/?p=877 DeZeen Magazine ‘Eiffel DNA by Serrero Architects’ (2008) http://www.dezeen.com/2008/03/25/eiffel-dna-by-serero-architects/ DeZeen Magazine ‘Element – Cecil Balmond at Tokyo Opera City Art Gallery’ (2010) http://www.dezeen.com/2010/02/23/element-cecil-balmond-at-tokyo-opera-city-art-gallery/ Jonathan Hale, The Old Way of Seeing: How Architecture Lost Its Magic - And How to Get It Back., (1994) Kalay, Architecture as New Media (2004) ‘McCormick Tribune Campus Center’, University of Melbourne Studio Air LMS, http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-3493375-dt-content-rid-10433905_2/courses/ABPL30048_2012_ SM1/Case%20Studies/OMA%20-%20McCormick%20Tribune%20Campus%20Center%20%28Miscellaneous%20Images%29.pdf Mandelbrot, Broit, (1983) The Fractal Geometry of Nature, W. H. Freeman Markus Raetz’ (2008) http://www.crownpoint.com/artists/186/about-artist Mighty Optical Illusions ‘Eureka Tower Carpark 3D Chalk Drawings’ (2008) http://www.moillusions.com/2008/08/eureka-tower-carpark-3d-chalk-drawings.html Street Art Utopia, http://www.streetartutopia.com/ ‘Tel Aviv Museum’, http://www.tamuseum.com/ Thompson, Darcy Wentworth, (1992) On Growth and Form, Cambridge University Press Urban Design Group, ‘Kings Cross Station - Europe’s largest unsupported canopy – takes shape’ (2011), http://www.udg.org.uk/udupdate/news/kings-cross-station-europes-largest-unsupportedcanopy-takes-shape ‘Vertigata’, (2011) http://www.archdaily.com/142930/vertigata-vox/ Wyndham City Council, www.wyndham.vic.gov.au/


Katherine Petros 350105 Final Journal