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Challenge and Enquiry Pack

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


This Challenge & Enquiry Pack was developed as part of the project “Global Literacy for a Fairer World!�, funded by the European Union. The project was led in England by CDEC, and included partners IGO (Poland), SEVER (Czech Republic), and ICED (Ghana). We would like to acknowledge the hard work and contributions made by teachers in England, Poland, Czech Republic and Ghana who helped develop and trial some of these activities and lesson plans. The contents of this pack are the property of the project team. Enquiries can be directed to CDEC, Low Nook, Rydal Road, Ambleside, UK, or office@cdec.org.uk

This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the project partners, led by CDEC, and can under no way circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


How to use this pack

This Challenge & Enquiry Pack is easy and accessible to use. Each chapter is colour coded and each lesson plan follows the same format. There is an introductory chapter which has 10 generic global activities based on 3 broad themes; global thinking, critical thinking and how to take action. We suggest that you do these activities first but it is not essential. There are then 3 chapters, each containing 10 lessons each, based on sessions that are approximately 50 - 60 minutes long. Most lessons are stand alone lessons, but where they are a continuation from a previous lesson, this is noted in the introductory activities. We hope this resource provides you with a years worth of work to think about the global issues presented and for your pupils to become engaged in a life times worth of global active citizenship. Introductory Activities have a red background Part 1 – Food & Trade activities have a green background Part 2 – Poverty & Interdependence activities have a blue background Part 3 – Education & Development activities have an orange background Lesson title

Main curriculum links

Global theme lesson objective Concepts explored in this lesson

Literacy lesson objective Introduction to the lesson (warm up / starter activity)

A chance to focus on the ‘big ideas’ or concepts explored in the lesson

The main activity (individual, group or whole class work) This may include a suggested point for starting an additional P4C session

Plenary to the lesson

Photos showing pupils at work, examples of work or displays

An example of extension activities that you might like to use

A list of all of the stimuli, resources and accompanying worksheets needed All worksheets are supplied and follow the lesson plan

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A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Contents

Page

Preface Introduction About the partners Pupil Audit Why these materials are needed Concepts Explored Social & Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) Literacy Links Philosophy for Children

Introductory Activities Global Thinking Quick on the Draw Stories Behind the Statistics String Connections Critical Thinking Fact or Opinion—Which is Which? Fact or Opinion—How do we Know? How to Take Action Pupils Take Action: Global Citizens We Can All Make a Difference Pupils Take Action: spheres of influence People and Power Myths about making the world a better place Rights & Responsibilities

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Contents

Page

Part 1 – Food & Trade

Messy maps Pods, Planning & Production Sharing the Chocolate The Fairest Teacher Fairtrade Means something to me Fairtrade Alphabet Cocoa Clues Mystery Alien Headlines 1 Alien headlines 2 10 Myths about Hunger

Part 2 – Poverty & Interdependence Mary and John - Sustainability Mary and John - Emotions & Empathy Mary and John - People & Environment Mary and John - A Happy Ending? Ghana Fact files Sorting Out Ghana What would I see? Money Talks What is poverty? Definitions What is poverty? Life Stories

Part 3 – Education & Development My school in a box 1 My school in a box 2 My school in a box 3 Ghanaian School in a Box A Day In the Life Super School I Want to Be Daniel’s Classical School 1 Daniel’s Classical School 2 Daniel’s Classical School 3

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Introduction

Global Literacy for a Fairer World! is a project for teachers and children who want to learn more about global issues, to tackle poverty, and to work together to take action to make the world a fairer place. There are schools from the UK, Poland, Czech Republic and Ghana working on this project and sharing ideas. In this project the partner organisations are working together to support teachers to incorporate development issues about food, trade and the causes of poverty into their lessons, so that:  pupils understand interdependence between Europe and the global South and make progress in taking meaningful action to support global justice,  their teachers are better equipped to challenge myths about development, food security, trade, environment and poverty issues through their teaching.

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Global Literacy Partners

Cumbria Development Education Centre (CDEC) is the leading provider of global education services in Cumbria, and is a member of the Consortium of Development Education Centres, one of a network of around 30 Development Education Centres across England. CDEC is concerned with good teaching and learning, emphasising a values-based approach and supporting thinking skills, enquiry and reflection. We feel it is important for young people to understand the links between their own lives and those of people throughout the world, to recognise ways in which we are dependent on each other, to think about reasons for inequalities in the world and to find ways to act responsibly in their everyday lives. Alongside a number of national and global funded projects we offer professional support and training to schools, outdoor providers and other education settings through; outdoor learning, forest schools skills, philosophical enquiry and school linking. www.cdec.org.uk Centre for Environmental Education and Ethics (SEVER), Rýchory, is a non-profit NGO based in Czech Republic operating mainly in the field of environmental education. Since 1994 SEVER has implemented many projects dealing with sustainability, global and environmental education on local, national, and together with other partners, on a European level too. SEVER provides educational programmes for pupils and students from primary and secondary schools and runs teacher training courses as well as national school projects such as “School for Sustainable Living”. SEVER is an active member of the network of environmental education centres, connecting more than 30 organizations across Czech Republic. Through practical environmental education we seek to deepen responsible behaviour towards nature and the planet and the people themselves. http://sever.ekologickavychova.cz/ The International Centre for Enterprise and Sustainable Development (ICED) is a non-governmental organisation established under the laws of Ghana in 1993 for the purpose of facilitating the development and promotion of small and medium scale enterprises, sustainable trade, gender empowerment, environmental management, capacity building and sustainable development in Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa. ICED implements projects and activities in agriculture, education, environment, and health using the concept of sustainable development. ICED undertakes action research, implements projects and provides extension services in the mentioned thematic areas. It adopts pragmatic, holistic and multi-disciplinary approaches that facilitate active participation by all stakeholders on the basis of gender equality. Building human and institutional capacity to improve the quality of life in SSA is a key objective of ICED. http://icedghana.com/ Institute of Global Responsibility (IGO) is a non-governmental organization established in 2006 and based in Warsaw, Poland. IGO is concerned with both supporting initiatives and advocacy which address causes of injustice in the world and with providing quality development education. We believe that in education it is important to show alternative perspectives and solutions to global challenges and encourage critical thinking in young people and adults so that they feel they can make a difference. We also seek to present global issues in a way which enables pupils and young people to relate them to their personal experiences and thus develop empathy and solidarity with their peers in the world. We offer educational resources and workshops for teachers and awareness raising and advocacy campaigns for your people and adults. http://igo.org.pl/ A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Pupil Audit To begin the Global Literacy project, we wanted to know what children know - or think they know - about the themes of poverty, hunger, and interdependence. We developed a series of active and participatory audit activities, which were designed to explore children’s understanding and perceptions. These activities included: Activity 1 - What do you know about Africa? Activity 2 - Where is this? Exploring national stereotypes. Activity 3 - Why is there hunger in the world? Activity 4 - What is poverty? Activity 5: How can we make a difference to poverty in the world?

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The audits were carried out in three European countries (the UK, Poland and the Czech Republic) and one African country (Ghana), between 2011 and 2012. In total 862 pupils aged from 9 to 15, coming from private and public primary and secondary schools, took part in it. This is a very large amount of data to help us understand what children know - or think they know - about poverty, hunger, and how to make a difference. We have analysed this data in order to help us design the contents of this Challenge & Enquiry Pack, so that this project will ensure that  teachers are better equipped to challenge myths about development, food security, trade, environment and poverty issues through their teaching, and  pupils understand interdependence between Europe and the global South and make progress in taking meaningful action to support global justice If you want to run the Pupil Audit with your class, you can download the Pupil Audit Handbook free from the Global Literacy website. And you can read the Pupil Audit report yourself too, and find out what other children thought: http://global-literacy.yolasite.com/pupil-audit.php

Why these materials are needed

It is crucial to engage young people in learning about development, specifically around the Millennium Development Goals, because they have the potential to make a big difference - they are ready to use their time and energy to educate their friends, families, and members of the wider community. In the UK, for example, 93% of young people said it is important to learn about issues affecting people’s lives in different parts of the world (Ipsos-MORI geographical Association Survey, 2009). Our children are growing up in an increasingly complex and global world, in which their lives are connected to people and places at the click of a button, or by the purchase of a chocolate bar! The skills and understanding needed to be a ‘global citizen’ are crucial for children as never before. Almost 9 in 10 of the British public agree that “global learning in school is crucial if issues [such as climate change or international poverty] are to be tackled in the future” But engaging young children in learning about these challenging and complex issues can be difficult and daunting. These Ghanaia materials provide an opportunity for empowering pupils with some of n child ren hap py at school the skills and opportunities they need to become active towards making ! the world fairer. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


wants

change

poverty

trade

influence

preconceptions diversity

sustainability

responsibility

stereotypes

power interdependence

similarities & differences

needs

rights

values

development perceptions

equality

fairness

Concepts Explored

This Challenge & Enquiry Pack explores many concepts, encouraging deeper, more meaningful thinking around the issues that are presented through the themes of Food & Trade, Poverty & Interdependence, and Education & Development. Pupils are encouraged to ‘unpack’ these concepts, explore their meaning and think about their own interpretation of them. Many concepts are explored through the use of Philosophy for Children stimuli or ‘concept explorers’ or ‘concept stretchers’. For example, many lessons use ‘concept lines’ and ’sorting hoops’ in which pupils can engage critically with word meanings, definitions and begin thinking on a deeper level.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning The activities in this Challenge and Enquiry Pack have clear links to the 5 broad social and emotional aspects of learning. As many lessons offer the opportunity to hold a P4C Enquiry, the lessons naturally build a sense of community, offer some form of stimulus and will encourage questioning from children. Clearly, any lesson based on a P4C methodology provides a sound basis for work involving the social and emotional aspects of learning. Children become very self aware, learn to recognise feelings of their own and of others, and develop empathy and social skills during an enquiry. As the methodology is collaborative and child centred they are also motivated about their own learning. Self awareness

Managing feelings

Motivation

Empathy

Social skills

children have some understanding of themselves children take responsibility for their own actions children know that feelings, thoughts and behaviours are linked children accept themselves for what and who they are children manage how they express their feelings children can manage the way they are feeling children can reflect and review on experiences to change the way they feel children can adapt the way they express feelings to suit particular situations children can set goals and plan to meet them children can consider the consequences for others children can put long term plans into achievable steps children can evaluate their own learning and use this to improve in the future children can understand the feelings of others children understand other peoples points of view children value and respect the thoughts, feelings, values and beliefs of others children can offer support to others children know that they belong to a community and are valued children can cooperate and achieve a shared outcome children can make wise choices children can solve problems in a logical manner

Information taken from Key document: Excellence and Enjoyment: Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL), 05-2005, DfESW 1378-2005 G

The following tables show which specific SEAL skills are used within each lesson. Introductory Activities Lesson

Self awareness

Managing feelings

Motivation

Empathy

Social skills

Global Thinking Quick on the draw Stories behind the statistics String Connections Critical Thinking Perspectives on the news Fact or opinion: how do we know?1 Fact or opinion: how do we know?2 How to take action Pupils take action: global citizens We Can All Make a Difference

Pupils take action: spheres of influence People and Power Making the world a better place Rights & Responsibilities

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning Part 1: Food & Trade Lesson

Self awareness

Managing feelings

Motivation

Empathy

Social skills

Self awareness

Managing feelings

Motivation

Empathy

Social skills

Self awareness

Managing feelings

Motivation

Empathy

Social skills

Messy Maps Pods, People & Production Sharing the Chocolate The Fairest Teacher Fairtrade Means something to me Fairtrade Alphabet Cocoa Clues Mystery Alien Headlines 1 Alien Headlines 2 10 Myths about Hunger Part 2: Poverty & Interdependence Lesson

Mary & John - Sustainability Mary & John - Emotions & Empathy Mary & John - People & Environment Mary & John - A Happy Ending? Ghana Fact files Sorting out Ghana What Would I see? Money Talks What Is Poverty? Definitions What Is Poverty? Life Stories

Part 3: Education & Development Lesson

My School In a Box 1 My School In a Box 2 My School In a Box 3 Ghanaian School In a Box A Day in the Life Super School I Want to Be Daniels Classical School 1 Daniels Classical School 2 Daniels Classical School 3

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Literacy Links

All lessons have links to developing and using literacy skills, from reading for information to writing reports and creating diary entries. Lessons offer clear opportunities for using speaking and listening as they encourage collaborative learning through paired and group work. There are also ample opportunities to use activities as a stimulus for P4C sessions. Introductory Activities Lesson

Fiction

Global Thinking Quick on the draw

Non-fiction

Drama Role Play

Read & scan information

Stories behind the statistics Write an overview

P4C

Team work Act in role

String Connections

Speaking & Listening

Role play

Interview Q&A Full class work

Stimulus

Critical Thinking Fact or opinion: which is which?

Distinguish fact from opinion

Fact or opinion: how do we know?

Read news articles

Present findings

Following instructions

Small group discussion Team work Critical skills

Evaluate ideas

Group work

Drama

Team work Reasoning

Stimulus

Speaking & Listening

P4C

How to take action Pupils take action: global citizens

Poster Illustrations

We Can All Make a Difference Pupils take action: spheres of influ-

ence People and Power

Making the World a Better Place Rights & Responsibilities

Create a list

Part 1: Food & Trade Lesson

Fiction

Messy Maps

Write a narrative

The Fairest Teacher Fairtrade Means something to me Fairtrade Alphabet Cocoa Clues Mystery Alien Headlines 1 Alien Headlines 2 10 Myths about Hunger

Drama

Read for information Sequence events

Pods, People & Production Sharing the Chocolate

Non-fiction

Poetry Read fictional information

Stimulus Role play

Writing word definitions Summarise key info Create a word bank Write summary Collect information Write journalistic article

Dialogue story

Listen & reflect Listen & reflect

Stimulus Stimulus Stimulus

Critical skills carousel Stimulus Stimulus

Presenting Reasoning

Stimulus

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Literacy Links Part 2: Poverty & Interdependence Lesson

Fiction

Non-fiction

Drama

Mary & John - Sustainability Mary & John - Emotions & Empathy Mary & John - People & Environment

Illustrations

Mary & John - A Happy Ending?

Alternative story ending

Write captions

Money Talks What Would I see?

P4C Stimulus

Role play Construct an argument

Ghana fact files Sorting out Ghana

Speaking & Listening Listen and reflect

Read & listen for inform’n Research project Write a report

Concept line discussion

Stimulus

Illustrations

What Is Poverty? Definitions

Word definitions Reading real life stories

What Is Poverty? Life Stories

Stimulus Freeze frames

Part 3: Education & Development Lesson

Fiction

My School In a Box 1 My School In a Box 2

Non-fiction

Drama

Formulate questions Gather data Construct an argument

Ghanaian School In a Box

Write a letter Write a diary or narrative

Super School I Want to Be Daniels Classical School 1

Reading chronological reports Write a chronological report Write a report

Stimulus

Stimulus

Answering questions

Daniels Classical School 2 Daniels Classical School 3

P4C

Creating lists

My School In a Box 3

A Day in the Life

Speaking & Listening

Freeze frames Write a diary

Listening for information Listening for information

Stimulus

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Philosophy for Children (P4C) “Philosophy can be used to improve teaching and learning, for the lasting benefit of individuals and communities “ SAPERE (Society for Advancing Philosophical Enquiry and Reflection in Education) Philosophy for Children is a way of learning and teaching, where children become more thoughtful and reflective and go beyond information to seek understanding. Children learn how to participate in meaningful discussions, where their ideas and those of others are valued and listened to. Children ask and discuss philosophical questions in a structured context. What follows is a brief outline of a basic P4C session.

Community building activity (5- 15mins)

Sessions start with a community building activity.

Stimulus (15- 30 mins)

P4C in

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This can be a story, case study, photograph, artefact or anything else that will engage the children in philosophical questioning.

Thinking as individuals, discussion in pairs (5 mins)

The pupils are asked to take 30 seconds to think individually about what the stimulus made them think and feel – which might lead them to think of a question they would like to ask. You might ask them to close their eyes. They should then turn to the person next to them and swap their initial thoughts – for about 2 - 3 minutes. This should be a noisy time! It is important to give pupils time to think as individuals, before they hear from others. Speaking in pairs gives even the quietest pupil the chance to express their thoughts.

Question setting in groups (5 mins)

Pupils are then asked to form groups (say of 4). The teacher should ensure that there is a competent writer in each group. In their groups, they discuss and agree on a question arising from the stimulus that the whole group (class) might discuss together. It is to be a philosophical question – one that is interesting and will lead to deep thinking (and perhaps other questions). Over time (and with additional activities) pupils learn what is a philosophical question (as opposed to a closed question or one that requires factual research).

Voting for one question (5 mins)

Each group is asked to read out their question and to clarify it where needed. Pupils (as individuals) now have to vote for one question. Some dialogue can take place – pupils can be asked to volunteer reasons for their choices – differing views (with reasons) can be sought. Sometimes similar questions can be merged (with agreement). If there is a tie (or almost a tie), pupils can “sell” their favoured question and see if others will vote for it. One question is chosen. There are lots of ways of voting.

Dialogue (30 mins)

Everyone sits in a circle. To start the dialogue, the chosen question is read out and the group that wrote it is asked to provide some of the thinking behind it. Then the job of the facilitator is to encourage all the pupils to contribute thoughts (voluntarily) and seek other ways of looking at the issues, probing for reasons and seeking meaning. Thinking can be stimulated by the development of ‘effective questions’. Some of these are provided at the end of this section. Sometimes an interim summary of the dialogue will be useful (and, of course, a summary is useful at the end, with a reflection on how far the question has been answered). A facilitator will try to anticipate where the stimulus might lead, but is also flexible as it might lead into unanticipated areas.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Philosophy for Children (P4C) Reflection/debrief (5 mins)

There are many debrief techniques. For example, each pupil is encouraged to give a few words about their impressions of the dialogue – for example something that surprised them, or they learned, or if they changed their mind about something during the session. If struggling, they can say “Pass”. The pupils and facilitator might discuss concepts that need further exploration, perhaps during the following session. Any concepts, ideas or questions should be ‘stored’ for follow-up work by writing them down and putting them on the wall as part of a display. This will help keep the questions fresh in the mind and will allow other thoughts and ideas to flow and be discussed outside of the philosophy session.

P4C- Questions to aid facilitation Clarifying What reasons do you have for saying that? What do you mean by that? Can you explain more about that? Have you an example of that? What makes you so sure of that? Probing The Superficial Why do you think that? What is the cause of that? What makes you say that? Why...Why...Why...?

Exploring Alternative Views Is there another point of view? Can you put it another way? Are you and s/he contradicting each other? What is the difference between your view and ...?

Seeking Evidence How do you know that? What makes you say that? What is your evidence? What are your reasons? What makes you so sure?

Evaluating Who can summarise the main points for us? Can anyone say where our thinking has taken us? What new ideas have developed? If...why...?

Scaffolding What do you think about...? What is the reason for...? If .... then what do you think about..? You said... but what about...?

Testing Implications Is that consistent with...? What would be the consequences of...? How would we know if that is true? How can we test that in practice?

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A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC

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Introductory Activities Global Thinking Quick on the Draw Stories Behind the Statistics String Connections Critical Thinking Fact or Opinion - Which is which? Fact or Opinion - How do we know? How to Take Action Pupils Take Action: Global Citizens We Can All Make a Difference Pupils Take Action: spheres of influence People and Power Myths about making the world a better place Rights & Responsibilities

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Quick On The Draw

Curriculum Links

To gain a deeper understanding of global issues. To consider the inequalities between the global north and south. To be able to scan a document for key information.

equality

Geography Literacy P4C

needs & wants

Intro

Split the class into groups of around 5/6 and explain they are going to have a competition in which they will need to scan some key information for the answers and try to be the first to report the answers back to the teacher. Hand out the fact sheet ‘An Unequal World’ and give the groups 5 minutes to read through the information.

Big Ideas

Ask the groups, what do you feel about these statistics? How do they affect you? Which fact stands out most to you and why? When do you hear about any of these facts? (as they are happening EVERY single day).

Activity The teacher remains at the front of the class with a pile of questions for each group. One member of each group then comes to the teacher for the first question and goes back to their own group to try and find out the answer as quickly as possible. Once they have the answer they write it on the slip of paper and take it back to the teacher. If the answer is correct the teacher then hands them the second question, if incorrect they must return to their group to find out the correct answer. This strategy is repeated until each group has received all 10 questions. Place an emphasis on it being a competition so the pupils are scanning the fact sheet and taking in the information quickly. Reward the winning group with a prize!

Plenary Take away the fact sheets and ask some of the questions again to see if anyone can remember the answers. Once again reflect on some of the statistics by asking groups to think about what concepts it makes them think about. This part could

then be used as a stimulus for a P4C enquiry.

Did you know? ... There are 2.2 billion children in the world ... 1 billion of them are living in poverty ...

Quick on the

draw

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

‘An Unequal world’ fact sheet (1 between 2/3). Questions on separate slips of paper (questions should be in order from 1-10 with one set of questions per group). A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


An Unequal World... Facts about Hunger...  870 million people in the world do not have enough to eat.  The vast majority of hungry people (98%) live in developing countries (the Global South), where almost 15% of the population is undernourished.  Women make up a little over half of the world's population, but they account for over 60% of the world’s hungry.  Under-nutrition contributes to 2.6 million deaths of children under five each year - one third of the global total.  One out of six children -roughly 100 million – in developing countries is underweight.  66 million primary school-age children attend classes hungry across the developing world, with 23 million in Africa alone.

Facts about Water...  884 million people in the world lack access to safe water supplies.  3.5 million people die each year from waterrelated disease.  Almost 2 out of 3 people who need safe drinking water survive on less than $2 a day.  In many developing countries, women and girls walk on average over.  3.5 miles each day to fetch water  Every 20 seconds, a child dies from a water-related disease.

The ‘Global South’ has:  80% of the world’s people, and 18% of the world’s GNP.  36% of the world export earnings.  38% of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions.  65% of the world’s refugees.  95% of the world’s wars.  95% of people living with HIV/AIDS.

Facts about education...  Based on enrolment data, about 72 million children of primary school age in the developing world were not in school in 2005; 57 per cent of them were girls.  The Global South has only 15% of the world’s education spending.  Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names.  In North America and Western Europe, children can expect to spend an average of 16 years in school. In Sub-Saharan Africa, this is less than 9 years.  Two out of three children in Africa are left out of secondary school.

  

Facts About poverty... Almost half the world - over three billion people - live on less than $2.50 a day. At least 80% of humanity lives on less than $10 a day. The poorest 40 percent of the world’s population accounts for 5 percent of global income. The richest 20 percent accounts for three-quarters of world income. There are 2.2 billion children in the world, 1 billion of them are living in poverty.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Quick On The Draw - Questions Q1. How many people do not have enough food to eat? Q2. What does ‘the Global South’ mean? Q3. How many people do not have a safe water supply? Q4. How many children in Africa go to secondary school? Q5. How many children live in the world? Q6. How many children are living in poverty? Q7. How far might a women or girl walk to get water each day? Q8. How many children die every minute of a water-related disease? How many per hour? Q9. What percentage of people live on OVER $10 a day? Q10. How many people live in the ‘Global North’? What are their carbon emissions? A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Quick On The Draw - Questions & Answers Q1. How many people do not have enough food to eat? 870 million Q2. What does ‘the Global South’ mean? Developing countries Q3. How many people do not have a safe water supply? 884 million Q4. How many children in Africa go to secondary school? 1 out of 3 Q5. How many children live in the world? 2.2 billion Q6. How many children are living in poverty? 1 billion Q7. How far might a women or girl walk to get water each day? 3.5 miles Q8. How many children die every minute of a water-related disease? 3 per minute How many per hour? 180 per hour Q9. What percentage of people live on OVER $10 a day? 20% Q10. How many people live in the ‘Global North’? 20% What are their carbon emissions? 62% r ... e Remembe e pupils th h t w o h s t Do no eck each h c t s u J ! s answer e slip of h t g in r b y the answer as passing e r o f e b u o paper to y . t question x e n e h t them

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Stories Behind the Statistics To understand more about other children’s lives from around the world. To be able to relate real life situations with global statistics. To act in role as another character, showing empathy and understanding for their situation. To interview other pupils and listen to their answers.

Curriculum Links

Geography Literacy Citizenship P4C

similarities & differences Intro

In a circle, play the ‘change places’ game, focussing on personal and family information. Change places if ... ... You have an older brother ... You have a sister ... You live in a house ... You go to swimming lessons ... You have a pet dog ... You like doing maths ... Your mum has a job ... You do the washing up ETC

Big Ideas

Remain in a circle. Explain now we have thought about our own home lives and personal situations we are going to look at other children and their home lives and situations. Hand out each pupil a ‘character identity card’ and ask them to read the information quietly and independently. Ask pupils to turn to a partner and tell their partner about their new ‘identity’ in 2 sentences. What are some of the things your character profile is making you think about? Are there any big ideas? Create a list on the board.

Activity At tables, hand out the ‘identity sheet’ and ask pupils to complete this, filling in the information using their new identity. Then perform an ‘inward/outward interview game’, in which half the pupils sit in a circle facing outwards (the inner circle) and then the other half sit in an outer circle facing inwards (the outer circle). The pupils on the inner circle remain ‘in character’ and the pupils in the outer circle are themselves and are interviewing the pupil sitting opposite. The interviewer may only ask 3 questions to find out more about the other characters. After 3 questions, the teacher shouts ‘change’ and the outer circle move in a clockwise direction to interview the next character. Repeat and then swap the inner and outer circle so everyone has a turn of being in character and being an interviewer.

Plenary Then play ‘stepping out’. The pupils stand in a long line and must use their character information and answer in role (if they don’t know the answer then they can make it up). If they agree with a statement they should take a step forward. Statements to read aloud ... I am a girl ... I am a boy ... I am 10 years old ... I live in a country in Africa ... I can play with my brother & sister ... I can go to school ... I live in a town/city ... I sleep in a bed ... I live in a house made of brick or stone ... I can play PC games at home ... I have my own room ... I help my parents with their work ... I have free time ... I wear shoes ... I can buy what I want ... I can watch TV at home Reflect on the ‘stepping out’ game as you go along, taking time to consider how the pupils feel, look at where they are standing in relation to others. Were there any similarities between their own and the characters lives?

Extension ideas Thinking about the statistics used in the ‘Quick On the Draw’ lesson, can we link any of the characters lives to the statistics? You could look at the ‘Unequal world’ sheet and link them directly.

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

‘Character profile’- 1 per pupil, ‘Identity’ sheet—1 per pupil. ‘Unequal World’ Fact sheet A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Stories behind Statistics—Character Profile Omar is eight. He lives with his family near the town of Cancún in southeastern Mexico. Omar´s father works in the tourist industry, he drives tourists to their hotels. His mother is at home. She bakes and sells cakes. Omar has got one brother called Octavio, he is 14. Omar often helps at home, he goes shopping and helps father with building their house. The house has got one big room with areas for cooking, eating and sleeping. Omar has got a pet – a turtle. He plays with her in the garden. And he often goes to the beach and dives in the sea. Omar goes to school. His favourite subject is Maths and his favourite sport is football. But some children in Cancún don´t go to school and have to work in streets. When Omar grows up, he wants to help them.

Celina is nine years old. She lives in the rainforests in Brazil. She is an Indian, her father is a chief of the Indian tribe Tembé. Celina´s parents grow plants for living. Celina has got four sisters and one brother. They live in a house made of mud and wood. There´s no electricity in the house. The house has got two rooms, Celina sleeps in one of them together with her sisters. They don´t have any beds, they sleep in hammocks. Every day Celina goes to the village well to bring water. She doesn´t go to school because there´s no teacher in the village. She likes bathing in the river. She is not afraid of alligators and snakes in the river! Bakang is eight years old. She lives in the village of Tshabong in Botswana in the south of Africa. The village is in the desert. Bakang´s father is a shepherd. Her mother keeps the fire and goes for water. Bakang helps her. Bakang has two sisters. Her family lives in a house made of clay with a thatched roof. There´s no electricity in the house. Bakang likes going to school because all her friends are there. She walks about 2 kms to school. Bakang wants to be a nurse. When she grows up, she wants to live in a big house with water and electricity. Daisuke is ten years old. He lives in the town of Ogawa in Japan. His parents are farmers. They grow vegetables and rice. They also breed animals. Daisuke has got one brother and one sister. He´s got three dogs. His family lives in a typical Japenese house made of wood. There are two bedrooms, a living room and a kitchen in the house. Daisuke goes to school six days a week. He likes Biology and he doesn´t like Maths. In his free time he rides a bike and plays computer games. He often goes shopping to Tokyo, the capital city of Japan. When he grows up, he wants to be a scientist and study fosils of dinosaurs.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Stories behind Statistics—Character Profile Oscar is eleven. He lives in a village in the Andes mountains in Bolivia. He is a Red Indian. His mother is a farmer. He and his brother and sister help her on the farm, because their father died. They live in a small house. They haven´t got TV but they listen to radio. Oscar loves football. When he grows up, he wants to be a footballer. He goes to school on his bike. He doesn´t like school because it´s very difficult, especially Maths, but he likes his teacher. Esta is twelve years old. She lives in the tribe of Maasai in Tanzania, eastern Africa. Origially they were Nomads – people who travel from place to place. Today Esta´s family lives in huts made of wood and dried grass. Esta´s father has got two wives. Esta has got two brothers, one sister and a few step-brothers and step-sisters. Esta´s family has got ten cows, some goats, donkeys and sheep. Her father looks after the animals. Her mother keeps the fire and brings water. Esta goes with her every day. She doesn´t like it, it´s about 6 kms away. She also walks to school. She makes her own toys from clay or grass. When she grows up, she wants to be a teacher. Mina is nine years old and she lives in New Delhi, the capital of India. She was born in a village but her family (mother, father, two younger brothers and a sister) had to move from the village because there was no work. They live and work on a building site in the city. Her father is a bricklayer and her mother helps to build houses as well. Mina´s house is made of brick, with a tin roof. They have no electricity, no water and no toilet in the house. There is a school on the building site. Mina learns Hindu and Maths. After school she helps her Mum on the site. She hates it because there are no trees and there is a lot of dust everywhere. When she grows up, she wants to move back to her village.

Muhammad is ten years old. He lives in Cairo, the capital of Egypt. His father works in an office and his mother is at home with the children. Muhammad has got a brother and a sister. He goes to school and his favourite subjects are PE and Maths. He likes football very much. Cairo is a very dirty city with a lot of traffic, so he doesn´t often go out. He stays at home, watches football on TV or plays PC games. When he grows up, he wants to be a policeman and protect his country. He also wants to travel around the world.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Stories behind Statistics—Character Profile Sabah is ten. She comes from Jordan. There are 28 people in Sabah´s family – her father, his two wives, her grandma and 23 brothers and sisters. There are so many children in the family that sometimes they don´t have enough food for everybody. They live in a desert. They all are nomads. That means they often move to different part of the country. They search for pastures for their animals. In winter they live in two houses made of stone – one is for women and the other one for men. In summers they live in a big tent made of goatskin. In winter Sabah goes to school. They start school at seven and finish at 12 o´clock. When Sabah grows up, she wants to be a teacher.

Sucart is 12. His mother died and his father and two sisters live in a different place. His father is a farmer. He grows pineapples. Sucart lives in a temple, Wat Tanot, in Thailand. He wants to be a monk when he grows up. He lives in a small hut made of bamboo and palm leaves. He has got many books there and a lamp so he can read when it´s dark. He gets up at 5 in the morning. He has breakfast at 7 and lunch at 11. He can´t eat after 12 o´clock. He goes to school but he learns only languages there. He doesn´t mind that because he likes languages and reading. He can watch TV in the temple but he doesn´t often do it. He likes reading. Rosita is 10 years old. She lives in Western Australia. Her family belongs to Australian Aborigines – the people who have lived in Australia for more than 40000 years. She lives with her mother, grandma and little brother, but there are many cousins in their house, too. They haven´t got a kitchen. They cook their meals on the fireplace in front of the house. Her mother works as a cook in a fast food restaurant. She can´t go to school because the nearest town is about 150 km from her village. She learns at home with her friends and cousins. When she grows up she wants to work in an office and she wants to see a big city. Rachel is 11. She comes from France. She lives in a chateau which her family has had since 1715. There are vineyards around the chateau. Her parents make wine. Tourists often visit their house. They stay there and drink wine. She sometimes helps to set the tables and pour wine. The chateau has 16 rooms, she has her own room with a lot of posters of cats. Cats are her favourite animal. She has got a brother. Rachel and her brother go to school every day. She likes History and Maths. In her free time she likes painting pictures.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Stories behind Statistics — Identity Sheets name .................................................................. name .................................................................. age ...................................................................... age ...................................................................... country ............................................................... country ............................................................... town/village ....................................................... town/village ....................................................... living ................................................................... living ................................................................... brothers or sisters .............................................. brothers or sisters .............................................. parents’ job ........................................................ parents’ job ........................................................ ............................................................................ ............................................................................ housework ......................................................... housework ......................................................... school/favourite subject .................................... school/favourite subject .................................... ............................................................................ ............................................................................ free time ............................................................. free time ............................................................. wants to be ........................................................ wants to be ........................................................

name .................................................................. name .................................................................. age ...................................................................... age ...................................................................... country ............................................................... country ............................................................... town/village ....................................................... town/village ....................................................... living ................................................................... living ................................................................... brothers or sisters .............................................. brothers or sisters .............................................. parents’ job ........................................................ parents’ job ........................................................ ............................................................................ ............................................................................ housework ......................................................... housework ......................................................... school/favourite subject .................................... school/favourite subject .................................... ............................................................................ ............................................................................ free time ............................................................. free time ............................................................. wants to be ........................................................ wants to be ........................................................ A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


String Connections

Curriculum Links

Geography Literacy P4C

To begin to understand the complexities of the food chain. To consider how we are connected to others locally and globally. To write an overview of events using given information.

connections

interdependence

Intro

Stand in a large circle and hand the pupils 1 profile card each, if there are less than 16 pupils, otherwise 1 between 2. Ask the pupils to read their profile and think carefully about their role – these vary from producer roles, to production line roles to consumer roles. In turn, ask each pupil to read aloud their role and to hold it up so everyone can see it (pupils should NOT be in the correct order but mixed up!). Reflect on the number of people involved in the process (and highlight that the processes shown are simplified, they don’t include absolutely everyone!). Are there any comments from pupils about this? Is it what they expected?

Big Ideas

Hand one person a ball of string and ask them to hold the end, they then need to find someone they feel connected to and need to walk across the circle to hand the ball of string to that person and say why they are related to them and then return to their own place; e.g. you may start with ‘A check out till operator’ … who feels they are related to ‘A café owner’ … who feels they are connected to … ‘A market stall trader’ … who feels they are related to … etc. Continue until everyone is connected, maybe more than once, to form a complex web. Highlight the local connections and the global connections. Ask the pupils what they think the web is showing them? (interconnections, dependency, complex chains etc).

Activity

To illustrate these interconnections further show how one thing affecting part of the web affects everyone; e.g. “The banana plantation worker cannot control all of the bugs and pests so they are losing crop …” and ask the pupil with this profile to shake their hands – what happens to the rest of the web? Ask all pupils to consider what might happen to their role if this happens. Discuss. Further examples might be “there is a lorry strike and drivers are refusing to deliver things because of the price of petrol …” or “There is severe flooding so many cotton crops are lost …” etc. Explain that they are going to write an overview of what might happen if there was a ‘break’ in the chain somewhere. You could give each child/group different scenarios (some ideas mentioned above) and they have to use the information given during the game to complete their writing titled ‘what would happen if …?’ . This part could then be used as a stimulus for a P4C enquiry.

Plenary

Make a list of more positive scenarios, and consider the consequences for everyone in the chain. For example hotter/ wetter climates ... increased production ... more exporting etc.

y ections displa String Conn

Extension ideas Make a display of the ‘string connection’ for others to see the complexities. Keep adding to the display and see how many different products and countries you can collect!

Who do

we Con nect wit h?

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Ball of string, statement profile cards shuffled up (a focus can be made on bananas, cotton or cocoa. There are 16 cards per product). NB these roles and chains are simplified to allow more accessibility to this activity A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


String Connections—Banana Production Line Banana plantation worker – I take care of the banana crop by keeping bugs off them. Van driver – I make sure there is no rubbish and transport boxes of bananas around. Banana packer – I collect the banana hands, wash them, and pack them into boxes. Banana plantation owner – I am in charge of lots of workers and lots of banana plants! Shipper – I work on the container ships that bring bananas over from The Windward Isles to the UK. Distributor – I decide which bananas are going to which shops. Lorry driver – I drive lorries around the UK to deliver bananas to shops. Buyer – I decide what products our shops sell. Shelf stacker – I make sure the supermarket shelves are full of fresh food for people to buy. Checkout till operator – I scan through people’s food shopping and pack it in bags. Market stall trader – I sell fruit and veg in the local market. Café owner – I run a coffee and cake shop. We sell lots of banana muffins! School teacher – our children love to have bananas as their morning snack. Dad – I like a banana after my sandwiches at lunch time. Canteen worker – I make fruit salad for people to have for a healthy breakfast. Child – I eat bananas for a healthy snack!

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


String Connections—Cocoa Production Line Cocoa plantation worker – I look after the cocoa tree crop and make sure they are growing well. Cocoa pod picker – I cut the cocoa pods from the trees and cut open the pods to collect the beans. Cocoa fermenter – I collect all of the cocoa beans and wrap them in leaves to ferment and then dry them out on large tables. Weigher – I collect and weigh the dried beans to make sure they are good quality. Trader – I buy sacks of cocoa beans and send them to be turned into chocolate bars. Shipper - I work on the ships that transport cocoa beans from Ghana, Africa to Europe. Factory worker – I work the machines that roast the cocoa beans and grind them into powder and butter. Factory worker – I work the machines that add sugar and milk to make a chocolate mixture that is stirred and then cooled and poured into moulds to make chocolate bars. Factory worker – I work the machines that wrap the chocolate bars and pack them into boxes. Lorry driver - I drive lorries around the UK to deliver chocolate bars, Easter eggs, hot chocolate powder and other things to shops. Supermarket worker – I stock the shelves with lots of different chocolate bars. Newsagents – I stock the shelves with chocolate bars for hungry drivers. Café owner – we make yummy hot chocolate in the winter and chocolate milk shakes in the summer. Hotel worker – we always give people a free chocolate when they arrive. Grandma – I buy my grand children chocolates as a treat when they visit. Girl – I love chocolate ice cream for my pudding. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


String Connections—Cotton Production Line Cotton plantation worker – I prepare the ground ready for planting. The bullocks plough the fields. Cotton planter – I plant the seeds and tend to them as they grow (I have to use some chemicals). Cotton worker – I pick the ‘bolls’, which are the balls of cotton and put them into sacks. Transporter – I lift the sacks of cotton ‘bolls’ that have been picked and transport them by cart to traders. Trader – I buy sacks of cotton bolls so I can make cloth and sell this as clothes. ‘Ginning’ machine worker – I work the machines that separate the fluffy lint from the seeds. This is called ‘ginning’. Pala house worker – I sort out the lint and check that it has no brown bits in it. Spinning machine worker – I work on the machines that spin the cotton into thread and then into cloth. Cloth worker – I use the cloth and make it into items of clothing. Factory owner – I sell our clothing to be sold overseas. Shipper – I work on the ships that import cotton products from India. Lorry driver - I drive lorries around the UK to deliver items to shops. Shop worker – I fold all of the t-shirts and hang shirts on hangers on the shop floor. Hotel worker – I make sure all of the bedrooms look nice by using fresh, white sheets on the beds. Teacher – we sell school uniforms for the children to wear with our school logo on. Mum – I have just been shopping and used my new re-usable cloth bag.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Fact or Opinion - which is which? To understand the importance of thinking critically about what is fact and what is opinion. To understand what a fact is, and what an opinion is. To be able to distinguish facts from opinion.

Curriculum Links

Literacy Citizenship

perceptions Intro

Stand in a circle and play ’ups and downs’. Pupils stand up if they totally agree, crouch in the middle if they half agree and kneel down if they don’t agree. Questions: Who reads newspapers? Who reads magazines? Who watches news on TV? Who gets news from the Internet? Who gets news from Facebook etc.? Who is not interested in news? Now focus on news about other countries: Where do you learn about what happens in other countries? (Europe and other continents) Do you get the news from the TV? Radio? Newspapers? Internet? first hand account from a person? Do you always believe what you read and hear? Do you think everything reported on/in the news is true? Then discuss these ideas further as a whole group by asking questions such as How can you tell what is true and what is not? How can we form a balanced opinion? How can we find information on the same topic but coming from different perspectives? Write down their main ideas and conclusions on the board or a flipchart to use as reference in further activities devoted to media literacy. Explain to pupils that later they will be looking at excerpts of articles from the media but first they will investigate the differences between facts and opinions.

Big Ideas

Ask pupils what they already know about differences between a “fact” and an “opinion”. Discuss their ideas as a whole class and write them down on the board or on the flipchart, they will use them in the next stage of the activity. Then ask the pupils why it is so important to be able to make a distinction between facts and opinions? Important points to be included are the following: - a fact is something that cannot be challenged, it exists or occurred in the reality, - a fact is the same regardless of who looks at it, - you can check the fact, there is evidence for it, - when the phrases “I believe...” or “I think...” are used in a statement, they indicate that a person is presenting her or his opinion, not a fact but opinions can be disguised as facts if they are not preceded by “In my opinion...”, “I think...”,, - adjectives that signal a personal subjective judgement about the quality of things are often clues to an opinion masked as a fact ex. wonderful, good, bad, the best, the worst etc. - using generalising words like “everybody”, “all”, “always” is more common in relation to opinions and presumptions rather than facts. - you cannot challenge facts, they exist regardless of our opinion on them. However, you can interpret facts and thus form your opinions. People may have different opinions, it also depends on their values – on what they believe is important in life. - however, when they present their opinion as a fact, they may manipulate you and persuade you to think as they do if you don't know facts yourself.

Activity Put the pupils into pairs/threes. Hand out the ‘Fact or opinion - which is which?’ sorting cards. Pupils must decide which statements are facts and which are opinions and sort them into 2 groups.

Plenary

Discuss their answers as a whole class. Ask them what has helped them in each case tell the facts from the opinions. Ask volunteers to give their examples of statements about facts and opinions regarding other countries. Discuss and verify these

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

‘Fact or opinion - which is which?’ sorting cards. NB: The statements included in it can be modified or replaced depending on pupils' interests and knowledge. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Fact or opinion-which is which? sorting cards NOW WE ARE IN SCHOOL.

FRENCH IS DIFFICULT.

RICH PEOPLE SHOULD SHARE I THINK THAT MOST PEOPLE IN WHAT THEY HAVE WITH POLAND HAVE ACCESS TO POORER PEOPLE EG PAY HIGHER INTERNET. TAXES.

SENEGAL IN AFRICA HAS ACCESS TO THE ATLANTIC OCEAN.

IN POLAND YOU CAN VOTE WHEN YOU ARE 18.

SPAIN IS MORE BEAUTFUL THAN GREECE.

MICHAEL JACKSON IS DEAD.

EARTH IS A PLANET, NOT A STAR.

THE GOVERNMENT BEHAVED DISGRACEFULLY OVER THIS ISSUE.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Fact or Opinion - how do we know? To understand the importance of thinking critically about what is fact and opinion. To challenge stereotypes by showing development and “success stories” in the South. To assess the reliability of information presented in the media by distinguishing fact from opinion. To be able to detect use of persuasive language.

Curriculum Links

Literacy Citizenship Geography

perceptions Intro

Begin by asking the pupils what they know about the country which is featured in the articles you have selected, for example if you use the sample article, ask “What do you know about Kenya and Kenyans?”. Write down any preliminary ideas they have about the place. You can also check on the map exactly where these countries are located. Then ask how or where they have learnt about these ideas – from TV, Internet, their parents, friends etc?

Big Ideas

Remind pupils of your discussion about the differences about facts and opinions (in the previous lesson) and revisit the criteria list you came up with. Ask the pupils why they think it is important to think about the difference between fact and opinion. Move the discussion on to the use of ‘persuasive language’ and ask why the media might use this.

Activity 1 sample article is available, or you can find your own appropriate articles that should highlight “success stories” of the global South and challenge stereotypes, such as successful local initiatives, solutions, areas of life not often associated with Africa. It is preferable to use the African media to present an African perspective or provide two perspectives (eg an article from the European media and an article from African media). It would be useful if you could find a selection of articles so pupils can access different articles which can then be shared in the plenary. Give each pupil a sheet with one news article each. Ask the pupils to quietly read the text and individually decide which sentences present facts and which present opinions. They could use a highlighter pen for this. Next, ask the pupils to get into groups of 3-4 people so they can discuss their answers in a group. Then they can fill in the table on the “how do we know? Worksheet” – writing down the facts and opinions from the article as well as examples of persuasive language. Finally, pupils count the score and decide how reliable a given article is.

Plenary Ask pupils to present their articles to the rest of the class if they have worked with several different articles. Discuss how reliable the articles are and what impact examples of persuasive language from the articles may have on readers and how it may influence their perception of a given issue, country. Extension ideas Pupils may create a catalogue of an aware media recipient eg. what to pay attention to, what should alarm us, how to find alternative information, how to filter the meaningful from the meaningless etc. This lesson may also provide a useful starting point for discussing stereotypes. First, pupils may discuss why we form opinions and then explore further the issue of stereotypes – their origin and their role in structuring our understanding of the world around us.

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Sample news article (provided) and a selection of news articles which the teacher must source (see above for more details). Highlighter pens ‘How do we know? Worksheet’

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Fact or opinion - sample news article Habiba Rage, 38 years old, from Alago Alba in Kenya's North Eastern region works as a trader. In her work she uses a mobile phone on a daily basis, for example to keep track of stock arriving from Isiolo, the nearest urban centre. Habiba's village doesn't have electricity but her mobile uses solar energy – it is fitted with a charger that absorbs and stores energy directy from the sun. Such a type of a mobile is quite cheap. It costs 1,500 Kenyan shillings (18 US dollars), which is about half the cost of the cheapest conventional mobile phone. What's more, it is environmentally friendly as it is manufactured from recycled electronic waste. The phone is produced by telecommunications company Safaricom (owned by the UK's Vodafone) and Mobitelea Ventures. “This is a brilliant innovation”, says Michael Odera, director if the climate change office in Kenya's Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources. “It meets environmental goals and also deals with problems linked to power cuts in the country”. It is estimated that only 5% of Kenya's rural areas and 51% of the urban population have access to electricity. Based on “Kenya: Solar Powered Phones Recharge Nation's Conversations” by David Njagi, 10 May 2012, Alternet, http://allafrica.com/stories/201205110322.html

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Fact or opinion - how do we know? worksheet List the sentences which present facts.

List the sentences which present opinions.

List words or sentences which include a Reliability score (number of facts personal judgement of the author versus number of opinions) (either positive or negative)

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Fact or opinion - Answer Sheet List the sentences which present facts.

List the sentences which present opinions.

Habiba Rage, 38 years old, from Alago Alba in Such a type of a mobile is quite cheap. Kenya's North Eastern region works as a trader. “This is a brilliant innovation”, says Michael Odera, director if the climate change office in In her work she uses a mobile phone, for Kenya's Ministry of Environment and Mineral example to keep track of stock arriving from Resources. Isiolo, the nearest urban centre. “It meets environmental goals and also deals with problems linked to power cuts in the Habiba's village doesn't have electricity but country”. her mobile uses solar energy – it is fitted with a charger that absorbs and stores energy It is estimated that only 5% of Kenya's rural directy from the sun. areas and 51% of the urban population have access to electricity. It costs 1,500 Kenyan shillings (18 US dollars), which is about half the cost of the cheapest conventional mobile phone. What's more, it is environmentally friendly as it is manufactured from recycled electronic waste. The phone is produced by telecommunications company Safaricom (owned by the UK's Vodafone) and Mobitelea Ventures

List words or sentences which include a Reliability score (number of facts personal judgement (either positive or versus number of opinions) negative) of the author 6/4

quite cheap brilliant innovation

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Pupils Take Action: global citizens

Curriculum Links

Citizenship PSHE

To be able to realise a personal potential to change things and to develop a sense of selfefficacy and self worth (self esteem). To begin to realise that individuals can make a difference.

To create a poster using words and illustration that represents ‘a global citizen’.

rights

responsibility

change

Intro

Ask the class if they know the words ‘Global’ and ‘Citizen’ mean, gather some ideas. Then ask if they know what being a ‘Global Citizen’ means? Explain that this series of lessons is going to explore this.

Big Ideas

Split the class into four small discussion groups, and give each of them a set of the ‘Global Citizen’ statements. Ask pupils to place the statements in order of importance. This can be done in the form of a diamond with the most important statement at the top and the least important at the bottom. Statements of equal importance are placed alongside each other. Pupils need to work cooperatively and to give reasons to others within their group for their individual views. After about 15 minutes discuss the activity as a whole class, with each group explaining what their final layout was, and why. Then ask the pupils to work in groups on what they could do to show that these things are important. For instance, under the first point, suggestions might include listening to others, asking others what is wrong or how they are feeling, or befriending others who are lonely. The most difficult one for the pupils to do is probably, 'I am as important as everyone else', so perhaps you could give them some examples, such as 'I am especially good at …', or 'I help in the class by …'. The suggestions can be written as pledges of what pupils will try to do to show they can be Global Citizens, and they can be put on display.

Activity

Give each group a large piece of paper (from a roll) and ask them to draw the outline of a child (they could draw around one member of their group), and give the poster the title “An excellent Global Citizen...” Tell them to illustrate the poster with what they think are the skills, knowledge and attributes of an excellent global citizen, using a mixture of words and drawings. You can suggest that they use think about these skills, knowledge and attributes as  Head: what they must know  Hands: what they must be able to do  Heart: what they must feel or believe

Plenary

Share the posters by displaying them on the wall and ask each group to explain what they have chosen to write and draw.

Ideas from http://www.mylearning.org/global-citizens--make-an-impact/p-2015/ and http://www.teachers.org.uk/files/Intro-to-being-a -global-citizen.pdf

Extension Ideas

excellent What makes an en? tiz ci global

Your “excellent Global Citizen” posters could be a ’work in progress’ so pupils could add ideas as you continue working on this Challenge Pack ...

Diamo nd ra

nking

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

‘Global Citizen statements’ cut up for each group. Large roll of lining paper, drawing/writing equipment. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Pupils Take Action -

Global Citizen Statements

I am as important as everyone else

I try to understand what other people are feeling I know what is fair and not fair and try to do the right thing

Everyone else is equal to me but different from me

I look after the environment and don't waste things

I want to learn more about the world

I try to help others and not fight with them

I think I can change things in the world

I have my own ideas but can alter them if I realise they are wrong

Ideas from http:// www.mylearning.org/globalcitizens--make-an-impact/p-2015/ and http://www.teachers.org.uk/ files/Intro-to-being-a-globalcitizen.pdf

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


We Can All Make A Difference

Curriculum Links

To enable children to understand that they can make a difference to the life of others

Literacy Citizenship

To discuss a question in a small group, and agree on a consensus answer

responsibility

change

power

Intro

Ask pupils to close their eyes and try to think of someone or a group of people who have made a positive difference/change to their life or to the lives of others. It could be someone they know or someone they have heard of, seen on TV or read about. It doesn’t matter what size the change is. Once they have thought of someone, get them to tell their neighbour who the person is and what they did. Ask the group to call out some examples of who they were thinking of, and what they have done. Record these on the flipchart. If you feel it would be helpful, give the group further examples of people who have brought about positive change for others. Include examples of young people who have made a difference.

Activity Divide the group into smaller groups of 3 or 4 and ask them to carry out the following: • Using a large piece from a roll of paper, draw round a member of the group. If this does not seem appropriate, use stick figures instead. Ask them to think about the characteristics of the people from 1 (i.e. what they think made that person do what they did) and write those characteristics on the body shape – e.g. active, caring, hardworking, concerned. • Ask the group to think about other factors/things that may have helped that person bring about change and get them to write these on or around their body shape – e.g. working with others / in a team, support, resources, money, training, fame, power, influence, job.

Plenary Bring the group back together and facilitate a discussion on how everyone is capable of making positive change for others. Points to draw out include the following: *To make change happen, it is not simply money or being Examples of people who have made a famous or doing very well at school that is necessary. difference *Everyone is capable of making a change. Hard work, gaining  Helen Skelton, trekked 500 miles to the skills and information, working together, support of a teacher South Pole to raise awareness of the charity or other adults, etc, making contacts, finding out about local Sport Relief projects and opportunities to get involved are important. End the activity by explaining that the Global Literacy – Pupils Take Action project is all about children in Cumbria schools finding ways to take action to make the world a fairer place, and improve the lives of others all over the world. Adapted from ‘Making Change Happen’, www.participationworks.org.uk

 Martin Luther King Jr, campaigned for civil rights in America  Martha Payne, school girl from Argyll, who started a blog about school dinners around the world, and campaigns to provide meals for pupils in Malawi

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets Large roll of paper, felt-tip pens

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Pupils Take Action: spheres of influence

Curriculum Links

Citizenship

To recognise what attributes are required to be an active global citizen. To begin thinking about what actions could be taken to address a particular problem.

To be able to follow a set of instructions to take part in effective team work.

rights

responsibility

change

Intro

NB this session is best delivered AFTER children have been learning about the Global Literacy project themes, so that they understand about interdependence, inequalities, and poverty, and can begin to understand ways in which their actions can help address these issues. Revisit the previous session on Global Citizens and review learning outcomes. Refer to group posters of the skills, knowledge and attributes of an excellent global citizen. Explain that in this session the class will be thinking about how THEY can take action and make a difference that will start to address global issues.

Activity

Split the class into four groups. Explain that for this activity they will need to nominate the following roles: a scribe, a spokesperson, a facilitator, a time keeper. Read the role cards out loud, and give one set to each team, and explain that this will help them learn how to work as an effective team. Give each team three pieces of A3 paper, and explain that they will be given 5 minutes to ‘brainstorm’ their answers, as a group, to a series of questions. Remind the children that in brainstorming, there are no right or wrong answers, that it is an activity to help them think creatively and come up with lots of ideas. Show the following three questions one at a time—revealing the question and then giving 5-10 minutes for discussion, :  What does it mean to be a Global Citizen?  What issues or problems are you particularly interested in?  What ideas do you have for taking action? The scribe should write the question in the middle of a page and then record people’s answers. Create large concentric circles (see ‘What Can I Change’ diagram). You can do this on a massive poster, using ropes to make rings on the floor, or by projecting the page onto a screen onto which you can then stick post-it notes. Ask the children to circulate around each other’s ‘What ideas do you have for taking action?’ sheet, and read other groups’ ideas, taking note of ideas which are similar to theirs, or new ideas which they would like to add to their brainstorming (the scribe should bring paper and pens with them). Back in their own groups, ask the children to choose their favourite 5 ideas for action, and write these onto a large post-it note (or piece of paper which can be stuck to the whiteboard with blu-tack). Then ask each group to bring their ideas to the front, placing them into the relevant circle to show whether the change is aimed to impact on their own behaviour, their community, their country or the whole world.

Plenary

First review the team roles: what went well?, what was difficult?, did having these roles help you be more effective as a team? Review the activity by having a whole class discussion about what the children now think about the potential impact they can have, looking at the actions suggested to start with themselves, through widening their sphere of influence until we can see how our own actions can influence the whole world. End the session by sharing the ‘Global Citizenship Quotes’ with the children. Keep the large circle of influence diagram with children’s ideas in it, as it will be useful for the next lesson ‘Powerful People’. (Take a photo of it).

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Four sets of ‘Team Role’ cards. A3 paper and pens. Three ‘Global Citizenship’ questions on powerpoint or large posters. Ropes and labels for making large concentric circles on classroom floor, or Concentric circles diagram projected onto a whiteboard. Post-it notes or paper and blu-tack. Global Citizenship quotes. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


What can I change? Team Roles Facilitator

Scribe

It is your role to make sure that your group completes the task, and that the quality of the work you do represents your groups highest quality thinking.

It is your role to keep a record of what is said during the task. If you are asked to write anything down as part of the activity, make sure it represents the groups shared ideas (not just your own!)

You must make sure that everyone has the opportunity to contribute their ideas.

Make sure your writing is clear.

If there is disagreement, you must find a way of reaching agreement. You should try to make your group feel good while they are doing this task together

Time keeper

Spokesperson

It is your role to make sure that the group complete their task within the time that they are given.

It is your role to speak on behalf of your team when you are asked to report back to the whole class.

This means you should listen carefully to instructions from the teacher, check what time it is when your task begins, and work out when your time is up.

You must pay attention during your group’s discussion so that your reporting is clear and a true account of their ideas.

You should let your group know how they are getting on, for example, telling them when they are half way through the task, or if they have two minutes left.

Make sure you report back the shared ideas, not just your own!

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


What can I change?

Photocopy onto A3 A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Quotes about Global Citizenship “All that is needed for evil to triumph, is for good men to do nothing.”Edmund Burke “No man is an island; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main.”- John Donne “We must be willing to learn the lesson that cooperation may imply compromise.” - Eleanor Roosevelt “Before you finish eating breakfast this morning, you’ve depended on more than half the world.” - Martin Luther King, Jr. "...we all have an obligation as citizens of this earth to leave the world a healthier, cleaner, and better place for our children and future generations.” - Blythe Danner “I have no country to fight for: my country is the earth, and I am a citizen of the world." - Eugene V. Debs "Today, every single one of us is a 'Global Citizen', whether we are conscious of it or not. Global inter-dependence happens every day. We rely on countless different people from all over the world for the clothes we wear, the food we eat and the technology we use. Our daily lives are constantly affected by what people on the other side of the planet are doing!" - Anonymous

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


People and power

Curriculum Links

Citizenship P4C

To begin to understand the meaning of power, and empowerment To think about which people they need to include in their project To evaluate a list of items, and come to a group consensus. To be able to justify their decisions.

power

change

rights

Intro

Ask everyone to sit in a circle. Explain that the group is going to think about who has the power in their lives. To do this there will be a short drama activity to get them thinking about what it feels like to do things and dependence on how powerful you are. When you hold up a card and call out an action, the participants must perform the action – when it is a red card they must perform the action as if they were the most powerful person in the room (link power and confidence); when it is a yellow card, they must perform it as if they were the least powerful person in the room. Actions: • Drink a cup of tea or coffee • Enter a room • Meet a person for the first time. • Try to order some food. Ask the group to describe how it felt to perform everyday actions with more or less power than usual.

Big Ideas

Ask the children what they think it means to have power, is it the same as influence? Is it a good thing or a bad thing (can they think of examples of both?) Can they think of anyone who doesn’t have power? Is it possible to empower others (give power) - how might that happen? You could explain that the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child states that ALL children have the right to have a say in matters that affect their lives—do they think that all children have the power to influence their own lives? You could then use this section as the stimulus for a P4C enquiry.

Activity Now ask the group to work in small groups of 3 or 4, and give each group a set of the ‘Powerful People’ card. Go through the people or organisations to make sure everyone knows who or what they are. Extension idea Ask groups to place the cards on the floor/table with the people or Divide the participants into small groups and organisations they feel have the most power at the top and those give each group a copy of ‘Your Project—who with the least power at the bottom. The cards can be placed in any can help?’ handout. shape that the group agrees on – e.g. single column, diamond Ask the groups to look at the diagram of people shape, triangle. who could help. Get them to circle the people Ask groups to add other people or organisations by writing them on or organisations that they think would be the the blank cards. These should be based on the particular project most helpful and with whom it would be good that they have decided they will work on. to develop contact – or even a partnership Plenary within which they could work together. Finish the activity with a discussion: Ask them to think about any other people or • which they feel have the most power, or which are the most organisations that may help. Get them to name powerful people these in the other circles. • why these hold the most power Ask them to think about how these might help • which people or groups of people they feel have least power – e.g. and what they want from them. They should babies and young children, disabled children, poorer people, write this next to the appropriate circle. • which they think are most likely to listen to them or to treat them Encourage them to list in order the 3 people or and their project with respect. organisations that they think would be their best contacts. Ask them to feed back to the rest of the group. Resources / Worksheets Powerful People cards; Your project—who can help handout A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Powerful People cards

Headteacher

MP

Councillor

Parents

Local shopkeepers

Teacher

Prime Minister

TV personality

Sportsperson

Religious leader

(Adapted from ‘Making Change Happen’, www.participationworks.org.uk) A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Powerful People cards

Police Officer

Young person 7-11

Teenager

Business Owner

National charity

Local Press

School councillor

(Adapted from ‘Making Change Happen’, www.participationworks.org.uk) A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Your project—who can help?

My top 3 contacts: 1.

__________________________________________________________________________

2.

__________________________________________________________________________

3.

__________________________________________________________________________

(Adapted from ‘Making Change Happen’, www.participationworks.org.uk)

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Making the World a Better Place... To be more aware of global issues/problems and who is affected by them. To understand how personal actions and choices have (global) consequences.

Curriculum Links

Geography Citizenship P4C

To work as a team and to be able to give reasoning to present a point of view.

responsibility

interdependence

Intro

Show the ‘issues cards’, either by presenting them as large cards to the whole class or by asking small groups to look at them. Ask them to vote and find out how many people in the class are currently involved/working on these issues/problems right now. Make sure you reinforce that there is no right or wrong answer. Pupils should then think of any more ‘problems’ or ‘issues’, local or global, that they are interested in or currently working on/involved with.

Big Ideas

Share the results which illustrate how many pupils are working on the issues/problems. Are there any patterns? Are more pupils interested and involved in local issues? (this will probably be the case). Why is this? Are we ‘touched’ more by local problems because they are closer to us? Or are we affected by global problems because they might have more media coverage? Which issues/problems are we connected/engaged with? Next show the outline of the ‘graph of issues’ (either by drawing this on the board or by using enlarged sheets for each group), explaining the axis. Along the bottom axis is ‘who the issue/problem affects’, from a personal level (i.e. me) to a international level (i.e. the world), and the side axis is about how long this issue/problem will take to solve (a short term solution or a very long term problem).

Activity

Share some of the ‘issues cards’ and ask advice on where to place them on the graph. For example, ‘climate change’ might be placed as a problem that affects the world and will take centuries to solve, OR you might decide that it is something that is personal, so should be placed above ‘me’. In groups, ask them to come to an agreement on where to place all of the issues cards on the graph and explain that they must be able to present reasoning for their decisions. They must decide collaboratively as a group where to place the card. Once they have finished the suggested issues cards, they can think of more problems/issues they are concerned about, are working on or are interested in and place them on the graph. The important aspect of this process is the thinking and discussion, there is no right or wrong answer! Make sure this is made clear to the pupils too so they are happy to discuss differences of opinion. Share the graphs by asking each group to move around the classroom and look at other groups results. Then ask them what they think the graph would look like if it was filled by they parents, teachers or other adults. How would it differ? What would it look like if it was filled in by decision makers or politicians?

Plenary

Point out the global issues/problems on the graph, perhaps highlighting those that pupils may feel ‘removed’ from and think of ways that the problem indirectly affects us. Consider what we can do to solve or contribute to solve these issues and think about why we should bother with them at all. At this point you could raise questions and run a P4C session.

MDG s litter

Extension ideas Create a display of the graph and add problems, concepts and solutions that come up as you progress through the Challenge & Enquiry Pack.

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Issues cards (1 set per group) Large copy(s) of the ‘graph of issues’ on Interactive Whiteboard, blackboard or copied onto large sheets of paper A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Making the World a Better Place...Issues

climate change

carbon footprints

unfair food trading systems

energy use

food waste

litter

child labour

pollution

human rights

access to education

Millennium Development Goals

extinction of species

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Making the World a Better Place... graph

centuries

decades

years

months

weeks

days

hours

me group community

Graph of Issues

country continent world A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Rights & Responsibilities

Curriculum Links

To understand more about human rights and who actually has them. To be aware of the responsibility humans have to one another (locally - globally).

Geography Citizenship

To be able to create a list of basic human rights.

rights

responsibilities

equality

Intro

Using a large open space, ask the pupils to stand in a line, all facing the same way, side by side. Explain you are going to make statements and if they agree they should take a large step forward; part agree = take a small step; disagree = step backwards; or are unsure = stay still. Ask the pupils to close their eyes so they are making independent decisions. Statements to read aloud: (it may be a good idea to note down if/when pupils take large steps forward/back) “Everyone in this room has the right to clean water to drink” “Everyone in this country has the right to clean water to drink” “Everyone in the world has the right to clean water to drink” “Everyone ... has the right to 3 healthy meals a day” (Insert ‘in this room’ ‘in this country’ and ‘in the world’) “Everyone ... has the right to a comfy bed to sleep in” “Everyone ... has the right to a TV” “Everyone ... has the right to new clothes and trainers when they want them”

Big Ideas

Ask the pupils to open their eyes - what is the line like now? Did everyone agree with the statements? Ask pupils to volunteer reasons for when and why they stepped forward/backwards. Sit down in a circle. Ask the pupils if they think that everyone in this country and the world does actually have all of the things mentioned? Why might they not have access to some of those things? Has it made people think of any big ideas? (poverty, equality, rights etc)

Activity

Write the words ‘responsibility’ and ’right’ on the board and ask the pupils to think quietly about what they mean (definitions) and what they mean in relation to what we have been discussing. Whose responsibility is it to make sure that people in this room, this country and this world have rights to the things we mentioned? (water, food, a bed etc). After 30 seconds thinking time ask pupils to write down on a post-it note or small slips of paper suggestions of who should take responsibility and throw them into the middle of the circle. Read through the ideas and (if not already suggested) put forward the idea that it is everyone's responsibility. In small groups ask the pupils to create a list of 10 more things they think that EVERYONE has the right to access (start them off with clean drinking water, food to eat ... if groups are struggling make other suggestions like ‘what about school?’, ‘what about having fun?’, ‘what about the right not to be bullied?’, ‘what about the right to be listened to?’.

Plenary Share some of the lists and ask pupils to consider what we can do about those people who do not have access to these things. Have a discussion about what you could do on a personal level, as a class, a school or as a wider community. Extension ideas Look at the Millennium Development Goals in relation to RIGHTS. Can the RIGHTS you have been discussing link to any of the MDGs? Make a spider diagram. Investigate projects working towards the MDGs.

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Statements (on lesson plan but you can amend as you see fit). MDGs sheet for extension work. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Rights & Responsibilities - MDGs sheet

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Part 1 Food & Trade Messy maps Pods, Planning & Production Sharing the Chocolate The Fairest Teacher Fairtrade Means something to me Fairtrade Alphabet Cocoa Clues Mystery Alien Headlines 1 Alien Headlines 2 10 Myths About Hunger

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Messy Maps

Curriculum Links

To gain an understanding of where Fairtrade products are grown (& imported from).

Geography

To read for information.

interdependence

trade

Intro Present the pupils with a range of Fairtrade products and look on the packaging to find out the country of origin (this may say ‘country of origin …’, ‘produced in …’, ‘grown in …’, ‘product of …’). Sort out the products into continents; Africa, South America, North America, Asia, Australia, Europe, Antarctica; and stand them on the large map. Then start looking more closely for particular countries within those continents.

Big Ideas Ask the pupils what trends they can see. Why are products grown here? (i.e. mainly in the global south, due to weather conditions), who buys these products? (mainly people from the global north) How do these products travel? (mainly by ship as they are travelling over sea). Introduce the terms ‘import’ and ‘export’ if this has not been addressed yet.

Activity Use the actual ingredients to create a multi sensory map by illustrating where each product comes from, for example by gluing coffee onto Ethiopia, cocoa powder onto Ghana, tea leaves onto India etc. There will be crossovers and it will be messy! Once finished cover the whole map in sticky backed plastic and use as a brilliant display which will have many textures and aromas.

Plenary Look at the map and talk about which continents the Fairtrade products come from and if anyone can remember any particular countries. Ask the pupils what might happen if it was too rainy or if there was not enough sunshine for the crops to grow – consider how dependent we are on imported food and how dependent producers are on us buying it.

Pupils Action Ideas Show off the messy multi map to other classes, teachers and parents in an assembly to make them more aware of what products are available and where they come from.

sy Map! One huge Mes

Extension ideas Collect Fairtrade packaging and add lines of string to the map to show where additional products are from. Research weather conditions in a particular country (area of country). Research how long products take to travel from their country of origin to the UK (show the ship’s journey on the map).

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Variety of Fairtrade products (with labels showing country of origin), large world map outline (the bigger the better!), glue, sticky backed plastic.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Pods, People & Production

Curriculum Links

To have a greater understanding of cocoa farming and production. To understanding the complexities of food production (from field to table). To be able to sequence an order of events. To carry out a research project and present findings appropriately. NB this part will span across a number of lessons.

interdependence

Geography P4C Literacy

trade

Intro

First of all ask the children to talk in pairs about where chocolate comes from ,in particular the cocoa within chocolate. Start with the shop/supermarket ... and trace steps backwards to the wholesaler ... And backwards to the delivery driver ... Etc. Get some feedback and try to create a list of the people involved until you reach the plantation/farmer.

Big Ideas

Count how many people are involved in your list. Do we think we may have missed any out? Now think about what other ingredients are put with cocoa to make chocolate (if necessary look at the ingredients list on a bar of chocolate - sugar, milk) and guess how many more people might be involved. Explain that you will be looking in more detail at the production of the main raw ingredient, cocoa, and how complex this part is before other ingredients are added.

Activity

Place the ‘cocoa production line’ photos in the middle of the circle (you could either cut the descriptors off so pupils have to later match the descriptions with photos or leave them on so each photo has relevant information already attached). Ask someone to look for what they think might come first ... when the cocoa plant is starting to grow. Then ask someone else to look for the next photo in the sequence ... And so on until you have completed the production line. You could hang these on a washing line so everyone can see them. Count aloud all of the different stages and explain that the process of making chocolate is actually even more complicated than this - here we only have the cocoa beans manufacturing, we haven’t got the next stages in which other ingredients are added, moulds are used and packaging is put on! Explain that in groups the children are going to carry out a research project called, ‘how many people make my chocolate bar?’. They already have the first part of the chain and need to research the next part and make an informed guess (as we cannot know the exact answer) at how many people are involved in making 1 bar of chocolate! They can present their findings however they wish - in a Powerpoint Presentation, as a report, a film, a speech, a play, or a song—but their findings must be based on facts.

Plenary Share and celebrate the projects to see if there is a general consensus about how many people actually make a chocolate bar! At this point you could raise questions and run a P4C session.

es my Where do me from? co chocolate

From p

od ...

..

n. ductio o r p To

… to your pock et!

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Cocoa production line photos/captions. Access to the Internet for the research project.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Cocoa production - 1

Cocoa crossbreeding is done by hand by planting blossom onto the branches of trees. Small shoots are taken from trees, grown into seedlings and take 4-5 years to grow into trees. Workers keep the seedlings well watered and they are protected from the direct sun.

Cocoa pods grow in about 4-5 months on the trunk and branches of the trees. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Cocoa production - 2

A mature pod is usually yellow, red or purple and is cut open 7-10 days after harvesting. The pod is cut with a sharp knife to collect the beans. There are around 50 beans in a wet pulp. The beans are placed under banana leaves or in boxes to ferment for 7-10 days, allowing the flavour and colour to develop.

The beans need to be dried out under the sun, which takes around 2 weeks. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Cocoa Production - 3

They are turned regularly and carefully checked so they do not go mouldy. The beans are sorted out for size, quality and to check that there are no other materials there. The cocoa beans are scooped into sacks and stored ready to go to the processing plant. The sacks of cocoa beans are piled up in a storage house ready for transportation. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Cocoa Production - 4

The cocoa beans are transported to a cocoa processing company. The beans wait to be turned into cocoa liquor, cocoa butter and cocoa cake. First of all the beans are cleaned to make sure there are no wood, sand or stones. The beans are roasted to bring out the chocolate flavour and colour further. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Cocoa Production - 5

A ‘winnowing’ machine is used to remove the shells from the beans, just leaving the nibs. The nibs are grinded in several stages to create cocoa liquor. The liquor is then pressed to extract the cocoa butter (which is then used to make chocolate).

Cocoa butter is cleaned using filters and stored in huge tanks.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Cocoa Production - 6

The cocoa butter is then poured into 25kg cardboard boxes with plastic liners. Several checks are carried out to check for contamination. The cardboard boxes are stored until they are completely solid and ready for transportation. Boxes are transported to other factories so that other ingredients can be added to make chocolate. Some factual information has been taken from www.thechocolatereview.com And the International Cocoa Organization www.icco.org A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sharing the Chocolate

Curriculum Links

To consider the concept of fairness in relation to the children’s own lives. To write a narrative using a given structure (to write a story based on ‘fairness’).

fairness

equality

Literacy Citizenship P4C

rights

Intro

Children are seated around a table in groups of 9 (you can adapt story characters depending on your group size). Warm-up activity: Put plate of 10 pieces of Fair Trade chocolate in the middle of table and ask children to share what feelings and thoughts they have about the chocolate in front of them without touching! See if any of them notice there are more than enough to share equally. It's good to break the chocolate up so all the pieces are a different size. Get groups to decide which character they will be (mum, dad, grandma, granddad, aunt, uncle, 3 children aged 5, 7 and 9). Ask additional adults to take on extra role if required. Make sure the plate of chocolate is next to the Mum character. Explain that they will all have a piece of chocolate by the end of the activity.

Big Ideas

Read through story, stopping at the bit where it talks about the family giving reasons for who should have the last piece. In their group, ask children to decide who should have the last piece based on some of the reasons in the story – or are there new reasons or solutions. Give 5 minutes for each group to write a solution and reason that is fair on a post-it note and stick on flip chart paper. Share children’s ideas with the whole group. Read through the rest of the story. “Was this a fair ending?” Stand up if you agree. Stand up if not. Go around and ask individual children their reasons. Highlight that the word 'fair' can be confusing. What does it really mean? Look at the ‘Fairness words’ sheet (which includes 2 blank spaces for any additional words you may think of). Discuss and decide in your group which you agree or disagree with – rank in order to create the closest definition to fair. At this point you could raise questions and run a P4C session.

Activity

Ask pupils to think of things that have happened to them where they have said ‘it’s not fair’. Explain that they are going to write their own story about ‘fairness’. They can use the story you have just read to base their ideas on, for example they could change the characters (to friends, made up characters, animals), change the item of food or change it to something else, but the story must be about the concept of fairness. For example, it might be a story about a family of squirrels for are unsure about how to divide the last nuts they have collected OR it might be a story about friends who have a collection of marbles.

Plenary

Share some of the stories and vote on whether the outcome was fair or unfair and to whom. Example P4C question

Why do people think that they deserve more? s c question Creating p4

Creating p4c

questions

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Sharing the Chocolate’ story (adapted from John Fisher’s ‘Sharing the Fish’ story), bar of chocolate, character labels (mum, dad, grandma, grandad, aunt, uncle, 3 children aged 5, 7 and 9), post-it notes, flip chart/large paper, ‘fairness’ cards A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sharing the Chocolate - Story Once there lived a family who had gathered together to celebrate Grandma's 75 th birthday. Seated around the table were Mum, Dad and three children aged 5, 7 and 9. Mum's sister was there too with her husband and most importantly, Grandma and Grandad. It wa s a very special celebration indeed. After a lovely meal, Mum brought out a plate of chocolates and put them in the middle of the table. “We better give Grandma the first piece.” said Mum “It is her birthday.” Mum gave the plate to Grandma who then passed it around the table. Each person took a piece of chocolate and passed it on. When it got back to Grandma there was just one piece left on the plate. “Oh.” said Mum. “Just one piece left. I wonder who should have that?” “I think Grandma should have it because it's her birthday.” said the youngest child. “Yes but Mum cooked us the lovely meal, maybe she should have it.” said Dad. “Maybe the youngest person should have it.” said the Uncle. “Well Auntie and Uncle are guests here today, I think one of them should have it.” said Mum. “But Dad earns the money to buy the chocolate, he should have it.” said the oldest child. “But it is my birthday next,” said the 7 year old child. “I think I should have it.” What a discussion they had. It went on for over 10 minutes, each person giving more and more reasons why they or someone else should have the last piece of chocolate. And all the time the piece of chocolate sat on the plate in the middle of the table. * stop here to discuss reasons (see lesson plan) “Wait!” said Dad. “I know how to settle this. Let us carry on with our celebration, and whoever doesn't speak for the longest will get the last piece of chocolate.” They all looked around at each other and agreed this was a very good idea. “We will start from now then.” said Dad. “And don't forget the person who remains silent for the longest will get the last piece of chocolate.” At first it seemed fun to sit around the table and say nothing. They smiled at each other, but nobody said anything. Five minutes went past, then ten and still nobody said anything at all. But soon their smiles began to wear off. They missed the happy chatter of everyone together for this important celebration. “Who would like a cup of tea and some birthday cake?” said Mum. She was tired of the silence. “Yes please.” said Grandma. “That would be nice.” added Grandpa and Dad, both at the same time. “Oh dear.” said Mum. “Looks like we won't be getting the last piece of chocolate.” “I'd rather have a piece of cake anyway.” said the Auntie. “Me too.” said the Uncle. Soon all the adults were talking together happily again, having broken their silence. Only the three children sat there saying nothing. Mum brought in a tray of tea and birthday cake. It was a lovely cake with the number 75 on it and lots of candles. “Quick, we better sing Happy Birthday before all the candles go out,” said Mum. The oldest and the youngest children looked at each other and smiled. As the adults began to sing Happy Birthday, they too joined in singing. Only the 7 year old sat there silently. When they finished singing, the 7 year old reached towards the plate and took the last piece of chocolate. “Yessss.” they said. “I got the last piece.” Written by Jane Yates but based on ‘Sharing the Fish’ by Robert Fisher

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sharing the Chocolate - Fairness cards

same

different

share

good

right

equal

need

want

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


The Fairest Teacher

Curriculum Links

To deepen children’s ideas about fairness and explore the relationship between “fair” and “equal”, relating them to real life situations. To listen carefully to a story and reflect on its meaning. To write word definitions and reflect on their meaning.

fairness

Citizenship Literacy P4C

equality

Intro

Four statements (on large cards) are read out: Someone treating you differently because you have red or ginger or auburn hair, Someone treating you differently because you are not very good at reading, Someone treating you differently because they are your friend, Someone treating you differently because you have the latest computer game Pupils are given 3 small cards each. On one is written “Fair”, on another “Unfair” and on the third is written a question mark. It is helpful if the card or paper is in 3 different colours. The 4 statements are read out again and placed around the room (or spaced inside the circle). The pupils are now asked to choose one of the statements that they are interested in, and to stand beside it, holding up one of their cards (that states “Fair”, “Unfair” or “?”). They could be interested, eg, because they think that the statement is unfair or because that there is more to think about before deciding whether it is fair or unfair. In that case, they would use their “?” card. They are asked to volunteer reasons – and asked for views that might differ or add to what has been said. They are then asked to write their own, individual definition of “fair” on a blank piece of paper. They do not have to reveal what they have written – they can put it in a pocket or up a sleeve.

Big Ideas

Example questions raised during P4C Is it always fair to be equal?

Read the dialogue story, The Fair Teacher. With a talk partner, ask the pupils to think about what puzzles them. Think about what the big ideas are. At this point you could raise questions and run a P4C session.

Activity

Ask pupils, individually or in pairs, to write their own definition of the words ‘fair’ and ‘equal’ and place them in respective hoops. Share the definitions and then point out the links as well as the differences between the two word meanings. Next, ask them to define ‘unfair’ and ‘unequal’. Is it just the opposite of ‘fair’ and ‘equal’? Ask pupils to shout out words that describe how it feels to be treated ‘unfairly’ or be part of a situation that is ‘unfair’ or ‘unequal’. Introduce the terms ‘just’, ‘unjust’, ‘justice’ and ‘injustice’.

Plenary

Pupils should now think of three situations that they know about that are ‘unfair’, unequal’ or ‘unjust’- 1 that is a local situation; 1 that is national; 1 that is a world-wide situation (keeping within the themes of this Challenge & Enquiry Pack). Share these situations asking them to comment on how the people in these situations must feel and also how the pupils feel about the situations.

Exten sion activ ities

Extension ideas Use images of situations around the world that illustrate examples of things being ‘just’ and ‘unjust’ or ‘equal’ and ‘unequal’. Ask the pupils to sort them into groups and begin to consider why it matters to them to do anything about the situation.

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

4 x statement cards, 3 small cards for each pupil showing ‘fair’, ‘unfair’ and ‘?’. Dialogue story ‘The Fair Teacher’. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Someone treating you differently because you have red or ginger or auburn hair

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Someone treating you differently because you are not very good at reading

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Someone treating you differently because they are your friend A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Someone treating you differently because you have the latest computer game

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


The Fairest Teacher - fair/unfair/? cards

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A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


The Fairest Teacher story A dialogue based on the stimulus called “The Fairest Teacher of Them All?”, which is the copyright of Jason Buckley – www.thephilosophyman.com Place a hat on the floor between the actors and the pupils. Facilitator I’d like to introduce you to Sue. Sue used to work in the City of London. She used to earn a lot of money. It must have been wonderful to earn so much money, Sue ... Sue

Yes, but when I walked from my first class train compartment going to and from work, I noticed that there were people in London who had very little money at all, because they were sitting on the streets asking for some of mine. Sometimes I felt guilty about having so much when they had so little. So I sometimes gave them a few coins.

Sue throws a couple of coins into the hat. Facilitator Your job was to invest the money of rich customers to help to make them even richer … Sue

Yes, sometimes I felt it was unfair that they were incredibly rich when I was just comfortable. So, I have to admit that sometimes I overcharged them, knowing that they had so much money that they wouldn’t notice.

Facilitator Goodness, me, sounds like you weren’t too happy doing what you were doing. Sue

No, one day I just decided that I was fed up with the whole business of people being so unequal. I decided to get a job where I could make a difference.

Facilitator What did you do? Sue

I went back to university and trained to become a teacher. When I started teaching, I decided that I would treat all my pupils equally.

Facilitator That sounds good. What did it mean in practice? Sue

Well, I learned the names of everyone in the class at the same time – including the brightest, the naughtiest and the quietest.

Facilitator I see. Anything else? Sue

I smiled at them all in the same way when I saw them around school and I made an effort to get to know each of them. I also spent the same time helping each of them with their work.

Facilitator Sounds good. Anything else? Sue

Yes, every time any pupil answered a question, I said the same thing, “Well done, that was excellent”. I set the same work for all of them and gave them all the same time to do it in. Then I gave them all the same grades and said the same thing about each pupil at parents’ evening and in their end of year reports.

Facilitator Oh. What if a pupil was naughty? Sue

I gave everyone the same punishment. Over all, I was pleased that I had treated all my pupils equally.

Facilitator And what did the pupils say? Sue

Well, I was really shocked and hurt.

Facilitator You can tell us, what did they say? Sue

They said, “It’s not fair – you treat us all the …”

Facilitator and Sue gesture to the pupils to invite them to complete the sentence. If not – see below … Facilitator Can you finish the sentence? “It’s not fair – you treat us all the …” to pupils


Fairtrade means something to me

Curriculum Links Lit Geog

To gain a deeper understanding of the benefits of the Fairtrade system for producers. To be able to make connections between fair pay, standards of living and education.

Literacy Num Cit P4C

To summarise key information and present this in an argument.

PSHE

fairness

rights

P4C

responsibility

Intro

Sit in a circle. Remind the pupils of the Fairtrade logo and with a talk partners ask them to think about what it actually means. Get some answers and highlight fair price, premium, quality product. Remind pupils that products without the Fairtrade logo might not ensure all of those things, which is why we are learning about Fairtrade so we can make an informed decision about what we buy – our choices affect other people.

Big Ideas

Hand out the statements cards so pupils have one each (or one between two). Discuss the statement in pairs. Place 2 hoops in the centre of the circle and ask pupils to read aloud their statement and place it in one of the hoops, either ‘Fairtrade means…’ or ‘Fairtrade does not mean…’. For example if a pupil has “Men and women are treated equally” they should place it in the ‘Fairtrade means…’ hoop or “The environment is not cared for or looked after” should be placed in the ‘Fairtrade does not mean…’ hoop. Once all of the statements are sorted out focus on the hoop that contains the ‘Fairtrade does not mean…’ statements. How do pupils feel about all of these statements? What ‘big ideas’ does it make them think of? (some of the concepts may come up here, such as ‘fairness’, ‘equality’, ‘poverty’). At this point you could raise questions and run a P4C session. Referring back to the statements may move the dialogue forward.

Activity

In pairs/small groups the pupils must decide which is the most important thing about being part of the Fairtrade system and write that in the centre of the page, for example “Farmers get a fair price”, and then create a spider diagram/concept map to explain the reasons why. E.g. Farmers get a fair price would link to Plantation workers have decent wages and that would also link to No child labour is allowed and also More children can go to school. Pupils can use statements provided as reasons why and may also expand to think of their own reasons too. Using the spider diagram/concept map as a planning tool, pupils can now write a longer piece of writing titled ‘Why Fairtrade is important’ (presenting an argument). They can summarise the information they have and write from their own point of view and decide which areas to focus on.

Plenary

Ask pupils to explain what they decided was the most important thing and why. Was there a common agreement? Ask what they think they can do to make sure as many farmers and families as possible get all of these things? What has it got to do with you? Extension ideas ‘Make a display showing the importance of Fairtrade in more detail. Make pledges to buy/use a Fairtrade product from now on or campaign for school to use them. fairtrade means ...

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

‘Fairtrade means something to me statement cards 1 and 2. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Fairtrade means something to me - hoop

Fairtrade means... Fairtrade does not mean ... A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Fairtrade means something to me - statements 1

Farmers get a fair price for the crops they grow Farmers get a regular income Farmers have trading contracts so they can plan for their future Farmers can join organisations that can support them Farmers can be paid in advance so they won’t fall into debt Workers on plantations have decent wages and housing Workers on plantations have decent health and safety standards Support is given so farmers can stop using harmful chemicals Workers are allowed to join trade unions Support is given to help with education and health care More children can go to school No child labour or forced labour is allowed Workers’ rights are respected lives Men and women are treated equally Workers are allowed to have more control over their lives A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Fairtrade means something to me - statements 1

Farmers are treated unfairly Farmers don’t know if they will even get paid at all Farmers often have to borrow money so they get into debt Farmers don’t know how much they will get paid Farmers are worried about whether they can provide for their families (food, warmth etc) Workers on plantations have poor working conditions and poor safety standards Workers are forced to work long hours with very little pay to support themselves Workers have to find second jobs because they don’t get paid enough Harmful chemicals can be used to grow more crops Cheap products are made with sub standard crops Expensive products are made that no-one can afford Children have to work to help support their families Fewer children go to school The environment is not cared for or looked after Producers have no control over the market and who they are selling to A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Fairtrade Alphabet

Curriculum Links Lit Geog

To create a bank of words relating to Fairtrade products, concepts and issues.

Literacy Num Cit

To use an alphabet word bank to create a Fairtrade poem.

PSHE

fairness

rights

P4C

values

Intro

This should be done at a fast pace. In small groups hand out cards with random letters of the alphabet on (so each group gets around 5 random letters each). Ask the pupils to think of things related to Fairtrade to add to each letter they have; e.g. this could be countries involved in Fairtrade, supermarkets, product names, concepts, issues. For example: B – Banana / Brazil nuts / Basmati rice C – Cocoa / Cadbury’s / Café Direct / cashew nuts / cooperative P – Palestine (oil) / peppercorns / people / price / premium / poverty U – Ubuntu Cola (Fairtrade coke!) After a few minutes ask pupils to leave the letters on their table and get groups to rotate round to a new table and therefore a new set of letters. They can then read the new letters and words they have and add to them. Repeat the group rotation until every group has accessed every letter.

Big Ideas

Ask the pupils to pick up any one letter and then get themselves into alphabetical order. Any pupils without a letter can help move pupils around. Starting at ‘A’, each person should then read out all of the things on their card. Display these words by hanging the cards on a washing line or sticking them up on the wall.

Activity

Using the alphabet word bank created, model how to use the words to create a Fairtrade based poem. This could be using an alphabetical theme, such as: A is for Asda who supply more and more Fairtrade products every week B is for brilliant bananas – the most popular Fairtrade product in the UK C is for Cadbury’s, one of the biggest chocolate manufacturers to go Fairtrade Or it could be a FAIRTRADE acrostic poem or it could be a shape poem (in the shape of the Fairtrade logo or a Fairtrade product). Pupils then write their own poem.

Plenary

Share the poems. Discuss creating a Fairtrade poetry book and putting the poems in order, writing a contents page, illustrations, front and back cover etc and assign tasks to different groups. Carry this over to another lesson.

Extension ideas ‘Our A – Z of Fairtrade’: Pupils could type up the Fairtrade alphabet to make a more permanent display. This could be illustrated with images found on the Internet.

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Fruit y Fair

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Pupil Action Ideas Use the poetry book created (or chose the best few poems) to share with parents and the wider community as part of the school newsletter or on the school website. y

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Individual cards labelled A – Z (NB: it might be a good idea to group difficult letters such as X and Y!) A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Cocoa Clues Mystery

(Why can Afia go to school

To have a greater understanding of the benefits of the Fairtrade system to workers, their families and the local community To be able to put together pieces of information to provide a summary of events.

fairness

equality

Curriculum Links

Citizenship Geography Literacy

rights

Intro

It may be beneficial to have seen the film about school life in Ghana first: www.global-literacy.yolasite.com Click on ‘Ghana’ and then the video of ‘Daniel’s classical school’.

Big Ideas

Put up the questions on the board ‘Why can Afia go to school now?’ What information can they gather just from this question? The key word is ‘now’ which infers she hasn’t been to school before. Explain that Afia is a child from Ghana, Africa. Can they think of any reasons she might not have been to school before? Take down any ideas to refer back to.

Activity

Explain that in groups pupils have to solve a mystery. They have lots of statements which need sorting out so that they can help them answer the question ‘Why can Afia go to school now?’ There is no right or wrong answer; it is up to the groups to sort out the statements and think of a summary to answer the question. They can record this on the small white board. You can assist groups by getting them to put the statements in chronological order or grouping them in any other way (such as statements to do with Afia, Kwesi, the village, the school etc).

Plenary

Share summaries from each group. Reflect on similarities and differences. What else did it make them think about? Did it make them think about their own education system? This part could then be used as a stimulus for a P4C enquiry.

Extension ideas

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Look into organisations that help promote equality for girls and boys to go to school. And link this to the Millennium Development Goal of Universal Education for all. What progress has been made and what needs to be done?

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Cocoa clues mystery statements: cut up so that each group has one full set each. Small white boards to write down summary .

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Cocoa Clues Mystery Statements Afia is 8 years old. She has 3 older brothers and a sister. She lives with her mum and dad. Afia is good at cooking. She helps her mum at home. Afia’s brothers walk a long way to school. They don’t go every day because their dad cannot afford to pay. Sometimes Afia’s brothers have to help out on the cocoa farm if it is busy. Afia doesn’t go to school because it is too expensive for her father to pay. Many girls do not have the opportunity to go to school. Afia’s mum, Esther, sells the vegetables the family grow at the market on Friday. Afia’s dad, Kwesi, works on a small cocoa farm growing cocoa beans. Afia’s family lives in the countryside in Western Region in Ghana. The roads are bad for travelling. The village they live in has one water well that is dirty and busy. People often get ill. It costs money to go to the local Government school. Parents must help pay for books and towards the teachers’ pay. The school is in the nearest town but it is a long way for Afia to travel on the bad roads. Kwesi often doesn’t have enough money to buy enough food or clothing for his family. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Cocoa Clues Mystery Statements Kwesi cannot afford for Afia and her sister Abena, who is 6, to go to school so they stay at home to help their mum. They need to sell vegetables in the local market to try and make some extra money. Kwesi and his friends at the cocoa farm are fed up of not knowing what they will get paid and even if they will get paid at all. The world price of cocoa goes up and down so the price farmers and workers get paid goes up and down too. A group of small farmers is approached by Fairtrade, so they can begin selling the cocoa beans as part of the Fairtrade market. After a year, the first Fairtrade premium arrives. The workers all vote on how to use this money so that it benefits their community. The Fairtrade premium is spent on improving the roads and water well. Kwesi is much happier now that he has more money each week to buy food and that his family has clean, safer drinking water. The roads to the nearest town are built with the Fairtrade premium so that people can travel better. Members of the cocoa farm decide to buy a bus with the Fairtrade premium so that their children can safely get to school and back. Kwesi is proud that he can now send his daughters to school. Kwesi likes being part of the Fairtrade market. He now knows he will get paid in time. Kwesi and the other cocoa workers have been trained so they now know more about looking after their farms and the environment. They also formed a cocoa producers’ cooperative. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Alien Headlines 1

Curriculum Links

To begin to understand inequalities surrounding food and hunger around the world. To collect information from a variety of sources. To plan a journalistic piece of writing (newspaper article).

equality

Literacy Citizenship P4C

needs & wants

Intro

Sit in a circle and play a variation of the ‘shopping list game’ about the food we eat. “When I think of food I think of …”. Go around the circle so each pupil completes the sentence and also tries to recall what the previous person has said, building up the list. Then repeat and change this to “When I think of being hungry I think of …”. Share the quote by newsreader Jon Snow from Channel 4 news “If reporters from Mars visited Earth, don’t you think that their lead story would be ‘one in six humans go hungry’? And yet that never makes our headline news.” Allow 30 seconds quiet reflection time and then ask the pupils to shout out things they now think of – these could be concepts, emotional reflections/feelings etc. Record on the board.

Big Ideas

Hand out approx 5 blank post-it notes or small slips of paper to each pupil. Present the pupils with the facts document about food waste and food inequality. Ask the pupils to write down the words that immediately spring to mind on the post-it notes as you are reading (they can write as you read). Collect and display the words on the board. Group together any similar words or phrases and look at the ‘big ideas’ or main concepts brought up so far. This part could then be used as a stimulus for a P4C enquiry, so gather questions at this point.

Activity

Refer back to the Jon Snow quote. Explain that the pupils are going to write their own newspaper article for “Alien Times”, the alien newspaper, so that they know more about this huge world issue concerning food, lack of food and waste across the world. (You could set this up as a competition so that only the best articles will feature in the newspaper as there is only room for a select few). First of all they need to plan their article using the supporting planning sheet. Model the importance of the planning stage. Pupils then work individually to plan their news article using the planning sheet.

Plenary

Review some of the planning sheets, celebrating good snappy headlines etc. Explain that in the next lesson the planning sheet will be used to write the newspaper article.

“If reporters from Mars visited Earth, don’t you think that their lead story would be ‘one in six humans go hungry’?

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Extension ideas Pupils who complete the planning sheet could then search for images on the internet to use in their article.

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

John Snow quote, post-it notes or small slips of paper, ‘Alien Headlines planning sheet’. ‘Food Waste’ facts sheet.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Alien Headlines - quote from Jon Snow, Channel 4

“If reporters from Mars visited Earth, don’t you think that their lead story would be ‘one in six humans go hungry’? And yet that never makes our headline” A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Food Waste The World ...  Around 4 billion tonnes of food are produced yearly in the world.  Between 30% and 50% of the food produced in the world is wasted—that’s up to half!  That’s between 1.2 and 2 billion tones.  There are over 7 billion people in the world, That’s 7, 000, 000, 000!  By 2050 the population is expected to be 10 billion. That’s 10, 000, 000, 000!  There are an estimated 925 million hungry people in the world, that means 1 in 6 to 7 people are hungry.

Variations across the world ...  In the least developed countries, most waste happens at farm level or between farm and local markets because of inefficient harvesting methods, inadequate local transport and infrastructure, and improper storage.  In transition countries – such as the Central and Eastern European ones– the main losses remain connected to improper infrastructure but this time at regional or national level as supply chains get longer.  In developed countries, relatively more waste is caused by consumers who throw away part of bought food, but even here the major part is lost before it reaches homes.  Food waste in Europe and North America is almost twice the size of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian.

In the UK ...  Up to half of the food bought is thrown away.  Up to 30% of the vegetable crop is never harvested as a result of standards imposed on the farmers by the supermarkets. If vegetables do not meet supermarket requirements in terms of color, size and shape, it simply is left to rot in the field.  24% to 35% of school lunches end up in the bin.  We throw away more food from our homes than packaging in the UK every year.  Wasting food is costing the average household £50 a month.  15 million tonnes of food is thrown away each year, with almost half coming from our homes and the rest from manufacturing, hospitality, retail etc.  Around 7 million tonnes of food waste comes from households each year.

Sources:

A broken food system: half of the world's food goes to waste Article by Claudia Ciobanu and Piotr Trzaskowski, 2013 Tristram Stuart's Waste: Uncovering the Global Food Scandal (Penguin, 2009). www.worldhunger.org www.england.lovefoodhatewaste.com

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Alien Headlines Planning Sheet

ALIEN TIMES By ………………………………………………………

Headline for your news article

Main facts you want to include in your article

Picture(s) that highlight your main points and get aliens interested

List of actions the aliens could do to help the problem …

Style of writing you will use (first person commentary ‘I’ or report style ‘there are’)

Ending for the article so that aliens want to find out more …

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Alien Headlines 2

Curriculum Links Lit Geog

To begin to understand inequalities surrounding food and hunger around the world.

PSHE

To write a journalistic piece of writing for a newspaper.

rights

responsibility

Literacy Num Cit Citizenship P4C

needs & wants

Intro

Remind the pupils of the Jon Snow quote and recap the planning sheets completed in the previous lesson. Model using your own planning sheet to begin writing your article, ask pupils for help and demonstrate that it is okay to change your mind, by editing and amending, about wording as this is a draft piece of work (you will be writing/typing it up later once you are happy with it).

Big Ideas

Remind the pupils about the big ideas (concepts) they are focusing on and want to get across in their writing (inequality, food consumption, food waste, hunger, rights).

Activity

Pupils use their planning sheets to write an article for “Alien Times”. Once they are happy with it they can either write it up neatly or type it up for submission to the editor who will decide whether it is news worthy or not!

Plenary

Share some of the completed articles. You could vote on which ones should be included in “Alien Times”. Childr en wor king o n

newsp

Extension ideas

You may want to start or continue the discussion about what is FACT and what is OPINION (see lessons in the Introductory Activities on this). Children can write the script of a TV news report, then make a short film of the item, including roles of newsreader, camera operator, director, etc.

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Jon Snow quote RE aliens/hunger, completed planning sheet. ‘Food Waste’ facts sheet.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC

apers


10 Myths About Hunger

Curriculum Links Lit Geog

To understand the myths and realities of why there is hunger in the world. To begin to understand that our own lifestyle choices can impact on others. To form opinions based on evidence and be able to give reasons to support them.

perceptions

needs & wants

Literacy Num Cit Citizenship PSHEP4C P4C

equality

Intro

Using the ‘10 Myths about hunger statement cards sheet’ give one statement out as a stimulus to each small group in the class. Ask them to think about whether they agree or disagree with the statement, or are not sure. Give them about 10 minutes for discussion and to note down their ideas, including their response, thoughts, feelings and any questions they might have.

Big Ideas

Ask each group to present what they have decided about the statement and why. Other children can comment, ask questions, or build on their ideas. As you facilitate this discussion, your input is to guide, challenge preconceptions and stereotypes (where they exist) and to use the ‘10 Myths about hunger - debunked’ sheet to dispel and challenge these myths. Did you know?

Activity

Give children 2 minutes talking time back in their original groups to discuss what they have learned which is new, that surprised them, and whether they have changed their minds. Then ask them to rewrite their original statement, with the new knowledge they now have, so that negatives become positives, eg. there is enough food in the world to feed everyone.

Plenary

Share the positive statements and display them next to the negative original statements.

Around a th worldwid ird of all food e goes to waste. One in se ven peop le in the world ar e hungry . There is enough f ood in th world to e day for e v eryone to have t he nouris hment they nee d.

Extension ideas

In a follow-up session, ask the children to revisit the new statements they have written. View their statement as a ‘Change Mission’ and ask them to come up with ideas of ‘What are we going to do?” This time, in their small groups, the children suggest ideas that they can personally take action on solving the problem of hunger.

ents ut statem Sorting o

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets Statement Cards—10 Myths About Hunger. 10 Myths about hunger—debunked sheet.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


10 Myths About Hunger - statement cards There isn’t enough food to feed the world

Hunger is just a question of not having enough to eat

Droughts and other natural disasters are to blame for hunger

Hunger only exists when there’s not enough food

All of the world’s hungry live in Africa

Too many people go hungry in my home country for me to worry about hunger abroad

Hunger and famine are not easy to predict and can't be prepared for

Hunger is just a health issue

People are only hungry during emergencies or disasters

There are more important global issues than hunger

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


10 Myths About Hunger — debunked 1. There isn’t enough food to feed the world There is enough food in the world today for everyone to have the nourishment they need. There needs to be more efficient, sustainable ways to grow and distribute food. Around a third of all food worldwide goes to waste. 2. Hunger is simply a question of not having enough to eat. Hunger also involves the type of food you eat. Good nutrition means having the right combination of nutrients and calories needed for healthy development. It's especially important for infants, pregnant women and young children. 3. Droughts and other natural disasters are to blame for hunger. Communities that build irrigation systems, storage facilities, and roads to connect to markets, improve harvests, and people can survive even during times of drought. Nature is only one factor when it comes to hunger. The proportion of food crises that are linked to human causes has more than doubled since 1992. 4. Hunger only exists when there’s not enough food. People can go hungry when they can’t afford food or can’t get to local markets. 5. All of the world’s hungry live in Africa. Of the world’s nearly one billion hungry, over one-half live in Asia and the Pacific. Hunger is also a relevant issue Europe, where some estimates suggest that 1 in 10 people don’t have food security. 6. Too many people go hungry in my home country for me to respond to hunger abroad. One in seven people in the world are hungry, which means one in seven people can’t create, study, or reach their full potential because they are hungry. That affects all of us. Hunger slows progress on other important areas that connect nations. 7. Hunger and famine are not easy to predict and can't be prepared for. Tools exist to monitor and predict trends in food production as well as food prices. For example, the Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) analyzes meteorological and economic factors to alert the world to the possibility of hunger hotspots and famine. 8. Hunger is just a health issue. This issue also affects education and the economy. Children lacking nutrients struggle to focus, learn, or even attend school. In the poorest parts of the world, a school meal can double primary school enrolment. 9. People are only hungry during emergencies or disasters. Population-wide emergencies only account for eight percent of the world’s hungry. There are close to one billion hungry people in the world who do not make the headlines. 10. There are more pressing global issues than hunger. Hunger is at the root of so many global issues. When populations are hungry, economies suffer, people fight, and farmers can’t grow their crops effectively. Fighting hunger also fights environmental, economic, and security issues.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Part 2 Poverty & Interdependence Mary and John - Sustainability Mary and John - Emotions & Empathy Mary and John - People & Environment Mary and John - A Happy Ending? Ghana Fact files Sorting Out Ghana What would I see? Money Talks What is poverty? Definitions What is poverty? Life Stories

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Mary & John - Sustainability

Curriculum Links

To be able to discuss the term ‘sustainable’ in terms of development and living. To consider how ‘sustainable living’ applies to us on a personal and global level. To be able to take part in a shared discussion and P4C enquiry (speaking & listening). To be able to listen to a story and make reflections on it.

sustainability

values

Citizenship Geography P4C

poverty

Intro

Using the classroom as a starting point, ask the pupils to think about what would happen if we used up all of these resources today ... For example, what about this pile of paper? What if this was the last bit of paper available and we used it all up? What about if we ate the last carrots out of the school vegetable patch? What would happen? What would this mean? What would it mean for our future lessons, for other classes in the school, for future pupils? How could we manage the resources responsibly? (Re-think, reduce, re-use, recycle, composting, rotation of crops etc.)

Big Ideas

Now introduce or remind pupils of the term sustainable, sustainable development or sustainable living. Think about these terms in relation to yourself, other people (those living now and in the future) and the environment around us that supports us.

Activity

Read The Story of Mary & John. Ask pupils to make their initial reflections and note down any ‘big ideas’ they come up with. Get pupils into groups giving each group a ‘Mary & John Question Sheet’ that they can fill in collaboratively. Share the answers and ask pupils to elaborate and reflect where possible. Then ask pupils to think individually about the things it has made them think about and share those within their group to then raise questions. Run a P4C enquiry. NB: We suggest that the story can be used over one, two or three P4C sessions. Please read the whole story and see what you think, adapting the group activity as needed. Suggestions for where to take breaks are shown.

Plenary

Following a P4C enquiry refer to any questions that were classed as ‘questions for experts’ and discuss who we could ask to find the answers.

What is sustainable development?

Example P4C Questions

"... development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."

Who are we responsible for? What and who should we have in mind when we are making choices?

Think ing a bout susta inabil ity

This is the most commonly and widely used definition of sustainable development, taken from Our Common Future / Brundtland Report, from the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), 1987.

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets Story of Mary & John Mary & John Questions sheet

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


The Story of Mary & John Once upon a time, there lived 2 neighbours – one was called John and one was called Mary. Both John and Mary had land at the back of their houses, where they grew fruit and vegetables for their families to eat. John was more fortunate than Mary when it came to his land. Firstly, John had a well in his garden and used the water to irrigate his crops when the weather was dry. Secondly, there was an outcrop of rock at the edge of John’s piece of land. This formed a natural shelter from the prevailing winds that blew strong and cold at certain times of the year. Thirdly, John’s soil was rich and fertile because he spread the manure from chickens that his father had left to him. For many years, the neighbours (John and Mary) lived happily alongside each other. If one grew more carrots and the other more apples, they would swap or even just give away the extra to each other’s families. John would pass buckets of water to Mary when the weather was dry and give her a bag or two of chicken manure. Mary liked to give John figs and beautiful flowers for his family’s table, which she was particularly good at growing. This way of life went on for a long time and the neighbours and their families enjoyed the rhythms of the seasons. They got satisfaction from seeing their plants grow from seeds into food to put on to their tables. They enjoyed living in a friendly community, however small – they could always count on each other if things got tough, for example if the weather meant that the crop yields were down. Occasionally another neighbour would slaughter an animal and everyone would bring something in return for a share of the meat. [Possible break if you want to have 3 sessions out of this story] Gradually, though, things began to change. It may have started with the building of a road and footpath alongside John’s land. When people passed by, they would look over his fence and admire his crops. John was proud to show them what he was growing and once or twice he offered them a sample if he had plenty. In time, people offered to buy John’s fruit and vegetables. So, John set up a stall and increased his production, and made some money. Then, it wasn’t just admirers who stopped by. It was also people who wanted to sell John things – and John and his family started to buy new clothes from them, then new gadgets and new games – all sorts of things. John’s family told Mary’s family how good it felt to have the latest this or the latest that. And John’s family hungered now, not so much for the food that they grew, but for the things they might buy to make life more exciting and to be admired for being up to date. John now felt under more pressure than ever before to grow more crops on his land so that he could pay for all the new things that he and his family wanted. When John’s crop yields fell, Mary told him that he was exhausting the soil by asking too much of it. Mary told John that he should do what they had always done – rotate the crops and let some patches of ground rest for a season. This not only helped the ground to recover, but helped to stop pests. But, John couldn’t do this – he wanted the land to work harder for him. One day, one of the merchants told him that he could sell him some chemical fertiliser to make the ground more productive. The merchant also suggested that he would make more money if he concentrated on only one or 2 crops. Then he could use particular chemical fertilisers and particular chemical pesticides that were designed for those 2 particular crops. So, John stopped growing other things and concentrated on growing grapes and broccoli. One year, the grapes were hit very badly by pests and he was relieved to be able to buy a particularly strong pesticide to kill off the pests – ignoring Mary’s complaints about overspill that contaminated her land and destroyed some of her vegetables. John killed and ate all his chickens. He didn’t need them – after all, he was already buying chemical fertiliser for the land, and if he wanted eggs or meat, he could buy them too. John found that his grapes and his broccoli needed a lot of water and he thought, “Why should I share my water now when I can sell it for good money in the dry season?” So, this is what he decided to do, even to Mary, his immediate neighbour.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


The Story of Mary & John (continued) When Mary could not afford the price, she offered him vegetables and flowers instead of money. John took some flowers (they were beautiful after all and his wife liked them for the family table) but he didn’t need the vegetables because he could buy cheap vegetables elsewhere. Eventually, Mary was so much in debt to John for the water that she needed for her crops, that John told Mary that things could not go on like this. If Mary wanted, John could buy her land and Mary could rent part of it off him as his tenant. John would supply the water to her as her landlord. Mary had no money, so she had no choice, and this is what she did. [Natural break in the story. First place to stop if you want to have 2 sessions. Second place to stop if you want to have 3 sessions.] With a smaller piece of land for her crops, it was difficult for Mary to grow enough food for her family, and sometimes they went hungry. Their neighbours looked over and felt sorry for them. Sometimes they would give Mary and her family a bit of food or a bit of money to help. Sometimes they would give them cast-offs – old clothes, old gadgets and old games. This made Mary’s children feel a bit as if they were second class, and made them yearn for the new clothes, the new gadgets and the new games that would make them feel as proud as their neighbours. After a while, John said to Mary, “Why don’t you concentrate on growing what will make you money? Forget about the fruit and vegetables and concentrate on the flowers. That’s what people want to buy. Sell all the flowers to me and I will sell them for you all over the world. Then you can use the money to buy what you want, not just food and clothes, but the latest fashions, the latest gadgets and the latest games for your family.” Mary wasn’t happy to do this but she felt that she had no choice. If that is what it would take to feed her family, that was what she would do - and if it meant that she would also be able to afford new things, that would make her children happy. So, Mary cut down her trees and sold them for firewood. She dug up her crops and pulled out the roots. She spread chemical fertiliser that she had bought from John and sprayed chemicals to keep the flowers free of pests, even though this made her cough. She bought flower seeds off John so that she could grow the types of flowers that people wanted to buy. For several years, Mary grew the flowers and John paid her some money, and made a lot more for himself by selling the flowers on to other people. Mary wasn’t as rich as John but she was happy to be able to feed her family. Her children weren’t quite as happy because they got a few gadgets and a few games but never the latest of anything. The following year, though, there was so little rain that the water level in the well grew lower and lower. John used most of the water himself. He told Mary that times were hard and that she would have to pay him more money if she wanted water. But Mary couldn’t afford it – her thirsty flowers were not growing so big or so healthy, so she couldn’t raise the money to buy the water that she needed. What was she to do? Mary turned to John and she turned to her family and she said, “How has it come to this?” John replied, “Some people are rich and some people are poor. It is the way of the world.” Mary then told him, “John, you might be poor yourself one day, then you will know how it feels. Besides, you can’t go on just making money, something has got to give. One day, you’ll see, the oil for your fertiliser will run out and before it does, it will become very expensive, you’ll see.” To which, John replied, “Mary, that’s sour grapes – you can’t blame me for the state you find yourself in”. And Mary said, “Can’t I?”

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Mary & John Story - Questions Sheet At the start of the story, what do we learn about John’s land that made him fortunate?

What did all the neighbours value about their way of life (before things changed)?

How did things change and what brought about the changes?

Could the money that John earned (from selling his crops) have been used differently? How?

Why did Mary become poorer?

Why were Mary’s children unhappy?

Were John and his family happy? Why do you say that?

What could be done to change things?

Who would benefit from the changes?

List your ‘big ideas’ or questions here ...

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Mary & John - Emotions & Empathy To reflect on a story showing empathy towards the characters and their situations. To have an increased understanding of sustainability, and cause and effect. To be able to create illustrations for a story, label them appropriately and place them in a sequence.

sustainability

poverty

Curriculum Links

Literacy Geography Citizenship

change

Intro

Remind the pupils about the discussions had around the terms sustainable, sustainable development and sustainable living in the previous lesson. Remind the pupils of The Story of Mary & John, reading it through once more but asking the pupils to note the different parts to the story, in which the characters experience changes to their lives. (You may need to stop after each section to discuss and note down what changes have happened to the characters).

Big Ideas

Explain that for each section of the story pupils are going to make a drawing to represent what is happening and that expresses the characters’ feelings and emotions at that time. Using the ‘emotions graph sheet’ plot each character’s emotion during each different stage of the story. Use a different coloured dot or line for each character to create the graph together.

Activity

In groups ask the pupils to draw pictures to illustrate parts of the story. You could give them a copy of part of the story text (either the beginning, middle or end) and ask them to split that into smaller sections, drawing an illustration for each part, paying close attention to the character’s feelings (facial expressions, body language) as well as what they are doing and the environment around them. Ask them to label the pictures with descriptive words around the edge to focus their thinking.

Plenary Using a large space on the floor or on a wall, ask pupils to put their illustrations in sequence showing the full story from beginning to end, so that a timeline is created. Ask each group to explain their drawings and encourage deeper thinking about the logic of the changes (causes and effects). Also refer back to the emotions graph, linking events closely to emotions, highlighting the link between physical changes and emotional changes.

Creatin

Extension ideas In small groups, pupils will act out, as a role play, the same short section of the story. They each choose a character (if there aren’t enough characters they can make one up to add to the scene). Before they carry out their role play, they should discuss again each characters’ feelings, what happens during the scene to change their feelings, and then think about how they will convey those feelings to an audience, eg through the words they use, the tone of their voice, their facial expression and other body language.

g an em otions g

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Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Story of Mary & John Emotions graph (enlarge the sheet provided or draw your own on the board) A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Mary & John - emotions graph Excited

Very happy

Calm / relaxed

Mischievous

Sick / ill

Surprised

Shocked

Sad

Angry Beginning Middle End

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Mary & John - People & Environment To be more aware about different models of development. To understand links between people and the environment in relation to development.

Curriculum Links

Geography Citizenship

To be able to reflect on specific aspects of a story and recognise aspects of change. To make a presentation which presents an argument.

development

change

Intro

Introduce the ‘compass rose method’ of exploring the Story of Mary and John. Draw the compass rose on the board and describe what each point refers to (see compass rose sheet for more information). North = nature, the environment; South = social relations , people; East = economic relations , money; West = who? Political power

Big Ideas

In groups or pairs, as pupils to think of 2/3 reflections on the changes that have occurred for each point of the compass rose (i.e. 2/3 changes that occurred in nature (N), 2/3 for changes that occurred in social relations (S) and so on for East and West). They should consider what impact these changes had on these areas. (If pupils are unclear of certain aspects of the story they may also use this method to structure their questioning).

Activity Explain that the story theme of ‘development’ (or change) is a complex one and communities, societies, countries and the world are developing and changing all of the time and you can think of development in many different ways. Explain that in groups pupils are going to look at a description of development and think about how it relates to the story. Give each group one of the 4 descriptions of a model of development. As a group they must think of ways this viewpoint most accurately reflects the story of Mary and John and construct an argument that will explain their reasoning to the rest of the class. Ask pupils to present their argument and try to persuade / encourage others to agree with their view point.

Plenary Once the class has listened to all four arguments, pupils must decide as a class which is the most accurate or relevant description of the Mary and John story.

Models of Development Notes for teachers ...

Nature Who? Political power

Economic relations Social relations

Model A: sustainable development Model B: de-growth Model C: Gaia vision Model D: development focussed on new technologies

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets Compass rose sheet Models of development sheet

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Mary & John - People & Env - compass rose Natural This is about the environment - the land, the sea, living things, and their relationship to each other. It is about the built as well as the 造natural' environment Who (political) This is about power, who makes choices and decides what is to happen; who benefits or loses as a result of these decisions; and at what cost

Economic This is about money, trading and ownership, buying and selling

Social This is about people, their relationships, their traditions, culture and the way they live. About how, for example, gender, race, disability, class and age affect social relations

Explore the issues of the story by encouraging pupils to start making reflections about the influences of environmental, social, political and economic dimensions (you can also use this method to structure questioning). Compass Rose method originally by Birmingham Development Education Centre

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Mary & John - People & Environment

It is difficult to change this because the Earth's resources are commodities and are sold and bought so that people can make the most profits out of them.

A. People have the right to exploit the Earth's resources for their well-being. However, the Earth's resources will end one day , therefore people must manage them carefully and properly. When using the Earth's resources people must first examine what is possibly dangerous for the Earth and themselves.

If people want to save the Earth's resources, they must slow down their consumption, use renewable sources of energy and locally produced goods.

B. The Earth's resources may end one day therefore our economy cannot develop with the present speed and people cannot consume as much as they do now for a longer time.

When people think about further human development, they must take it into account that the Earth's resources will end one day if not used reasonably.

D.

When the Earth's resources end one day, people will start looking for other, new resources and technologies so that our civilisation keeps developing. In order to do so, people who are rich will invest their money in reserach and development of new technologies.

The Earth is robust and can survive people's actions.

C. The Earth is a system with many different parts. The body of the Earth is called Gaia and all people are part of her. Gaia and her parts (animals, plans, rocks, soil) have rights that need to be protected. People need to live in small self-sufficient communities, in the rythym of nature.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Mary & John - A Happy Ending?

Curriculum Links

To understand links between people and the environment in relation to development.

Literacy

To be able to write alternative story endings.

sustainability

development

change

Intro

Refer back to the ‘Mary & John - Emotions & Empathy’ lesson by looking at the large story board created to illustrate the story, reminding the pupils of the key points of the story. Point to the place in the story where John decides to sell his produce and say that from this point we are going to re-think what happens next and create an alternative ending.

Big Ideas

Ask the pupils, as the story stands now is the ending happy or sad? For who? Ask them to think quietly for 30 seconds about other scenarios, for example an ending where everyone was happy, everyone was sad, etc and think about what factors make them feel that way. Then take some ideas and list possibilities on the board, elaborating on ideas to encourage creative thinking. Think of the big ideas that the story explores and say that their alternative ending may explore any of these concepts.

Activity Ask pupils to create a story board or story map using the same ‘story beginning’ and ‘story middle’ but then creating their own ‘story ending’. It is up to them what this is but it must follow on from the previously discussed themes in the story. Pupils use their story board/map to help write their alternative story ending.

Plenary

As pupils to volunteer to share some of their alternative endings. Highlight what concepts they have explored, whether pupils have decided to focus on different models of development etc.

Extension ideas Pupils can write a 'diary' from the characters' perspectives focussing on the changes in the characters feelings as the story progresses. OR pupils could write letters, from Mary to John and vice versa.

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Large story board created in ‘Emotions & Empathy’ lesson to refer back to

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Ghana Fact files

Curriculum Links Lit Geog

To gather geographical and historical information about Ghana from a development perspective. To be able to extract important facts from printed texts and film.

perceptions

similarities & differences

Literacy Num Cit Geography Citizenship PSHE P4C

preconceptions

Intro

Tell the pupils that you are going to learn more about Ghana, West-African. You are going to have a look at geography, people's life, nature, history and the present day. Hand out some blank paper and tell them they are going to write down everything they know about Ghana, every association which comes to their mind connected with Ghana. Give them 2 minutes.

Big Ideas

Share ideas in pairs then ask some children to call out some of their most interesting notes about Ghana. Were most of their ideas about geography, people's life, nature, history or the present day? What was the most common idea? Has made anyone think of any concepts or big ideas?

Activity

Divide the children into 4 ‘expert groups’ and hand out one ‘experts text’ per group (history, geography, people, industry & agriculture). Divide them into groups by handing them a different coloured letter using the ‘grouping cards sheet’. Ask the pupils to get into LETTER groups (so all of the H’s group for history, all of the G’s group for geography etc). The groups then read the ‘expert texts’ documents to find out more about their particular area. Then the groups can be handed the ‘expert text questions’ sheet and try to answer the questions, however, not all of the answers will be in the text—some may be in the Ghana film which they will be watching shortly.

Watch the short film about Ghana. Then answer any unanswered questions on their sheets. Next, as the pupils to form new ‘home groups’ based on the COLOUR of their grouping card, each group will therefore have a member that has accessed a different part of the expert information. Ask members of the group to share what they have learned with the rest of the group members.

Plenary

‘Ghana In five’ - ask each pupil to complete the ‘five finger’ sheet as follows ... 1. Describe Ghana in a sentence 2. Describe Ghana in 3 adjectives 3. Describe Ghana with 2 verbs 4. Describe Ghana in 1 word only 5. Draw a symbol to represent Ghana

Extension ideas

During the expert group work children may want to find out more ... Create a list of ‘expert questions’ that you can find answers for in the future.

na f Gha ure o t u f e Th

Ghan a

fact

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Grouping cards sheet, Expert texts, expert questions sheet Five Fingers worksheet Life In Ghana film www.global-literacy.yolasite.com A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC

file


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H - Ghana’s History G - Ghana’s Geography

I—Ghana’s Industry & agriculture

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Ghana Fact files - grouping cards

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Ghana Fact files - Expert Information Ghana’s History

In the 13th century when the Ghana Empire fell apart, its inhabitants moved to the fertile areas of what is today northern Ghana. The first European settlers to arrive in Ghana were the Portuguese. They arrived in 1470, and began a settlement on the coast, and constructed the first of many fortresses. Between the 17 th and late 19th centuries, the Ashanti Empire was one of the most powerful black people’s states which existed in the central and northern part of the country. In 1695 Osai Tutu of the Ashanti tribe became the ruler of a newly established empire. Thanks to his leadership and military skills, he conquered the neighbouring tribe of Denkyira. At that time, the coast was controlled by European settlers. The Ashanti people had gold, which along with ivory, they traded with the Europeans. For most of the 19 th century, the Ashanti Empire was able to hold off the British (who at that time were occupying the Gold Coast). There was a war (the 7 th Anglo-Ashanti War) and the British Army held the biggest resources and the most soldiers. After this war, the Ashanti Empire eventually came to belong to the British in 1896. Until 1957 when they became independent, Ghana was part of Great Britain, and was called the Gold Coast. It was the first sub-Saharan colony to become independent, and Kwame Nkrumah became the first President. He was a very important person in Africa’s recent history, and was one of the founders of the African Unity Organisation which was succeeded by the African Union in 2002.

The new government that was elected in 1969 was not able to bring the country out of the economic problem that was growing and after several years of this hundreds of thousands of people migrated to neighbouring countries looking for jobs. Since the 1990s the political system has been much more stable.

Source: Wikipedia (http://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghana, http://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/A%C5%A1antsk%C3%A1_%C5%99%C3%AD%C5% A1e)

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Ghana Fact files - Expert Information Ghana’s Geography

Ghana is a tropical country in West African, on the Gulf of Guinea. It covers an area of nearly 240,000 square kilometres, which a similar size to Great Britain and more than three times larger than the Czech Republic. Most of the country is lowland, with the Volta River flowing through the country. In total, the Volta is 1819 km long and its basin covers a huge area of 388,000 sq. km. The river begins where Black Volta and the White Volta meet. Its upper stream flows mostly through a wide valley, and its lower stream flows through the Akwapim Mountains, where you can find rapids. In these mountains, near the village of Akosombo, a dam was built, and the Volta Lake was created. It is the largest reservoir in the world, measured by water area, and stretches 520 km from the Akosombo Dam in the south to Yapei in the north. The Volta River flows into the Gulf of Guinea, near the city of Ada. The highest point, 883 m above the sea level, is in the Togo Mountains at the border of Togo. In the north of Ghana there is a tropical climate, and in the south there is a more humid equatorial climate. You will find mostly savannas and rainforests. In the south of Ghana there are two rainy seasons each year (May–June and August– September); but the north only has one rainy season, in the middle of the calendar year. Hot winds from the Sahara called the Harmattan come in January and February. The average annual rainfall in the coastal area is 83 cm.

Area: 238,539 sq. km Total population: 24.79 million (July 2011) Population density: 103.9 inhabitants per sq. km Working population: approx. 11.2 million Population age structure: 0–14 years: 36.4% 15–64 years: 60.0% 65+ years: 3.6% Official language: English Other large cities: Kumasi, Tamale, Takoradi, Tema, Teshie, Sekondi, Cape Coast. Source: Wikipedia (http://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghana) Czech Radio (http://www.rozhlas.cz/leonardo/svet/_zprava/fairtrade-2-dil-ghana-a-kakao--459361) Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs (http://www.mzv.cz/jnp/cz/ encyklopedie_statu/afrika/ghana/index.html)

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Ghana Fact files - Experts Information Ghana’s Population

Ghana has a population of over 23 million people and around 58% of Ghanaian people are able to read and write. Over half the people in Ghana work in agriculture and cocoa is the most important product exported by Ghana. However, cocoa growing does not pay very well and many farmers live in poverty and tend to hire the cheapest labour. Sometimes children are used as workers and are forced to work long hours, be in contact with pesticides, handle machetes and carry heavy loads. Campaigns in Europe and the USA are putting more and more pressure on large cocoa processing companies to avoid using cocoa produced with child labour in their products, and they are demanding Fairtrade products instead. Ghana also exports gold and petroleum. Many inhabitants of this developing country are also employed in sales of goods produced in China. Based on what people can afford to buy, Ghana ranks as the 150 th richest country in the world, which means they are among the poorest quarter of countries. In spite of that, Ghana’s situation is better than in most other African states. The roads are good, communication by telephone is reliable and there are good opportunities for work in urban areas. There are approximately 79 languages spoken in Ghana. English is the country's official language, which is used by the government and in business affairs. It is also the standard language used in schools. Native Ghanaian languages belong to the Niger–Congo languages. The Kwa family, which is spoken by about 70% of the country's population, includes Akan and Ga–Dangme language groups. Twi, the most widespread language, is used by the Ashanti people in the central part of the country and Fante is spoken on the coast. There are 52 ethnic groups Ghana . The native and largest ethnic group is Akan. 45% of the population are Akan (which includes the Fante, Akyem, Ashanti, Kwahu, Akuapem, Nzema, Bono, Akwamu, Ahanta and others). An important position is occupied by the Moshi-Dagomba tribes in the north (16% of the population), the Ewe (13% of the population) in the southeast and the Ga (8% of the population). White people make up about 0.2% of the population. Christianity is the country's largest religion with around 69% of people practising it mainly in the Southern areas of Ghana. Islam is more widespread in parts of the northern regions with a following of around 17% of people. Christian–Muslim relations in Ghana are peaceful. Fewer and fewer people in Ghana practice traditional African religions which are now practised by 8.5% of people. Ghana also has a unique faith called Zetahil, which combines elements of Christianity and Islam. sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghana http://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghana Czech Radio (http://www.rozhlas.cz/leonardo/svet/_zprava/fair-trade-2-dil-ghana-a-kakao--459361) Nazemi.cz (http://www.nazemi.cz/fair-trade/203-detska-prace-na-kakaovych-plantazich-je-stale-smutnou-realitou.html)

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Ghana Fact files - Experts Information Ghana’s Industry & Agriculture

In the West African context, Ghana has alot of different resources but most workers are employed in agriculture. Cocoa is the main crop, together with cocoa products and semiproducts, and brings in two-thirds of the country’s export income. Other exports include wood, coconuts and other palm products, shea nuts for butter, and coffee. Ghana also successfully exports less traditional agricultural products such as pineapples, cashews and pepper. Basic food crops include manioc, sweet potatoes, bananas, maize, rice, peanuts, millet and sorghum. Ghana also extracts (and exports) gold, diamonds, manganese ore, bauxite and recently also petroleum. The economy is vulnerable to weather (agricultural production) and energy shortages (industrial production an extraction of mineral resources). Timber extraction is also important, although this has slowed down in recent years, mainly due to poor protection of forests against illegal felling and continued deforestation. The government are making efforts to stop felling and especially illegal exports. The country’s rail network is underdeveloped. The was built by British colonial administration mostly just to connect mines at those times with the port of Takoradi for easier transport of gold, timber, ivory and other products out of Ghana. Only operational railway today connects Kumasi with the port of Takoradi. Tema is the most important harbour in the country. The road network is well-developed, especially in the south. The only existing motorway connects Accra and Tema, while another one from Accra to Kumasi is under construction. The Kotoka International Airport in Accra is an important hub connecting the country with cities in Africa, Europe, America and the Middle East. Nationally you can fly between Kumasi and Tamale. About 90% of energy is still obtained from wood, especially in the countryside so electricity represents as little as 10% of Ghana’s total energy consumption. The government-controlled Volta River Authority (VRA) provides all electricity and the demand for it is growing steeply, on average by 8% every year. The government’s development plans cannot keep up with the demands and are trying to build new capacities. Most electricity is produced by the Akosombo hydroelectricity plant, followed by the Kpong hydroelectricity plant, a thermal plant in Tema and a thermal plant in Takoradi.

Source: businessinfo.cz (http://www.businessinfo.cz/cs/clanky/ghana-ekonomicka-charakteristika-zeme-19151.html) Source: Wikipedia (http://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghana)

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Ghana Fact files - Experts Questions Ghana’s History

Who and when found the capital of Ghana?

Which Europeans first colonized Ghana’s coast? When it was?

Which nation (empire) managed to resist British expansion and when did they succumb?

When did Ghana become independent?

Which part of Ghanaian history would you call as least dignified for original people and why?

Which other information did you find interesting?

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Ghana Fact files - Experts Questions Ghana’s Geography

Draw a map of Africa and mark where Ghana is situated (on the back of this sheet). What is the capital of Ghana? Do you know any other important cities in Ghana or geographic features? (rivers, lakes, dams, seas)?

Which countries border Ghana?

Describe typical weather in Ghana in June and in February.

In which Ghanaian city (except capital) you could study university?

Which other information did you find interesting?

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Ghana Fact files - Experts Questions Ghana’s People

How does the majority of the population of Ghana make their living?

How does cocoa farming in Ghana cause problems and how can these problems be solved?

What are the education levels and literacy in Ghana? Which language do they speak?

Where do people still have a traditional way of life?

How and where could people in Ghana buy basic foodstuffs?

Which other information did you find interesting?

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Ghana Fact files - Experts Questions Ghana’s Industry & agriculture What are the main export commodities of Ghana?

How does Ghana produce most of its electricity?

How is called abusing developing countries by big western concern?

Try to explain what deforestation is. How do they try to prevent it in Ghana?

Comparing other countries in Africa, do you think Ghana is poor or rich?

Which other information did you find interesting?

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


1w or do

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Ghana Fact files - Five Fingers sheet

A m sy l bo

Ghana

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Ghana Fact files - Five Fingers sheet

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sorting Out Ghana

Curriculum Links Lit Geog

Literacy Num Cit Geography

To challenge preconceptions about Ghana (and Africa).

PSHE

To write captions for photographs for a specific purpose.

perceptions

similarities & differences

P4C

preconceptions

Intro

Put the photos in the middle of a circle (or hand out 1 each). Say that your photos are in a muddle and you need help sorting them out. Ask the pupils to sort them into groups – first of all sort them into 2 groups – ‘happy’ or ‘sad’ (use 2 hoops with labels). Ask pupils to explain why they have chosen that group (is it facial expression, a ‘feeling’ of the photo, colours?). Then mix all the photos together again and say you would like them re-sorting into different groups – ‘work’ or ‘play’. Question the pupils’ reasons as above. Repeat for ‘things we understand’ and ‘things we don’t understand’. Question the pupils’ reasons as above.

Big Ideas

Focus on ‘things we understand’ and ‘things we don’t understand’ and write down any questions the pupils may have about the photos (explain we might not find out all of the answers today but should do over the course of our work). Ask the pupils, do you think these photos are all taken of the same place? What makes you think that? Explain that they are all taken in Ghana, Africa.

Activity

Split the pupils into groups. Give them 3 photos per group and explain that their job is write captions for the photos (words that give some sort of explanation about the photo). Hand each group a different caption instructions sheet – the groups are then writing captions for different purposes; 1. Travel marketing – make people go on holiday to Ghana!, 2. Charity appeal – make people give money to Ghana, 3. Trader – make people buy products made in Ghana. (Repeat groups where necessary but don’t tell them others have the same instructions). There is also a blank option if you would like to add you own. Pupils leave their photos with captions on their tables and the all groups rotate round to read each others captions. They should decide which purpose the caption is written for. They can then vote by placing a sticker on the caption, for example they could place a GREEN sticker for travel marketing, RED sticker for charity appeal, BLUE sticker for trader campaign.

Plenary

Reflect on the stickers, noting many colours the same but also asking why someone thought it was something else. Reveal what the actual captions were for. Think about how our opinions change depending on what information we are given, for example compare how a charity appeal makes us feel compared to how a holiday advert makes us feel. Did this make anyone think of any big ideas/concepts/questions? (for example did the pupils think that people would go on holiday to Ghana? Did the pupils realise that things that we eat might come from Ghana?) Extension ideas

Ask pupils to carry out research into holidays in Ghana by getting travel brochures, searching on the Internet and finding out more about where people holiday in Ghana and what they do.

.

Life ..

In ...

.

a .. Ghan

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Ghana photos, 2 hoops, sorting labels for hoops. Caption instructions sheet ( 3 different sets of instructions – 1 per group)

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sorting out Ghana - hoop sorting labels

happy sad work

play

Things we Things we don’t understand understand A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sorting out Ghana - caption instructions Write a caption for .... Travel marketing – make people go on holiday to Ghana!

Write a caption for .... A Charity appeal – make people give money to Ghana.

Write a caption for .... Traders – make people buy products made in Ghana.

Write a caption for ....

Write a caption for .... Travel marketing – make people go on holiday to Ghana!

Write a caption for .... A Charity appeal – make people give money to Ghana.

Write a caption for .... Traders – make people buy products made in Ghana.

Write a caption for ....

Write a caption for .... Travel marketing – make people go on holiday to Ghana!

Write a caption for .... A Charity appeal – make people give money to Ghana.

Write a caption for .... Traders – make people buy products made in Ghana.

Write a caption for ....

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sorting out Ghana - caption instructions 1. Children working in a rice field 2. Children returning from a farm 3. An electrician at work 4. Tomato farmers preparing their harvest for the market 5. Children fetching water 6. Fish vendors 7. Visitors from Europe 8. Fishing boats in the bay 9. Environmental Education Centre in Sui 10. Children and their teacher hearing more about Global Literacy 11. Children enjoying their play time 12. Introducing the Global Literacy project to pupils & teachers 13. Caterers in the kitchens at ICED 14. The Global Literacy Project focus group team, Ghana 15. Driving on a motorway in Accra, the capital of Ghana 16. An indoor shopping centre 17. A lorry transporting timber from the forest 18. The Akosombo Dam A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sorting out Ghana - Photographs 1

2

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sorting out Ghana - Photographs 3

4

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sorting out Ghana - Photographs 5

6 A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sorting out Ghana - Photographs 7

8

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sorting out Ghana - Photographs 9

10

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sorting out Ghana - Photographs 11

12

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sorting out Ghana - Photographs 13

14

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sorting out Ghana - Photographs 15

16

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Sorting out Ghana - Photographs 17

18

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


What Would I See?

Curriculum Links Lit Geog

Geography Num Cit

To understand that diversity exists everywhere (locally & globally). To reflect on their own understanding of their own country and Ghana.

PSHE

To use knowledge and imagination to create illustrations.

perceptions

similarities & differences

P4C

diversity

Intro

In a circle, play ‘finish the sentence’ focussing on things that you might see in common places or on common journeys. The teacher starts the sentence and then anyone can finish it first, shouting out their answer, and then it gets passed all the way around the circle until everyone has had a turn at saying their answer. The aim is to answer quickly, without too much thought, and say ‘pass’ if you cannot think of anything. “On my way to school I saw ...” (example answers might be “a dog”, “a bus”, “pass”, “lots of children”, “an aeroplane” etc) “Out of my bedroom window I can see ...” (example answers might be “trees”, “houses”, “my garden”, the road” etc) “When I go to town I see ...” “Out of the car window I see ...”

Big Ideas

Highlight any similar things mentioned and the many different things that were mentioned for each sentence explaining that there are so many different things to see, we all notice different things and there is massive diversity between our experiences, just within our small class.

Activity

Explain we are going on an imaginary journey to Ghana. Look at a world map to remind pupils where Ghana is in relation to your country. Does anyone know how we would get there and how long it would take? (you would probably go by aeroplane, but you might like to discuss other travel options, and flight times are usually around 6-7 hours from London, 910 hours from Manchester). Look at a map of Ghana and point out the main airport, Kotoka International Airport, Accra. At tables and using the ‘What would I see? Windows’ sheet, ask pupils to draw the following, making sure they have time to complete each part before moving onto the next (they should do this individually so you get a range of interpretations); 1. What you might see out of your house window before you leave to travel to the airport; 2. What you might see out of the car/bus/train window on the way to the airport; 3. What you might see out of the aeroplane window once it had taken off, flying over your country; 4. What you might see out of the window as the aeroplane is flying over Ghana towards Accra; 5. What you might see out of a taxi window as you travel from the airport into Accra city centre; 6. What you might see when walking around Accra markets.

Plenary

Make a display of the drawings putting together each part of the ‘journey’ and highlight the similarities, differences and celebrate the diversity of illustrations, and therefore of the places. Ask pupils to elaborate and explain their drawings. Extension ideas You could extend the illustrations or split pupils into groups so when you ‘arrive in Ghana’ some could visit markets, some the beaches, some the rainforest, some a school etc, so you get a wider spread of interpretation of Ghana.

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

rk... en’s wo Childr a ee from d you s l u o ? w What accra dow in car win

‘What would I see? Windows’ sheet, 1 per pupil (enlarged to A3 size)

What

you se e at th e marke ts?

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


What Would I See? Windows sheet

(enlarge to A3)

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Money Talks

Curriculum Links

To begin to understand the complexities of global inequalities. To link ideas of fairness and equality with real life situations and in particular jobs and pay. To be able to ask relevant questions (and divide them into categories). To write a report on a given subject.

fairness

equality

Numeracy Citizenship P4C

work

Intro

Present the different jobs one at a time, with a picture and a label but exclude the 4 highest paid jobs for now (these jobs have a red outline - the footballer, football manager, TV presenters and Prime Minister). Ask the class to decide which order the jobs should be placed on an imaginary line, from the lowest to the highest paid.

Big Ideas

Show the average pay of each job, and place in the real order. Finally, introduce the 4 new job cards and pictures; Prime Minister; footballer, football club manager and TV presenters, and place them on the imaginary line to represent their pay (you will have to illustrate by walking further than the original line, outside the classroom and maybe across the school playground/yard!). Ask the pupils, “What do you feel about these differences in pay? Are they what you thought they would be? What surprises you?” At this point you could raise questions and run a P4C session.

Activity

Explore the idea of ‘working hard’. If the children agree that ‘working hard’ deserves more money, then ask: “how can I tell if someone is working hard?” Record ideas on blank pieces of paper and place in a hoop with the label ‘working hard’. Check for agreement in the group. Challenge the ideas as they arise. For example, ideas such as “you are working hard if you keep busy all day”, can be challenged with further questions such as, “so if I am busy all day, no matter what I am doing, then I deserve more money”. You could also share the fact that “the richest 20% of the world population accounts for 80% of the world income.”

Plenary Following the P4C session and/or extension research activity the pupils may have thought of more questions than answers. It is important to acknowledge that there is no simple answer and many things have many different factors to consider. Create a bank of questions that come up during this work and then sort them into categories ; questions that an expert could answer (and therefore try to find that expert), questions that we can talk about during P4C (write down thoughts and feelings about these questions and maybe refer back to at a later date).

Extension ideas Pupils could carry out a research project & write a report considering ...

P4c ques t

ion

about think u ? o y do t paid What ple ge o e p uc h how m

    

how much people get paid how much people spend on food how much people spend on toys how this varies from person to person how it varies from country to country

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Variety of job cards (pictures, labels, amounts of pay) Hoop, ‘working hard’ label A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Money Talks - jobs and pay

Prime Minister David Cameron Lionel Messi Barcelona footballer Ant & Dec TV presenters Alex Ferguson,

Manchester United Manager

Cook

Pilot A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Money Talks - jobs and pay

Waiter/Waitress

Farmer

Police officer

Bank clerk

Van driver

Teacher A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Money Talks - jobs and pay - actual

£10.22 million

£6.5 million

£5 million

£142, 500

£78, 000

£40, 000

£35, 000

£34, 000

£24, 000

£20, 000

£19, 000

£16, 000

£14, 000

£12, 000

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Money Talks - jobs and pay

Hairdresser

Vet AVERAGE JOBS & PAY IN ORDER (annual salary) Lionel Messi, Barcelona footballer £10.22 million Approximately that’s £850,000/month, £210,000/week, £30,000/day

Alex Ferguson, Manchester United Manager£6.5 million Ant & Dec, TV Presenters £5 million each (approx) Prime Minister David Cameron £142, 500 Pilot £78, 000 Police officer £40, 000 Vet £35, 000 Teacher £34, 000 Farmer £24, 000 Bank clerk £20, 000 Van driver £19, 000 Cook £16, 000 Hairdresser £14, 000 Waitress £12, 000 Information taken from ‘Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, 2012 by Office for National Statistics’

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Money Talks - label for hoop

Working hard A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


What is poverty? Definitions

Curriculum Links Lit Geog

To be able to understand and be able to describe the differences between needs and wants. To begin to understand the difference between absolute and relative poverty.

Citizenship Num Cit Literacy

To be able to create and explore a word definition.

PSHE

equality

P4C

needs & wants

Intro

Divide the pupils into six groups, and hand out the sets of 24 laminated needs/wants cards and sheets with need/ want tables into each group. Ask the pupils to choose 12 cards. Then ask them to place their cards into two categories and put them on the needs/wants table. Ask for feedback from each group and keep a tally of how many times each item appeared in each category. According to the frequency, compile a list of 8/10 most commonly identified needs. Then, addressing each of these items in turn, ask the children to consider how the absence of each of these needs would impact on people’s lives and what can the absence of particular need cause. It is likely that the children will mention the concept poverty during this discussion.

Big Ideas

Ask them to think about what poverty means, and to discuss in their groups a definition of poverty. After a few minutes of discussion, suggest that it is difficult to find just one meaning, and that there might be more than one definition. Ask them to try and write a definition(s) on a small white board or on paper. Share the definitions from each group. Now ask the groups to think of examples of poverty and discuss these examples in relation to the different definitions of relative/absolute and extreme poverty (NB see ‘Definitions of Poverty’ sheet, which can be shared with pupils). For example, if pupils suggest that ‘poverty is lack of money’, talk about the difference between no money at all (extreme poverty) or not as much as everyone else in their community (relative poverty). Or if somebody doesn't have enough food, that is absolute poverty, but what about if they have enough food to eat, but it doesn’t provide enough nutrients for them to stay healthy. Also discuss that poverty can be seen in our own country or town (relative poverty).

Plenary

Summarise the children’s ideas, and explain—with reference to their ideas—the differences among the three different definitions of poverty. Look at the children’s original group definitions of poverty - do they want to add or amend anything? Create a class definition of poverty that everyone agrees with. At this point you could raise questions and run a P4C session. Extension ideas Look at the other definitions of poverty (in red) to expand ideas on what poverty really means ... Look up other definitions on the Internet and compare.

Example P4C questions

Is there the poverty in our country? Does everyone have the same dreams in life? If you’re poor, whose fault is it? Card sorting

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Six sets of ‘needs/wants’ cards, six printed ‘needs/wants tables’, definitions of relative, absolute and extreme poverty, Small white boards to record group definitions on.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Needs & Wants

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Needs & Wants

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Needs & Wants I need

I want

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Needs & Wants—definitions of poverty Poverty “The state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money“

Relative poverty is defined contextually as economic inequality in the location or society in which people live

Absolute poverty or destitution refers to the deprivation of basic human needs, which commonly includes food, water, sanitation, clothing, shelter, health care and education

Extreme poverty the World Bank defines extreme poverty as living on less than US$1.25

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poverty

“... the lack of what one needs to live within a society. In the broadest sense, it means survival but also contribution and participation to social daily activities.” Amartya Sen, Indian Philosopher and Economist “Fundamentally, poverty is a denial of choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity.” United Nations

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


What is poverty? Life Stories To be able to understand and describe the differences between needs and wants. To begin to understand the difference between absolute and relative poverty.

needs & wants

Citizenship Num Cit Geography PSHE

To read a story for specific information. To create a freeze frame that represents a ‘life story’.

equality

Curriculum Links Lit Geog

P4C

similarities & differences

Intro

Remind the children of the last session exploring poverty by looking at the group definitions created and the actual definitions. Ask for volunteers to remind the class of the different meanings of poverty, and examples of what they might look like. Then tell the children that we are going to look at example’s of other children’s lives, to try to find out if those meanings make sense.

Big Ideas

Split your class into 6 groups. Hand out the six pictures and stories about the children around the world. Ask the groups to read the stories out loud in their groups, listening very carefully to understand the details. When they finish, ask them to discuss the following questions (which you can display at the front of the class):  Where is the child from?  How old is he/she?  What is his/her home like?  What do you know about his/her family?  What education does he/she have?  How does he/she spend their free time?

Activity

Ask the groups to create a ‘freeze frame’ to represent the ‘Life Story’ they have read. Each member of their group should have a certain role from the story (if there aren't enough roles in the story, they should create roles which can be included in the story). Give the groups about 10 minutes to prepare their freeze frame. Ask each group to show their freeze frame to the rest of the class. Go around all of statues with a "microphone" as a journalist, defrost each of them in turn and ask him/her the following questions: who are you? what are you doing right now? how are you feeling? what are you going to do when you leave this freeze frame? If there is time, you can give other pupils the chance to ask the statues a question as well.

Plenary

Making reference to the definitions of different types of poverty (used in previous lesson) facilitate a whole-class discussion about what type of poverty each character experiences. There are no right or wrong answers , the purpose of the discussion is to understand that people can experience different types of poverty in their lives simultaneously. Extension ideas This lesson is good to follow up with activities leading the pupils to deepen their interest about the people from countries in the ‘global South’ and also a good way of looking in more detail at ‘relative poverty’ in this country.

Life st

ories

Life s tories

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Six printed children's ‘Life stories’, pretend microphone, three definitions of poverty displayed at the front of the class (previous lesson). A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


What is poverty? Stories Kalpana’s story 13 year old Kalpana is a slim, delicate girl with beautiful brown eyes. When she is relaxed, she puts one or both arms over her head and rests her hands on the doorframe or on the wooden joist which supports the roof of the shack. But when you find out what job she has to do, you realize that she is trying to get rid out of the pain in her spine, which comes from carrying heavy loads. She lives in an outlying village on the hillside of beautiful valley of the river Sun Kosi. The nearest village is about two hours walk up the steep hill above the valley; the nearest town is Gaigat, a whole day’s walk away. Kalpana’s life changed dramatically a year ago, when her father died and she had to take over the role of her family's food provider.

Until then she lived happily with her father and her six younger siblings - she helped her father with household chores, but also went to primary school. When her father died, she no longer had the time or the money to go to school. Several times a month Kalpana gets work as a porter for a local merchant. On those days, she will be away from home for several days. The load that she carries in a basket is too heavy for her tiny figure and age, so there is no wonder that her back, which she also recently injured by falling on the way, hurts a lots. Falling is not the only danger that threatens the porter – there is also the danger of snake bites or attacks by wild animal. http://www.krasnapani.cz/casopis-krasna/clanky-online/krasna/180

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


What is poverty? Stories Laxmi’s story Laxmi’s life has recently changed dramatically. Her father died before she was born, and during last year's extensive floods she lost also her mother. Until then, they lived together in a small village house. Laxmi went to a nearby school with other children, where she excelled in her classes. She would help her mother in the home, but she always found the time to play and have fun. After the tragic death of her mother, Laxmi lives with her very loving but old and very poor Grandparents. They live in a small village in the lowland area close to the town of Nepalganj, near the border with Indian. Laxmi’s day starts early in the morning, helping her grandparents with household work, and also in the fields with the cattle. There is no time nor money for school.

Laxmi is a small twelve year old girl, with a serious face dominated by sad eyes. She's always happy when she can pay a visit her aunt's family. Like all children, Laxmi likes to spend time with others, and her aunt has two young daughters and a son with whom she can play. But she cannot live here permanently because her aunt’s family is very poor and their house is too small. Laxmi's grandfather, a very wise and kind man, feels a strong connection with nature, and firmly believes in the goodness of humankind. Everyday he starts the day early in the morning, before dawn. He cultivates a small vegetable garden and takes care of his cattle to feed his family. He sells the surplus in the market and saves the money so that one day he can fulfil Laxmi's dream going back to school. http://www.krasnapani.cz/casopis-krasna/clanky-online/krasna/180

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


What is poverty? Stories

Poj Pat’s story In Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia, several small boys are sitting on the ground. A pile of plastic bottles is towering in front of them, and they are quickly and skillfully removing the tops. None of the boys is more than 14 years old. "Children are cheaper. I pay them about half a dollar a day."says the businessman. None of the boys go to school. "I was going there for a year, but I had to get back to work. My dad is very ill and can't work. My mom works at the landfill, and I have to help her, because I have four siblings" says ten year old Poj Pat. "We're a group, there's lots of fun here" he says, without stopping to unscrew the cap from the bottles. The pile in front of him, however, does not diminish. Once the pile decrease a bit, another pile of bottles in all shapes and sizes appears in front of him.

"We start work at half past six in the morning and finish at five" said the oldest of the bunch, fourteen years old Sung. Poj Pat has never seen the city centre, and he doesn't even know that there are beautiful royal palaces in Phnom Penh. "We came here from a village in the north, for a better life, our parents told us. They told us that by sorting through the waste in a rubbish site they can get a lot of money. Initially it was good, when my dad was working. But he fell ill soon - he can't breathe well enough. Mum earns just a little - up to two dollars a day, so I have to help her. My brother works with her in a dump site. They look for glass, paper and cans and then they sell all of it. We have a small house, but it is not our property, we have to pay rent. It's right over there" He points to a colony of workers' houses constructed out of every possible material. http://www.stopdetskepraci.cz/index.php?id=174&idp=183

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


What is poverty? Stories Jack’s story

Jack is eleven. His father has been unemployed for a year. His mother is a housewife. Jack has three siblings. The family haven't been able to pay their rent for last year, so now a Court will decide what will happen. Jack is really good at sports, he is average in mathematics, but is not very good at reading and writing. He loves nature and being outdoors, and is very inquisitive and lively. He never gets to go on school trips, because his parents can’t afford it. While the rest of his class is away, he has to join another class, where he sometimes gets into arguments with the other children.

Jack is often not well prepared for classes and his homework isn’t very good quality. He’s sometimes late for school, and when he does arrive he doesn’t have the equipment he needs. He is often in trouble, is restless and distracts other children in class. He lives in a small flat with his family of six people. They all live crowded into a single room, which is also a kitchen, laundry room, drying room, living room and children's room. It's very difficult to find a suitable place for storing his school kit. Lots of people visit regularly, it is noisy, and so it is practically impossible for Jack to concentrate on learning or to do his homework. http://www.clovekvtisni.cz/index2.php?parent=&sid=&id=253&idArt=1659

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


What is poverty? Stories Farhad’s story

Farhad is eleven years old and goes a school in Mazar-e-Sharif, in Afghanistan. Every morning he goes to school, where he studies until one o'clock in the afternoon. In the afternoon he helps out in his father's tailor shop. He works from two o'clock until evening, sometimes late at night, depending on how many orders he has. Usually he helps to cut out the fabrics for traditional clothes.

He does a lot of other things too. He goes round the fellow tailors who embroider elegant patterns onto fabric to make traditional ‘pirhan-tumban’ (a traditional tunic and wide trousers worn in the Middle East usually by Muslims). He goes to buy yarn and needles for sewing, and carries water for drinking and cleaning in the shop. He likes going to school, because he knows it is important that he learns to read and write. "Farhad will be a good tailor, he is very handy. But he must learn to count well too, so that he will not be robbed on rates nor prices," his father says. There are thousands of children working like Farhad, but many of them are not as fortunate as he is - they cannot go to school. http://www.stopdetskepraci.cz/download/pdf/pdfs_114.pdf

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


What is poverty? Stories

Jonas’ story Thirteen year old Jonas lives in "The heart of Africa". He is still a child, but he has been working already for seven years. "I used to help in the field, but then my dad died and mum had to start working in the fields, so I sell instead of her" explains a boy in a green shirt. He sells peanuts now at the local market in Kisangani, in the Democratic Republic of Congo. He has a small stall, made out of a couple of planks, and a large basket made out of palm leaves. If a customer comes, Jonas doesn't weigh peanuts for him, but measures them out. In his basket he has a variety of cups and cans, mostly empty tomato tins. He calculates price depending on the size of the can. "Almost no one has a set of scales, they are too expensive and heavy" says Jonas. "I have no money to buy bags or paper, so I sometimes use an old exercise book and wrap peanuts in paper cones, or I pack them in the leaves from a palm trees," he laughs.

At the market Jonas does not have simple life. "I used to sell on the street, but now they said it's illegal, so we had to move onto the market. But they want us to pay fees over here. And we do not have money for that, so when the market officer comes, I have to pack up my baskets and run away," Jonas says. His normal work day starts at seven o'clock in the morning and ends at six in the evening. "I have a day off on Sundays when I go to church with my mother," says Jonas, who earns around one dollar a day, to give to his mother. He has never been to school, but is proud that he can count, and even read. "I had to learn counting by myself, and my older brother taught me to read. He now works as a security guard and is like my dad," says Jonas. " I'd like to go to school, I want to become a doctor, but I can't, my mother is sick," says Jonas. http://www.stopdetskepraci.cz/index.php?id=174&idp=183

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Part 3 Education & Development My school in a box 1 My school in a box 2 My school in a box 3 Ghanaian School in a Box A Day In the Life Super School I Want to Be Daniel’s Classical School 1 Daniel’s Classical School 2 Daniel’s Classical School 3

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


My School in a Box –Activity 1 To reflect on self image, values and priorities. To understand and celebrate similarity and difference. To create a list and place items in order of importance.

values

Curriculum Links

Citizenship Literacy PSHE

similarities & differences

Intro

Show the class one of the objects you have brought in and DO NOT tell them it is yours. Pass the object around the circle and ask the pupils to consider what type of person might own it: Male or female? Old or young? What job might they do? What types of things do they like doing? Create a list of ideas. Then introduce another object and ask the pupils, who might own this object? Create another list. Continue introducing the objects and creating lists of thoughts on the ‘type’ of person that might own them. Ask the pupils if they think that one person could own all of them ... what type of person would that be? Edit some of the ideas on the lists that have been created. Once you have made a decision on what type of person this might be, reveal that you are the owner of these things! Was anyone correct when they described the type of person that would own them? Are they surprised at any of the objects?

Big Ideas

Talk about the items you selected and the reasons why, for example, ‘I chose to put an apron in my box because I love baking and it is important because it usually brings together my family when we are celebrating something’. Ask if the pupils would have put an [apron] in their box – why not? Talk about everyone having their own opinions about what is important to them and different things make different people happy.

Activity

Talk partners; start discussing what 10 things you would put in an identity box to represent you and think about the reasons why. Pupils can then write a list of what 10 items they would like in their box. They should then rank these so they are in order of importance to themselves. In class, decorate the shoe box so that it represents you (favourite colours, pictures of favourite football team, etc).

Plenary

Explain that as homework each pupil has to collect just 5 items for their box so they need to look carefully at their list of 10 and decide on the 5 most important ones. Share, celebrate, review and evaluate the boxes in class once they are completed. Make links for similar themes that come up, such as photos of family/friends/pets and think more deeply about why this is.

Extension ideas

Ask other staff from the school to bring in an item(s) that they think represents them and display them so pupils have to vote and decide which item belongs to which teacher. Reveal this in an assembly. Extended writing – write a more detailed description about why you have chosen the objects using reasoning and descriptive language.

imary Hawkshead Pr x school in a bo

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

5/10 things that represent you/are important to you that show a variety of things about you (keep them a secret), 1 shoe box per child, art/craft materials A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


My School in a Box –Activity 2

Curriculum Links

Citizenship Literacy Numeracy

To reflect on self image, values and priorities. To understand and celebrate similarity and difference To formulate questions for a specific audience and gather and interpret data

values

perceptions

diversity

Intro

Show (or refer back to) topic boxes that you have used in school, such as country specific topic boxes or boxes about specific topics/themes you have worked one. Explain that you are going to make your own topic box which is all about your own school. Explain that the box has to represent the school and it might be sent to another school so the things in it need to be meaningful and chosen wisely.

Big Ideas

In groups ask the pupils to think of 10 things that they would put into the box, ensuring that they can give good reasons for choosing those items. Get some feedback and highlight the similarities and differences in opinion. Explain that what one person thinks represents the school might not be the same as another persons as we all view things in different ways (perceptions).

Activity

Ask the pupils, how are we going to decide which items to put in? Who will decide because we all have different opinions? Talk partners, who should we ask about what goes in the box? Create a spider diagram about who to involve (encourage a diverse section of people, e.g. other classes, teaching staff, canteen staff, parents, bus drivers, regular visitors etc). Explain that the pupils will be creating a questionnaire to find out what is important to each of these people. In groups pupils come up with questions to ask, such as ‘what is your favourite part of the school? What is special about our school?’ etc. Pupils write and carry out the questionnaire. Collate results by creating bar charts/graphs etc.

Plenary

Look at the results to see what trends and similarities there are. Is there one thing that should clearly be present in the school topic box? Create a list from the results of the top 10 items to be included in the school box and discuss whether everyone is happy with this. What will the actual box look like? Decide on decoration.

at o hings tant t r o p l Im schoo

ur

My sch ool

Extension ideas Pupils could use IT to create the questionnaire and to present the results. Present the findings to the rest of the school in an assembly. in a

box

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Any topic boxes you have in school, IT equipment if available/appropriate

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


My School in a Box –Activity 3 To understand and celebrate similarity and difference. To challenge assumptions about other people and places.

Curriculum Links

Citizenship Literacy

To use persuasive language and construct an argument.

perceptions

similarities & differences

Intro

Explain that now you have created your ‘school in a box’ you are going to compare it to other schools and see what other schools have decided to put into theirs. The other schools were only allowed 5 objects so we are going to halve our items too. Watch some of the videos and look at some of the Powerpoints via the Yola website from schools in England, Poland and Czech Republic (NB: The next lesson ‘Ghanaian School In a Box’ looks specifically at the contents of the Ghanaian box and explores this in more detail).

Big Ideas

Talk about and celebrate the similarities and differences that you notice. Ask pupils to comment on any surprises and ask why they are surprised. What things did they expect/assume to see in boxes created by these countries? Talk about a ‘stereotypical image’ we might have of that particular country and ask whether the videos have changed that. Ask the pupils what different schools from this country and other countries will think about our 10 items. Do you think they will expect to see them?

Activity

Explain that we are only allowed 5 items in the school box, so the 10 items that have been chosen need to be halved. In small groups decide which 5 things should stay and think of reasons why. Each group should then make a presentation arguing to encourage others to vote for the same items as they do.

Plenary

Decide on the final 5 items to go into ‘my school in a box’ and complete the box decoration. This could be shared with any linking school, both locally/globally, posted on your school website and uploaded to the project website.

n rgume

an a nting e s e r P

t

Extension ideas Present the findings to the rest of the school in an assembly. Create a display (and/or Powerpoint presentation) showing the questionnaires, survey results and actual box so that parents and visitors can see. Label each item chosen showing all of the reasons they were voted to be in the ‘school in a box’. Extend this process further by creating a ‘county/region in a box’ and then a ‘country in a box’ (see the Yola website for the Powerpoint created by teachers, ‘All about England’).

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

From previous lesson – ‘school in a box’ with 10 items. Powerpoint presentations from other schools in England, Poland, Czech Republic and Ghana showing their ‘school in a box’, see www.global-literacy.yolasite.com

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Ghanaian School In a Box To challenge assumptions about other people and places. To make comparisons about their own and other people’s school life.

Curriculum Links

Citizenship Literacy

To write a letter to a child in Ghana. To formulate questions to find out more information.

preconceptions

similarities & differences

Intro

Reflecting on the work done so far creating and looking at other ‘school boxes’, either show the pupils a box or show them an image of a box (see below), and ask them to try and guess what is in it. Explain that it is a ‘my school in a box’ created by a Ghanaian school. Individually or in pairs record down ideas/guesses/ideas about what might be inside the box on the ‘What’s in the box?’ sheet. Remind the pupils to think carefully about what might be important to the Ghanaian children as a way of representing their school (they have gone through the same process as you).

Big Ideas

Share the ideas by sticking the ‘What’s in the box?’ sheets onto the board so that everyone can see. What type of things are you expecting? Are there any common things? Are there similar things? Ask pupils to give reasons for their choices and begin creating a list of the top 10 most common answers. With the children reflect on the list created and compare to the contents of your own school in a box, making comparisons and highlighting the similarities and differences between them.

Activity

Reveal the contents of the ‘Ghanaian school in a box’ one by one. Keep referring back to the guesses created by the children. Look closely at the contents and again make comparisons to your own school in a box. Did anyone guess correctly? Are there any surprises? Has anyone's views about the school changed at all? Did anyone make an assumption that has been challenged? Explain that the activity is now to write a letter to the children from the Ghanaian school and reflect on the contents of their school in a box. The letter needs to explain their initial expectations and why they thought of those, a reflection on what they found and whether or not their expectations were challenged or confirmed. Ask the pupils to think of any questions they would like to ask the Ghanaian school children and incorporate these into their letter as a way of finding out more information.

Plenary

Ask pupils to read out their letter to a person sitting next to them as a way of sharing their ideas. Then as a class discuss the different ways of communicating with a Ghanaian school - post/Skype/email etc. Extension ideas

A football from one the Ghanaian school ‘s in a box

Look at the map to remind the class how far their letters would have to travel. Work out how many miles away Ghana is from your school and which other countries it would pass over in an aeroplane, or pass by in a ship.

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

tters our le l il w ar vel? How f to tra have

‘What’s in the box’ sheets Ghanaian school in a box lists (NB: you may want to recreate the ‘Ghanaian school in a box’ by sourcing the items the schools suggested to make the experience more real for the pupils). A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Ghanaian School - What’s in the box?

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Ghanaian School In a Box Lists Presbyterian Boys Secondary School, Ghana A New Testament Bible, pens & exercise book

Some laboratory equipment

A ladle & a bamboo flute

A feather

A school magazine

A piece of school cloth

A football

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


A Day in the Life

Curriculum Links Lit Geog

To be able to compare different lifestyles and perspectives. To show an understanding towards other peoples lifestyles. To write a fictional diary/narrative based on factual information.

values

perceptions

Geography Num Cit Literacy Citizenship PSHE P4C

similarities & differences

Intro

Look at the ‘Day in the Life’ documents about traditional craftspeople. Read through the information sheet as a shared reading exercise, pausing to clarify where needed. With talk partners, ask pupils to reflect on the information given and then report back 1 thing to group they found surprising/unusual/interesting (e.g. could be something you didn’t know or something that is the same as your life).

Big Ideas

Use the question sheet that follows the information so pupils have a sound understanding of the work each apprentice/worker does. Did the pupils find it interesting to find out about someone else’s life? Are there any elements that are the same as your lives? Do you know anyone that works with anything similar? Are there any big ideas this has made them think about?

Activity

Explain that now we have the given information we can use this to write a story or a personal diary. In groups, think of something really exciting, scary or interesting that might happen as part of their daily lives. It might be a happy success story, or it might be a sad story. Make a shared list of possible things that might happen. Pupils write their own story/diary entry.

Plenary

Share some of the writing. Think about who else you could ask to provide similar information so you can learn about other people’s lives (see extension work).

ILLER A - SW LORN

RAC HEL-A PPLE GRO W ER

ICE COPP SAM R E K WOR

Extension ideas Create a ‘day in the life’ profile of a local person (this could be a traditional craftsperson or a local trades person). Make a list of expectations before reading it and then compare and contrast.

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Profile ‘DAY IN THE LIFE’ words/pictures sheet of a variety of traditional craftspeople www.global-literacy.yolasite.com . UK: Food Focus - Rachel the apprentice apple grower; Trade Focus Lorna the apprentice swiller (makes swill baskets), and Sam the apprentice coppice-worker. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Super School

Curriculum Links

Geography Literacy P4C

To compare the value of education for children in different parts of the world. To begin to understand the link between education and development. To write a chronological report showing aspects of the school day.

rights

values

education

Intro

In a circle, ‘change places’ if you agree game (add/amend the statements as you wish to encourage thinking about the big variety of things pupils do in and around school). “Change places… if you like coming to school … if you like PE at school … if you enjoy reading … if you come in a car to school … if you go to any after school clubs … if you bring a packed lunch to school … if you like playtime … if you have swimming lessons …if you think that school is important” etc Reflect on the final statement about school being important and ask pupils to tell you more about their reasons (either changing places because they agree or those that disagreed).

Big Ideas

Explain we are going to think about the value of the different things in our lives and place them on an imaginary line, with REALLY VALUABLE at one end, and NOT VALUABLE at the other. Hold up cards which show different aspects of our lives and pass to particular children to place on the concept line. (you can add/amend the statements as you wish). Do others agree? Why/not? Make links between statements, such as the skills you might need to carry out one of these things and where these are taught. Look at all of the statements and ask the question used above again ‘do you think that school is important?’ Get responses/reflections.

Activity

Watch all/part of the film, or refer back to, ‘Daniel’s Classical School’, which shows the lives of 3 different children from Ghana. Do you think that those children value school? Why/not? Where would they place it on the imaginary line we used earlier? At this point you could raise questions and run a P4C session. Referring back to the statements may move the dialogue forward. Create chronological report of a ‘day in the life of our school’ – showing the many different things that are happening at the same time in one school (from EY to Y6 to kitchen, office etc) OR create a ‘day in the life of me’ diary (these could be films/photos and words)

Plenary

Share the films or diaries to celebrate the many things that happen at school and around school. Have pupils thoughts developed or changed from the start of this lesson? Do we value school differently now we have looked in more detail at all of the fun variety of things we do? Extension Ideas

Write a fictional diary from the perspective of a Ghanaian child (day in the life), based on the facts given in the film ‘Daniel’s Classical School’.

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Signs for concept line ‘really valuable’ and ‘not valuable’. Aspects of life cards. Video ‘Daniels Classical School’ www.global-literacy.yolasite.com

Diar

y wri

A project funded by the European Un-

ting


Super School

Really valuable Not valuable A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Super School - Aspects of Life cards

Learning to swim Reading my books Learning to add up Playing with friends

Driving in a car Eating our tea Playing on a computer A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Super School - Aspects of Life cards

Playing snakes & ladders

Going shopping Talking on a mobile phone

Having a dishwasher Going on school trips Spending time with family

Sending a card to my gran A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Curriculum Links Lit Geog

I want to be... To compare the value of education for children in different parts of the world. To begin to understand the link between education and development. To think about personal aspirations and what we might need to achieve them. To write a report about the value of education, presenting a personal point of view.

rights

values

Literacy Num Cit Geography P4C PSHE P4C

equality

Intro

Circle activity – ask pupils to think about what they want to be able to do when they are older, where do they want to travel to, what do they want to see, and what do they want to be, their aspirations/dreams. After a few minutes thinking time stand in the middle of the circle and say something that you want to do, e.g. “I want to travel to XXX”. Use a ball/inflatable globe and throw it to a pupil which indicates it is their turn in the middle of the circle. This then gets repeated until all pupils have had at least one turn to share an aspiration.

Big Ideas

Ask pupils to consider what they need to achieve some of these aspirations. Hold up the ‘ranking cards’ and ask the pupils to place them in order, with the most important at the top and least important at the bottom (this could be done as whole class or in small groups using a set of cards each).

Activity

Share some of the most important answers that are at the top of the list and any which pupils could not decide between (e.g. that they have put side by side). Ask how certain cards are linked. Is there one thing that seems to link with everything? Demonstrate by drawing links between cards. Now ask the pupils if they think that you could take ‘education’ away from the list of cards – could they still achieve their aspirations? Why/why not? How? Encourage the pupils to think of education in a wider sense; school, swimming lessons, football practise, fitness clubs, music lessons etc. Re-share/remind pupils of the ‘Daniels Classical School’ film and ask pupils to think about what the pupils aspirations might be in the film. At this point you could raise questions and run a P4C session. Write a report about the value of education entitled ‘I want to be ...’ in which the pupils can write about their goals, dreams, ambitions and aspirations referring to how education will help them achieve them.

Plenary

Share some of the reports. Ask pupils to comment on how they think the children and their families’ lives in the video could be improved? How would education help them improve things?

rds & ut the ca Sorting o der hem in or ranking t

Deciding where to stand on a concept line

Extension ideas Look in more detail at how education can improve people’s lives by looking at the links education has with gender equality, employment and health care.

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Film ‘Daniels Classical School’ www.global-literacy.yolasite.com Ranking cards sheet

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


I want to be... - Ranking cards

money education exams a car ambition friends opportunity A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


I want to be... - Ranking cards

family a TV a lottery ticket MOST IMPORTANT LEAST IMPORTANT A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Daniel’s Classical School - lesson 1 To challenge preconceptions and myths about (school) life in Ghana. To consider the similarities and differences of (school) life in Ghana and Europe.

Curriculum Links

Literacy Geography

To read and answer questions which directly compare other children’s lives to their own.

similarities

differences

preconceptions

Intro

Remind the pupils where Ghana is located by looking at a map of Africa together. And then more closely at the map of Ghana. Point out things such as its neighbouring countries, coast line and capital city, Accra.

Big Ideas

Hand out the ‘causes of hunger in the world’ statement group cards so that each pupil has one and then group the pupils together with the same statements so they are in 4 discussion groups; “there are too many people in the world”, “lack of education and skills in poorer countries”, “food is not shared out fairly”, “bad climate and many natural disasters in poorer countries” . Give the groups a few minutes to think together about their statement in terms of how it relates to the hunger in the world. Get feedback from each group and jot down ideas to refer back to later.

Activity

Hand out the four photos of characters from ‘Daniel's Classical School film’ so that each group has one picture . Ask groups to talk about what they think the people in the pictures are doing and whether it is similar to something they do in their own lives. Explain that in another lesson you will be watching a video about these people but first you are going to answer some ‘pre-watching’ questions. Ask groups of pupils to discuss about the pictures in relation to the ’pre-watching’ questions worksheet and to write the answers together, directly comparing the ‘characters’ in the pictures to their own lives.

Plenary

Share some of the ideas between groups. Is there a general consensus? Do people’s ideas differ in any way? Ask pupils to explain their answers in more detail, for example by saying ‘can you tell me a bit more about that ....’ or ‘that’s interesting, what makes you think that?’ .... (If pupils raise some stereotypical views they will be challenged when watching the film and in subsequent lessons).

llect h, co Sara r wate

Joh

i ng

n-Lo

uis rel at h a ome xing

Extension ideas You may need to spend time discussing question 8 - How would you describe his/her standard of living? Make some definitions about what ‘standard of living’ actually means.

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Map of Africa and Ghana 4 photos of characters from the film ‘Daniels Classical School’ ‘Causes of hunger in the world’ statements (for getting into groups) ‘Pre-watching’ questions worksheet A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Daniel’s Classical School—lesson 2

Curriculum Links

Literacy Geography

To challenge preconceptions and myths about (school) life in Ghana. To consider the similarities and differences of (school) life in Ghana and Europe. To watch and listen carefully for information to answer specific questions. To create a ‘freeze frame’ showing empathy towards other people and places.

stereotypes

preconceptions

Intro

Remind the pupils of the previous lesson using the photos and reading through the completed ‘pre-watching’ questions about the characters and themselves.

Big Ideas

Put the pupils into threes and hand them a copy of the 4 photographs. Explain they are going to create ‘freeze frames’ to show what is happening in the photo, with 2 people acting as the ’characters’ and 1 person being the ‘photographer’ (if the photo is only of 1 person they can still create a 2 person scenario but imagine that only 1 person has been photographed). They should spend time considering what the characters are doing and thinking, and act out a scene until you shout ‘freeze’ . You can go around the room looking at the freeze frames. Ask the ’photographer’ to explain the scene and ask the ’characters’ to say what they are thinking.

Activity

Explain that the characters they are looking at are from Baatsona, an urban area between Accra and Tema in Ghana. Look at the map of Ghana and show the pupils where Daniel’s Classical School is located. Give the pupils some post-it notes to record down things about the characters in the film, feelings they might have or generally anything that surprises them. Watch the film ‘Daniel’s Classical School’. NB: with younger pupils it may work better to watch the film in parts, stopping and reflecting after each character has told their story.

Plenary

Look at the notes the pupils have made and compare them to the answers they made in the ‘pre-watching’ worksheet. Highlight any stereotypical preconceptions they may have had and ask if they have been challenged.

Remind the pupils ..... There are similarities and differences in every society, group of people and school ... Whether that is in the UK, Poland, Czech Republic or Ghana ... Or anywhere else in the world!

Daniel’s C

chool

lassical S

Linda

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Film ‘Daniels Classical School’ www.global-literacy.yolasite.com (approx 13 minutes long). Map of Africa, Ghana and location of Daniels Classical School. 4 photos of characters from the film ‘Daniels Classical School’. ‘Pre-watching’ questions worksheet (completed in previous lesson). Post-it notes. A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Daniel’s Classical School - lesson 3 To challenge preconceptions and myths about (school) life in Ghana. To consider the similarities and differences of (school) life in Ghana and Europe. To watch and listen carefully for information to answer specific questions. To use factual information to create a fictional diary entry showing empathy towards the lives of others.

similarities

differences

Curriculum Links

Literacy Geography P4C

preconceptions

Intro

Recap all of the work done so far and explain that you are all going to watch the film again with specific questions to answer so they need to watch and listen carefully, making notes as they do so. Hand out the ‘After-watching questions’ worksheet so pupils can make themselves familiar with all of the questions before watching the film again.

Big Ideas

Re-watch the film ‘Daniel’s Classical School’, with pupils completing the ’follow up questions’ worksheet as they watch. NB: with younger pupils it may work better to watch the film in parts, stopping and reflecting so pupils have chance to answer questions on their worksheet. Share answers and reflect and expand on any points made and start to log any questions that come up. At this point you could raise questions and run a P4C session.

Activity

The pupils could write a diary entry from one of the character’s perspectives making sure they draw on some of the facts they have learned.

Plenary

Ask the pupils a final question - Can we personally support education of poor children in Africa and other regions around the World?

Example of P4C questions raised ...

Extension ideas

Follow up the Plenary question by creating an action list. Pupils could research the ideas they are particularly interested in.

Do we have the same dreams as Ghanaian children do? How do we define who is poor?

Stimulus / Resources / Worksheets

Film ‘Daniels Classical School’ www.global-literacy.yolasite.com (approx 13 minutes long). Map of Africa, Ghana and location of Daniels Classical School. 4 photos of characters from the film ‘Daniels Classical School’. ‘After-watching’ questions worksheet.

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Daniel’s Classical School - Map of Africa

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Daniel’s Classical School - Map of Ghana

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Daniel’s Classical School - Map

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Causes of hunger group cards

there are too many people in the world lack of education and skills in poorer countries food is not shared out fairly bad climate and many natural disasters in poorer countries A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Causes of hunger statement group cards there are too many people in the world

lack of education and skills in poorer countries

food is not shared out fairly

bad climate and many natural disasters in poorer countries

there are too many people in the world

lack of education and skills in poorer countries

food is not shared out fairly

bad climate and many natural disasters in poorer countries

there are too many people in the world

lack of education and skills in poorer countries

food is not shared out fairly

bad climate and many natural disasters in poorer countries

there are too many people in the world

lack of education and skills in poorer countries

food is not shared out fairly

bad climate and many natural disasters in poorer countries

there are too many people in the world

lack of education and skills in poorer countries

food is not shared out fairly

bad climate and many natural disasters in poorer countries

there are too many people in the world

lack of education and skills in poorer countries

food is not shared out fairly

bad climate and many natural disasters in poorer countries

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Daniel’s Classical School - photos

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Daniel’s Classical School - photos

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


Daniel’s Classical School ‘Pre-watching’ questions worksheet CHARACTER

US

1. What does he/she usually do in the morning of a normal day?

1. What do we usually do in the morning of a normal day?

2. What does he/she usually do in the afternoon?

2. What do we usually do in the afternoon?

3. How does he/she help his/her parents? What does he/ she have to do?

3. How do we help our parents? What do we have to do?

4. Can he/she or does he/she have to attend the school? Why?

4. Can we or do we have to attend the school? Why?

5. What do the parents of Ghanaian children have to pay if they want send their children to school?

5. What do our parents have to pay for us to attend school?

6. How many times a day does our character eat?

6. How many times a day do we eat?

7. What does he/she like to play with and do?

7. What do we like to play with and do?

8. How would you describe his/her standard of living?

8. How would you describe your standard of living?

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC


DCS: ‘After-watching’ questions worksheet Q1. How do school fees work in Daniel´s Classical school ?

Q2. Does everyone pay the same amount to attend Daniel‘s Classical School?

Q3. Have you seen any pets in the film? If so, which ones? Does anyone own any pets in the film?

Q4. How do people help and support each other in the film?

Q5. What surprised you about the film?

Q6. How are poor people described in the film?

Q7. What do you think the biggest desire of Ghanaian children is?

Q8. How (and where) do poorer people in Ghana live?

Q9. How (and where) do richer people in Ghana can live?

Q10. Where does the money come from to run Daniel´s Classical school?

A project funded by the European Union and led in England by CDEC



Global Literacy - Challenge & Enquiry Pack