WATER’S EDGE: Redefining Water in Urban Boise
KATHERINE J. WOOD VARELA SPRING 2012
KATHERINE J. WOOD VARELA Spring 2012 Thesis Project August 2011 - Spring 2012 Idaho Urban Design and Research Center College of Art and Architecture University of Idaho
This project was completed with the knowledge shared by many professionals, professors, and collegues throughout my experiences in architecture. Without their support and the support of family and friends, this project would not have come to fruition. Thank you.
TABLE OF CONTENTS KEYWORDS: controlled urban waterscapes organic river edges community development sustainable neighborhoods built environment natural environment identity building inventory street inventory housing options pedestrian paths sense of place public realm geothermal traffic/pedestrian barriers place connection bioswales Irrigation flood mitigation high water table 100-year flood plain floodway water typologies
ABSTRACT PART 1: CONTEXT & ANALYSIS
The Boise River The Linen District The River-Myrtle District Site Analysis
9 10 12 16 18
PART 2: RESEARCH & Process Sample Thesis Projects
PART 3: FINAL DESIGN
Mixed-Use Case Studies Theory & Exploration Urban Design Studies Preliminary Design Revised Concept & Research Design Problems & Solutions
22 26 32 44 54 60 63
Site The site is located in downtown Boise, Idaho and is unique in its adjacencies to major seams of the downtown fabric. The Boise River runs along the south of the site before it encounters an aversion dam that directs water to parallel public parks. The northernmost portion of the site focuses on Grove Street, historically known for the now diverted Grove Street Canal, grand homes and large elm trees from the turn of the 20th century. The I-184 Connector runs east-west through the site, following the footprints of removed railroad tracks. A major arterial for vehicular traffic, the Connector also acts as a barrier between the Linen and the River-Myrtle Districts. Since the early 1990s, these challenging elements have been addressed in several master plans proposed by the City of Boise, yet the proposals lacked strong connecting elements. Boise City Limits
FEMA 100-Year Flood Map
Boise Urban Renewal History In the 1960s, the US government funded a massive nation-wide urban renewal incentive. For Boise, this meant leveling eight city blocks and planning a super mall right in the heart of downtown. The Boise Redevelopment Agency proposed a single vast building, housing under one roof an air-conditioned shopping mall, over 800,000 square feet of commercial space (including three department stores), 300,000 square feet of office space, a hotel of over 250 rooms, and 2,444 parking spaces. The BRA was the central urban renewal organization in Boise and in the 1970s began to purchase old buildings only to tear them down. In 1972, Boise’s Chinatown was demolished displacing an entire historic culture and community. Chinatown had been home to immigrant Chinese workers who came over during the gold rush of the 1850s. Members of the community protested the urban renewal plan, but they were ignored. When the historic Egyptian Theater went up for demolition, the
community contested and was able to preserve and restore the building. “Let’s face it,” then-BRA-chairman Carroll Sellars told Davis in ‘74, “most of these old buildings are junk piles. We’re not tearing down a damn thing that’s worth anything. If the historic preservationists had been around in olden times, the whole world would look like the Parthenon.” BRA was not particularly sympathetic to those calling for restoration. Many of the buildings were built on wood foundations and in poor condition, which would be, they argued, prohibitively expensive to repair. In the 1960s and ‘70s, urban renewal agencies across the country decimated entire blocks, sweeping away the potential and interesting neighborhoods (like Boise’s Chinatown) along with urban decay, leaving swaths of concrete and public housing in their wake. In 1985, Dirk Kempthorne was elected Mayor of Boise and the American of Architects did a study that urged Boise
to do smaller projects, setting the model for Boise’s current urban renewal model. Since then, the city has restored the same amount that was destroyed in the 1970s. Now, Capitol City Development Corporation is the primary urban renewal organization for the city of Boise. Hale Development is a secondary organization with a 2005 masterplan for the Linen District, an area in west downtown that was hardest hit by the 1970s urban renewal and slated for suburb-type sprawl. Since the proposed masterplan, Hale Development has preserved and restored the historic Linen Building on Grove St.
Abstract Identifying place and a means of interconnection for Boiseâ€™s Linen and River-Myrtle Districts, the proposal examines pedestrian interaction with the built and natural environments and integrates concepts of water within new and existing urban fabric. The proposal challenges current river edge definitions while encouraging sustainable neighborhood development and water urbanism. The proposal consists of three parts each implementing water as pedestrian way finding from downtown Boise to the Boise River. Starting at the Grove Plaza, pedestrians can walk down Grove Street past the small businesses, live-work studios, multi-family apartments and light industrial shops of the Linen District. The pedestrian path is integrated with varying water typologies, each sourced from the Grove Street Canal along the south edge of the street. Upon arriving at 14th Street, pedestrians are greeted by the iconic gems of the Linen District, the Modern Hotel and the Linen Building. Turning south towards the River, pedestrians can follow 14th Street under the Connector on-ramp to access a high-density urban development. Three and a half city blocks isolated by the Connector turn in on themselves, harboring pedestrians in a canyonlike setting. High-rise condominiums, small offices, and open-air restaurants and galleries gather around a sustainable water element, protecting users from high traffic streets and providing views of the foot hills and downtown. Crossing the â€œcanyonâ€? via bridge, pedestrians continue under the off-ramp along the 14th Street flood way. Flanked by new town homes on Grand Avenue and an existing residential neighborhood to the south, the flood way acts as a corridor to the river and provides flooding support for high river water levels. At the river, a mixed-use development returns four city blocks back to the natural flood plain and wetlands, modifying the public river edge to coexist with an urban fabric. A pier jetting out over the transformed river edge terminates 13th Street in a promenade and is intersected by a boardwalk that connects the Boise Green Belt through the development to Pioneer Corridor. A new street, Reed Street, is introduced to mitigate the city block fabric and connect east to west. Transitioning from controlled urban waterscapes to organic river edges, the proposed master plan creates active urban space with a strong sense of place and enhances the connection between the site and the Boise River.
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CONTEXT & Analysis
Railroad Schematics 1907
regional water The Boise River rises in three separate forks in the Sawtooth Range at elevations exceeding 10,000 feet (3,048 m), and is formed by the confluence of its North and Middle forks. The North Fork, 50 miles (80 km) long, rises in the Sawtooth Wilderness Area, along the Boise-Elmore county line, 60 miles (100 km) northeast of Boise. It flows generally southwest through the remote mountains in the Boise National Forest. The Middle Fork, approximately 52 miles (84 km) in length, rises within 12 miles (19 km) of the North Fork in the southern Sawtooth Wilderness
1885 Boise River
Area in northeastern Elmore County. It flows westsouthwest near the town of Atlanta, joining the North Fork to form the Boise River, approximately 15 miles (24 km) southeast of Idaho City. The main stream flows southwest into Arrowrock Reservoir joining the South Fork from the Anderson Ranch Dam. Lucky Peak Dam on the Boise River northeast of Boise The 101-mile-long (163 km) South Fork rises in northern Camas County in the Smoky Mountains of the Sawtooth National Forest north of Fairfield,
1885 Boise River
65 miles (105 km) east of Boise. It flows generally southwest, descending through a basalt canyon to fill the Anderson Ranch Reservoir, then turns northwest in central Elmore County. It joins the main stream as the southern arm of Arrowrock Reservoir, 20 miles (32 km) east of Boise. Downstream from its confluence with the South Fork, the river flows generally west, and adds the major tributary of Mores Creek along Highway 21, and passes through Lucky Peak Dam to emerge from the foothills, southeast of Boise.
The Boise RIver
1885 Boise River
The irrigation projects in Boise enabled locals to transport water from the Boise River to farms on the Boise Bench and other remote areas. Before significant irrigation in the valley, farmers had to locate their farmstead within close proximity to a substantial water source, usually the Boise River. Tom Davis, for example, settled alongside the river in current day Julia Davis Park where he dug a ditch from the river to his orchard. In fact, farmers utilized much of the land along the Boise River in the early years of Boise history as few deemed it worthy of little else due to flooding. As county population
grew, however, citizens realized the need for irrigable land beyond the riverbanks. Many looked to the large expanse of land south of Boise just below the Boise Bench as well as downstream to the west. In the early 1880s, led by Arthur D. Foote, engineer, New York investors set about planning a much larger and more acceptable scheme to irrigate the Boise Valley. Foote surveyed the site and proposed a main canal departing the Boise River east of the city with several lateral ditches connecting to various locations throughout the valley. Financial problems plagued the project from the beginning as several
1917 Boise River
different parties took turns controlling the endeavor The diversion of much of the Boise River allowed settlers to begin developing residential space along the river bed. As early as 1885, the northern boundary of John McClellan’s and Dr. William L. Thompson’s riverside property was sold to developers like future Boise Mayor and “Beer Baron”* John Lemp.
Grove Street looking West
14th Street looking South
Myrtle Street looking East
Grove Street looking East
Rhodes Urban Park
Grand Avenue looking North
Connector from 12th Street
The Linen Building on Grove Street
The old American Linen Building is now the Linen Building which is a popular entertainment venue and houses Hale Development office. “…blends the fabric of existing historical buildings with an extension of the culturally vibrant North End neighborhood.” “…will be a catalyst for future revitalization of the Westside District of Downtown Boise.”
Grove Street •1866 Boise City Canal Company o Before Warm Springs, diverted water into aqua duct that runs along Warm Springs Avenue to Grove Street and heads north at 11th Street to State and 15th Streets. From there it heads northwest to Elm Grove Park and Crane Creek then north to Hill Road until it intersects creek from Stewart Gulch that diverts to Boise River just north of Garden City or to Farmer’s Canal along Canal Road. Once in Collister, canal is owned by Boise Valley Irrigation Ditch Company • Boise City Canal ran on the north side of Grove Street as the “Grove Street Ditch” • Large water wheels every 50-100 feet to irrigate planted trees • Finest residential street in city with many fine homes o DeLamar Mansion o Lafayette Cartee home • 1891 geothermal introduced by Artesian Hot & Cold Water Company • First YMCA was located on 10th & Grove St. • Historic buildings of Idaho and Main streets constructed around residences of Grove St from 1900-1930. • Neglected in the 1950s Boise 1960s urban renewal left several open undeveloped blocks in west downtown, mostly used for parking.
Site Analysis The Linen District consists of roughly nine blocks at the beginning of the Boise Connector heading west. This location offers some challenges for infill development, particularly concerning vehicular traffic as the District is essentially bounded by Front Street. However, the District has started to creep across both Front and Myrtle Streets, defying the multiple lanes of traffic. Not only is this gesture an indication of pushing the bounds, it also creates multiple opportunities for types of development, increasing program options and sizes. Circulation at this intersection is key as it is highly visible from the arterial streets of Front and Myrtle. Historic Grove and Main Streets cut through the site, directing traffic to Downtown Boise or Chinden Boulevard. Bounded by 13th Street to the east and 16th Street to the west, each city block is roughly 280â€™ x 340â€™ or 2.1 acres. A diverse mix of restaurants, shops, services and retail, the Linen District already has a sense of place and character that can be manifested in a neighborhood complete with multi-family residences and live-work units. Currently, a multi-family condominium is planned on the south side of Front Street between 14th and 15th Streets. There are currently five buildings listed as Linen District Buildings: the Linen Building, the B.F. Evans Building, the Furness Building, the Matthews Building, and the Lincoln Building.
Linen District Buildings
River-Myrtle District The irrigation projects in Boise enabled locals to transport water from the Boise River to farms on the Boise Bench and other remote areas. Before significant irrigation in the valley, farmers had to locate their farmstead within close proximity to a substantial water source, usually the Boise River. Tom Davis, for example, settled alongside the river in current day Julia Davis Park where he dug a ditch from the river to his orchard. In fact, farmers utilized much of the land along the Boise River in the early years of Boise history as few deemed it worthy of little else due to flooding. As county population grew, however, citizens realized the need
for irrigable land beyond the riverbanks. Many looked to the large expanse of land south of Boise just below the Boise Bench as well as downstream to the west. In the early 1880s, led by Arthur D. Foote, engineer, New York investors set about planning a much larger and more acceptable scheme to irrigate the Boise Valley. Foote surveyed the site and proposed a main canal departing the Boise River east of the city with several lateral ditches connecting to various locations throughout the valley. Financial problems plagued the project from the beginning as several different parties took turns controlling the endeavor.
The diversion of much of the Boise River allowed settlers to begin developing residential space along the river bed. As early as 1885, the northern boundary of John McClellan’s and Dr. William L. Thompson’s riverside property was sold to developers like future Boise Mayor and “Beer Baron”* John Lemp.District, an area in west downtown that was hardest hit by the 1970s urban renewal and slated for suburb-type sprawl. Since the proposed masterplan, Hale Development has preserved and restored the historic Linen Building on Grove St.
Riverside Park Steetcar
Riverside Park Structures
Front Street Depot
Idaho Transportation 1950s
Railroad Schematics 1893
New York Canal
18 Existing Figure Ground
Vistas & Landmarks
Pedestrian Paths & Transit
Existing Green Space
Existing Vehicular Flows
The Grove Existing Canal New Canal Existing Geothermal New Geothermal
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Research & process
natURban: building “L’Union” with nature Master’s Thesis Proposal by Charlotte Lartigue, 2011 Chalmers Technical University
Located in the Lille Metropolis of France, Union is a continuing development that has been master-planned and studied. L’Union is the sustainable development proposal meant to act as a model for urban growth integrated with the natural environment. Focusing on two main goals, L’Union is to be democratic in design (nature for everyone) and sustainable design method (sustainability is nature.) The thesis project is separated into three sections: systematic analysis, research and design proposal. Each section goes into great detail about the processes that drove the design proposal while comparing existing development proposals against the alternative urban nature thesis.The project creates an integrated series of community farms and green pathways that encourage interaction with nature in a densely populated area.
Back to the City: Sustainable Regeneration of the 4th
Urban Corridor of Rotterdam over Nieuwe Mass River, The Netherlands Masterâ€™s Thesis Proposal by Newsh Mirzaie, 2011 University of Texas at Austin
The Randstad has the population of 7 million; 45% of the total population on the 26% of the countryâ€™s land area. A number of key figures on the spatial development of the Randstad indicate that a significant demand for housing still needs to be met. Since the 1950s, the government has been aiming to make the Netherlands competitive on the global market, and the physical structuring of the country is one of the means of achieving this. Although this country has been facing water issues and lack of land, it has the second most important port in the world. Rotterdam city-port will meet more expansion and population untill 2040 as well as other Randstad major cities like Den Haag, Delft, Leiden and Amsterdam. Viewed against the backdrop of the anticipated growth in the demand for urban space, it is of the utmost importance to limit the new utilization of space and keep valuable landscapes free. The traditional image of a ring os cities around a green heart needs to be changed. The green heart has already been fragmented by more urbanized areas penetrating the agricultural landscape. Studing a new pattern in order to control the unplanned sprawl, the Green Heart 2040 should try to follow a hyrbidized pattern of landscape, water, infrastructure, and urbanization. It means that proximity to the Randstad transit corridors can work as an urbanization catalyst to attract and form the developments along mobility network.
Mixed-Use Districts Pearl District, Portland, OR A formerly industrial area north of downtown Portland that includes The new residential buildings in the Pearl mean more residents are most of the historic North Park Block from 1869 and is now home to art on the streets and in the stores, supporting retailers and creating a galleries, residences and upscale businesses. sense of vibrancy. New residents also equate to a stronger, healthier neighborhood that can support small business and retail and increase Urban renewal efforts began in the late 1990s and helped preserve the likelihood of additional reinvestment in the existing historic several Portland landmarks: Powell Books, Weinhard Brewery, Union buildings. Station, and the main processing facility for the US Post Office.
Abandoned industrial area inner northwest Portland consiting of 100 city blocks that house the historic Hoyt Street Rail yards and furniture industry. All but two of the 31 buildings in district are â€œcontributingâ€? buildings: history and character are deemed significant enough to contribute to the overall historic integrity of the district.
The Portland Streetcar provides transit from the Pearl District to downtown and Portland State University. The Pearl District is key in Portland housing strategy and in achieving regional and state goals for growth management and has become an exemplary model for urban redevelopment nationwide.
Keirland Commons, Scottsdale, AZ
Studies from Grid/Street/Place Each of the districts shown are comparable in size and character to the Linen District.
Santana Row, San Jose, CA
Sunnyvale Town Center, Sunnyvale, CA
Birch Street Brea, CA
Caper’s Block, Vancouver, British Columbia One of Vancouver’s most successful mixed use projects, Caper’s Block is contingent on the area’s retail storefront and pedestrian friendly scale while providing offices at the second floor and residences on the third through fifth floors. Intermittent courtyards provide social spaces for lingering and people watching. The fourth floors terrace back away from the street edge providing deck space. Penthouses occupy the fifth floors to help create a variety of housing options. This project also utilizes passive design systems, such as a groundsource heat pump system, to heat and cool the complex. Overall, Caper’s Block acts as a model of modest mixed use sustainable development at the neighborhood scale.
Theory & Exploration
Concepts of Space, Time & Perception How would our culture and history would change if time were perceived as something real? Addressing matters of time, culture is defined time through abstractions, a human means of managing time into something tangible. In doing so, we have made time a static element rather than embracing the dynamic of time as nature intended, ever changing.
The product of change can be defined as novelty: “…a vehicle, by which or through something new appears in the world.” Real can be described as a limitation as anything can exist as “possible” but cannot always be realized. On the opposite end, the possible is a resemblance of what is real. The traditional timeline aligns with this notion where the reality becomes snapshots of repeated possibilities. Kwinter points out that as ambiguous as the two realms can be, Western culture was built on the “realm of possibility” and therefore, belies actuality. Change can be perceived as a flow of matter through time. This movement makes way for transformation and invention, making the new possible and necessary. Virtuality while not actualized becomes real, and possibility becomes the difference between realization and actualization. Therefore, representations of possibility such as philosophy, science, art and architecture become products of time. Herein lies the cultural revelation to discover absolute novelty as a means of defining place in time:
becoming instead of being. Kwinter brings up the “history of practices” in architecture in reference to the relationships created by architecture through social, political and historical context. He defines “architectures” as social technical objects; requiring understanding of not only form and materials, but specific character and relationships. One prevalent relationship is social context and science, where science has demanded the “will to order” and social models have followed. The invention and implementation of the clock in culture is rational and purely functional, yet it becomes inseparable from the human elements, disassociating us with time. This can be seen in the way we have adopted sectoring or gridding in design philosophy. Managing space, people, and time become practices and techniques, separate from time itself, and static in nature.
Theory & Exploration
Concepts of Private, Public & Civic The main idea of labor versus work can be applied to varying areas of human relationships, art and architecture included. Work is the unnaturalness of human existence, devoted to static, public and permanent. Labor is an action of perpetual movement in which it is processal, private and impermanent. Labor corresponds to human biological processes; labor of life. During the Renaissance, innovation and technique garnered new processes in architecture, relaying the typical roles of mason, roofer, framer, etc. into one role of master builder. The master builder decides what is to be built, what the labor will be. The master builder then coordinates with the engineer who determines how it will be built, what work will take place. These roles continue today [however, in recent years, there has been push to replace the master builder role with an integrated design team]. This idea of labor-power eventually gives way to the Industrial Revolution, workefficiency driven mass production that effectively creates mass accessibility to mass society and in turn, creates mass consumption. Mass society can destroy
the public and the private realms, blurring individual identities and invading private spaces. Kitsch, the Internet and television are prime examples
of such phenomena. Product, art and architecture become optimized, work overtaking labor and uniqueness. The public realm is an artifice of human means and social environments, created in work. However; without human social environments and architecture housing these environments, the human artifice would exist as unrelated parts of meaningless things that become through the discretion of the individual. Therefore, public space is not only artifice to house social environments but to represent reality.
Theory & Exploration
Theory & Exploration
Theory & Exploration
Theory & Exploration
Concepts of Material, Tectonics & Representation The built environment is as much about the ground as it is about the built form and the built environment consists of the topos, the typos, and the tectonic. The first statement refers to the fact that a building should not be considered without considering the site on which it is built. The site is the stereo, the solid, and the building is the tectonic, the built whole. This feeds into the second statement outlining the three elements of the built environment. Topos is place, typos is type, and tectonic is builder. These three elements create a complete system of built environment, varying from culture to culture, yet still distinctly the same.
“The worst enemy of modern architecture is the idea of space considered soley in terms of its economic and technical exigencies indifferent to the ideas of the site.” Vittorio Gregotti, 1983 “...rejoice in the progress of our body across the uneven surface of the earth and our spirit is gladdened by the endless interplay of the three dimesnions we encounter with every step...” Pilkionis, 1931 “Architects don’t invent anything, they transform reality.” Alvaro Siza “...belief that architecture cannot be a means for changing social relationships; but I maintain that it is architecture itself that needs, for its very production, the material represented by social relations.” Vittorio
Gregotti, 1983becomes memory pieces.
The Architectonics of Memory: On Built Form and Built Thought by Rodney Parker Mneumonics is defined as a learning technique used to aid in memorizing through associations with visual, auditory, verbal and kinesthetic qualities. Human knowledge lies within memory which is comprised of experiences. Experience eventually creates expecation.
Architecture represents a stable element in a large “cognitive map” that keeps our reality stable within a series of smaller cognitive maps. “Loci” is pictoral
and concrete whereas reality is verbal and abstract. Architecture then becomes memory pieces.
Child-like Thought Inhibition and Imagination
Children learn how to associate colors, shapes, sounds and images with reallife objects, animals, and experiences. We all remember learning how to color in our coloring books are children. The allure of colors and shapes drove our artistic notions until we learned that an apple is red, not blue, and that it is round, not square. Rational is taught through learning, but children donâ€™t cease to create and imagine . Even though the apple must be red and round, the apple can be anything from a house or a pattern to a picture or just good old food. Children donâ€™t color inside the lines naturally. They move through them with color and shape , constantly creating a new picture, a new association and changing the way they view the world.
Idea: Community Connection
Theory & Exploration
Designing a Design Problem: “Different Lenses” “Architecture must remain experimental and open to new ideas and aspirations in the face of conservative forces that constantly push it toward the already proven, already built, and already thought. Architects must explore the not yet felt. The realization of one inspired idea in turn inspires others.” Stephen Holl: Idea, Phenomenon, and Material Each seminar student was to design a design problem, and each of student was then to pick one of the top five design problems to respond to. “Different Lenses” created by Ron Politan encouraged exploring solutions as a child would. The problem: two multi-story buildings sitting approximately 200 feet apart are being developed to utilize both existing structures for a new single program use. We were to create an architectural design solution to fill the void in a cohesive manner while providing circulation between the two separate structures.
Urban Design Capitol City Development Corporation (CCDC) • 2025 Downtown Boise Redevelopment Plan • River-Myrtle Plan (24-year plan) o Mixed use, infill neighborhood with pedestrian friendly streets o Office parks along river o Preserved river edge for public Green Belt • Blueprint Boise Plan: Decrease commuting, fuel consumption, and traffic capacity Downtown Housing Initiative 2004 o Noise, parking, loading and unloading, trash collection, property maintenance, graffiti and safety o Since Initiative, 260 units completed or under construction. • Streetscape Standards • 1993 Westside Plan o Not updated since 2005
Urban Form: “compact, urban form with lively mix of uses. Emphasize quality sustainability and a feeling of permanence …each has its own sense of identity.”
II. THE PLAN Framework Plans & Design Guidelines
Figure 2: Downtown Boise Plan (1993) – Land Use
RIVER STREET–MYRTLE STREET MASTER PLAN
1993 Preferred Development Plan
1993 Downtown Boise Land Use Plan
2001 Westside Masterplan
Figure 5: Preferred Development Concept
Public Realm: “…parks, plazas and public spaces as focal points …act as catalyst for private development…” NOTE: THIS MAP INCLUDES PLANNING AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PERIMETER AREAS OUTSIDE THE WESTSIDE DOWNTOWN STUDY AREA BOUNDARIES. THESE AREAS ARE UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF OTHER REGULATORY PLANS. RECOMMENDATIONS SHOWN HERE ARE GENERALLY IN CONFORMANCE WITH THOSE OTHER PLANS AND ARE INDICATED HERE FOR COORDINATION ONLY.
FRAMEWORK MASTER PLAN
WESTSIDE DOWNTOWN FRAMEWORK MASTER PLAN
“Provide refreshment and relief from urban surroundings and add to livability of downtown.” RIVER STREET–MYRTLE STREET MASTER PLAN
Figure 7: Built Form
RIVER STREET–MYRTLE STREET MASTER PLAN
2001 Building Heights
Overall Plans, Guidelines & Action Steps
2001 Preferred Development Plan
Appendix B: Zoning Map
Overall Plans, Guidelines & Action Steps
RIVER STREET–MYRTLE STREET MASTER PLAN
• Retain alleys • Public restrooms Adopted by the Boise City Council Ordinance No. 6108 – December 4, 2001 available • Recycling facilities Effective Date – December 8, 2001 • Sound mitigations standards for residential Recommended by Capital City Development Corporation Resolution No.from 861 units exterior sources and October 15, 2001 between units • Non-residential uses such as daycare, churches, schools, and community centers • Unique, high-quality design • Cultural center for community • Preservation of historic character • Adaptive re-use • Business incubators • Live-work units • Housing and studio space for artists o Studio spaces designed for visit, observation and participation of public • Economic development
2001 Zoning Map
Figure 9: Civic Spaces
Urban Design Plug-In Urban Design Elements of infrastructure are plugged into an existing urban fabric in hopes of spurring new development or providing a public amenity
RIVER STREET–MYRTLE STREET MASTER PLAN
III. APPENDIX 1
Overall Plans, Guidelines & Action Steps
2001 Civic Spaces Figure 8: Streetscape Character
Places to preserve, to create, to enhance: Places • Parks/open spaces • Public • Neighborhood • Historic districts • Bridges Connections • Streets • Pedestrian and bicycles • Transit • Open space/green space • Freeway • Bridges River edges • Riverfront parks • Connection to river • Esplanade • Riverfront activites
RIVER STREET–MYRTLE STREET MASTER PLAN
2001 Deterioration Plan
Overall Plans, Guidelines & Action Steps
2001 Streetscape Guide Figure 11: River Myrtle–Old Boise Subdistricts
People Place: “Offering a delightful and enriching environment for living, working and playing… people over vehicles.”
WESTSIDE DOWNTOWN FRAMEWORK MASTER PLAN
RIVER STREET–MYRTLE STREET MASTER PLAN
Subdistrict Plans, Guidelines & Action Steps
(Arthur C. Nelson, Metropolitan Research Center, University of Utah)
Building Heights Study
1. WESTWARD HO Idaho and other Western states are projected to remain the nation’s fastestgrowing states. 2. QUALITY OF LIFE Many seniors, families and young professionals will be looking for the same thing: slower pace, recreational opportunities, clean air and water. 3. CHANGING HOUSEHOLDS Idaho’s senior population and homes without children will increase. 4. MOBILE JOBS Newcomers will bring their own jobs. Instead of moving to their job, people will choose where they want to live and bring their job with them via telecommuting, working from home and utilizing technology not available 20 years ago. 5. LONGER LIVES Healthier lifestyles and better health care mean people will live longer. Already, insurance actuarial tables have been extended from 100 years to 120 years. Aging populations will have different housing and transportation needs. 6. SUBURBAN FLIGHT In the past few decades people fled urban areas for isolated suburban living. Now people are breaking from the past and returning to cities to get out of their cars and enjoy amenities and services not found in suburbs. 7. REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION The entire corridor is already connected by a freeway and a railway, providing necessary infrastructure for a cross-state and local public transportation network. 8. HOUSING FINANCES Changes in lending practices will mean less demand for $1 million-plus homes and more demand for smaller homes on smaller lots and an increase in renters. 9. BETTER TECHNOLOGY Communication improvements have improved regional social and economic networks. 10. GREEN MOVEMENT More efficient water, energy, land-use and transportation practices will help ease growth’s strain on natural resources, air and water quality, and farmland.
Land Use & Zoning Vector Map
Zoning & Land Use
Connector: Commercial use •Previously zoned for auto commercial and light industrial
• Recycle used land, save fringe land • Avoid extending new infrastructure • Reduce vehicle miles traveled • Improve air quality • Improve water quality • Use less energy • Clean-up contaminated properties 2050
1%+ live in Downtown Boise = 20,000 people 2%+ live in secondary centers = 40,000 people 5%+ live in center-accessible (walking/transit) = 100,000 people 25%+ live in mixed-use, mixed-housing, walkable suburban = 500,000 people
Linen District: Mixed use • 24-hour activity • Office, retail, & service business • Residential • Hotel and convention venues • Civic, cultural, educational, entertainment, medical programs
= 1/3 of population in 2050 but 2/3 of all new development by 2050 in infill, smarty growth and compact centers
Linen District •Green strip on west side •Left-turn lane •Bike lane on east side •No on-street parking •3 southbound lanes
Americana Drive Street Study A preliminary study of the progressive street conditions along Americana Drive tranversed several different typologies, all addressing different urban conditions and pedestrian relationships.
Urbanity Preferences (National Assoc. of Realtors, American Preference Survey 2004) • 46% Transit Access • 46% Walk to School • 51% Stores/Restaurants • 72% Sidewalks • 38% Housing Mix • 47% Ethnic Mix • 45% Income Mix • 65% Generational Mix
Industrial •No green strip •On-street parking •Bike lanes •Sidewalks •3 lanes of one-way traffic Commercial 1 •Green strip •No on-street parking •Bike lanes •Sidewalks •3 lanes of one-way traffic Commercial 2 •Green strip 2x wider = larger bldg setback •Narrower bike lanes •No on-street parking •Median between 2-way traffic •2 northbound lanes •3 southbound lanes o 1 left turn at light Park 1 •Green strip as wide as Commercial 2 o Sidewalk and green strip and bldg setback •Wider bike lanes •2 southbound lanes •3 northbound lanes o 1 left-turn lane at light Bridge •Bike lanes •2 lanes of traffic each way •Sidewalk w/guardrail •Turning lane
Promenade at the Connector Wedge
Town homes along Grand Avenue
Urban Design Human Needs: 1. Psychological: survival, health, comfort, development 2. Social Order: equality, justice, liberty, moral order 3. Safety & Security: physiological protection from machines, nature, people 4. Affiliation: formal organizations, kinship, community, financial groups, spiritual groups
5. Self-Actualization: social relationships, control over life, intellectual 6. Aesthetic: beauty, sensory, symbolism, intellect 7. Cognitive: learning, experiencing 8. Esteem: personalization, rewards, sense of place, spiritual ends
Mixed-use office block w/ parking structure
Urban Design Urban Mapping Using important places around downtown Boise, this map uses vectors to identify areas with potential for development. The yellow represents the Linen District, the red represents downtown and Boise landmarks, the green represents park space and the hatched areas represent institutional uses.
Techtonics In considering the site, the most potential for techtonic strategies was the development between the Connector on- and off-ramps. The section studies to the left explored the relationships among buildings outside of the Connector wedge, the Connector roads themselves, and site inside the wedge all within context of the existing, or lacking, urban fabric. Site Section Studies of Connector Development
Reserving pedestrian access from the Linen and River-Myrtle Districts to flow under the Connectors allowed for building massing to right high above the roadways. The integration of water and vegetation create different situations and conditions of public realm. A public green space that slopes down from the Connector ramps creates a naturalistic yet protected environment. The shift of building mass up and to the edges of the wedge bounds begins to act more urban, responding to the specific site conditions of noise and traffic while addressing views and program. Designating water elements to interact with various points within the site tie the design intent together. Specifically addressing building facades, techtonics can be applied, integrated or remedial. The way techtonics are used in buildings directly affects the public realm and human scale.
Architectural Studies of Building Integration
Preliminary Design Grove Street Four blocks of focused daylighting of the Grove Street Canal creates pedestrian-friendly environments that create a sense of place and harken to historical identity. Adding elements such as trees, planters, and designated pedestrian path materials to areas such as 16th and Grove Streets, creates an integrated public realm designed for the pedestrian. The large setback at the Furness Building between 15th and 16th Streets that currently parks vehicles right up to the building entrances is reallocated for the Grove Street Canal and layers of green and furniture strips that create a pedestrian friendly environment. The presence of the canal drastically enhances the building edge, activating points of transition between public and private space. The continuation of the canal along Grove Street links the Linen District to downtown Boise, particularly the Grove fountain. Proposed infill development includes nine live-work units in what is currently a surface parking lot as well as a multi-family apartment building.
Preliminary Design The Connector Tucked into the wedge between the Connector on- and off-ramps is a high-rise condominium building with a large promenade towards BoDo. The pedestrian promenade acts as vista and entrance to the wedge site, leading to a plaza that intersects the pedestrian-only 14th Street. Large pools compliment the promenade, creating terraced edges that respond to seasonal water levels and the high water table. The pedestrian path continues east across 13th Street to a block of garden loft apartments. The path shifts, contracts and expands to create public spaces for residents and pedestrians. At 12th Street, the pedestrian path acts as alley in a block of mixed use buildings.
Grand Avenue The Grand Avenue development utilizes space along the Connector off-ramp as public realm, hardscaping a path from the existing condominums on 13th Street to Rhodes Park under the Connector on 15th Street. Fourteen proposed single-family rowhouses with new sidewalk and green strips compliment a gathering node and pool that marks the pedestrian entrance to 14th Street.
Mid-Review The mid-review presentation lacked a central concept that tied everything together. Goals for finishing my thesis project include: • Develop the pedestrian/vehicular environment further to create a convincing design. • Use context of place history to create strong concept. • Make grand gestures with main ideas particularly tectonic moves with the Connector. • Use water in unexpected ways in unexpected places. • Start daylighting the canal at the Grove and portray movement and connection to the river somehow; stronger concept with a definite beginning and ending. • Consider a park street with pedestrian path in middle and vehicular traffic to edges. • Make water fundamental design element and play it to its strengths.
CONCEPT: transition from controlled urban waterscapes to organic river edges. • Use water to connect “nodes” using the Grove as a starting point and example, and moving through my project site with water in unexpected ways (under buildings, on buildings, up buildings, through buildings, over roadways, etc.) creating unique relationships with water that terminate at the Boise River at 13th street. • These nodes are already evident in plan; however they are limited. Extending the reach and the number of these nodes throughout the plan could help reinforce the idea of water and the urban relationship to water. • The four main elements of the design are water, built environment, natural environment and pedestrians • Diagram water as movement through downtown, the Linen District and my project site, branding an experience to compliment proposed development. • Use experiential vignettes to present design ideas. • Make sure to diagram program in building massing to present visual idea.
Water Concept Diagram & Studies
The Concept of Water Water can host a series of properties, have many meanings and functions. Water can be a solid, a liquid, a gas. By nature, the water molecule of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom is cohesive and irrepricable in controlled laboratories. Water sustains life, can create microclimates within ecosystems, and is temporal. The effects of water are evident in corroded or eroded materials. Water is temporal. It can submerge a place in time, creating a particular experience and character. When the water receeds, another environment is revealed with new character and identity. Water can act as barrier or connector, Water/Geothermal Typology Studies
Looking at water typologies such as rivers, canyons, streams, and mist, and what each of these typologies encourage in an environment was key to this project. A canyon typology has been carved away by the path of water, revealing layers of techtonic strata formed of waterâ€™s influence. A creek typology offers movement and edge, gathering and solice. The limits of water are boundless and greatly influenced the project.
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old. spring forage for deer and elk, and grows It provides • Drought Tolerance well on hot dry slopes once established. A few weeks after • Wildlife flowering the foliage will begin to dry up and die as the goes dormant • Hardiness plant until the following spring. It is a good idea to mark the location, so the large taproot is not accidentally dug up in the summer or fall when the plant is 2. “Thefoliage. Seven of Xeriscape” from The Xeriscape Flower Gardener without It isPrinciples native from lowland to mid elevations in the mountains, and is widespread east of the Cascades. (Knopf 1991).
• Plant and design comprehensively from beginning • Create practical turf areas of manageable siazed, shapes, and appropriate grasses Eriophyllum lanatum • Use appropriate plants and zone the landscape according to D3 the water needs of the plants Eriophyllum • Consider improving the soil with lanatum organicWoolly matterSunflower like compost The 6-12” tall perennial has yellow flowers that bloom in or manure spring. The leaves have a gray green color from the densely • Consider using mulches such aswooly wood chips matted, soft hairs. Requires a well drained to coarse textured soil and full sun. Plants are drought tolerant and • Irrigate efficiently with properly designed systems (including commercially available from several nurseries. It occurs hose-end equipment) and applying right amount ofCA water fromby lowland to midthe elevations from BC to and east to Balsamorhiza atsagittata the right time of day MT, ID and UT. Aquilegia caerulea • Maintain the landscape appropriately by mowing, pruning, D2 D 4properly. fertilizing D3
It has been used by the horticulture industry and can be obtained commercially from farm raised plants. It has twice the chromosome number ofand thecovered commonwith camassticky and prodeeply lobed and serrated, hair. The duces moreknown leaves. As noted forBill Bluefor Camas, Cusick’s genus is also as Crane’s the elongated Camas also prefers moist conditions in the spring, followed seedpod. Medicinally they are used to tone up the muscles by a dry summer. Blue Camas ranges from British of the digestive tract, reduce diarrhea and heal sores in the Columbia south to California and east to southwest Alberta, mouth 1997). MT,(Ogle WY and UT. Native east of the Cascades on fairly
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Eriogonum heracleoides Wyeth Buckwheat The low-growing (6-16” tall and wide) perennial forb blooms in late spring to early summer. It has creamy white flowers produced on an erect stalk, green ovate basal leaves with a wooly or pubescent underside, and a whorl of leaves below the flowers. Wyeth buckwheat is very drought tolerant and semievergreen. It is one of the many Eriogonums that could Eriogonum heracleoides be used more frequently in landscaping. The flower stalks are brittle once dry and do not tolerate foot traffic. Found in ID, MT and UT.
Blooming from summer to autumn, this sturdy wildflower grows 2-3’ tall by 1-2’ wide. It is unparalleled for its continuously blooming, stunning purple ray flowers and the raised golden brown center of disk flowers. The root and rhizomes are harvested for their medicinal use to bolster the immune system. Adaptable to many soil conditions, a long slender taproot provides a moderate drought tolerance once 3. Manicured/Green established. Native to the Great Plains where it and its relative, E. angustifolia, are subjected to over-harvesting. Per p35 Idaho Native Plant guide from the National Wildlife Foundation D4 Geum triflorum in bud (left), seed head (right)
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Design Problems& Solutions Design Problems
• How does integrated design of urban environment benefit the city of Boise?
• Divert and daylight Grove Street Canal from 9th St. to 15th St.
• Can built and natural environments be integrated through master planning? • How can urban planning address history of place, reintroducing area to origins while using sustainable building systems and mixeduse land use to encourage and support a neighborhood? • Can water urbanism provide regeneration of urban facbrics? • What are the opportunities of infill development on the site? • How can we challenge the Boise convention of river edges as private domain and encourage active urban space with a strong sense of place and a stronger connection to downtown Boise and the Linen District? • How do we eliminate the barrier the Connector creates at the seams of the Linen District and the River-Myrtle District? •How does the natural environment inform architecture, rather than architecture inform the natural environment?
• Create high-density protected mixed-use development between Front and Myrtle from 15th to 11th Streets • Implent infill housing and public space between Grand Avenue and the Connector and along Grove Street • Use water as a means of pedestrian gathering, connection, and navigation to connect three urban renewal districts. •Bring river into city: o Irrigate green spaces o Pedestrian friendly o Integrated urban flood management • Use the common element of water to create urban edges and pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods. • Geothermal can be used not only as a general energy source but can also be a heat source for Grove Street pedestrian paths in colder winter months.
•What constitutes a successful public realm and how does the public realm inform architectural program?
PA Rt 3
F inal D esign
Proposed Vehicular Flows Proposed Green Space
Proposed Figure Ground
Existing Vehicular Flows Existing Green Space
Working with the existing urban fabric, implement a pedestrian corridor along 14th Street Floodway to connect the Boise RIver to the Connector site and the Linen District. Reinforce the pedestrian corridor along Grove Street from the Boise Centre on the Grove through the Linen District via various opportunities to interact with water. Water acts as navigation tool while vehicular corridors are separated from pedestrian paths. Use existing Pioneer Corridor as secondary pedestrian path from site to the river. Within the Connector site, a tertiary pedestrian corridor is created as a link to BoDo. A constructed wetland that responds to the historic floodplain provides a new type of water urbanism.
Existing Figure Ground
Grove Street Canal The Linen Building
I-184/Hwy 26 Connector
Pedestrian Access under I-184 to Canyon Typology
Multi-Family Apartments hS
Extend Proposed Reed St. to 17th St.
Mixed-Use Block w/Commercial Emphasis & Parking Structures
Single Family Row Houses
Studios & Galleries along 15th St.
1 Existing Apartments along 14th St. Existing Single-Family Residences along 14th St.
ed Re eet
Shopping/ Grocer/ Drug
Extend 12th Street to Myrtle Street
Multi-Family Apartments Sho ne
nue Ave nd
Boise River Green Belt
4 Restaurants/ Small Businesses
14th Street Flood Way & Pedestrian Corridor
Pedestrian Access along Connector Edge
Single Family Row Houses
Garden Loft Apartments
Mixed-Use Office Block w/ Parking Structure
Existing Single-Family Residences
US Post Office
SIngle-Family Residence Townhomes 12th
Boise River Aversion Dam
Constructed Wetland/ Floodplain
River Information Center t
tre e 11t hS
Pier & Boardwalk
Adjacent Building Parking
Tree On-Street Bike Strip Parking Lane
Bike On-Street Lane Parking
Existing Street Section
Pri- Public vate R.O.W.
Tree On-Street Bike Strip Parking Lane
Bike On-Street Lane Parking
Proposed Street Section
Grove Street Design The current Grove Street condition allows for large building setbacks from the street, most of which are used for vehicular parking right at building entrances. The proposed street section uses the setback as a pedestrian corridor, removing the cars from the semi-private realm in front of shops and giving the space to users. The alternates for the canal design offer different levels of user interaction and right of way.
High-density mixed-use development between Front and Myrtle Streets creates an urban edge that directly activates the natural edge. The building forms of the site respond to the builtup topography and reeds at waterâ€™s edge while optimizing daylight exposure and views.
Perspective looking Northeast from Condominiums
Connector Site Section Not to Scale
14th St. Ped. Corr.
The Connector Development The site is flanked by high volume, high noise Front and Myrtle Streets which required the development of the site to be protected. A canyon typology applied to the development allows for the buildings to turn their backs on the exterior, creating a safe haven deep within the site. Built-up topography in the wedge block integrated natural and built environments, leading users to explore and discover. Garden lofts occupy the second block, responding in a more abstract fashion to the canyon typology. The last block ends in typical urban fabric massing, mixed-use with a parking structure and pedestrian alley.
Apartments Condominiums Arts/Culture
The site transects the 14th Street pedestrian corridor, using water to reinforce sense of place and inform architectural decisions
The Wetland Development Returning the River-Myrtle District to the historic floodplain, this portion of the project lets organic river edges define building placement and massing. Buildings are oriented for optimal daylight, river views and pedestrian flow. The 14th Street Floodway is temporal,reclaiming a vehicular roadway with high spring waters from the river, and receeding into a different character during the summer. A boardwalk connects the site to the existing Pioneer Corridor and transverses the site, providing views and interaction with the river. A promenade terminates 13th Street, ending in a pier that reaches out to the river.
Apartments Condominiums Arts/Culture Mixed Use Development Offices Live-Work Units
14th Street Site Section Not to Scale Boise River
Wetland Pier & Boardwalk
I-184 East Myrtle St.
I-184 West Front Front St. Street
Section Perspective at 14th Street Floodway
Rain Garden Rainwater collection for urban planting irrigation
Bioswale Stormwater collection and filtration for entry into canal system
Water Typologies Various methods for collecting rainwater and stormwater can be implemented throughout the site. Bioswales, rain gardens and permable structures all allow for controlled movement of water in flood mitigation and planting irrigation. The 14th Street Floodway acts as a pedestrian corridor providing flood mitigation and place identity. The hard urban edge of 14th Street give users a specific experience as they pass through a residential neighborhood to access commercial development at the river.
Stormwater Development Issues
Permeable Berm Flood mitigation and wetland remediation
1. Flood management: • Annual flooding • Flash flooding o Rapid snow melt o High precipitation 2. Filtration: • Bio-swales • Groundwater recharge • Remediate combined sewer overflow 3. Irrigation: • Bio-swales • Drought-tolerant plantings • Greenscapes along streets and building edges
C onclusion Project Evaulation The original intent of this project began with daylighting the Grove Street Canal. Throughout the process, it was apparent that a larger comprehensive move using the same idea was more appropriate for the larger context. The Grove Street Canal acted as the main driver of concept as I continued to build my reaserch and supporting conecpts. The overall masterplan implemented a simple solution to connect three very disjointed and controversial districts in downtown Boise, offering public realm development ideas to the city instead of focusing soley on building program and use. The projectâ€™s subtle yet poweful result allows existing factors of identity within each district to remain in tact, returning users to a historical context while encouraging sustainable urban design.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Capitol City Development Corporation CCDC. CCDC.com. Web. Accessed Sept-Dec 2011. http://www.ccdcboise.com/AboutCCDC/FAQs.aspx Cherry, Nathan, and Nagle, Kurt. Grid / Street / Place : Essential Elements of Sustainable Urban Districts. Chicago: American Planning Association Planners Press. 2009. Dixon, Levine, & McAuley. “Locating Impropriety: Street Drinking, Moral Order, and the Ideological Dilemma of Public Space” Political Psycology. Vol. 27, No. 2 (Apr., 2006), p. 187-206. Published by: International Society of Political Psycology. Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3792437 Holl, Steven. “Phenomena and Idea.” Idea and Phenomena. Lars Muller Publishers. 2002. Kwinter, Sanford. “The Complex and the Singular.” Architectures of Time: Toward a Theory of the Event in Modern Culture. MIT Press. 2001. Lartigue, Charlotte. “natURban, master thesis Chalmers, exhibition poster.” Issuu.com. Issuu, 31 May 2010. Web. Accessed 30 Aug 2011. http://issuu.com/charlotte-lartigue/docs/naturban__charlotte_lartigue__master_thesis_-_chal Lee, Paula. “Architecture and . . .” Assemblage.No. 41 (Apr., 2000), p. 42. Published by: The MIT Press. Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3171302 “The Vision.” thelinendistrict.com. Web. Accessed Sept-Dec 2011. http://www.linendistrict.com/main/vision.html Mirzaie, Newsh. “Master of Urban Design thesis.” Issuu.com. Issuu, 2 Jun 2011. Web. Accessed 5 Sep 2011. http://issuu.com/newshadesign/docs/master_of_urban_design_thesis Pearl District Precedent Information. www.explorethepearl.com Web. Accessed May 2011. Pearl District TOD Information. Web. Accessed May 2011. http://www.dbarchitect.com/project_detail/154/humanCITY.html Reuter, John T. “Razed & Confused: Boise’s turbulent history of urban renewal.” Boiseweekly.com. Web. Accessed 28 April 2011. http://www.boiseweekly.com/boise/razed-and-confused-boises-turbulent-history-of-urban-renewal/Content?oid=1713334 Virilio, Paul. “Improbable Architecture.” Lost Dimension. Semiotext(e). 1991.
IMAGE CREDITS Pearl District Before: http://vintageportland.wordpress.com/2010/05/06/northwest-portland-rail-yards/ Pearl District After: http://publicola.com/2011/04/18/council-should-adopt-modest-height-increases-to-strengthen-pioneer-square/ Pearl District TOD: http://www.dbarchitect.com/project_detail/154/humanCITY.html Pearl District Jamison Square: http://www.flickr.com/photos/doubledale38/2605460085/ Pearl District Street: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/one?public_place_id=663 Caperâ€™s Block Photographs: http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/currentplanning/urbandesign/
Single Family Home: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Small_Single-family_home.jpg Condos on the Waterfront: http://www.bocaexecutiverealty.com/real_estate/Naples/Coquina_Sands.php New Aventine Community: http://browardhomessearch.com/miramar/aventine/ Plaza by Martha Schwartz: http://blogs.westword.com/latestword/2008/09/proposals_and_counter_proposal.php Traffic Circle: http://inhabitat.com/water-cleansing-roundabout-in-normal-illinois/ Union Station: http://blogs.westword.com/latestword/2008/09/proposals_and_counter_proposal.php River Street History: http://riverstreethistory.wordpress.com/2011/04/22/hello-world http://www.accessgenealogy.com/idaho/early_settlement_of_idaho.htm River @ Old Fort Boise: http://www.advrider.com/forums/showthread.php?t=179831 Boise River: http://media.photobucket.com/image/snake+river+boise+/Bruce2256/SnakeRivernearBoiseIdaho.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boise_River http://www.lowerboisewatershedcouncil.org/01_who-we-are/watershed-map.html http://www.lowerboisewatershedcouncil.org/01_who-we-are/watershed-map.html City of Boise: http://www.cityofboise.org Capitol City Development Corporation: http://www.ccdcboise.com Idaho Smart Growth: http://www.idahosmartgrowth.org