Assessment Campaign tools
Introduction to Effective Campaigning Good campaigners analyse, make plans, act and have an impact. This section of the toolkit is a guide to how to effectively campaign on any issue which you may face as an officer, from education to local community work. Effective campaigning involves using the minimum amount of effort to achieve the maximum impact. In thinking about the best way to achieve this, here are some of the factors that may need to be addressed: External factors play a significant role in the campaigning environment â€“ you need to try to predict how things are likely to evolve (e.g. what kind of response your campaign might get though sound preparation). Resources can be organised in many different ways, and those you are seeking to change can be influenced in many different ways; analysis will help you
think though some of the best routes to take to achieve your goals. Identifying the best ways to reach your end goal and therefore the changes you are seeking to achieve along the route need to be defined (e.g. to be influential, is a meeting with the university your best strategy, or a thousand-strong student protest necessary?).
The Campaign Cycle There are many ways of thinking about a campaign. Understanding the process is an important part of planning and implementing a successful campaign. Here is an example of the campaign cycle:
ANALYSING THE ISSUE
CAMPAIGN DELIVERY & MONITORING PROGRESS
To start off with you need to be able to answer the following questions:
An understanding of this simple campaign cycle will: Help emphasise the concept of campaigning as an integrated process – from start (understanding the issue) to finish (evaluation) and back to the start again.
1. What is the nature of the problem you wish to solve? 2. What are the causes and consequences?
Provide you with a touchstone – so you know where you are in the campaigning process at any given time and can anticipate what you should do next.
3. What is the range of possible solutions to you? There are a number of ways you can start to answer these questions: Read up on the current research available for the issues – understanding the wider context is important and will help you later on to formulate winnable objectives.
Offer a useful framework for planning your campaigning activity – helping you retain focus, direct your limited resources where impact is likely to be its greatest and monitor the campaign at given stages to alter the course if necessary.
Carry out some primary research – this may be an initial information gathering campaign such as a postcard campaign with your student body or it could be running focus groups and workshops with students and course reps.
Analysing the issue Students’ unions usually have quite a clear idea of the issues affecting students on their campus. Using tools like the National Student Survey or internal surveys, you can see pretty quickly the academic issues which affect your students. Unfortunately these tools rarely tell you how to solve the problem and so having a good understanding of the issue before running a campaign is crucial to your success.
A problem/solution tree Whilst carrying out your primary research, a problem/solution tree is a great exercise to do with course reps. Clearly and simply state the problem you wish to resolve in the box in the centre of the tree. Involve all relevant stakeholders in discussing the problem, focusing on the questions below:
Have an initial discussion with key academics – are their any academics you know of that are interested in exploring this issue with you? Getting staff on board from the beginning will only increase your influencing power later on. What are the causes of the problem? There may be several interrelated causes, or maybe just one. What are consequences ‘on the ground’ of this problem? How does it affect students? Write the causes of the problem at the bottom of the tree and the consequences (the effects) on the top.
Turning the problem tree into a solution tree
what specifically needs to happen.
Discuss the ideal situation you would like to reach. Now write this ‘vision’ on a piece of paper and stick it over the ‘problem’ in the centre of the tree.
who can bring about change (student input, staff influence etc). Write the solutions on paper and stick them over the causes.
For each of the causes of the problem discuss and identify potential solutions. The following questions may help: which policies need to be changed for the solution to be reached.
Now discuss how the solutions would improve the situation. What would the positive outcomes be? Write these outcomes on the piece of paper and stick them over the consequences in the box above the tree.
Positive outcome 1
Positive outcome 3
Positive outcome 2
You have now transformed your problem
You could use one or more of these solutions
tree into a range of potential solutions.
as part of your campaign objectives.
Developing the strategy
SWOT analysis may be an appropriate tool to understand your campaign: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. When filling out a swot grid, remember to include the institution’s reactions to your campaign, and people you must influence to make the campaign successful.
Now you have a clear idea of what the issues are and some potential solutions, it is now time to drill down to create your ultimate aims of your campaign. At this stage you need to be able to: select a solution. set a campaign aim. frame the campaign.
identify routes of influence. identifying steps to influence policy makers. Remember when you are setting your aim, to take into account your research to decide what an achievable aim is. In order to formulate a winnable aim, a
Identifying routes of influence After you have decided on your campaign aim, you need to decide how you will achieve it, taking into account the SWOT analysis results. In order to be successful, you need to identify the routes of influence. To do this you must answer the following questions: Who should the campaign target (who needs to make the changes necessary)? How much influence do you or your allies have over that target? What and who influences that target? What are the best direct and indirect methods of reaching your target? To exert influence on an institution target successfully you will need to understand what makes it ‘tick’ – its political dynamic. Within any institution, a complex web of internal and external pressures, competing demands and self interests influence policy and practice. Make no mistake about it, policy change is political. If you do not understand what motivates or deters the key decision makes in regard to you issue, you restrict your chances of achieving positive change. Understanding the policy making process need not be daunting. It can be done simply and systematically by drawing up an influence map showing who may have influence over how decisions about your issue will be made. Once you have identified all the possible influencers it is useful to see which of these can be recruited as allies and which are potential enemies. Simply go through the influencers and divide them into the following categories: Friends
Your method of approach to friends, foes and floaters should vary. Look for an alliance of the unexpected – this is often a powerful way to draw attention to your cause. With your friends, you should involve them as much as possible in your campaign, ensuring they are vocal and visible to the floaters and foes. Involving them in the planning stages is a good way to earn their loyalty as people who feel they are involved will dedicate more of their time and resources to the cause. Floaters need to be persuaded of the justness of the cause. Often these people are key to bringing changes as they are susceptible to a well made case and can easily change their perceptions. It is therefore wise to invest time and money in building their trust. For foes it is often best to isolate them totally and not provide them with ammunition which can be turned against you. You need to consider how strong your opponents are, what access to decision makers they have, and whether you can neutralise that access or minimise the threat they hold. Once you have a good idea of where the power lies and who your allies are, you can look at how best to access them. For some key influencers the routes will be straightforward and you can access them directly. For others you may need to go through several stages of secondary influences to reach them. Prioritising channels of influence helps you maximise the leavers of power you have identified and makes strategic use of your limited resources. It is worth being clear about the channels you intend to use, as this can sometimes be a time consuming process, which you will need to factor in when you decide on timescales.
Planning the campaign Extensive planning is the key to a successful campaign. Once you know the issue which you want to campaign on, your next tasks are to:
Broken down these are the things you should be thinking about:
set clear measurable objectives.
establish a monitoring and evaluating process.
The resources you put in – time money and expertise
What you actually do with the available resources. Campaigns will tend to involve a mix of lobbying, media and action but the balance of these activities will depend on the issue, the ultimate goal, and the context which the campaign takes place
Your actions measured and monitored. For example x number of meetings with the pro vice chancellor or x thousand signatures on the petition
The milestone of the change. Impact will be your final goal but the outcomes plot the steps along the way to achieve your end goal. In the short term this might involve small policy changes or simply the media picking up in the issue.
How things have changed as a result of your campaign. What are the significant lasting changes in students’ lives which your actions have contributed to?
develop workplans. test the plan. think of contingency plans. Using an impact chain will help you to assess the needs of your campaign.
ACTIVITIES (what gets done)
OUTPUTS (what is generated by your activity)
OUTCOMES (changes resulting from the outputs)
IMPACT (changes in people’s lives)
Recognising the differences between outputs, outcomes and impact can sometimes be tricky to get your head around. Put simply: Outputs: what is generated as a result of your activity - student participation, media attention etc? Outcomes: what are the short and medium term changes which have
occurred because of the campaign - pilot projects, policy changes etc? Impact: what are the lasting and significant changes as a result of your outcomes - increase in student satisfaction, less complaints/appeals etc? Once you have identified your inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes and impact, you need to start thinking about who in your team is able to deliver your objectives.
Campaign action plans come in many formats an example of which is on the next page. However you lay out your action plans, it is important to remember to keep your actions SMART: Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Timely
Action Plan Sample Campaign Coordinator:
Tasks to do
Objective 1: 1. 2. 3. Objective 2: 1. 2. 3. Objective 3: 1. 2. 3.
Start Date: End Date:
Barriers to success
How to overcome barriers
Resources / Costs
Delivering and monitoring the campaign Now you have worked out what your aims are and what activities you will use to bring about change, it is time to start the fun part – campaigning! These are the key things you need to think about during this stage: understanding your audiences. identifying the campaign mix. devising tactics. communicating with your audiences. managing the campaign. As previously mentioned, it is really important that you understand your audiences. Not only is it vital that you know where the institution is coming from, you must also now get students on board with your campaign to keep the momentum going. Find out how each of your student demographics relate to your campaign and make sure you communicate these to them. The more people you get involved, the better impact it will have. Utilise your course rep and clubs and societies structure. These students are already involved in union activities and they hold the power to influence their fellow students. If you haven’t already got them involved in the planning stage, make sure you have a meeting with them about the key campaign objectives and see how they can help you deliver them. It could just be them distributing a petition to their colleagues or they could organise some specific departmental action on the issue. Communication is a very important part of campaigning. It is crucial you communicate your aims and objectives to students, staff and the media (whether that’s student media, public media or both). If people understand your demands and how to get involved, you
will significantly increase your chances of success. The public and student media can also play a key role in putting pressure on decision makers, although this approach must be taken with caution in some cases. For more help with dealing with the press please contact email@example.com or call the press team on 020 7380 6604. As well as traditional forms of communication such as posters, flyers, and emails, remember to utilise the internet and social media to its full potential. Why not create a twitter hashtag for your campaign or create a wiki on your virtual learning environment to enable students and staff to comment on your campaign. Remember to also communicate any changes in the campaign, responses you have had from your institution, and wins you have made during the process. Letting students know that the campaign is getting somewhere is a great motivation for them to keep going. If barriers have been put up by your institution, letting students know about this will help break down those barriers.
Evaluating the campaign understanding what worked effectively and what didn’t. learning from the process. looking for future developments in the campaign.
What worked well? Why did it work well?
What didn’t work so well? Why was that?
whether policy is being implemented in all schools and faculties of the university. How did you engage students in campaign? Was this successful?
Did the institution meet your demands? If not why not?
If you ran the campaign again what would you change? How will you measure the impact of the campaign, especially if there was a policy change? How could you expand this campaign for the future? How will you feedback the outcome of the campaign to students?
Monitoring policy implementation This is an especially important step when running education campaigns as some institutionsâ€™ schools or faculties work somewhat independently from the main institutionâ€™s learning and teaching committee. In order to ensure that all students in the institution benefit from any policy changes it is vital that you investigate
The easiest way to do this is to ask your class reps 3-6 months after the policy change to see whether their course is meeting the new policy, although there are of course many other methods including surveys, GOATs or online polls. In the interim, surveys such as the NSS may give an indication of whether a policy has worked in practice by analysing the free text comments; similarly other institution or union surveys may give initial thoughts on the changes but policy changes usually take an institution an academic year to embed so it is important that any policy changes are handed over to new officers during the induction period so that they are aware of what to monitor.
Conclusion Campaigning is a fun and exciting part of working in the student movement, but it also requires a lot of forward planning. We hope this guide has been a useful steer around effective campaigning but if you do have any further queries or would like to share your campaign with us please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Case Studies - Assessment General Assessment Campaigns Edge Hill University Students’ Union After successfully researching their Student Written Submission for their QAA institutional Audit, Edge Hill students’ union wanted to expand their work on assessment and feedback. Here is the president and author Dean Currall talking about his motivations for writing a report to the institution. I decided to write this consultation document because I firmly believed that there are more ways, that are still effective, to make change happen than to just run a student campaign. I thought that a document that was tailored to the University’s questions and what they can often think about HE would be more effective. I didn’t want to write a document that solely promoted the idea of new methods of submission or why feedback was so important to the student personally because they’ve heard it all before. I knew and understood that most universities, like it or not, think heavily about the financial and resource implications when implementing something as vast as what was being asked. I also felt that if I discussed the effects it had on retention then the University would listen. This document came off the back of the SWS.
Bucks Students' Union As part of their successful Education Campaign, Bucks focused on many issues around assessment and feedback. Chris Clark, VP Education talks us though some of their key campaign points.
Anonymous marking system of assessments Bucks has had a system of anonymous marking for some years which on the face of it meets the criteria. Why then were our students dissatisfied with it? Underneath this issue is a deep seated conviction amongst students that if there is a way for an academic to crack the shield of anonymity they will.
One of the limitations of a good SWS is that it often lacks context because you’re only supposed to report the findings. NSS had showed some ugly truths, and coupled with our own survey and the four focus group sessions I ran, it made me see what needed to be done. The institution responded in a (mostly) positive manner as they saw the mature and effective approach of the whole thing. The thing that drove this home though was the way it went through their deliberative structure which, in turn, forced them to respond and actioned them to do certain things. Because I put it through the University’s Teaching and Learning Committee, I had Deans getting actioned by the chair. They would never take something of this magnitude solely on the request of the Union because it would have been ‘insulting’ to them. So I basically made them think it was their own idea because the University actioned it and once the Deans were telling staff what to do it quickly got forgotten that it came from this report. You can download a copy of deans report by visiting the learning and teaching hub on NUS Connect.
This is linked to the other deep seated fear that academics WILL reward criticism about themselves or the course with lower marks. However implausible this might sound to those academics who are scrupulously fair to their students and who have neither the time nor inclination to hunt out the author behind a particular script, it is a strongly held belief amongst students and one which is supported by horror stories about a minority of teaching staff. We are working with both staff and students to ensure that both parties are comfortable with the procedure in place for anonymous marking, while ensuring that there is more formative assessment so that students can gain feedback on their progress without loosing their anonymity.
Electronic submission of assessments (electronic process of assessment)
Face to face feedback on 1st assessment.
In our Universities there are more part time students, commuting and distance learners than ever before. More of the UK’s workforce study while at work rather than taking extended study breaks in order to further their career aspirations. Communications technologies that were once difficult to use are now mainstream and intuitive. These students find it an inconvenience to travel onto campus, simply to submit a piece of assessment; sometimes meaning having to take time off from work. Whilst we were formulating the education campaign, it became evident that electronic submission was an ever increasing priority, not just for our traditional students who expected a digitally literate university experience, but to address the accessibility of assessment for all our demographics of student. It was at this point that we encouraged the institution to look at creating an electronic process for assessments. The result is a process that not only allows for electronic submission but also, student anonymity, electronic marking and annotation as well as electronic delivery of feedback and grades. This not only helps reconcile the issues of theses student demographics but also has added benefits to the administration staff by streamlining the amount of data handling.
Research conducted throughout 2009-10 clearly showed that students at Buckinghamshire New University preferred one to one communication with their academics and this was especially valued as their preferred method of feedback on assignments. In discussion with both students and academics it became evident that there was a significant issue around progression from one year to the next. Investigation revealed that students were not aware of what would be expected of them; what the step up from one year to the next would entail. As a result the recommendation was made that ‘each student shall receive face to face feedback on their first written piece of assessment, every year’. This early individual feedback provides an opportunity to set the context and value of face to face interaction between student and academics for the remainder of the year and allows the academics to coach the student to the level of performance required at the next level of the course. More information on the Bucks Education Campaign can be found on the learning and teaching hub pages of NUS Connect.
E-submission If you are keen to run a campaign on e-submission, the following examples of existing union campaigns may offer some useful insight.
Anglia Ruskin Students’ Union By Lisa Pool, Vice President Communications 2009/10 The electronic submission of work was voted by the Anglia Ruskin student body as the highest priority campaign in their 2009 opinion poll, coming above campaigns against the increase in tuition fees and to improve the institution’s catering facilities. This clearly highlighted that the issue was of paramount importance to students at Anglia Ruskin
University, and therefore for the students’ union.
The campaign At the start of the first semester we held a campaigns committee for students to attend, to allocate the budget and dates for the campaign. We did some research into e-submission at other institutions, what lecturers thought of e-submission and what IT projects were already in place. We created posters, set up a page on the website, set up an e-petition, used the students’ union e-newsletter, and put the report in the student newspaper The Apex.
We used Facebook to inform students of what was happening and get further feedback on e-submission. “As a part-time student this is a much more favourable way of submission. It could also log the exact date and time [of] the submission.” Comment from the online petition. We also asked part-time officers and student reps to get their lecturers to sign the e-petition, showing the university that it would be beneficial for all stakeholders. We wrote a report on electronic submission and feedback based on the evidence we had collected via the petition, surveys and from other institutions. We took this to the ARU management/students’ union liaison
Thames Valley Students’ Union By Adam White, Vice President Academic Affairs 2009/10 The campaign on e-submission at Thames Valley University was not just lobbying for the university to support it, but to create a change in the way it is used. For the past two years Thames Valley Students’ Union has campaigned and lobbied for e-assessment, e-submission and e-feedback. The campaign resulted in the university committing to incorporate technology into assessment and feedback, and it has already started to be introduced into some schools with intentions to achieve universal take-up within the next year. However, the students’ union felt that even though the support of the university to use Turnitin was positive, the way Turnitin is used should go beyond that of a plagiarism checker – it should be used as a learning tool.
The campaign We used our student reps’ focus groups, conferences and National Student Survey qualitative comments to inform ourselves on what our students wanted before submitting a paper to the university committees. The paper that was presented to the university said that the use of Turnitin would make
meeting, where we discussed how to take this issue forward. We also raised e-submission and e-feedback as a priority at a number of working groups.
Campaign outcome As a result of this campaign the university passed a paper at the Learning, Teaching and Assessment Committee in May 2010, committing to a pilot of online assessment and feedback. This pilot will look at what is required to run online submission and feedback. It will run across all five faculties and begin in September 2010.
students more involved with the learning process, and in turn improve the quality of the assessment submission, which would enhance the quality of the learning experience due to the fact that it is a plagiarism prevention tool. Turnitin also has an application called ’Grademark’, which is fast and efficient, paperfree, and gives students the critical feedback nec-essary for improving writing skills. It even provides students single-click access to their graded papers when it is used as part of a virtual learning environment. Once they are trained in using Blackboard, lecturers will save their own time when grading, while also providing students with effective feedback. This would work hand in hand with e-assessment.
Campaign outcome After much debate in university committees, TVU agreed a policy to use Turnitin as a learning tool and committed to e-assessment, e-submission and e-feedback. The students’ union also persuaded TVU to agree to assess students’ work and provide feedback within 15 working days. TVU has also gone a step further in providing students with provisional marks as soon as they became available on myTVU (a secure site), so that students are clear on what they need to do next.
The University of York
Examples of projects in universities and students’ unions
The University of York set up the K-ROY site to help students gain a better understanding of academic culture. The online tool provides information on what academic integrity means, hints and tips and information on referencing. As part of the scheme an annual week of activities is held for both staff and students on academic integrity.
Many students’ unions have been working to tackle plagiarism for several years – most in partnership with their institutions. Here are a few examples of some of these projects.
Kent Union Kent Union launched a campaign on plagiarism to help students better understand what it meant and how the university’s referencing system worked. They designed it in the style of a ‘Yahoo’ page and distributed booklets and bookmarks across campus. Since the launch and distribution of the materials across the student body, the academic departments at the University reported that their students were more in touch with the issue and clearer about how they could avoid plagiarism in their daily work.
University of Bradford The University of Bradford has created a Blackboard module on plagiarism for all students as part of their induction to University. It is interactive and gives students opportunities to test their knowledge whilst learning more about the subject. http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/management/ external/els/plagiarismquiz.pps
Leeds University Union
Oxford Brookes University
Leeds University Union produced leaflets on plagiarism and how to avoid it – they also took it a step further however and had it translated into Chinese. By working with members of the union’s Chinese Society, they were able to produce a valuable resource on plagiarism that was targeted at one of the most affected groups on campus. The aim was to make the regulations more accessible to Chinese students.
At Oxford Brookes University postgraduate taught students, who according to national statistics are more likely to plagiarise than their undergraduate colleagues, are given access to electronic detection software for use for formative learning.
Bath The University of Bath Students’ Union worked with their institution to design and promote an interactive online tool to educate and raise awareness of plagiarism and the issues around it amongst the student body. It also gives tips on how to reference effectively. Course reps were used to advertise the tool to the wider University community.
Anonymous Marking Northumbria Students’ Union Why anonymous marking? Last academic year Northumbria SU’s priority campaign was focused on anonymous marking. Adam White, VP Academic Affairs, stated in his election manifesto that he would be dedicated to lobbying for anonymous marking across the university and persuaded the other elected officers to support it. As such, the campaign started early in the academic year. At Northumbria, there are 38,000 students, and 9 academic schools. Of these schools, two already used anonymous marking: Law, and Psychology and Sport. It was also already used across the institution for examinations. However, the SU felt that anonymous marking should be rolled out to all academic schools and specifically that it should be extended to include all written assessments. Having looked at NUS materials on anonymous marking, and from speaking informally to students, it was felt this should be a priority campaign for the SU in order to safeguard students against prejudice and discrimination and to increase institution-wide confidence in the assessment system.
The Campaign: Initially, the SU officers spoke to the vicechancellor and deputy vice-chancellor about the issue of anonymous marking, for which they received support. Speaking to schools returned mixed feelings. Some academics within the school of Computer Engineering and Information Sciences and the school of Applied Science expressed concerns that anonymous marking hindered the ability to give effective feedback to students and questioned their ability as teachers to mark without prejudice. The SU also consulted with course reps to get feedback from students on the idea of anonymous marking. In order to create student awareness and to put visual pressure on the institution, the SU began a large student-facing campaign. They utilised the NUS slogan “mark my words, not my name” and produced postcards which said “Dear vice-chancellor, we would
like our work marked anonymously” which students signed with their student number rather than their name. 2,000 postcards were signed and then presented to the ViceChancellor. Additionally, the SU used masks as a visual tool to highlight their campaign. They put photos of students wearing the mask in all SU publications and online. Also, each year Northumbria University holds a course rep conference and at this event the SU got photos of course reps wearing the mask with supportive academics.
Campaign results: After continued pressure, the SU managed to achieve some significant gains. Due to a restructure nine academic schools became eight. Out of these eight, two already used anonymous marking, but the campaign managed to get an additional three schools to agree to use anonymous marking, with one introducing it as early as September 2010 in time for the new academic year.
Campaign Top Tip: “Our campaign worked successfully as we engaged with students and the university from the start. Gaining support from the vice-chancellor and students gave us strong support and evidence when engaging with individual academic schools. Engaging key volunteers such as the welcome team, course and school reps and student council provided a number of campaigning students on the ground to spread the message and encourage friends and fellow students to sign the petition postcards. One thing I would say to future officers thinking of running this campaign is keep the student-facing element of the campaign within a set time frame. Some students felt the campaign dragged on all year and became less enthused as time went on. I believe a shorter time frame, of one term would create a more student-focused and manageable campaign” Adam White, Vice President Academic Affairs (VPAA)
Facts and Figures Assessment
70% were satisfied that the criteria used in marking had been clear in advance. Under one quarter of students, 24%, agreed that assessments helped highlight areas they need to focus on and only 32% agreed that assessments are part of the learning process.
National Student Survey results have consistently shown that students are less satisfied with assessment and feedback than any other area of their student experience.
46% of students thought that e-submission could be usefully integrated into their studies.
In the 2009 National Student Survey 72% of students were satisfied with the assessment arrangements and that marking had been fair.
Results for the assessment and feedback questions in the NSS in 2005 and 2009 2005
5 - The criteria used in marking have been clear in advance.
6 - Assessment arrangements and marking have been fair.
7 - Feedback on my work has been prompt.
8 - I have received detailed comments on my work.
9 - Feedback on my work has helped me clarify things I did not understand.
2009 National Student Survey Results 100%
90% 80% 70%
8I have received...
30% 20% 10% 0%
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JISC (2007) Effective Practice with e-Assessment: An overview of technologies, polices and practice in further and higher education. JISC. Juwah, C., Lal,D. and Beloucif,A. (2006) Overcoming the cultural issues associated with plagiarism for International students, http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/ bmaf/documents/projects/TRDG_projects/ trdg_0506/Juwah_trdg2006_finalreport_ webversion.pdf , p.4-5 [Accessed 13 July 2010]. Lillis, T.M. (2001) Student writing: access, regulation and desire. London: Routledge. O’Donovan & Price & Rust, (2009) “Developing Student Understanding of Assessment Standards: A Nested Hierarchy of Approaches”. Price & Carroll & O’Donovan & Rust, (2010) “If I was going there I wouldn’t start from here: a critical commentary on current assessment practice ”. Quality Assurance Agency Code of practice for the assurance of academic quality and standards in higher educationSection 6: Assessment of students September 2006 http://www.qaa.ac.uk/ academicinfrastructure/codeOfPractice/ section6 Race, P. (2005) Making learning happen. London: Sage. Ricketts, C and Wilks, S (2002). ‘Improving Student Performance Through Computerbased Assessment: insights from recent research’. In Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, volume 27 (5): pp 479–479. Sadler, (2009) “Indeterminacy in the use of preset criteria for assessment and grading ”. Sadler, (2005) “Interpretations of criteriabased assessment and grading in HE”. Sly, L and Rennie, LJ (1999). ‘Computer managed learning as an aid to formative assessment in higher education’. In Brown.
S, Race, P and Bull, J (Eds), Computer Assisted Assessment in Higher Education. London, Kogan Page. Tennant,P. and Duggan,F., (May 2008) Academic Misconduct Benchmarking Research Project: Part II: The Recorded Incidence of Student Plagiarism and the Penalties Applied, http://www.heacademy. ac.uk/assets/York/documents/AMBeR_ PartII_Full_Report.pdf, p.10 [Accessed 12 July 2010]. The Higher Education site EvidenceNet is a great place to go for academic research on all things relating to learning and teaching. The site can be found here http://www. heacademy.ac.uk/evidencenet The website for Scottish enhancement themes is also a great resource of information on assessment and feedback including model activities and presentations. Its site can be found here: www. enhancementthemes.ac.uk Please also visit the learning and teaching hub on NUS Connect for more case studies, videos and downloadable content to aid you in your assessment campaigning.