ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO:AIR KATE CLEMENTS 361903
“LIMITATIONS LIVE ONLY IN OUR MINDS. BUT IF WE USE OUR IMAGINATIONS OUR POSSIBILITIE BECOME LIMITLESS” - GEORGE SMITH PATTON
CONTENTS WEEK ONE: ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE WEEK TWO: COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE WEEK THREE: PARAMETRIC MODELLING WEEK FOUR: RESEARCH + CUT CASE STUDY 1.0 WEEK FIVE: CUT CASE STUDY 2.0 WEEK SIX: CUT CASE STUDY 2.0 WEEK SEVEN: CUT CASE STUDY 2.0 WEEK EIGHT: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST REFLECTION
“ABOVE ALL, ARCHITECTURE NEEDS TO BE ANAYLISED AS A DISCOURSE”
WEEK 01 ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE
ABOUT ME KATE CLEMENTS
Hello! Welcome to my online journal.I am Kate Clements and I am currently studying the Bachelor of Environments, majoring in Architecture. I have not spent anytime using the programs that create digital architecture. I prefer drawing myself, as I am a spud with a computer. Having said this, I am very open to learning about digital architecture and its programs as I can see the benefits and that it is seemingly the way of the future. I am a fan of certain architectural groups such as the Deconstratavists, Expressionists and Archigram, which although did not use digital architecture with Frank Gehry being the exception, I can imagine how their designs could be better improved or realized with the aid of certain computer programs. I have not read or researched anything in regard to digital architecture prior to this subject but being a fan of â€˜blobatextureâ€™ I am sure that I will find it interesting and the possibilities eyeopening.
PREVIOUS PROJECTS ‘UNEARTHING’ The first two images on the left are of a Cultural Exchange Centre that I designed or a studio in a previous semester. I took my inspiration from Carey Lyon’s Queenscliff Centre, as I wanted my design to be unobtrusive to the landscape along with sustainable. As I am very interested in the environment and creating greener housing, his use of the turf roof caught my attention. Plus I think plant walls and roofs look amazing. The design is made up of four viewing rooms in which to learn about the indigenous people of Australia and what happened to them when the settlers came. The idea was to be pulled up an architectural promenade through the main gallery/viewing room towards the light to symbolize a gradual acceptance of aboriginals. Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoye and the ideas of the ‘five new points or architecture’ were also an inspiration of in this design. The botton left image is a viewing point that I designed for a sculpture park. Gehry’s Winton Guest House influenced me in this design. It uses light to play on shadow, which I believe can be an effective design tool without too much effort. I am a big fan of sculpture and I enjoy employing it into design ideas. I used geometric simple shapes and form that follows function, which is an idea important to me, as I am a big fan of the modern movement in architecture. Although the design is simple, I often think that more is less and felt like this design fulfilled the brief without having to be excessive.
“THE VILLA WAS CONSTRUCTED WITH THE GREATEST SIMPLICITY” – LE CORBUSIER
THE VILLA SAVOYE LE CORBUSIER
Le Corbusiers sketch of ‘five points to a new architecture’
Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoye at Poissy of 1928 is one of my favorite architectural designs. Being that Le Corbusier is one of my favorite architects, this would seem an obvious choice but it is not the fame that is associated with this building that makes it interesting to me rather the simplicity and ease about the design. It is the quintessential design in Le Corbusier’s earlier career that encapsulates all his theories and ideas of the time in a simple white box that appears to float in the air. Villa Savoye has had a massive influence on architecture over the modernist period and beyond. It crystalizes Le Corbusier’s “five points to a new architecture” into the perfect system for building a house. One of the design elements I like most about this house is that the ground floor represents the turning circle of a Citron car and once you pull up and enter the house, there is a washbasin to wash your hands before proceeding into the rest of the house. A simple yet practical idea that I find amusing and true to the notion of form follows function. The use of geometry is present in Villa Savoye and I think that the cube like purist form is a great contrast to the curved elements found inside, i.e the curved architectural promenade leading to the roof garden. Being that I have never been to the Villa Savoye, it is hard to make a critical judgment on social and spatial aspects but its influence is worldwide. The “five points of a new architecture” can still be seen in Le Corbusier’s later work when he starts using beton – brut, i.e Untie d’Habitation de Marseilles. The Villa Savoye had a heavy influence of other architects as well, i.e Richard Meier whose expanded many ideas from this design (Smith House, Douglas House). I think it is Le Corbusier’s ability to be able to reinvent himself and reinvent his ideas whilst still sticking to his fundamental beliefs that makes him such a great architect that has had such a long lasting influence on past and present architecture. The Villa Savoyes’ simple and effortless design has stuck in my mind since I first encountered it.
“WE SHOULD ATTEMPT TO BRING NATURE, HOUSE AND HUMAN BEINGS TOGETHER INTO HIGHER UNITY” – LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE
FARNSWORTH HOUSE MIES VAN DER ROHE
Mies van de Rohe’s Farnsworth House in Fox River, Illinois is another design from the modernist / international style movement that I admire. Again it is the simplicity and effortlessness of this building that draws me to it. It appears to float with greatest of ease above the ground. I like the way it seems to be a house in the middle of nowhere, where you get up to whatever mischief you want. Even though the design is one, open room with windows, I still feel an element of privacy and secret seclusion away from everything. The use of windows and white slabs gives a clean and crisp feeling to the design and I love this. I also love how the services are hidden which again adds to this pure, simple volume. I find the idea of the hidden services/ services of show (Centre Georges Pompidou is another one of my favorites designs’) interesting and something I would like to explore in my future designs. The Farnsworth house had influence on future architecture and I think even if it was built today it would seem new and like a lot the houses I see popping up around my beach house down in Portsea. It was a direct influence on another design I love, Philip Johnsons own house in New Canaan, Connecticut. Johnson’s was different in that the services (toilet) were on show and it was not raised above the ground. The Farnsworth House appears to be unobtrusive and as one with nature; it is skin and bones that have adapted to their environment. This design concept is another trait I enjoy; Mies van de Rohe said “If you view nature through the glass walls of the Farnsworth House, it gains a more profound significance than if viewed from the outside. That way more is said about nature—it becomes part of a larger whole.” Although I cannot make a good judgment on this comment, as I have never been to the Farnsworth House, the idea of what he says appeals to me.
“IT IS POSSIBLE TO CLAIM THAT DESIGN CREATIVITY IS LIMITED TO THE VERY PROGRAMS THAT ARE SUPPOSED TO FREE THE IMAGINATION”
WEEK 02 COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE
COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE Whether or not one is an advocate for digital architecture, as an architect or a student of architecture it is important to understand the benefits, hindrances and the role of computers in digital architecture. Many architects still see computers as just another item in the toolkit not as a method for design. But even when seen just as a tool it can be invaluable. Computerization is using the computer to quicken the process of tedious design tasks. One can make a model in Rhino that could take ten minutes in comparison with a physical model that takes three hours. Again to hand draw a set of plans, elevations and sections of a house the night before a presentation, almost impossible, but with the help of AutoCAD doable. Then there is computation where the computer helps with the design process itself. Kalay Yahuda acknowleges that architecture is always going to be “constrained by the brief, site conditions, climate, functionality, cost, building codes etc.”. Therefore one must see that there is an analytical side to design and a creative. While humans have the ability to process both sides of the brain, the computer does not. The computer is a “superb analytical engine” but for arguments sake lacks any creative initiative thus pair a human with a computer and the perfect design combination is created. The computer can perform the tedious tasks of math, drawing etc. and unlike a human will not make mistakes or tire. Along with this the designer has the ability to quickly explore different options as to delete or re create on a computer is far quicker than by hand. Computers help to “take care of smaller or larger parts of the design process” while still giving creative control to the architect.
One must also look at the revolutionary problems that have been solved with the aid of computers that perhaps would never have been accomplished. Mark Burry after years of failed attempts was finally able to recreate Gaudi’s vision for the Sagrada Familia through the use of computers. The use of computers has now been introduced into both the design and construction process of the church. Before computers aided design programs that modeled three-dimensional objects the idea of ‘blobby’ architecture was “very difficult to conceive, develop and represent, let alone manufacture” notes Kolarevic and Branko. Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum and Bilbao would have been extremely difficult to contemplate without the use of CATIA (Computer Aided Three- dimensional Interactive Application). How could the full experience of this building be captured in a set of plan, section and elevation drawings? The titanium curves that were fabricated for Bilbao owe their mathematically complexity to computer aided design. Smooth, curved surfaces have been around for awhile now, i.e the toothbrush, toaster but curves and smooth surfaces have not been heavily present in architecture until the computer made it appear more achievable. Digital modeling has introduced new methods into design and new shapes and forms created. Houses have been designed and created completely in the shape of certain geometric forms created on the computer. The Torus, Mobius strip and Klein bottle are all inspirations for well-known, computer-digitalized designs. Fabrication and construction have also been effected. Designs can be more complex and experimental, as computers have allowed for quicker analysis of information needed to erect a building. Though many still prefer original pen to paper design approach, there is no denying the computers presence in architecture and the possibilities is creates.
AGENT BASED SYSTEMS
gent based systems is a discourse within computational architecture that allows the designer to program the computer with a set of rules, relationships and specifications in which it then has freedom to create a design that adheres to these requests. For example, if one were to design a Shopping Centre, it would be able to program certain components into the computer i.e clothing stores to be a certain size, on the ground level, all toilets of the upper level etc. The computer would then produce a design that met with all the programmed requirements. Creative control is still available to the architect as if the final result not meet their aesthetic needs the computer can be reprogrammed and manipulated to achieve desired results.
BABIY YAR MEMORIAL KOKKUGIA
An example of a design generated through the use of an agent-based system is Kokkugia’s Babiy Yar Memorial in Kiev, Ukraine. The project is apart of Kokkugia’s Behavioral Design Methodologies, a methodology that is derived from the complex self-organizing behavior of social, political and biological systems. Kokkugia states that “these methodologies operate through multi-agent algorithms to generate a landscape with a differentiated field of intensities that culminates in an intense aggregation – the inverted monument. The non-linear interaction of the agents navigates a field of varying charge, negotiating between their own swarm logic and a field of external influences.” The actual place of remembrance in the project is generated through agentbased components. The project is concerned with not only standing out in the landscape but at the same time becoming apart of nature and its surrounds adapting to the conditions. The component logic of this carved space is polyscalar; “selfsimilar algorithmic agents operate across scales to form a continuous tectonic, where the legibility of discrete tectonic hierarchies diminish. Through this disintegration of hierarchy a new set of intensive affects emerges” repots Kokkugia. Personally I really like this project and I think that it accomplishes some of the design intents. It’s an innovative idea, which sits well with the landscape but at the same time stands out as statement piece of architecture. Critically I don’t think that it functions well as a memorial site. Personally a memorial has extended outdoor spaces, garden areas and places for people to reflect and be alone. I think that this design is far to high off the ground and contained within itself to allow these sorts of experiences.
CENTRE FOR NON-LINEAR RESEARCH ROLAND SNOOKS
Another example of a design that is derived from agentbased systems is the Centre for Non-Linear Research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Roland Snooks, who is one of the founding partners of Kokkugia, directed the project. It explores the generation of complex topologies through the selforganization of program. A multi-agent design methodology was created to generate a stigmergic interaction of agents seeded with programmatic intent. It was developed exploring non-linear algorithmic design methodologies. I think that this project is fascinating, as I love the shapes and forms that have been created through the non-linear algorithmic design ideas. I think in theory the design would look great and be a statement piece of architecture but I find when architects are designing these prototypes and competition entries; often practicality and construction are not considered. I think the shortcomings in this design are thus and parts of the design would appear better on the computer than in reality.
“PARAMETRIC DESIGN IS SUCH THAT IT IS THE PARAMETERS OF A DESIGN THAT ARE DECLARED, NOT THE SHAPE.. EQUATIONS ARE USED TO REPRESENT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OBJECTS. THE ABILITY TO DEFINE, DETERMINE AND RECONFIGURE GEOMETRICAL RELATIONSHIP IS OF PARTICULAR VALUE” - MARY BURRY
WEEK 03 PARAMETRIC MODELLING
he parametric approach to design has both advantages and disadvantages. In parametric architecture the designer first establishes the relationships. One must know what the desired outcome of the design is to begin the process. This allows the designer to modify and explore their design within the parameters of the relationships created at the beginning of the design process. This can reduce workload and the tedious task of reworking. Parametric design makes it possible to quickly experiment with ideas and practice defining relationships, which is a key tool for architects and all designers. Unfortunately there are also limitations created when using the parametric approach. It restricts the amount of change and how far a design can be explored through the already defined relationships. It means that the designer must think about the big picture from the very beginning, which can be daunting and a notion hard for many people to grasp. Along with this, it takes a certain amount of time to master the computer programs that allow you to use parametrics to their full potential. If it takes ten thousands hours to be an expert in a computer program, then itâ€™s going to be awhile before students can take parametric design to its full potential. But once one can understand and begin to practice this approach to design I think that most would find the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.
“DEFINING REALTIONSHIPS IS A COMPLEX ACT OF THINKING. IT INVLOVES STRATERGIES AND SKILLS, SOME NEW TO DESIGNERS AND SOME FAMILIAR” - ROBERT WOODBURY
MERCEDES BENZ MUSEUM STUTTGART, GERMNAY UNSTUDIO
“A VIRTUOSO DISPLAY OF STRUCTURE SPACE AND LIGHT WITH AN ARRESTING COMBINATION OF NATURALISITIC FORMS AND ALIEN SHAPES, PLUS A DAZZLING VIDEO INSTALLATION” - BLAIR KAMIN
BURNHAM PAVILION ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS
Zaha Hadid Architects has become the firm people think about when considering parametric design. Their work is constantly exploring the realms of possibility that parametrics allow. Hadid’s Burnham Pavilion was constructed for the one hundredth anniversary of Daniel Burnham’s Plan for Chicago. It was made up of seven thousand aluminum curved pieces with a tension fabric spanning across it. Hadid said the project was about “reinvention and improvement on an urban scale and about welcoming the future with innovative ideas and technologies. Our design continues Chicago’s renowned tradition of cutting edge architecture and engineering”. Each element is bent and welded to create a fluid form with the fabric zipped around the frame creating a curvilinear shape. One can see the use of parametric design to explore the structural abilities of this shape and create all the intricate pieces for construction. It also demonstrates the use of digital fabrication as the skin for the pavilion. This created patterns and geometry that the natural and artificial light played on. The pieces can be dismantled and the tent like pavilion can be set up anywhere. This is not the original design for the pavilion as the original was not over budget but parametric design means that reducing the structure and reworking the final product with the defined parameters would have be a much simpler task. Disadvantages to this design were that construction of the lightweight structure was a very difficult task with all the pieces that needed to be placed to create the detailed structure taking more time than expected. This resulted in the opening being delayed. Overall the use of parametrics in this design has been positive, with it allowing for beautiful forms and patterns both in structure and outer skin.
“PROGRAMMATICALLY THE PAVILION INVITES PEOPLE TO GATHER, WALK AROUND AND THROUGH TO EXPLORE AND OBSERVE” - UNSTUDIO
BURNHAM PAVILION UNSTUDIO
UNStudio also designed a Burnham Pavilion for the one hundredth anniversary of Daniel Burnham’s Plan for Chicago. Like Zaha Hadid Architects, UNStudio explore the use of parametric design regularly in their work. The pavilion is sculptural and introduces the use of a three hundred and sixty degree spectrum in which it has a floating and continuous form. UNStudio explained “Programmatically the pavilion invites people to gather, walk around and through to explore and observe”. Through the parametric approach the UNStudio were able to spatially investigate the area on a multiple point distant logic on Grasshopper and Rhino. This has introduced floating and multidirectional space. As the brief for the design came with specific site restrictions the design has been able to explore the relationship with the already existing geometry and follows a strict grid system. The pavilion has introduced a gradient between wall, ceiling and form in a continuous form. This has created spatial experience that is continuous and fluid. The use of parametric design has allowed UNStudio to make the most the space and the views available. Both the Burnham Pavilions show the advantages of using parametric design for totally different reason; one is space and one in structure. Overall I think that these two designs highlight the advantages to using parametrics and do give much to the disadvantages.
“ITS NOT WHAT YOU LOOK AT THAT MATTERS, ITS WHAT YOU SEE” - CHARLES EAMES
WEEK 04 RESEARCH / CUT CASE STUDY 1.0
Over the last couples of week since researching digital
architecture and parametric design, I have begun to grasp a better understanding about the advantages and the disadvantages. I can see why people are so interested in parametrics and the amazing results that can be produced from this method of design. I really like the style that is reoccurring as I explore more parametric designs but I am still hesitant and nervous as to how I could begin to create with this method. At times I feel overwhelmed, as I am useless with a computer. However I am excited to start experimenting and using parametric design. I hope it is easier to grasp than it seems!
As a group we have decided to focus on the structure as a
technique within parametric design. I became interested in structure after doing research on parametric design and exploring Zaha Hadid Architectâ€™s Burnham Pavilion. We are interested in exploring how structure can be more than just an unseen, ugly device behind the faĂ§ade of a building. Structure can be sculptural and allows for simple yet elegant designs. When beginning to design our Gateway for the City of Wyndham, we will be exploring how structure allows us to frame views in which to fully appreciate the landscape, the creation of patterns and shadows through natural light, and coexistence with the environment whilst still commanding attention. We think that structure would be an interesting technique to explore for the Wyndham City Gateway Project as it in understated and can produce unexpected results. We want to create something that is not big and obtrusive like many structures seen beside city freeways but something simple yet
DALIAN FOOTBALL STADIUM CHINA UNSTUDIO
RESEARCHING STRUCTURE IN PARAMETRIC DESIGN
JELLY FISH HOUSE IWAMOTOSCOTT
The Jelly Fish House by Iwamoto Scott Architects is a skin designed as a parametric mesh that plays on light through geometric shapes. When inside the building the shadows give of a feeling of being in the ocean with Jelly Fish floating around you. It has a perceived simplicity and frames views of its surroundings whilst still playing on natural light. One can see how the use of parametric design techniques has enabled these features.
SEVILLA METROPOL PARASOL J. MAYER H.
The Sevilla Metropol Parasol by Jurgen Mayer H is a perfect example of how structure in parametric design can be used in different ways. The Metropol Parasol works as both a shading device and a sculptural attraction for people to view. It has been designed through using patterns and joints to create a simple yet effective structural design. The design also frames views of the city and creates natural shadows according to the time of day. We were interested in the fluidity of the curves created in the strucutre that parametric design allowed for and how to further explore this technique. These ideas are consistent with our argument and ideas we have come up with so far for the Wyndham City Gateway project.
ECO-SUSTAINABLE HOUSING FREDERICO ROSSI
The Eco Sustainable Housing project done by Federico Rossi explores the uses of parametric design in the form of sustainable living. Rossi explained â€œthis house has been generated through the accumulation of independent variables into a system of relationships, where the interdependencies generate a variation of possibilities that is able to adapt to local conditionsâ€?. Through the structure of the outer skin of the house, which differs in width, length and thickness, it is able to control variable in weather and temperature. This parametric model is created on a rhomboid framework, which is constrained within two strips. We researched this project because we found the idea of sustainability within parametric design interesting and not often considered. But as sustainability is not an aspect to be considered in this subject we also appreciated the shadows and patterns created in the outer structural skin.
CUT CASE STUDY 1.0 IIT MCCORMICK TRIBUNE CAMPUS CENTRE OMA
CUT CASE STUDY 1.0
Original Rhino and Grasshopper files depicting the facade of the IIT McCormick Tribune Campus Centre by OMA.
After playing around with the Rhino and Grasshopper files I explored ways in which to develop the design. I picked a picture of penguins and replaced the original image located in the image sampler component. After this I decided to extended the boundaries of the surface in order to get the full aprreciation of the penguin in the design.
“ARCHITECTURE IS A LEARNED GAME, CORRECT AND MAGNIFICENT, OF FORMS ASSEMBLED IN THE LIGHT” - LE CORBUSIER
WEEK 05 CUT CASE STUDY 2.0
“THE SOUTH POND PROJECT TRANSFORMS A PICTURESQUE FROM THE 19TH CENTUARY INTO A ECOLOGICAL HABITAT BUZZING WITH LIFE” – GANG ARCHITECTS
SOUTH POND PAVILION LINCOLN PARK ZOO CHICAGO GANG ARCHITECTS
SOUTH POND PAVILION T
he project my group chose to reverse engineer was the South Pond in Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago. The idea behind this structure according to Gang Architects was â€œa new boardwalk circumscribing the pond passes through various educational zones that explicate the different animals, plants and habitats found in each. A pavilion integrated into the boardwalk sequence to provide shelter for open-air classes on the siteâ€?. The pattern found on the pavilion was inspired by the tortoise shell and is the part of the design that my group reversed engineered. The pavilion is made up of prefabricated curved members and interconnected fiberglass casings that give a global curvature to the surface and provide shelter both day and night. The hope is that the design functions as an outdoor classroom thus can display the coexistence of natural and urban surroundings. In most parts the South Pond achieves what it set out to accomplish. It adds interest and excitement to the Lincoln Park Zoo, a structural attraction for people to come and visit, view etc. It works as an educational area/ outdoor classroom but there are shortcomings to this outdoor space. Although it is fitted with fiberglass pods to protect from weather, on a freezing day or boiling hot day there will still be discomfort. Acoustically there may be problems, with all the human traffic, along with animals etc. therefore being able to hear and understand could prove to be difficult. Having said this overall the design does fulfill its intent and demonstrates co-existence.
REVERSE ENGINEERING SOUTH POND PAVILION
STEP ONE â€“ CREATE CURVE
To start my group decided that firstly we would make the curve that would form the basis for the entire structure. This was straight forward even for our group of first time rhino/grasshopper users. We created a curve in Rhino and then set it to the curve component in Grasshopper. After this we divided the control points and manipulated their size etc. through the use of the Graph Mapper component.
REVERSE ENGINEERING SOUTH POND PAVILION STEP TWO – MIRROR
The next step was to mirror the curve. This proved to be more difficult. At first we could only mirror the straight line that our curve had been created off so we decided to attempt to copy. This success was short-lived as technically it worked but the two major problems were that a) we could not keep the ends even and b) if we kept copying to make more curves our Grasshopper file would have been HUGE!
After more exploration with the mirror component we were finally able to get it to work. We had not been linking up the curve data properly. After we were able to mirror the curve properly we had to the plane component linked to the “x” and “y” vector in order to move the curve till it was perfectly situated.
REVERSE ENGINEERING SOUTH POND PAVILION
STEP THREE â€“ CREATING MULTIPLE CURVE SERIES
The next step was to create a series of multiple curves with the same distance between each other. After we had mirrored one of the curves we decided we would try to mirror again until we had the desired amount of curves. We did not end up with the desired result. As we had not set the distance for each curve, the curves ended up being all different distances apart and not piling up on top of each other.
We then decided to create control points in the form of a rectangular surface so that we could create an even distance between curves from top to bottom. This worked and we had created our multiple curve series.
REVERSE ENGINEERING SOUTH POND PAVILION
STEP FOUR â€“ LOFT SURFACE
After we had all our curves, we wanted to use the map surface vector and connect it to the loft vector. This allowed us to create a surface that all the curves were able to spread across, giving us the arched shape element of the structure.
REVERSE ENGINEERING SOUTH POND PAVILION STEP FIVE – EXTRUDE
The final stage in creating the South Pond Pavilion was to extrude the curves in order to make them 3D. At first we only extrude the ‘z’ axis at this resulted in only certain curves extruding.
Realizing that we had to extrude the ‘x’, ‘y’ axis as well, we were able to extrude the entire model. We had come to the conclusion of the exercise. We had reverse engineered the South Pond Pavilion with many differences and similarities!
Although from a quick glance both our reverse engineered version of the South Pond Pavilion and the actual South Pond Pavilion look very similar, there are more differences. The idea and concept is the same, with curves creating a surface over a curve shape with exact differences in distant between each curve and the next. Therefore the same pattern has also been created but as my groupâ€™s version does not have the fiberglass pods, the weather protects and shadows/ patterns created due to natural lighting would be extremely different. Along with this, our curves are not evenly spread across the surface, as our grasshopper skills are still developing, something that is surely not the case with the original! But for a first attempt I think it is had a pretty good resemblance. I would like to explore developing this idea further by focusing on the patterns we could create through changing the curves distances. This would allow for framing of views and different shadows from natural light, which are all things, we as a group are interesting in exploring within the structure realm.
“LESS IS MORE” - MIES VAN DER ROHE
WEEK 06 CUT CASE STUDY 2.0
21-30 In our first attempt to develop our reserve engineered South Pond Pavilion we wanted to explore the width of the curves. In matrix 1-10 we have demonstrated the curves gradually growing from thin to thick. We did this changing the numbers in the ‘x’, ‘y’ and ‘z’ components connected to the extrude component in Grasshopper. We found this useful in that we could explore the different patterns and shadows created when altering the weight of the curves. Along with this is allowed us to create larger to smaller views from different angles. Our favourite from this matrix was number seven. We felt that it benefitted our goals the most. Ultimately we decided that more changes needed to be experimented with in order to create something more interesting and advantageous for the Wyndham City Gateway Project. In the next matrix 11-20 we continued alter the thickness of the curves but also changing the distance between certain parts of the curve. We did this through manipulating the data that can be seen in the graph mapper component. This gave us a lot more interesting results. We still kept the original form the design with the curve/arch ends but the middle of the surface was left to manipulate. We found that changing the distances between curves allowed us to get closer to our goals the Gateway Project. We were able to frame more selective views, create more interesting patterns on the surface, which would then result it more creative shadows. Our favourite from this matrix was number fourteen and number eighteen. We liked the beautiful pattern produced in number fourteen and the simple fluidity it possessed. Number eighteen was interesting because it drew the curves into a small compact space in the middle of the structure.
We also liked the alternative ends on it and the different patterns they would have created. But we were a little concerned with the construction of it as it became extremely intricate as you zoomed into it and saw exactly what was going on. We now thought we need to start experimenting with the surface shape of the structure and see what we could discover. In matrix 21-30 we started to explore further and manipulate the surface structure of the curved arch. We decided that we need to think about how to make it more advantageous as that was a requirement for the Gateway Project and being that a goal of our own was to have something simple yet striking we thought it was appropriate. We continued to manipulate the distances between curves through the data contained in the graph mapper component in grasshopper whilst also manipulating the surface curved arch through the data linked to the map surface and curve components. The results from this were exciting and created some really eye catching results. Our favourite from this matrix was twenty-eight. This was because we liked the way that the curve grew as your eyes moved along the structure and we thought that this would be eye catching to drive past and draw people to the City of Wyndham. It was relatively simple but also advantageous which worked for our goals. However we found that it did not really work with our other goals. The patterns, shadows and framed views of the landscape were not as strong in the development as the structure was more compact with curves extremely close together.
In matrix 31-37 we decided we wanted to try and keep these advantageous and exciting developments whilst also trying to incorporate our other goals of patterns, shadows and framed views. Therefore we went back to keep the curved arch surface and on the ends of the structure and manipulating the middle of the structure and the distances between the curves. We found that this worked well, and we were able to develop more techniques that fitting all our goals. Our favourite from this matrix was number thirty-six. We liked the way in which one side was completely drawn up but when you looked through it had framed your views to be much smaller. We also thought that it would make interesting shadows and patterns and ultimately would be simple yet sophisticated for the City of Wyndham. After this we decided we wanted to look back at previous matrixes and see if we could further develop them because we were happy with the results we had found. For matrix 38-43 we went back and looked at our ideas from matrix 11-20. We wanted to see if we could create a design that was close and intricate in the curves but also be manageable to make into a model. Again we played with the thickness of curves and the distances and ended up with some more manageable results. Our favourite from this matrix was number thirty-nine. We felt that it was similar enough to number eighteen, which was one of our favourite previously but developed into a more appropriate design to fit our goals. We felt that it had different distances, which would enable different patterns and views but was not too intense that construction would be impossible.
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT For matrix 44-48 we went back to the beginning and tested out our theories of thin to thick with the curve weights. We felt that perhaps more could be achieved here. The results were better than the first attempt. Instead of leaving the curve distances for the first time we made the distances smaller. This resulted in us almost creating a structure with no gaps at all. Our favourite from this matrix was number forty-eight as we thought it was different to the previous techniques we had be testing and we liked the thick gapless structure. Ultimately we knew that this was not the right technique for us to follow as it contradicted all our goals and ideas for the Gateway Project but it was an interesting exploration. Finally in our last matrix 49-50 we wanted to flatten the curves and see how the structure would look with straight components. Our favourite from this matrix was number forty-nine. We liked the crossing on the straight curves along the surface and thought the pattern was quite enjoyable. Though it was interesting to see the straight curves, they did not fit our goals as well as previous matrixes and the results were a little boring for the Gateway Project.
CONCLUSION TO OUR DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUE: The final technique we picked from our development matrix was number fourteen. Number fourteen was created through manipulating both the width of the curves and the distance between each curve. We altered the widths through changing the numbers of the ‘x’,’y’ and ‘z’ components connected to the extrude component in Grasshopper. We then altered the distances by manipulating the data that could be seen in the graph mapper component. Each curve had its own distance from another curve as opposed to them all being mirrored at the one distance. Number fourteen was decided on because we felt that it correlated with our set goals, ideas and arguments for the City of Wyndham Gateway Project. The structure has a simple elegance about it. It was continuous, fluid and smooth in appearance. It created a beautiful pattern and with natural daylight would create flickering shadows. We also felt that whilst it framed views to appreciate the landscape it did not restrict the views and cut too much off from the driver. Along with this we felt that it would coexist amongst the environment. Though it was eye catching and striking, it was not obtrusive and huge. We felt it would be a pleasant view for the driver and captivating enough to draw one to Wydnham City. It proved that a structure does not have to be the hidden, ugly component hidden behind a buildings façade. Over the next week, we do intent to tweak the technique as we think there is a little more that can be done to it before our Expression Of Interest presentation.
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT #14
“ARCHITECTURE SHOULD SPEAK OF ITS TIME AND PLACE, BUT YEARN FOR TIMELESSNESS” - FRANK GEHRY
WEEK 07 CUT CASE STUDY 2.0
FINAL DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUE
Over the next week we decided that we would continue to develop
our technique a little bit further it order to be prepared for our Expression of Interest presentation. Though we were happy with the result of our development matrix, we felt that we could further explore the technique to better suit our goals and argument for the Wyndham City Gateway Project. We decided that we would return to a more curved shaped for each individual curve and alter the sides differently. This meant that we had created a higher distance from the ground to the first curve on one side of the structure. We wanted to do this as we felt that it would allow us to frames more interesting views that fully appreciated the landscape. We also felt that it created a more interesting use of shadows because they would not be even all over. In doing this it created a more diverse pattern within the structure. We wanted to retain the fluid, beautiful and effortless appeal of the structure thus we did not want the curves distance to be too small and compact. Again we did this in Grasshopper through the manipulation of the distances of each individual space seen in the data held in the graph mapper component. We kept the widths of the curves the same as we felt that they were at a width that satisfied our goals. Having done this we found that not all the curves connected to more than one other curve, which could result in problems in the construction of the model. Overall we were excited by the changes and felt that they were consistent with our argument. We felt that the technique had been pushed further in a more interesting and advantageous way. Finally we had agreed upon our final design and felt that it was justified at the prototype for the Expression of Interest.
FINAL DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUE
This week we were to focus also on creating a physical
model of our final technique to present in our Expression of Interest. To create the model we decided to have it 3D printed. We did this because we felt that to fully grasp the fluidity and beauty of the structure it needed to be created perfectly and 3D printing allowed for this. In order to have it printed we needed to bake the components and export the file in to a .STL. Due to the fact that we had our model 3D printed we missed out on the opportunity to understand how the structure fit together and discover if it would actually be able to be constructed. As certain parts of the structure did not have every curve connected to another curve therefore it was evident that our model would have only worked through 3D printing. This was a learning curve for our group and has taught us we need to be physically making our model to understand the connections and joints of the structure. However the model turned out to look beautiful and represented our technique and argument well.
“SIMPLICITY IS THE ULTIMATE SOPHISTICATION “ - LEONARDO DA VINCI
WEEK 08 EOI PRESENTATION
IMAGINE YOU ARE SPPEDING ALONG THE FREEWAY AND THINGS APPEAR TO SLOW DOWN AS YOU BECOME ENTHRALLED BY THIS SIMPLE, SCULPTURAL STUCTURE YOU SEE, WITH FLICKERING NATURAL LIGHTS CREATED THROUGH THE SHADOWS, DRAWING YOU TO THE CALM AND PEACEFUL PLACE OF WYNDHAM CITY
SITE PHOTOGRAPH WYNDHAM CITY GATEWAY PROJECT
The Western Gateway Design Project will act as an entry
statement and arrival experience for Wyndham City. We are interested in creating a structural design through parametric software that creates a boundary of inside and out whilst opening frames and views in which to fully appreciate the landscape. Creating shadows and patterns through light and coexistence between structure and landscape whilst still commanding attention. We think that this is valid path for Wyndham City Council to take for the Gateway Project because we want to show people that a structure can be more than an ugly device hidden behind a buildings faรงade. We want to create something that is not big and obtrusive like many structures seen beside city freeways, something that is simple yet striking. Parametric design is extremely relevant in architecture at the moment thus it would put Wyndham City on the map. The use of a structural parametric design means that the design can be written up in not only architecture but construction, art and craft etc. magazines, drawing a wider audience to Wyndham City.
WHY STRUCTURE? Our group is interested in structure because we think it
is an understated and underappreciated technique within architecture. People seem to be more concerned with facades rather than exploring the option of having the structure as the faรงade. Along with this we liked the multiple avenues that are presented within the structure realm. Structure can be ornamentation, pattern, geometry and it also is concerned with joints, different materials and the decorative. We felt that structure would be a good technique to begin with and then allow ourselves to explore more parametric fields in conjunction with structure. Structure can be sculptural but also can create shelter and spaces within it for people to use. Ultimately structure allows us to explore things such as lattice, waffle and column grid within parametric design and is a good stepping stone to branch of into other parametric fields.
PRECEDENT PROJECTS JELLY FISH HOUSE IWAMOTOSCOTT
he precedent projects for our Expression of Interest are those that we researched in week four after we had decided to focus on structure as a parametric field. The first project was the Jelly Fish House by IwamotoScott Architects. This house uses a parametric structure for the façade on the project. IwamotoScott have said “the skin of Jelly Fish House combines structure and envelope with physical infrastructure. What unites them conceptually is that they create an ambient experience in the home that reveals the work of the skin in largely a peripheral manner”. The house has multiple structural skins, which creates boundaries between internal and external environments. Another reason we chose to explore this building is that it does not only incorporate structure but also geometry. The parametric mesh skin that creates the structure uses the geometry of the Delauney triangulation and the Voronoi diagram. Thickness of the structure changes all over the surface for geometric, structural, visual and mechanical performance. Internally the building draws you to feel as though you are swimming in the ocean among sea creatures due to the shadows created. It also frames specific views of the landscape and coexists within its environment through sense and response in creates. However the house appears cold and uninviting and has more of a museum feel that a home. Also the use of the geometry in the parametric skin internally can begin to become an eyesore.
PRECEDENT PROJECTS SEVILLA METROPOL PARASOL JURGEN MAYER H
fter this we explored the Sevilla Metropol Parasol designed by Jurgen Mayer H. We wanted to explore a structure that was more appropriate to the Gateway Project as it was not going to be a house. The Metropol Parasol is a structure that works both sculpturally and as shelter in which people could take rest and or admire views of the city. It is the largest wooden structure in the world and uses the waffle grid. It is reminiscent of El Lissitzky’s Cloud Hangers. A primary function for the structure was to create shade in the previous bare square, which is an important commodity in Seville. Jurgen Mayer H said that wanted to create a “cathedral without walls”. The structure has now become an icon of Seville and a tourist attraction. This is the kind of response we want for the Gateway Project so that it brings attention to Wyndham City. It was interesting to see the use of materiality and begin to think about what materials work and do not especially when dealing with curves. I think that uses wood has made the design stand out in a way that means it does not coexist with its environment. This is something we are hoping to avoid doing for the City of Wyndham Gateway.
PRECEDENT PROJECTS ECO SUSTAINABLE HOUSING PROJECT FREDERIC ROSSI
he Eco Sustainable Housing Project by Federico Rossi was of interest to us because it explores ideas beyond just the aesthetic of the structure. It was concerned with sustainability and how that can be incorporated into parametric design. Aforementioned these types of concerns are not important for this subject thus we focus more on the skin that was created for the housing. The outer structure of the house uses a rhomboid framework constrained within two strips to produce the parametric model. This project is un built but we were drawn to it due to the shadows that had been created through this structural surface. It also employed curves, which was interesting for us to see because curves can create restrictions for materials. The project looked better as a structure than a proposed design for a house. It had interesting patterns and shadows created through the structure and would have been intriguing to enter.
PRECEDENT PROJECTS SOUTH POND PAVILION GANG ARCHITECTS
ur final precedent is the South Pond Pavilion by Gang Architects. Our group felt that this best represented our ideas for the Gateway Project. As our design has been derived from this initial project, it is an important part of our project and ideas as a whole. The design is inspired by the tortoise shell and the structure consists of prefabricated, bentwood members and a series of interconnected fiberglass pods that give a global curvature to the surface. The parametric design has been created through the mirroring of evenly distanced curves over a surface. It shows perfectly how a structure can coexist within the environment whilst still commanding attention. It explored both natural and artificial lights to create different shadows, which is something our group need to explore further. The use of the fiberglass pods in selected areas framed views of the Lincoln Park Zoo. One use of the pavilion is to allow for open-air classes to be held there, even though the structure has been installed with fiberglass pods in certain areas, it fails to be very weather conscience. If it were extremely hot or extremely cold occupants and visitors would be uncomfortable. Overall the South Pond Pavilion gives a starting point and glimpse at what we want for the Gateway Project.
Our group has been developing our ideas in Rhino and Grasshopper software. To reach the technique we have for our Expression of Interest presentation we first reverse engineered the South Pond Pavilion by Gang Architects, a structure created through parametric software. After this we explored how we could manipulate the design and begin to test our own ideas. Over a period of time we developed a series of matrixes in which we had tested different techniques. We manipulated curve widths, distances between individual components, patterns within the curves and spacing. We had successes and failures during this development stage. A lot of the outcomes from the matrix were great structures and advantageous but did not incorporate the play on shadows and patterns to the extent we wanted. Having said this we feel that we are going to have to progress with the design thinking about artificial light and that Melbourne weather is unreliable. Later on if we decided against artificial light and deem the natural light not sufficient enough, we could come back and explore other options created in the matrix development. Eventually we decided on number fourteen in our matrix and we felt that it was best inline with our goals and ideas for the Gateway Project. We honed this technique over the next week, creating larger distances and a more uneven patterns over the structure surface. We retained similar curve thicknesses to the original as we felt that we had found the appriroate width.
FINAL MODEL / TECHNIQUE
ur final model and prototype for the Expression of Interest shows what we can do for the City of Wyndham. It is a simple structure that attracts the eye and brings a calming prescience to the driver when they approach it through the flickering of natural light. To create this structural technique we have used curves and mirrored them onto a surface and then manipulated the thickness of each curve and the distance between them. This allowed us to explore what we want the driver to see, what shadows can be created and how we can quickly grab the driverâ€™s attention towards Wyndham City. It encapsulates our design technique and intent. We should be chosen to design the City of Wyndham Gateway because structure is an understated beauty within architecture and with the use of parametric software we can create something that will bring attention and excitement to Wyndham City. Along with this structure means that we can explore other avenues within the parametric field and create a design that encompasses something for everyone. We will create a parametric structure that is simple, sophisticated and will stand the test of time for the City of Wyndham.
After the mid semester presentations it is clear that my group needs to develop our ideas a lot
further in order to be prepared for the final presentations. At the moment we have a concept but it does not really hone any particular technique and is yet to be considered architecture. I think that we need to go back to the basics over the non-instruction week and develop our Rhino and Grasshopper skills further so that we can start to explore what these programs can really do for us. I also think it would be wise to consider using a grid or framework in which to create the structure. For example, focus on what we can be produced through use of the waffle grid. I feel that our concept and technique has come as far as it can to a certain extent and to push it further we must do more explorations. In the design that we had for the Expression of Interest there are still many factors to consider. The fact that we had relied on the use of patterns and shadows created in natural light for our argument is going to be an issue due to weather. I think that we must explore the use of artificial light or perhaps steer our project in a different direction so that shadows do not play such a large role in the ideals. I also think that we should start to consider materials. Over the break I want to research design to fabrication. It is important to begin to understand what is going to bend and curve in the way we want it to. Along with materials we must look at joints because aforementioned our design unless 3D printed would not actually be able to be constructed. This means that it is more just a beautiful pattern than actual architecture. I think that the ideas are there and we could produce an interesting project but structure needs to be explored further and we must hone in on some techniques within the structural parametric field. After looking at the site photographs and plans I think it has given me a better understanding what can and cannot be done in regards to our design. When considering that we have been working with curved structures, I think that it would be interesting to explore the idea of having the structure span across one or both roads. It could even curve its way from cite C to B to A. This would mean that the tunnel like structure could focus more on the patterns internally and externally as opposed to shadows and light. This is important for my group to really think about, as the weather is a major factor in natural light. Being that it will not generally be the residents of Wyndham City that see the gateway and more drivers coming back and forth along the freeway, I think that it is important to enthrall people. If the gateway commands enough attention it will begin discussions on the area and become a landmark. This would all be great for the City of Wyndham. For these reasons I think we could develop our technique and ideas into something that people drive through or past for a longer distance of time. Often when speeding along the freeway people do not take their eyes off the road. I want to develop our project further so that the drives cannot miss it. I have found my experiences with creating a parametric technique extremely difficult. It has been daunting and frustrating. I am not sure weather it is because I am not good with computers or because I am a slow learner but I am not picking up the skills within Grasshopper very easily. After doing the online tutorials each week, I feel that Iâ€™ve learnt something and progressed but then we it comes to actually trying these ideas on my own its impossible again. I have not really been surprised over the semester, as I knew before I took this subject that it was going to be a difficult experience. Having said this, I have found the research component interesting and all the amazing projects created through parametric design. These projects make me want to continue learning computation and parametric design so that one day I can design projects like that as well.