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May 2012 Volume 1 Issue 5

Eco Quest New Quest‌.. New solutioN

Cover Story pg 6 - 9

Green Investment: A Scheme needed for Forest conservation


About Eco-Quest New Quest ….. New Solution

Eco-Quest is a monthly magazine. It caters scientific article from environment sector. It provides an opportunity to all budding and young scientist to publish their research work. It is circulated through research organizations like NEERI, IITs, IIMs, SPCBs, CPCB, MoEF, selected environmental consultancies, NGOs, colleges, industries, environmental equipment suppliers, manufacturers, etc. Eco-Quest is trying to bridge the gap between Government, industries, students as well as common man. It has different sections like news, papers, articles, general comments, reader feedback, etc. It is also observed that most of the Indian researchers are publishing their work in international journals. Hence, recent Indian research which is published in international journal is highlighted in a special column named “Current Research”. This would be useful for Indian researchers and budding scientist to evaluate their progress and also enhance their knowledge. Also this magazine has details of upcoming environmental events to be organized, both national and international level. Important environmental days are highlighted through this magazine. Through this magazine, we are be encouraging scientific writing at student level. . Also government could express their views on the environment and also they could make the people aware and educate about their initiatives.

EQ Jun 2012

Copyright © 2012 Eco-Quest


Volume 1. Issue 05 May 2012

What ’ s Inside? Editor in Chief

Dr. U. C. Mishra, Former Director, Health, Safety & Environment Group, BARC, Mumbai

Editorial Advisory Board

Dr. B. Sengupta, Former Mem. Sec. CPCB, New Delhi Mr. Sudhir Badami, Civil Engg., Transportation, Anti Noise Pollution Activist Dr. Sunil Kumar, Scientist, NEERI Dr. Sunil Purohit, Principal, Mumbai College of Arts, Commerce & Science

Associate Editors

Dr. Abba Elizabeth, Prof. K. J. Somiya College Ms. Kanchan C Wakadikar, Senior Manager, EPRI Mr. Avick Sil, Senior Manager, EPRI

Assistant Editors

Mr. Chandrasekhar Chandagade

Layout & Designing

Ms. Kanchan C Wakadikar Mr. Avick Sil

Admin & Business Head

Mrs. Rohini Choudhari, EPRI

Marketing Division

Mr. Alok Prasad Mr. Niranjan Kolekar

Office Environment Policy and Research India (EPRI) 219, Gopi Cine Mall, Nana Shankar Sheth Road, Dombivli (West) 421 202, Maharashtra, India, Ph: 0251 3192839, 2400405

Cover Story

Other Offices at Shakapur, Delhi – 110092, Malleswaram, Bangalore – 560003, Odisha, Bhubaneshwar - 751014

6-8

News

Green Investment: A Scheme Needed For Forest Conservation Commentary

11

Important Days Event Dairy

22 - 25 21 30 - 31

Pollution from Ships and Curises

Readers Feedback

5

12 - 16

Call for Articles

10

Paper

Rhizosphere Bioremediation: A Green Technology For Environmental Clean up Current Research

26 - 29

This section highlights the publication of Indian research work in peer review journals……...

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Copyright © 2012 Eco-Quest

WTERT Details

17 - 20

Research League

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Editorial Protect forest

F

orests are the integral part of our life. We do not pay much attention about them. But there is various direct and indirect benefit forests provide us. One needs to understand their importance. The direct benefit from forest would be fuel wood that can be used for cooking and other purposes. Similarly, some important products are produced from forest like tarpenoids,

alkaloids, resins, honey, etc. Most of the people residing beside the forest fetch their revenue and livelihood by selling these products. Most importantly, one need to understand the people living beside forest are not well educated, for them the selling of fuel wood would be their only source of income. Also wood is required for making furniture, door and window frames and many more. Indirect benefit of forest is proper rain, maintaining the climatic conditions, temperature and humidity, etc. Hence, one needs to protect the forest through sustainable development. United Nations (UN) has come up with the theme for World Environment Day (2012) to protect the forest through sustainable development. As per the theme, one needs to create forest funds and Government need to protect the forests for their social and cultural well being. World Environment Day is celebrated all over the world on 5th June. This is the biggest day for environmentalist to celebrate and chalk out plan for environment preservation and management. Each year, UN comes up with new theme for protection and preservation of environment. In our lead article author tries to explain the theme of 2012, and strategies needed to achieve the same for protection of forest. It signifies the opportunities in India for protection of forest. I urge all my readers to protect environment and especially forest. Forest not only needs to be protected for direct benefit but also for indirect benefit. The Government needs to chalk a plan for protecting forest for betterment of social and cultural well being. I also urge my readers to put across their views and comments on our lead and other articles.

Dr. U. C. Mishra Former Director, Health, Safety and Environment group, BARC Editor in Chief, Eco Quest Magazine (ucmishra@hotmail.com) For Editorial details; Contact: Ms. Kanchan Wakadikar, Associate Editor (wakdikarkanchan@rediffmail.com) Mr. Avick Sil, Associate Editor (avick1411@gmail.com) EQ Jun 2012

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... ry good… e v is n ig The des g nice ite lookin s b e w o ls A for this…. s t a r g n o C

r, Dear Edito version of The online is indeed t earth ques . It will be g n ti s e s inter directing u helpful in earch pas towards re tainable s u s pers on reness pro living awa ool stuh jects for sc dents.

Das Priyanka ICFAI Student,

Principal h Mrs. Shaik hoo.co.in ya @ seematrc

Dear Editor The new look of the Eco-quest is really attractive... wish the eco-quest a great success.... Dr. Boni Amin Laskar RSG recipient & Post Doctoral Fellow (DBT, GOI), Supporting Member (Aaranyak) Molecular Biology Laboratory (DNA Barcoding) Department of Biotechnology Assam University, Silchar-788011 Assam, Northeast India Mobile: +91 9957796487, +91 9862255228 Email: aminboni@rediffmail.com

wakdikarkanchan@rediffmail.com avick1411@gmail.com EQ Jun 2012

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Avick Sil

Cover Story

Green Investment: A Scheme needed for Forest Conservation “Forest provides variety of services, both directly and indirectly. It is one of the major sources of global income. Numerous people depend on trade and forest related activities for their livelihood. Forest also plays a crucial role in combating climate change. Tourism is another source of income from forest. There is a need for protecting and preserving these forests through proper scheme and mechanism. This article highlights the need of a green scheme for protecting forests for long term benefit�. Economic Importance of Forest

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iologically-rich forest ecosystems provide shelter, food, jobs, water, medicine and security to more than 1 billion people around the world. It also regulate global climate. The benefits of halving deforestation for climate change alone are estimated to be in the trillions. Yet despite these huge ecological, economical, social and health benefits, forests are still being destroyed at an alarming rate of 13 mil-

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lion hectares annually. Hence, we all must concentrate to preserve and protect forest for longer benefits. The policy maker must understand the direct and indirect economic value of forest and they should frame policies in such way that both long term and short term goals are achieved through a proper channel.

Forest as Source of Income and Employment The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has estimated that the forest industry contributed approximately US$ 468 billion or 1 per

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Avick Sil

cent of global gross value added to global GDP in 2006. Pulp and paper represented about 40 per cent of this contribution. In Eastern and Southern Africa, 22 percent of household income is based on forest related products and services. Timber is the one of the main source of income for forest. Non timber products include fruits, packaged food, plant products, medicine, aromatic products and exudates such as tannin extract and raw lacquer. In 2005, FAO has estimated the value of non timber product and it was about US$ 18.5 billion worldwide. In Cameroon, about 45, 000 people are directly earn their livelihood from non timber products. Tourism is one of the important sources of income from forest. Now a day, the concept on ecotourism has also emerged which is another source of income. The estimated value of forest related ecosystem services is

Cover Story

given in Table 1. Globally, forested watersheds, wetlands and mangrove ecosystems provide nutrition to poor and urban poor households. They also sustain freshwater and coastal fisheries. More than 2 billion people depend on wood energy for cooking, heating and food preservation. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), in 2005, biomass energy accounted for an estimated 10 per cent of energy use. More than 83 per cent of this was used in less developed countries. In many developing countries biomass accounts for more than 50 per cent of total energy use. Forest also directly or indirectly provides employment and livelihood to about 1.4 billion of world’s population. Types of employment are given in the Table 2.

Table 1: Estimates of the Value of Forest Ecosystem Services Service

Estimated value (US $/ha)

Genetic material

0.2 – 20.6

Watershed services (flow regulation, 200 – 1000 flow protection, water purification) Climate regulation

360 – 2200 (Tropical forests) 10 – 400 (Temperate forests)

Recreation and Tourism

1 – 2000 or more

Cultural services

0.03 – 259 (Tropical forests) 12 – 116,182 (Temperate forests)

Table 2: Forest-dependent Employment and Livelihoods Scope

Estimates (number of people)

Formal employment in forestry, wood processing and pulp and paper

14 million

Formal employment in furniture industry

4 million

Informal small forest enterprises

30 – 140 million

Indigenous people dependent on forests People dependent on agroforestry

71 – 588 million

Total

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500 million – 1.2 billion 619 million – 1.9 billion

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Avick Sil

Cover Story

Types of Investment in Forest Sector In 2006, an approximate US$ 64 billion is invested annually in the forest sector. Of this, approximately 28 per cent is spent on forest management and the rest is invested in forest product processing and trade. The Green Economy Report suggests that an additional investment of 0.034 per cent of global GDP International Community Agree on an international REDD+ scheme Generate knowledge on forest ecosystem services Stimulate engagement from the commercial financial sector Re-invest income from royalties and taxes into the forest sector The role of government Guarantee adequate returns on risk-adjusted investment Should also provide mechanisms that hedge against large price volatility while ensuring that mitigation projects are sustainable Devise transparent and efficient procedures Transparent and accessible tax systems Employ market-based instruments Allow the provision of credit, microfinance, leases, concessions and other securities in land and forests. Public investment and spending in areas that stimulate the greening of economic sectors should be prioritized. Capacity building and training that can catalyze this transition to a green economy Right incentives Business and financial institutions Investing in forest projects, forestry development, forest funds and acting as financial brokers and intermediaries. Providing independent, easily accessible and verifiable risk assessments for forest projects and activities Leveraging resources and providing debt finance for forest related enterprises and individual projects Guaranteeing investment by insuring the forest sector including price risks, natural events risk and sovereign risk within it Business and financial institutions can also devise creative ways to deal with specific forest-carbon risk such as measurement errors and, systemic and specific risks associated with international agreements and eligibility each year (equivalent to US$ 40 billion in constant 2010 dollars per year) could raise value added in the forest industry by US$ 600 billion in 2050. Under the green economy scenario (G2), additional investment is undertaken in reforestation and forest conservation. More than half (54 per cent or US$ 22 billion of mostly private investment) of this investment is directed to reforestation and 46 per cent (or US$ 18 billion of mostly public investment) per year is spent on avoiding deforestation to pay forest landholders to conserve forests. There are various types of investment in forest sector is given in Table 3. EQ Jun 2012

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Avick Sil

Cover Story

Table 3: Examples of Green Investment Options for Various Forest Types Forest Type Primary forest

Natural modified forest

Planted forest

Agroforestry

Private Investment

Public Investment

Ecotourism development

Create new protected areas

Private nature reserve

Improve enforcement of protected areas

Pay landowners to protect watershed

Pay forest landholders to conserve forests Buy out logging concessions

Reduced impact logging and other forest management improvements

Incentives for improved forest management

Certification to sustainable forest management standards

Support establishment of certification systems

Reforestation and afforestation for production Incentives for reforestation/afforestation Improve management of planted forests

Reforestation to protect ecological Functions

Extend the area with agroforestry systems

Incentives to landholders

Improve management of agroforestry systems Incentives to improve management and technical assistance

Direct Values

Indirect Values

Option Values

Existence Values

Timber Firewood Wild foods Medicines Handicrafts Grazing and fodder Recreation …...etc…..

Catchment protection Erosion Control Micro Climate regulation Carbon Sequestration Wildlife habitat …...etc…..

Future economics options: Industrial Agricultural Pharmaceuticals Recreational Applications of wild species, genes and landscapes …...etc…..

Landscape Aesthetic Heritage Bequest Cultural Religious Rituals …...etc…..

What is needed for Green Investment??? Government, international community, business and financial institutions all must work together to conserve and preserve the degrading rate of forest. All these communities must encourage each other and work together towards a long term vision and goal. Some of the role could be played by different community is highlighted below:

How to encourage Investment in Forest Sector International community and Government must formulate a long term strategy towards protecting the degrading ecosystems and measures for control of deforestation. Government should encourage investment

in this sector through proper incentives and smart subsidies. Government should provide international support, legal infrastructure and conducive trade protocol. They must encourage young professionals, budding scientists and entrepreneurs through proper scheme and development. Moving forward, countries and companies that invest in the multi-dimensional goods and services provided by forests will reap benefits both at home and abroad, and speed their transition to a greener economy. Thus by encouraging this scheme of green investment, Government can play a major role in conservation of forest. One must estimate the level of deforestation and capacity development of a particular region or forest before venturing into product and trade related activities of that forest.

For Further Reading Forest in a Green Economy: A Synthesis; UNEP Report (2011) Author Avick Sil, Senior Manger, Environment Policy and Research India (EPRI) Email: avick1411@gmail.com EQ Jun 2012

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Call for Articles, Papers, Case study and Reviews, Commentaries Eco quest is a peer review journal cum magazine. It accept papers, research articles, commentaries, articles, case studies and views on different sector like environment, human health, solid waste management (SWM), climate change, water and wastewater, technology assessment, risk analysis, policy analysis and others. The decision of the papers and articles would be in the hand of Editor in Chief.

Format Maximum Length

Papers: 2500 – 3000 words (Including Abstract, References, Tables and Figures) Others: 1000 – 2000 words (Including References, Tables and Figures)

Preparation of Manuscripts All manuscripts can be sent as email attachments to the address “wakdikarkanchan@rediffmail.com or avick1411@gmail.com”. Include a cover letter and complete contact information for the corresponding author: address, telephone and facsimile numbers and email address. Microsoft Word format (only word doc format) is preferred for text and tables with 1.5 spacing. Times New Roman is the preferred typeface at 12 point size. Figures should be sent as separately in JPEG format. Keep formatting to a minimum, including section headings and footnotes; do not bold headings. Please restrict italics to scientific names, foreign words and to appropriate parts of references. Do not indent and do not artificially split words with hyphens. Number all pages of the manuscript (either electronically or in soft pencil, at the bottom of each page).

Reference Style: References within the text should be cited: Smith (2001); two authors, Jones and Wong (1999) or (Jones and Wong 1999); three or more authors, Smith et al (2000) or (Smith et al 2000). A list of references should be presented in alphabetical order at the end of the paper using the styles indicated below. Journal titles and titles of books and other publications should be in italics; journal titles should be given in full. Books:

Boulton, A.J., Brock, M.A., 1999. Australian Freshwater Ecology: Processes and Management. Gleneagles Publishing, Glen Osmond, Australia.

Journals:

Cima, F., Ballarin, L., 2000. Tributyltin induces cytoskeletal alterations in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri phagocytes via interaction with calmodulin. Aquatic Toxicology 48, 419429.

Theses:

Hose, G.C., 2000. The Effect of Endosulfan on Macroinvertebrate Communities in Artificial Streams. PhD thesis. University of Technology, Sydney, Australia. Pp 220.

Reports:

UNEP., 1998. Chemicals in the European Environment: Low Doses, High Stakes? European Environment Agency and United Nations Environment Program Annual Message 2 on the State of Europe’s Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark. pp 50.

Proceedings: Wong, T.H.F., Somes, N.L.G., 1997. The contribution of stormwater wetlands and swales to urban catchment management. In Proceedings, 24th Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium, Auckland, New Zealand, 24-28 November. Smaill A (Ed). New Zealand Water and Wastes Association Inc, Auckland, NZ. pp 89-94. Software : EQ Jun 2012

Statsoft. 1999. Statistica for Windows. Version 5.5, 99 edition. Statsoft, Oklahoma, USA. Copyright © 2012 Eco-Quest


S. Subramanian

Commentary

Pollution from Ships and Cruises

S

S. Subramanian, Editor in Chief, SNM Events

ea route is the cheapest mode of transportation as compared with land and air modes. It is time consuming as compared with air transportation mode but it has more value in terms of material handling and logistic arrangement. There are various accidents that took place in seas and oceans, and tremendous quantity of oil and drilling fluids was released into the sea. It is estimated that about 3-4 million tonnes of oil is disposed off in sea due to anthropogenic activities and tanker accidents. These fluids are chemically toxic and physically harmful to marine flora and fauna. Various studies indicated that the growth of flora and fauna were affected by toxic heavy metals contamination in environment. One of the study indicated that oily drill cutting discharges affected 750 m 2 of area from a disposal site at Congo, West Africa. These discharges also have an adverse impact on aquatic organisms and wildlife present near the shore line. They can have both short and long-term adverse impacts. The short-term impacts are on the water column organisms such as fish and long-term impacts are generally restricted to the benthic organisms near the discharge point. In recent time, a shipping company was found to be pleaded guilty in the court of San Francisco to felony oil pollution charges and agreed to pay fine of $ 1.5 million. Out of this total amount $ 500,000 would be spent towards environmental projects towards betterEQ Jun 2012

ment of the San Francisco bay. Similarly, China news center on February 13, 2012 has reported to detain a South Korean cargo ship. This cargo ship has reportedly spilled phenol in Yangtze River. It is the largest river of China. Phenol is an organic compound which can cause irritation of eyes and skin; it can also damage liver and kidneys, if absorbed in large amount. Zhenjiang Government has set a bail price of $ 3.3 million in order to release that cargo ship. Similarly, a Greek Shipping company, Efploia Shipping was pleaded guilty in Baltimore federal court for illegally dumping used oil and sludge at the sea. They are handed an initial fine of $ 925,000 as well as another $ 275,000 for clean up purpose. Therefore, such kind of initiatives should be taken in India, which could reduce the impact of pollution of sea. The offenders should be penalized accordingly and most of that amount should be spent towards betterment and management of environment. Similarly, research activities should be encouraged to attract young scientists and entrepreneurs. If such practices are made mandatory, then India could avoid environmental hazards from accidental spillage of toxic chemicals in the seas and oceans. One such example was of MSC Chitra incident on 7th August 2010 and M V RAK on 6th August 2011. If proper management system was in placed, then cleanup activities could be prosecuted at much quicker rate and environmental damages could have being minimized.

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Fulekar et al

Paper

Rhizosphere Bioremediation: A Green Technology For Environmental Clean Up M.H. Fulekar*, Bhawana Pandey and Anamika Singh Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, *Professor, Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (E), Mumbai-400 098, India Corresponding author: mhfulekar@yahoo.com

Abstract Environmental pollution has become a major global concern. The modern technological advancements in chemical processes/operations have generated new products and also new pollutants in abundant levels which are above the self-cleaning capacity of the environment. One of the major issues in present times is the threat to human lives, due to progressive deterioration of the environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop technology that consume resources, less time and would be environment friendly. Bioremediation has been proved effective for treating soil-water contaminants at numerous sites and is accepted as a viable remediation technology. Rhizosphere is a natural process which can be enhanced by providing the nutrients and favorable environmental conditions and considered as an ecological remediation unit. The Rhizosphere of the host plant grown in a mycorhiza-soil formed a mycorrhizosphere encompassing symbiotic association of mycorrhizal fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes in the immediate vicinity of the Mycorrhizal roots. This is a plant assisted bioremediation which helps in increase in soil organic carbon, bacteria and Mycorrhizal fungi, all factors that encourage degradation of organic compounds & pesticides. In the present research study, the rhizosphere bioremediation of pesticides in particular Chlorpyrifos in mycorrhizal soil was investigated using a potential of rye grass in a pot culture experiment. Rhizosphere bioremediation of Chlorpyrifos was studied at varying concentrations and degradation was observed at a frequency for 15 days over a period of two and half months. The rhizosphere consortium survived at a high concentration was assessed for potential organism Pseudomonas nitroreducens using laboratory scale up process for Chlorpyrifos. The identified potential organism was used as a culture and again bioaugmented the rhizosphere bioremediation of Chlorpyrifos in a pot culture technique. The bioaugmented rhizosphere bioremediation of Chlorpyrifos was found effective EQ Jun 2012

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Fulekar et al

Paper

than the rhizosphere bioremediation of the compound. In a similar study, the potential of Pennisetum pedicellatum has been used for rhizosphere bioremediation of Chlorpyrifos in a pot culture experiment. Microbial consortium survived at higher concentration, after rhizosphere bioremediation were assessed for identifying potential organism. The Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MHF ENV20 identified was used for bioremediation of Chlorpyrifos in a laboratory bioreactor. Rhizosphere bioremediation has proved effective and efficient technology for mineralization of pesticides. Further, Ecological Remediation Unit will be designed and developed, wherein the grasses with fibrous roots will be grown on mycorrhizal soil for rhizosphere degradation of organic compounds and simultaneously phytoextraction of heavy metals. Rhizosphere Bioremediation technologies will be demonstrated in the field for decontamination of hazardous waste. Rhizosphere Bioremediation would be a costeffective green technology for environmental clean-up.

Introduction

I

ndustrialization, urbanization and modern agricultural developments have fulfilled the desires and needs of the human beings and brought the economic development in the world. The technological revolution that has occurred along with the modernization and development in the past two decades has enormously changed the products and processes in the industries, resulting into release of new pollutants causing environmental pollution which is above the self-cleaning capacity of the environment (Fulekar, 2005a). It is the industrial revolution that gave birth to the environmental pollution. Pollution is introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm and discomfort to the ecosystem. The environmental pollution, depletion and degradation of natural resources have in fact been neglected as compared to the issues of growth and development. This worldwide phenomenon of environmental deterioration appears to be more prominent in developing countries like India because of the rapid increase in the population. The present treatment technology involving physico-chemical and biological methods are not efficient and/ or effective to treat the contaminants to acceptable level. Today, biotechnology is being considEQ Jun 2012

ered as an emerging technology for environmental protection. The technology involves the use of microorganisms for biological treatment of pollutants. Bioremediation in particular plant assisted bioremediation has proved as effective methods for remediation of hazardous waste compounds. The present research work has been carried out to study rhizosphere bioremediation of pesticides by ryegrass/ Pennisetum pedicellatum in the mycorrhizal soil in separate experimental setup. Green house pot culture experiments were conducted to examine the efficiency of grasses with fibrous roots in rhizosphere bioremediation of pesticides under the influence of mycorrhizosphere. In this study, mycorrhizal soil was used to grow ryegrass/ Pennisetum pedicellatum for its better survival and growth in the contaminated soil. Mycorrhizal soil used for this experimentation was prepared from the soil based mycorrhizal inoculum developed at the laboratory scale and characterized for physicochemical, microbial and mycorrhizal properties during the preparation and on development of mycorrhizal soil (Deepali and Fulekar, 2009). Rhizosphere bioremediation of Chlorpyrifos has been done using ryegrass/ Pennisetum pedicellatum at varying concentrations ranging from 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg at frequency of 15 days over Copyright Š 2012 Eco-Quest

a period of two and half months. After rhizosphere bioremediation, microbial consortium survived at higher concentration, were assessed and potential organism identified using scale up process technique. Potential microorganism used for bioremediation in pot culture as well as bioremediation in laboratory-process bioreactor. The mineralization of pesticide- Chlorpyrifos has been studied. Besides, the present research work has also been undertaken to develop bioremediation technology for treatment of chemical Industrial wastes containing organic compounds and heavy metals in mycorrhizal soil viz. Rhizosphere bioremediation of organic contaminants and Phytoextraction of heavy metals by fibrous grasses grown on top of the mycorrhizal soil in the designed and developed Ecological Remediation Unit. The plants grown on to the mycorrhizal soil will be beneficial for remediation of heavy metals/ organic contaminants. The mycorrhizal soil will be spread up on to the land for rhizosphere remediation in the field under the influence of rhizosphere microbial consortium and bioagumentaion of rhizosphere bioremediation will be done by adding the Rhizosphere microbial consortium and growing grasses with fibrous roots in the field for enhanced biodegradation of the compounds till to convert into environmentally 13


Fulekar et al

friendly compounds for reclamation and restoration of the ecosystem.

Experimental Setup Experiments were conducted in controlled conditions in a green house. There were six experimental conditions in this trial; contaminated soil spiked with five concentrations of Chlorpyrifos and non -polluted soil served as control. All pots were planted with ryegrass. Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, var. PRG-1) was grown in plastic pots for conducting ‘Pot Culture’ experiments. For the experiments, the sieved soil spiked with the various concentrations was mixed with sand (< 2 mm) at a ratio of 3: l (w/ w), which was standardized for the better porosity of the potting mixture to have good root growth of ryegrass. The air-dried soil- sand mixture was placed in each pot containing about 20% AM fungal inoculum applied to it. Thus, there were six experimental sets of Ch l or p yr i fos c on t a m i n a t i on (including control); four harvest times (15, 30, 45 and 60 days) and three replicates giving a total of 72 pots. The pots were arranged in a greenhouse and were completely randomized. Seeds of ryegrass were surface sterilized by soaking in 30% (v/v) H2O2 for 20 min and washed several times with distilled wa t er . About fi ft e en pr e germinated seeds were then sown to one kg plastic pots containing 700gm artificially contaminated and control soil. Seedlings were thinned to ten after one week and the soil was covered with a layer of soil. Three replicates were done for this experiment and pots were randomly arranged. The pots were placed in green house at room temperature (26-27°C at day, 23 - 24°C at night) with natural light. Pots were watered on alternate days to maintain the moisture. Optimum EQ Jun 2012

Paper

conditions for plant growth were maintained in the greenhouse. NH4NO3-N (25 mg per pot) was provided in first and fourth week after seedling emergence. Any broadleaf weeds germinated in the treatments were removed periodically by hand before they reached 0.5 cm in size. For the analysis, soil from planted pots was carefully collected, mixed and crushed by mortar and pestle. Pooled soil samples (approximately 30 to 40 g wet weight) were air dried overnight in a fume hood (in dark). Dried samples were then kept at 4°C to prevent microbial activity. The roots were removed from the soil with forceps and therefore, analyzed soil did not contain any root.

procedure. The 16S rDNA was PCR amplified using Universal Primers The PCR mixture contained 2.5 µL of 10× PCR buffer with 1.5 M MgCl2, 2.5 µL 2 mM dNTP, 1.25µl of 10 pmol/µl of each primer, 1.5µl of total genomic DNA (~30 ng), 0.24µl Taq DNA polymerase and 15.76 µL with nuclease-free glass distilled water. Amplification was performed with a thermal cycler following program: step 1, initial denaturation of 3 min at 94°C; step 2, 35 cycles consisting of 1 min at 94°C, 1 min at 55°C and 1 min at 72°C; step 3, 10 min at 72°C. The PCR product was sequenced bi-directionally using the forward and reverse internal primer. The sequence data were aligned and analyzed on the NCBI, BLAST database to identify the Bioaugmentation experiment bacteria and their closest neighbors. - Isolation of chlorpyrifos The potential microorganisms identified from ryegrass rhizosphere degrading microorganism The remediated rhizosphere bioremediation was used for biosoil initially amended with higher agumentaion of Chlorpyrifos in pot concentration of chlorpyrifos culture technique. Whereas, poten(100mg/kg) obtained from the first tial microorganism identified from set of experiment was further used Pennisetum pedicellatum during in the bioaugmentation study. The rhizosphere bioremediation was soil was selected because it ex- used for bioremediation of Chlorpected to consist of microorganism pyrifos in laboratory scale up procadapted and survived to higher con- ess bioreactor. taminant concentration and also has potential to degrade chlorpyrifos. Mycorrhizosphere RemediaThe microbial characterization of tion of Pesticides- Chlorpyrithis rhizospheric soil was also fos done. Microorganism that could Case Study I utilize chlorpyrifos as a sole carbon In the present research study, source was isolated using nutrient the potential of rye grass for culture medium in the enrichment rhizosphere bioremediation of study by the method given by Sid- chlorpyrifos in mycorrhizal soil dique et al., 2003. Culture medium was investigated in the green house used in this study was mineral salt using pot culture experiments medium. The colonies were se- (Deepali and Fulekar, 2009). The lected for further isolation and pot cultured soil amended at initial identification from the minimal chlorpyrifos concentration of agar media plates containing chlor- 10mg/kg was observed to be depyrifos as the sole source of car- graded completely within 7 days bon. Genomic DNA from isolated where rest amended concentrations microorganism was extracted using (25-100 mg/kg) decreased rapidly a phenol: chloroform extraction Copyright © 2012 Eco-Quest

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Fulekar et al

under the influence of rye grass micro-rhizosphere as incubation progressed till 28 days. The bioremediation of chlorpyrifos in soil is attributed to the micro-organisms associated with the roots in the rye grass rhizosphere. Therefore the micro-organisms surviving in the rhizospheric soil spiked at highest concentration (100 mg/kg) was assessed and used for isolation of chlorpyrifos degrading microorganism. The potential degrader identified by 16s rDNA analysis using BLAST technique was Pseudomonas nitroreductase PS-2. Further bioaugmentation for the enhanced chlorpyrifos biodegradation was performed using PS-2 as an inoculum in the experimental setup similar to the earlier. The heterotrophic bacteria and fungi were also enumerated from the inoculated and non inoculated rhizospheric soil. In bioaugmentation experiments, the % dissipation of chlorpyrifos was 100% in the inoculated rhizospheric soil as compared to 76.24, 50.36 and 90.80% in the non-inoculated soil for initial concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg at the 14th, 21st and 28th day intervals respectively.

Stenotrophomonas genus. A bacterial isolate K4 identified and named as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MHF ENV20 was found to be surviving at higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos and utilizing it as a sole source of carbon and energy was determined as a potential degrader and selected for further bioremediation studies. Bioremediation data of chlorpyrifos by strain MHF ENV20 examined by HPLC and GCMS, indicates 100%, 50% and 33.3% degradation within the time period of 48hour (h), 72h and 120 h respectively. During the bioremediation experiment no persistent accumulated metabolite was observed. This is the first report of complete mineralization of chlorpyrifos by a novel Stenotrophomonas spp. isolated from rhizosphere of Pennisetum pedicellatum. This isolate will be potentially useful in biotreatment of waste water and bioremediation of soil contaminated with chlorpyrifos. Mycorrhizosphere bioremediation of pesticide- Chlorpyrifos followed by bioagumentation with identified potential microorganism as well as bioremediation by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MHF ENV20 in Case Study II laboratory process bioreactor have In this study, Pennisetum been found mineralized pesticides pedicellatum a grass species was into environmental friendly complanted into Chlorpyrifos contami- pound. nated soil (10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 Rhizosphere Bioremediation mg/kg) and its rhizospheric remediation potential was investigated, â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mechanism Research at the U.S. Envithe degradation kinetics of chlorronment Protection Agency (EPA) pyrifos in rhizospheric soil was also laboratory in Athens, Georgia has studied. The chlorpyrifos degrading examined fine plant enzyme sysbacterial consortia associated with tems in sediments and soils, i.e. rhizosphere of Pennisetum pediceldehalogenase, nitroreductase, perlatum was also assessed and identioxidase, laccase and nitrilase. fied. On the basis of morphology, physiological characteristics, bioDehalogenase enzymes are imchemical tests and 16S r DNA portant in dechlorination reacanalysis, three bacterial isolates K5, tions of chlorinated hydrocarK2 and K4 were identified as membons ber of Bacillus, Rhodococcus and Nitroreductase is needed in the EQ Jun 2012

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first step for degradation of nitroaromatics Laccase enzyme serves to break aromatic ring structures in organic contaminants Peroxidase and nitrilase are important in oxidation reactions These enzymes are active in rhizosphere soils in close proximity to the root (1 mm) for transformation of organic contaminants. The addition of plant root systems creates ecology in mycorrhizal soil in the bioreactor which treats the contaminants. Rhizosphere increases the organic carbon bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, all factors that encourage degradation of organic compounds in mycorrhizal soil (Fulekar, 2006). Experiments have shown that the number of beneficial bacteria increased in the root zone of hybrid poplar trees relative to unplanned reference sites. Also plants release exudates help to stimulate the degradation of organic chemicals by inducing enzyme systems of existing bacterial populations stimulating growth of new species that are able to degrade the wastes and/or increasing soluble substrate concentrations of the microorganisms (Fulekar, 2005b). Microbial assemblages are abundant in the rhizosphere which has importance for biotreatment.

Rhizosphere Technology

Remediation

The rhizosphere remediation is a natural process wherein degradation of the compounds can t a ke pl a c e. Howe ver , t h e rhizosphere biodegradation is a slow process in nature, which can be accelerated by developing a bioreactor and carrying out biological treatment of wastes under controlled environment conditions. Fulekar (2010), in a pilot scale study, designed and developed a bioreactor wherein gravel, sand and 15


Fulekar et al

soil are placed one above the other over a perforated plate fixed at the bottom which allow the percolate to infiltrate at the bottom in a collector like a trickling filter technique. In this technique, advancement has been done in which mycorrhizal soil is developed and placed on the top of the reactor wherein grasses with fibrous roots are grown for development of the rhizosphere. The waste effluents as

a simulated technique is sprinkled through mycorrhizal soil-sandgravel placed above a perforated place in a bioreactor. The effluent containing complex organic and inorganics undergo remediation in the rhizosphere by the action of bacteria, mycorrhizal fungi and actinomycetes. Heavy metal present in effluent undergoes bioaccumulation, biotransformation precipitation, adsorption and/or ab-

Paper

sorption in the rhizosphere. The organic contaminant present in infiltrate of effluent will also be degraded in mycorrhizal soil by microbial consortium with symbiotic association along the root zone of grasses grown in the soil media at the top of the bioreactor. This technology will be demonstrated from laboratory to field.

References Fulekar, M.H. 2010. Environmental Biotechnology- Theory and Application, CRC Press and Science Publisher, USA. Fulekar, M.H. 2010. Bioremediation Technology: Recent Advances (Ed.), Springer Publishers Fulekar, M.H. 2010. Nanotechnology –its Importance & Applications, IK International Fulekar, M.H. 2008. Bioinformatics – Application in Life & Environmental Sciences (Ed.), Springer Publisher Fulekar, M.H. 2006. Rhizosphere: an ecological remediation unit. Safety Health Environment Bulletin. Bombay chamber of Commerce and Industry, 7(1), 1-4. Fulekar, M.H. 2005a. Bioremediation Technologies for Environment. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 25(4): 358 – 364. Fulekar, M.H. 2005b. Environmental Biotechnology. Oxford & IBH Publishing House, New Delhi.Fulekar, Korade, DL. and Fulekar, MH. 2009. Effect of organic contaminants on seed germination of Lolium multiflorum in soil. Biology and Medicine, 1 (1): 28-34. Korade, DL. and Fulekar, MH. 2009. Rhizosphere Remediation of Chlorpyrifos in Mycorhizospheric soil using Ryegrass, Journal of Hazardous Material, 172: 1344-1350. Siddique, T., Okeke, B. C., Arshad, M., Frankenberger, W. T. 2003. Enrichment and Isolation of EndosulfanDegrading Microorganisms, Journal of Environmental Quality, 32, 47-54.

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1 Announcement st

1st International Brainstorming Workshop on Waste to Energy in India Organized by: National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, (NEERI) India

in Association with Earth Engineering Centre, Columbia University, USA

Date: August, 24-25, 2012

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Venue: Mumbai

Background

ith the fast depletion of the conventional resources and the growing awareness and concern regarding the environmental effects of their utilization, there has been a major thrust in the recent past to identify and develop alternate energy sources. Of many sources to be considered, municipal solid waste (MSW) could be an alternative and attractive option as an energy source. India, with its large population densities in urban centers, generates vast amounts of MSW, which when converted to multiple types of fuel generating sources, have appreciable calorific value. The cost of such fuel source could be an area of concern and needs economic assessment along with techno-commercial viability. On the other hand, hinterland produces agriculture biomass which is being used as an energy source by villagers, though in an energy in-efficient way. Organic MSW is identified as one of the potential sources of biomass energy. Biomass is a renewable resource that has a steady and abundant supply, especially those biomass resources that are byproducts of agricultural activity. It can displace fossil fuels and also helps in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while closing the carbon cycle loop. As the debate on food versus fuel intensifies, biomass can provide added income to farmers without compromising the production of main food and even non-food crops. Energy recovery from wastes is consistent with

and complementary to modern integrated waste management practices. Efforts to prevent and minimize the generation of waste are clearly the most effective use of scarce resources and avoid environmental issues associated with waste handling, treatment and disposal. Energy recovery precedes the final and least favored option, which is the land disposal of residual wastes. Every year, there are 69 million tonnes of solid waste generated in 366 Indian cities with a population of 377 million. MSW generation ranges from 0.25 to 0.66 kg/person/day with an average of 0.5 kg/ person/day. Most of the generated wastes find their way into land and water bodies without proper treatment, causing severe water pollution. They also emit GHGs like methane and carbon dioxide, and add to air pollution. The problems caused by solid and liquid wastes can be significantly mitigated through the adoption of environment-friendly waste-to-energy technologies that will allow treatment and processing of wastes before their disposal. Waste-to-energy technology involves converting various elements of MSW, such as paper, plastics, and woods to generate energy by either thermo-chemical or bio-chemical processes. The thermo-chemical techniques consist of combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis that produce high heat in fast reaction times. The bio-chemical processes consist of anaerobic digestion, hydrolysis, and fermentation using enzymes that produce low heat in slow reaction times.


A waste-to-energy plant is an excellent alternative to developing a solid waste disposal plant if the landfill option becomes too expensive. A waste-to-energy plant can reduce the volume of waste by as much as 90 per cent. If there is a rapid increase in refuse disposal costs to a point at which it is no longer cost effective to continue off-site landfilling, waste-to-energy application should be considered. By reducing the waste volume down to only 10 per cent of the original volume, one can save 90 per cent of the disposal costs. According to actual operating data collected by the US WTE industry, on an average, combusting 1 metric ton of MSW in a modern WTE power plant generates a net of 600 kWh of electricity, thus avoiding mining a 1/4 ton of high quality US coal or importing one barrel of oil. WTE is the only alternative to landfilling of non-recyclable wastes, where the decomposing trash generates carbon dioxide and methane, potent GHGs, at least 25% of which escapes to the atmosphere even in the modern sanitary landfills that

are provided with a gas collection network and biogas utilization engines or turbines. The non-captured methane that escapes before a landfill is „„capped” so that the landfill biogas can be collected which has GHG potential of 21 times that of the same volume of carbon dioxide. The current status of experience and knowledge across the world need to be debated and analyzed to understand how one could use the option of energy generation from the waste. Taking into account the benefits associated with waste-to-energy option and in view of rising awareness about WTE option in India, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIRNEERI) in association with Earth Engineering Centre, Columbia University, New York announces to organize an International Brainstorming Workshop on Waste to Energy under the aegis of CSIR‟s mission of Wealth from Waste.

Theme areas Public health, environmental and economical impacts of existing waste management systems and need for its improvement; Economic and life cycle analysis of various MSW treatment technologies and their relevance in India; Adapting/developing WTE technologies for India; Failure and success stories of WTE plants globally; Policy on WTE technologies worldwide with special focus on India; Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies of the kinetics of drying, volatilization, and combustion of vari-

ous components of WTE Plants; Biomass and biogas (LFG, digester gas, etc.) conversion to synthetic fuels and combustion enhancement in WTE chambers; Research studies on preventing corrosion in WTE units; Effect of MSW size distribution and grate design on the combustion capacity of WTE units; Improving quantity and quality of metal recovery in WTE plants; Role of public-private partnerships and output based aid in implementing waste management projects; Role of GIS in solid waste management


Advisory Board Dr. Kalogirou, VP Global WTERT Council and President of WTERT-Greece Prof Nickolas Themelis, Director, EEC, Colombia University, USA Dr. S. R. Wate, Director, NEERI, Nagpur Dr. R. N. Singh, INSA Senior Scientist and Former Director, NEERI Dr. S. Devotta, Chairman, SEAC Maharashtra and Former Director, NEERI Prof. S.P.Gautam, Chairman, CPCB, New Delhi Mr. Allard M Nooy, CEO, JITF Urban Infrastructure Ltd., New Delhi Dr. DBSSR Sastry, Ramky Enviro, Hyderabad Er. V. K. Chourasia, CPHEEO, Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi Mr. A. K. Dhussa, Director, MNES, India Dr. Rashid Hussain, Director, MoEF, India Prof. Somnath Mukherjee, Professor, Jadavpur University, Kolkata

Mrs. Valsa Nair Singh, Secretary Environment, Government of Maharashtra, India Dr. A. D. Sawant, Ex Pro-VC Mumbai University Prof Mortan Barlaz, Professor, North Carolina State University, USA Prof Timothy G Townsend, Professor, University of Florida, USA Prof Debra Reinhart, Director, National Science Foundation, USA Prof Patrick Hettiaratchi, Professor, University of Calgary, Canada Prof William Hogland, Professor, Kalmar University, Sweden Prof Raffaello Cossu, Professor, University of Padua, Italy Dr. Zietsman Joe, Director, Texas Transportation Institute, USA

Organizing Committee Dr. R. Kumar, NEERI, Mumbai Dr. A. N. Vaidya, NEERI, Nagpur Dr. A. B. Akolkar, CPCB, New Delhi Er. Sunil Kumar, NEERI, Kolkata Er. Ranjith Annepu, EEC, Columbia University, USA Dr. Y. B Sontakke. MPCB, Mumbai

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Dr. M. R. Shah, Senior Advisor, MMRDA, Mumbai Dr. S. S. Shastry, Ramky Enviro, Hyderabad Ms. Perinaz Bhada-Tata, Env. Consultant, Mumbai Dr. Anurag Garg, CESE, IIT, Mumbai Dr. C. Sharma, NPL New Delhi

WTERT India his is the first major event organized by – India is set-up with the same guiding principle as GWC WTERT - India after its inception in June that “responsible management of wastes must be based on 2010. WTERT - India is the result of an science and best available technology and not on ideology association between the Earth Engineering and economics that exclude environmental costs and seem to

Center (EEC) at Columbia University and National Environ- be inexpensive now but can be very costly in the future”. All mental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI). It aims sister organizations in WTERT‟s global charter understand to address the rising interest, increasing investments, and to that solutions vary from region to region and work together funnel important decisions related to SWM in India in the towards better waste management around the world. right direction. WTERT - India is included in Global WTERT WTERT - India is set-up with the understanding that soluCharter (GWC) where it would function as India‟s window tions vary from region to region and is committed to reto the world on the entire spectrum of SWM issues. WTERT searching locally available technologies.

Programme Convener

Programme Co-ordinator

Er. Sunil Kumar Scientist, CSIR-NEERI Email: wtert_india@neeri.res.in/ s_kumar@neeri.res.in/ sunil_neeri@yahoo.co.in M: 91- 9903639925

Dr. Rakesh Kumar Chief Scientist and Head, CSIR-NEERI, Mumbai Zonal Centre, 89/B, Dr.Annie Besant Road, Worli, Mumbai-400018, Maharashtra, India E-Mail: r_kumar@neeri.res.in/ rakeshmee@rediffmail.com Phone: +91– 22-24926859; Fax: +91– 22-24936635

For additional information, kindly visit www. wtert.in


Registration Details Name: …………………………………………………………………………………………….. Designation: ……………………………………………………………………………………... Organization: ……………………………………………………………………………………. Address: …………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Mobile: …………………………………………….Telephone:………………………………... Email: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. Cheque/DD No. : ………………………………….Amount: …………………………………..

Registration and accommodation Advance registration of speakers and participants are compulsory

Early Registration Fee International delegates: 200 US $

Dates to remember Abstract submission: 15th April, 2012

Indian delegates: Rs. 5000/There are few government guesthouses in Mumbai which will be booked for Government officials on first come first serve basis. Information will be provided about hotels and other accommodation, if requested.

Publication Detail A special issue on "Energy production from waste incineration" or "Biofuel production from waste" will be published for the journal Waste Management, Elsevier Publication from selected papers presented in the brainstorming workshop. Special session will be arranged for research students. Poster presentation has also been kept and best papers/posters will be suitably rewarded. Details of poster size are available with Coordinator

Sponsorship detail Sponsorship More than Rs. 100000

Benefits 6 participant free + One page write-up in souvenir + Displaying of banner + Distributing pamphlet and other company details in kits

Rs. 50000 – 100000

3 participant free + One page write up in souvenir + Distributing pamphlet and other company details in kits

Rs. 25000 – 50000

3 participant free + Distributing pamphlet and other company details in kits

Advertisement Detail Types

Tariff

Back cover page (color)

Rs. 35000

Inner back cover page (color)

Rs. 15000

Inner front cover page (color)

Rs. 20000

First page (color)

Rs. 15000

Inner page (color)

Rs. 10000

Inner page (black and white)

Rs. 5000

All the payment should be made in favor of Director, NEERI, payable at Nagpur


Important days

Important Days 5th June: World Environment Day On 5th June, in 1972, the Stockholm Conference on Human Environment was held in Sweden. 5th June, is a day that gives the opportunity to help people all over the world become more aware about the environment. At this historic conference various countries have gathered together to share their concerns over human progress at the expense of the environment. The meeting called upon the world community to work towards “development without destruction.” Hence this day is celebrated as World Environmental Day.

8th June: World Oceans Day In 2008, the United Nations General Assembly decided that, 8th June would be designated as “World Oceans Day”. Many countries have celebrated World Oceans Day following the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, which was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The official designation of World Oceans Day by the United Nations is an opportunity to raise global awareness of the current challenges faced by the international community in connection with the oceans. The oceans are essential to food security, health and survival of life, power our climate and are a critical part of the biosphere. It is also an opportunity to recognize the considerable challenges we face in maintaining their capacity to regulate the global climate, supply essential ecosystem services and provide sustainable livelihoods. The oceans cover about two-thirds of the Earth’s surface. They generate most of the oxygen we breathe, absorb carbon dioxide emissions, provide food and nutrients, regulate climate, and are important economically for countries that rely on tourism, fishing and other marine resources for income. Unfortunately oceans are under threat due to human activity and climate change.

15th June: Global Wind Day Global Wind Day is a worldwide event that occurs annually on 15 June. It is organized by EWEA (European Wind Energy Association) and GWEC (Global Wind Energy Council). It is a day for discovering wind, its power and the possibilities it holds to change our world. It is also a day for discovery of the work that has already begun by pioneers around the world. Wind energy contributes in more than 75 countries around the world, wind farms are in operation, generating energy from a clean and renewable source. Thousands of individuals are involved in the production of energy from the wind, but for many people, wind energy is a mystery. Its purpose is to promote wind energy and its contribution to the global low-carbon energy mix. It is a day when wind energy information is exchanged and adults and children find out about wind energy, its power and the possibilities it holds to change the world.

17th June: World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought The date recalls the fact that the "United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those countries affected by desertification and/or drought, particularly in Africa", and was adopted in Paris on 17th June 1994. EQ Jun 2012

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News

Know whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s happening around the world Good news for Inland Fishermen

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lans are afoot to increase the production of inland fish to three lakh tonnes a year. Presently, of the total 5.97 lakh tonnes of fish production in Tamil Nadu, inland fish

production is only 1.72 lakh tonnes and marine fisheries is 4.25 lakh tonnes. To make available more fish seeds and advanced fingerlings from 7 cm to 10 cm stage, the capacity of fish hatcheries and fish-rearing centres across the State is being enhanced and additional infrastructure created. Catla, Rohu, Mrigal varieties of Indian major carp (kendai meen) and common carp are bred and reared at these centres.

Ministers investigates Dolphin killing

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Peruvian minister has denied claims that explosions used in oil exploration are to

blame for the deaths of hundreds of dolphins. Fisheries Minister Gladys Triveno said a government investigation showed that natural causes were to blame. She contradicted a study by an environmental group which suggested that explosions had caused the deaths. The animals have washed up along Peru's northern coastline since the beginning of the year. EQ Jun 2012

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23

News

Polly bag prohibition not implemented properly

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he Bhojanchal Youth Association at a memorandum to Mr.Jayant Mallayya, Environ-

ment Minister of Madhya Pradesh, has urged that the guidelines given the Madhya Pradesh High Court about the prohibition on the use of polly bags were not implemented due to lack of control on it.

UK risk over funds on development of infrastructure for SWM

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he UK is in danger of building too many waste treatment plants

and could reach over-capacity by 2015, new research warns. A study from Eunomia Research & Consulting claims that if all of the facilities which have been granted planning consent are built and if waste arisings remain flat, then the country will have 5m tonnes more capacity than it requires. The situation will be exacerbated if any plants which are currently in planning or unannounced are also built, or if waste arising continue to fall, as they have for the past five years. EQ Jun 2012

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24

News

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Desilting Mithi for last time: MMRDA to BMC fter repeated squabbles with the civic administration over desilting of the Mithi river, the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) has now sent an

ultimatum to the BMC that it will be doing the desilting work this year for the last time. Both agencies have been at loggerheads for the past seven years over the desilting of a sixkm stretch of the Mithi river, resulting in a delay in desilting and waterlogging in areas around that patch.

Yamuna Project in Jeopardy

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lamming Delhi government over failure to check pollution in the Yamuna river, BJP leader VK Malhotra demanded that the records of Yamuna Cleaning Project be au-

dited by the Comptroller and Auditor General and its report made public. The Leader of Opposition in Delhi Assembly said it was a matter of shame that despite spending crores of rupees and the courts' voicing their ire, the condition of the river has worsened, risking the lives of over 18 million people.

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News

Assam to get two new Highways

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he Union Ministry of Surface Road Transport and Highways has declared two roads of Assam, linking neighbouring states Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh, as Na-

tional Highways. The highways starting from Tinsukia on NH15, connecting Naharkatia and Hukanjuri of Assam and terminating at Khonsa on NH215 in Arunachal Pradesh has been declared as NH315(A) and the other highway starts from Srirampur on NH27, connecting Phulbari, Tura, Rongram, Ronjeng and terminating at Nongston on NH106 in Meghalaya has been declared as NH127(B), an official said.

Japan to help India

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ndia has sought Japan's assistance in setting up more urban transport systems like monorail projects, intelligent transport networks and the Regional Rapid Transit Sys-

tems (RRTS). Japan has already been extending financial assistance for the construction of Delhi Metro. Union Urban Development Minister Kamal Nath, now in Tokyo participating in the India-Japan Business Summit, has acknowledged Japan's assistance in the development of India's urban transportation, elicited more assistance and invited investors to the Indian markets. EQ Jun 2012

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Current Research

Current Research

This section highlights the publication of Indian research work in peer review journalsâ&#x20AC;Śâ&#x20AC;Ś...

Outdoor air pollution and human health: A case study Pro-equity Effects of Ancillary Benefits of Climate Change Policies: A Case Study of Human Health Impacts of Outdoor Air Pollution in New Delhi Published in: World Development, Volume 39, Issue 6, June 2011, Pages 1002-1025 Authors: Amit Garg

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his paper looks at the human health impacts from urban air pollution in India. Such pollution is especially harmful to poor people, so the co-benefits from global climate change policies in terms of reduced local air pollution can have positive equity impacts. Health impacts (mortality and morbidity) of PM10 pollution are quantified for different socio-economic groups in Delhi. The spatial PM10 concentration levels are overlaid with spatial socio-economic data. Improvement in air quality would result in bigger health benefits for the poor. Most measures that reduce PM10 pollutants also reduce CO2 emissions while simultaneously imposing more costs on the better-off.

Need for attention in mining Under-mining health: Environmental justice and mining in India Published in: Health & Place, 17 (1), 2011, 140-148 Authors: Shubhayu Saha, Subhrendu K. Pattanayak, Erin O. Sills, Ashok K. Singha

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espite the potential for economic growth, extractive mineral indust r i es

ca n

i m pos e

n ega -

tive health externalities in mining

communities. We estimate the size of these externalities by combining household interviews with mine location and estimating statistical functions of respiratory illness and malaria among villagers living along a gradient of proximity to iron-ore mines in rural India. Two-stage regression modeling with cluster corrections suggests that villagers living closer to mines had higher respiratory illness and malaria-related workday loss, but the evidence for mine workers is mixed. These findings contribute to the thin empirical literature on public health in developing countries. EQ Jun 2012

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Current Research

Air Pollution: Health Impacts: Economics Monetary burden of health impacts of air pollution in Mumbai, India: Implications for public health policy Published in: Public Health, 125 (3), 2011, 157-164 Authors: A.M. Patankar, P.L. Trivedi Objectives Mumbai, a mega city with a population of more than 12 million, is experiencing acute air pollution due to commercial activity, a boom in construction and vehicular traffic. This study was undertaken to investigate the link between air pollution and health impacts for Mumbai, and estimate the monetary burden of these impacts. Study design Cross-sectional data were subjected to logistic regression to analyse the link between air pollution and health impacts, and the cost of illness approach was used to measure the monetary burden of these impacts. Methods Data collected by the Environmental Pollution Research Centre at King Edward Memorial Hospital in Mumbai were analysed using logistic regression to investigate the link between air pollution and morbidity impacts. The monetary burden of morbidity was estimated through the cost of illness approach. For this purpose, information on treatment costs and foregone earnings due to illness was obtained through the household survey and interviews with medical practitioners. Results Particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emerged as the critical pollutants for a range of health impacts, including symptoms such as cough, breathlessness, wheezing and cold, and illnesses such as allergic rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study developed the concentrationâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;response coefficients for these health impacts. The total monetary burden of these impacts, including personal burden, government expenditure and societal cost, is estimated at 4522.96 million Indian Rupees (INR) or US$ 113.08 million for a 50-Îźg/m3 increase in PM10, and INR 8723.59 million or US$ 218.10 million for a similar increase in NO 2. Conclusions The estimated monetary burden of health impacts associated with air pollution in Mumbai mainly comprises out-ofpocket expenses of city residents. These expenses form a sizable proportion of the annual income of individuals, particularly those belonging to poor households. These findings have implications for public health policy, particularly accessibility and affordability of health care for poor households in Mumbai. The study provides a rationale for strengthening the public health services in the city to make them more accessible to poor households, especially those living in the slums of Mumbai.

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Current Research

Long rate transport of regional pollution in India Influence of regional pollution and long range transport over western India: Analysis of ozonesonde data Published in: Atmospheric Environment, 47, 2012, 174-182 Authors: Shuchita Srivastava, S. Lal, M. Naja, S. Venkataramani, S. Gupta

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our years (April 2003 – July 2007) of ozonesonde observations over Ahmedabad have been studied for the first time using ten days backward trajectories in the boundary layer (lower 2 km) and lower troposphere (2.5–4 km). Ozone data are classified according to the residence times ofair-masses over the NorthWestern India (NWI), marine and Northern Africa/Southern Europe (NASE) regions. Ozone increases linearly with increasing residence days over the NWI region for about six days with maximum increase rate (boundary layer ∼4.5 ± 1.1 ppbv/day, lower troposphere ∼3.4 ± 0.8 ppbv/day) during spring and minimum during winter (boundary layer ∼0.7 ± 0.8 ppbv/day, lower troposphere ∼0.8 ± 0.7 ppbv/day). The analysis of surface ozone over Ahmedabad confirms that ozone increase with residence days is largely due to photochemical build up. The estimated background ozone corresponding to zeroth residence day is found to be significantly lower during summer-monsoon (∼26.3 ± 3.3 ppbv) than winter (∼47.7 ± 3.2 ppbv) within the boundary layer. The air masses mainly influenced by NWI region, marine and NASE regions are termed as regionally polluted, marine and long range transport (LRT) respectively. The regionally polluted ozone is found to be higher than the average ozone during spring and summer-monsoon by 22– 41% within the boundary layer and by 9–12% in the lower troposphere. The marine air shows lower ozone by 38% and 10% during spring and summer seasons respectively in the boundary layer. LRT plays a significant role in the lower troposphere during spring and summer seasons with an ozone enhancement of 9% and 27% respectively. The present work suggests that regional pollution and long range transport have significant influence on the seasonal distribution of ozone in the lower troposphere whereas the background ozone levels in summer-monsoon are mainly influenced by marine air mass over this region.

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Current Research

Sources of anthropogenic pollution in urban soil Discrimination between anthropogenic (pollution) and lithogenic magnetic fraction in urban soils (Delhi, India) using environmental magnetism Published in: Journal of Applied Geophysics, 73(2), 2011, 121-129 Authors: Narendra K. Meena, Sabyasachi Maiti, Ankush Shrivastava

I

n this paper magnetic property of the Delhi topsoil has been used to characterize the potentially polluted areas in terms of magnetic minerals and grain (Magnetic Domain) concentration as a factor of toxic metals and other mutagenic pollutant concentration. The Saturation magnetisation (Ms) and Saturation remanence (Mrs) has been taken as proxy for ferrimagnetic mineral concentration. However, delineation of anthropogenic magnetic fraction from lithogenic (geogenic) magnetic fraction has been done by the paramagnetic/diamagnetic contribution of soil with the fact that the fresh soil contains higher paramagnetic and diamagnetic minerals than polluted. Predominantly, the topsoils of Delhi are dominated with ferrimagnetic minerals (Magnetite and Maghemite phase). Significantly the industrial areas contain highest concentration of the ferrimagnetic minerals with negligible paramagnetic/diamagnetic fraction which leads to anthropogenic contribution. Heavy traffic and densely populated areas of the Delhi exhibit moderate to low soil pollution while green areas show lowest with higher paramagnetic/diamagnetic contribution. The soils in Delhi are dominated with Pseudo-Single Domain (PSD) magnetic grain, though the industrial areas in Delhi show coarser Multidomain (MD) grains in comparison to Stable Single Domain (SSD) in forest areas. Our study reveals that the fine grain particle does not show significant link with higher concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals at least in soils. The presence of the lithogenic magnetite crystal in the forest soil and anthropogenically produced spherules in industrial areas and higher concentration of the heavy metal in Delhi soil strengthen our findings.

New tool for air pollution bio - monitoring SEMEDS: An important tool for air pollution bio-monitoring Published in: Micron, Volume 43, Issues 2â&#x20AC;&#x201C;3, February 2012, Pages 490-493 Authors: S.S. Ram, S. Majumdar, P. Chaudhuri, S. Chanda, S.C. Santra, P.K. Maiti, M. Sudarshan, A. Chakraborty

P

lant canopies act as absorbers of air-borne dust particles. Characterization of the dusts present over the leaf surfaces can indicate the nature of contaminant present in the surrounding area and possible sources as well. Dust particulates get ad-

sorbed on both the surfaces of leaves, however more dust particulates get deposited on the upper surface. These dusts contain many inorganic elements, which were analyzed in the present study. For the present investigation, SEMEDS technique used to characterize the dusts adsorbed over the leaf surfaces. Using SEMEDS the samples were analyzed by two types of methods i.e. point analysis and elemental mapping. Both the methods showed the presence of elements like Si, Al, Fe, Mg, and Ca in the dusts adsorbed over the leaf surfaces. Thus, SEMEDS can be used for in situ air pollution monitoring using tree leaves from the area concerned. EQ Jun 2012

Copyright Š 2012 Eco-Quest

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Event Diary

Do not miss these days Name

International Conference on Technology Management

Name

5th International Conference of Management and Behavioural Sciences

Theme

Engineering & Technology

Theme

Date

18 to 20 July 2012

Venue

Bangalore, India

Research papers related to all areas of Accounting, Banking, Finance, Economics, Management, Business Law, Business Ethics, and Business Education, e-business, Psychology, Sociology, political science, Education, Anthropology, Philosophy

Date

23 to 24 June 2012

Venue

Haridwar, Uttrakhand, India

Organizer Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Science Details

http://www.mgmt.iisc.ernet.in/ictm/ICTM/ Home.html

Name

International Conference on Electronics and Communication Engineering

Theme

The International Conference on Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) provides a forum for R&D and academicians and open to researchers from all types of institutions and organisations, aimed at providing the platform for all

Organizer Society of Management and Behavioural Science (SMBS) Details

http://smbs.in/Call-for-Paper.html

Name

Power Plant Summit 2012

Theme

CII - Godrej Gren Business Centre is promoting the concept of Make Indian thermal power plants world class. The objective is to facilitate continuous performance improvement in thermal power plants and achieve world class standards

Date

26 to 27 July 2012

http://www.interscience.ac.in/Ahmedabad/ ICECE/index.html

Venue

Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

Name

National Conference on ‘Quality sustenance in Higher Education Institutions’

Details

Theme

NAAC sponsored Two Day National Conference on Quality Sustenance on 29-30 June, 2012. Papers/Activities/Best Practices/ Case Studies etc related to the theme,are inivited for presentation.

http://www.greenbusinesscentre.com/site/ ciigbc/viewevent.jsp? eventid=324434&event=dd

Name

3rd INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND EXHIBITION, IconSWM 2012

Theme

3rd IconSWM 2012 will have a conference and exhibition. It has Municipal award competition, sponsoring, exhibition and B to B Scope. Send your Tech papers on the topics of the conference. This is a benchmark international event on SWM. Please join

Date

30 July 2012 to 1 August 2012

Venue

Mysore, Karnataka, India

Date

24 June 2012

Venue

Ahmedabad, Gujurat, India

Organizer I.I.M.T., Bhubaneswar Details

Date

29 to 30 June 2012

Venue

GONDIA (Maharashtra), India

Organizer Confederation of Indian Industry

Organizer Dhote Bandhu Science College, Gondia (Sponsored by NAAC) Details

http://dbscience.org/HEI.pdf

Organizer Mysore City Corporation, Centre for quality management system Jadavpur University and International Society of Waste Management, Air and Water Details

EQ Jun 2012

http://www.iswmaw.com

Copyright © 2012 Eco-Quest

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31

Event Diary

Name

1st International Brainstorming Workshop on Waste to Energy in India

Theme

Taking into account the benefits associated with waste-to-energy option and in view of rising awareness about WTE option in India, Council of Scientific and Industrial Re sea r ch -Na t i on a l E n vi r on m en t a l Engineering Research Institute (CSIRNEERI) in association with Earth Engineering Centre, Columbia University, New York announces to organize an International Brainstorming Workshop on Waste to Energy under the aegis of CSIRâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mission of Wealth from Waste.

Date

24-25th August, 2012

Venue

Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Name

Second International Conference on Advanced Oxidation Processes

Theme

AOP-2012 intends to bring together chemists, physicists, biologists, environmental scientists and engineers to display their latest findings and to discuss potential avenues in both chemical and biological oxidative decomposition pathways

Date

5 to 8 October 2012

Venue

Kottayam, Kerala, India

Organizer Society of Environmental Chemistry and Allied Sciences (SECAS) Details

http://www.ceetindia.org/aop2012

Name

International Conference on Data Science and Engineering

Theme

This conference is intended to take stock of the trends and developments in the globally competititve environment as well as to provide indicators for future directions to researchers and practitioners

Date

18 to 20 July 2012

Venue

Cochin, Kerala, India

Organizer

Department of Computer Science, Cochin University of Science & Technology

Details

http://icdse.cusat.ac.in/

Name

International Conference on Data Science and Engineering

Theme

This conference is intended to take stock of the trends and developments in the globally competititve environment as well as to provide indicators for future directions to researchers and practitioners

Date

18 to 20 July 2012

Venue

Cochin, Kerala, India

Organizer National Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) and Dept. of Earth Science, Columbia University Details

Name

Theme

http://wtert.in/ upload_event_atta/120215054000_Final_Broc hure_on_WTE_14th_Feb_2012.pdf Ist International Conference on Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences (ICMMS) 1st International Conference on Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences (ICMMS) is the premier forum for the presentation of new advances and research results in the fields of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences.

Date

7 to 8 July 2012

Venue

New Delhi, India

Organizer Serials Publications, New Delhi (India)

Organizer Department of Computer Science, Cochin University of Science & Technology

Details

http://www.serialsjournals.com/ conference.php

Name

First International ICST Conference on Eco-Technology and Green computing GreenTech 2012

Theme

GreenTech 2012 focuses on the role of green Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in accomplishing more sustainable and energy efficient solutions in computing and promoting environmentally friendly computer technologies

Details

http://icdse.cusat.ac.in/

Name

International Conference on Advances in Electrical Engineering and Renewable Technologies

Theme

International Conference on Advances in Electrical Engineering and Renewable Technologies

Date

29 August 2012 to 1 September 2012 Puducherry, Puducherry, India

Date

10 to 11 August 2012

Venue

Venue

Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

Organizer Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering and Technology

Organizer European Alliance for Innovation Details EQ Jun 2012

http://greentech.icst.org/show/home

Details

http://rgcetpdy.ac.in/ICETM12/ ICETM'12.HTML

Copyright Š 2012 Eco-Quest

31


The Research League Thinking Together , Thinking Beyond

Its Necessity

EPRI has launched this program to overcome all the challenges for students and research communities

Researchers face challenges in finding relevant literature for research topic, guidance about research work and other activities Indian Researchers are not able to cope with the recent up gradation of international research communities Difficulties in publications (peer review journals) Difficulties in patent and technical report preparation Interpretation of scientific data and data validation Statistical evaluation of data

About the Programme Access to blog and community membership Scientific and technical research knowledge will be provided Knowledge sharing Guidance on research topic Statistical evaluation of data Assisting in paper publications in peer review journals Assisting in technical report & patent preparation Patent filing Interpretation of data Evaluation of research proposal Discount in various conferences, seminars and workshops Free details of conferences, seminars and workshops

“Research League” will bridge the gap between researchers and success stories

Registration Details Registration period

Registration fees

Cavitas

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Crossing the hurdle

6 moths

Rs. 5,000

12 months

Rs. 7,500

Final Frontier

Kindly make payment in the favour of “eprindia” For more details: researchleague.epri@gmail.com

Currently more than 100 researchers are in this league who are reaping the benefit across India and other countries

ENVIRONMENT POLICY & RESEARCH INDIA EPRI, 219, Gopi Cine Mall, Nana Shankar Sheth Road, Dombivili (West) 421 202, Maharashtra, India, Ph: 0251 3192839, 2400405 www.eprindia.com, researchleague.epri@gmail.com


Eco Quest Magazine June 2012