December 21 2012, could it be just another ordinary date or could it be something much more? You might of heard all the stories, myths, and legends on what this date means, it could mark the dawn of a new era or the end of times. 2012: The Ultimate Survival Guide is an extensive book on the subject of survival, Survival from the coming events of 2012 and every major natural disastor mother nature lashes out at us. With the knowledge you will recive, you can guarantee to take action during any major disastor as well as we prepare for the events of 2012.
2012: THE ULTIMATE SURVIVAL GUIDE
WHAT DOES IT MEAN?
2012 THE ULTIMATE SURVIVAL GUIDE JOSE VILLICANA
2012 THE ULTIMATE SURVIVAL GUIDE
2012 THE ULTIMATE SURVIVAL GUIDE JOSE VILLICANA
2012: The Ultimate Survival Guide Book design copyright ÂŠ 2011 by Jose Villicana Published by Jose Villicana for course number GR.330, Typography 3, taught online by Lian Ng in Spring, 2011 at Academy of Art University, San Francisco, CA. Printed at Book1One Book Printing and Binding Services, Rochester, NY, U.S.A. Bound at Book1One Book Printing and Binding Services, Rochester, NY, U.S.A. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electonic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the publisher
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Table Of Contents 2012
An introduction on survival
End of the World?
Mother Nature Can be Cruel
How much can we take
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AN INTRODUCTION ON SURVIVAL The United States and other world governments are well aware of what is coming. They know they wonâ€™t be able to protect and assist everyone, so they have developed self help materials and web sites such as Ready.gov and FEMA.gov. These sites provide valuable information for short-term survival of isolated events such as earthquakes, tornadoes and hurricanes, but do not directly address the real dangers that await us. Surviving the coming events of December 21 2012 is not necessarily like surviving other natural or man-made disaster. You and your family will have to be more proactive and assume more preemptive strategies for long term or even permanent survival. You need to realize that this will be a global event that will effect each and every living thing on the planet. Food and clean water will be scarce and public utilities will be nonexistent, The world governments cannot and will not be able to assist in your continuing wellbeing and you will more or less be on your own. Make sure to take the proper precautions. If you are learning how to survive 2012, there are generally 3 accepted things that you can do to prepare for 2012 in advance. Choose one of the following options when the big day comes: Option #1 - Do Nothing Option #2 - Move Option #3 - Equip Yourself
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SURVIVAL Option one is pretty self explanatory.
If you choose to do nothing, then you
pretty much will go about your daily life as normal, and when December 2012 arrives, you can turn on the TV to watch the coverage of events, but keep in mind that if something does happen you would only have yourself to blame.
Option two is a bit more drastic, and to some people - necessary. With rumors that a Planet Nibiru will crash into ours, that the polar changes will cause volcanoes to erupt - including super volcanoes, nuclear power plants to explode, giant tsunami like waves to emerge from the sea, and other catastrophic events as occurring - people want to get away as far as possible! As Canada and USA are under the pole circle, they are suppose to be one of the worse affected areas. It is predicted that Australia will collapse. Europe covered by many nuclear plants and volcanoes is not an option either. Asia, in particular South East Asia, is supposedly to be affected by major volcanic eruptions and nuclear meltdowns. Asia is also extreme susceptible to tsunamis. Africa surprisingly has been cited as one of the safest continents to live in during this time. With the few fault lines in the earth, and few volcanoes. People are nothing that there is a nuclear plant in South Africa though and one also needs to be elevated 2,300 meters above sea level to be safe, as water levels will rise.
are for those that will call to action. Because moving for some
is not enough, equipping yourself with basic survival skills and tools such as a hunting knife, basic canned foods, water purification system, blankets, first aid kit, tools for hunting and trapping, matches, rope etc. are all necessary for your survival. The will to survive is inside all of us, you just need to reach for it in a dire situation like this. In these situations every second counts, just like a situation of survival. You must have determination in whatever endeavor you would endure. The single most important thing you should do under any circumstances of life or death is that you shouldnâ€™t panic and always keep your cool and never make rash decisions because it could cost you.
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REMEMBER THE THREE MEDICAL FACTS.
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THREE WEEKS WITHOUT ANY FOOD AND WE AS HUMANS WILL DIE.
THREE DAYS WITHOUT ANY WATER AND WE AS HUMANS WILL DIE. THREE MINUTES WITHOUT OXYGEN AND WE AS HUMANS WILL DIE.
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Urban Survival Not everyone can afford the luxury of building and underground bunker specifically designed and equipped to survive coming disaster. Urban survival refers to ones ability to continue living in their own home for extended periods of time without the comforts of modern day conveniences. You will need to prepare yourself and your family to live off of the grid. This means no electricity, no running water, no telephones, no police and fire protection and no going to the grocery for needed supplies. Advance preparation is key to your continuing existence. Please take the time to learn and educate yourself about needed supplies, strategies of basic survival and personal protection.
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Survival Kits Your family will cope best by preparing for disaster before it strikes. One way to prepare is by assembling a Disaster Supplies Kit. Once disaster hits, you won’t have time to shop or search for supplies. But if you’ve gathered supplies in advance, your family can endure an evacuation or home confinement When preparing for disaster, it’s best to think first about the basics of survival: water, food, clean air and shelter.
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Shelter Having adequate shelter is one of the most important lines of defence to ensure the safety of you and your family. A proper shelter will protect you during and after a natural or man-made disaster. In times of civil uprising, riots, looting and possible Marshall Law, it is important that you have a safe and secure shelter in which to store your food, water and other supplies.
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Food Laying in an adequate supply of nutritious, shelf-stable food supplies is the first order of business for anyone preparing for an emergency, As you stock food, take into account your familyâ€™s unique needs and tastes. Familiar foods are important. They lift morale and give a feeling of security in times of stress. Try to include foods that they will enjoy and that are also high in calories and nutrition. Foods that require no refrigeration, water, special preparation, or cooking are best. A normally active person needs to drink at least two quarts of water each day. Hot environments can double that amount. Children, nursing mothers and ill people will need even more. You will also need water for food preparation and hygiene. Store a total of at least one gallon per person, per day. You should store at least a two-week supply of water for each member of your family. If supplies run low, never ration water. Drink the amount you need today, and try to find more for tomorrow.
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END OF THE WORLD? 2012 BELIEVERS We believe cataclysmic or transformative events will occur in the year 2012 Mayan archaeological, mythological, and numerological sources all point to December 21st 2012 as a momentous date in the history of humanity. The Planet and it inhabitants may undergo a positive and physical or spiritual transformation. Or the date may mark the beginning of an apocalypse...
2012 SKEPTICS We do not believe anything significant, transformative or apocalyptic will happen in the year 2012 The idea of a global event occurring in 2012based on any interpretation of the mayan calendar is rejected as pseudoscience by the scientific community. It is also considered a misrepresentation of Mayan history by Mayanist scholars.
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BELIEVERS An impending pole shift will tear the world apart.
SKEPTICS A pole shift is impossible
“The entire mantile of the earth would shift in a matter
Sudden changes in the position of the rotational axis of
of days, perhaps hours, changing the position of the
the earth is impossible. the polar has wandered at vari-
north and south poles, causing worldwide disastar. Earthquakes would rock every continent, massive tsunamis would inundate coastal cities. It would be the ultimate planetary catastrophe.”
BELIEVERS Geomagnetic reversal in 2012 will devastate the planet. Observations show that the Earth’s magnetic field is weakening. Amassive solar flare will trigger a reversal of the north and south poles, destroying the world.
ous times in the past, but at the speeds of around 1 degree per million years. Though there is some preliminary evidence that a relatively rapid pole shift occurred 50 million years ago.
SKEPTICS A geomagentic reversal is unlikely and won’t devastate anything Scientists believe the Earth is overdue for a geomagnatic reversal. the last one was 780,000 years ago. However, geomagnatic reversals take up to 5,000 years to complete, and do not start on any particular date.
BELIEVERS Solar storms will burn the surface of the planet on 2012. A peak in explosie storms on the surface of the sun could knock out North America’s power grid for years, triggering food shortages, water scarcity and the collapse of civilization.
SKEPTICS Extremely unlikely
Solar peaks occur every 11 years. NASA expects a particulalry strong solar one sometime between 2010 and 2012. At worst, solar maximum would disrupt satellite and cell phone not power grids
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fig. 1 Polar Shift
fig. 2 Geomagnetic Reversal N
fig. 3 Solar Storms
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WHAT WILL YOU DO ON 2012? When the moment of truth comes what will you do? Often times doubters are turned into believers and take precaution. You’ve read some strong arguments from both sides and now it is up to you to decide whether to prepare or forget about it. You’ve seen three likely events that could happen on this date, after recent events that have happen around the world it seems like it could be the beginning of the end. Like the saying goes, “only time will tell”
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THREE WORDS IS ALL YOU WILL NEED.
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Clean Air The average human can survive no longer the three minutes without oxygen. In the event of a nuclear, biological or chemical disaster, or after a volcanic eruption, the ability to filter the air you breath and protect your body from contaminants will be vital. Having an abundant amount of oxygen tanks could be a great pre-caution to make to ensure survival.
First Aid Whether you buy a first aid kit or put one together, make sure it has all the items you may need. Include any personal items such as medications and emergency phone numbers or other items your health-care provider may suggest. Check the kit regularly. Make sure the flashlight batteries work. Check expiration dates and replace any used or out-of-date contents.
Emergency Power In the event of long or short term power outages, a generator or alternative power supply can provide you with increased safety and warmth. The key is to evaluate what you really need to power in an emergency and how much power you will need to meet those requirements. All you really need is a lamp or two, a TV, or radio if broadcast is available, the refrigerator, and a microwave oven. None of these items require a large amount of power, but they do if you want to power all of them at the same time.
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Communication After disaster strikes your ability to contact and communicate with other survivors will be vital to your continuing existence and perhaps your overall sanity. In addition, having the ability to stay informed an updated about continuing events will help you better cope with ongoing dangers.
Personal Protection The ability to protect yourself, your family and your essential supplies is vital. In times of disaster, those who did not have the foresight to prepare in advance will use any means necessary to insure their own well being. Although it is not a pleasant thought, you must keep your priorities in order and do whatever is necessary to protect yourself and your ability to survive.
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“2012 is eternity brother. This is the eternity end“2012 of theisline. is the end No brother. one canThis return. of the line. No one can This is forever.” return. This is forever.”
Lord Pakal Ahau
Lord Pakal Ahau
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MOTHER NATURE CAN BE CRUEL Surviving the coming events of December 21 2012 is not necessarily like surviving other natural or man-made disaster. You and your family will have to be more proactive and assume more preemptive strategies for long term or even permanent survival. You need to realize that this will be a global event that will effect each and every living thing on the planet. Food and clean water will be scarce and public utilities will be nonexistent, The world governments can not and will not be able to assist in your continuing wellbeing and you will more or less be on your own. If you are learning how to survive 2012, then it is only common sense to know to survive natural disasters that occur all the time. For this chapter you will learn how to survive during these following natural disasters: Earthquakes Hurricanes Tsunamis Volcanoes Tornados
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Earthquakes Earthquakes are one of the most destructive and unpredictable phenomena of nature. While many areas of the world are more susceptible than others, earthquake potential exists all over the world. Review the following information to assist you with your earthquake planning. Remember a key element of your planning should be the collection of specific survival equipment and critical survival supplies in an emergency kit. While earthquakes may be your primary concern, preparation for other hazards should also be considered in your emergency planning process.
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Familiarize yourself with these terms to identify an earthquake.
• Earthquake - A sudden slipping or movement of a portion of the earth’s crust, accompanied and followed by a series of vibrations • Aftershock - An earthquake of similar or lesser intensity that follows the main earthquake. • Fault - The fracture across which displacements has occurred during an earthquake. The slippage may range from less than an inch to more than 10 yards in a severe earthquake. • Epicenter - The place on the earth’s surface directly above the point on the fault where the earthquake rupture began. Once fault slippage begins, it expands along the fault during the earthquake and can extend hundreds of miles before slipping. • Seismic Waves - Vibrations that travel outward from the earthquake fault at speeds of several miles per second. Although fault slippage directly under a structure can cause considerable damage, the vibrations of seismic waves cause most of the destruction during earthquakes. • Magnitude - The amount of energy released during an earthquake, which is computed from the amplitude of the seismic waves. A magnitude of 7.0 on the Richter Scale indicates an extremely strong earthquake. Each whole number on the scale represents an increase of about 30 times more energy released than the previous whole number represents.
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During an earthquake, take the following pre-cautions:
• If indoors, take cover under a sturdy desk, table or bench or against an inside wall or doorway that is load bearing. • Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls and anything that could fall. • If you are sleeping, generally stay in bed and cover your head with a pillow. If your bed is under a heavy light fixture or you have a large mirror or painting over your headboard, move to the nearest safe place. • Stay inside until the shaking stops. Most injuries during an earthquake occur when people are entering or exiting a structure. • Be aware that the electricity may go out or sprinkler systems and alarms may go off. • Do not use elevators • If outdoors, stay there and move away from buildings, streetlights, and overhead utility wires. • If in a vehicle, stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the vehicle. Avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees, overpasses or overhead utility wires. • Proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped keeping an eye out for road damage and other dangerous obstructions. •
If trapped under debris, not light a match for light.
• Do not move about or kick up dust. • Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing to protect particulate inhalation. • Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate you. Use a whistle if one is available or shout for help as a last resort. Use a repetitive set of three taps or whistles followed by a pause.
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AFTERMATH OF THE HAITI EARTHQUAKE
This Visual Overview of the situation in Haiti gives a perspecticve on the extent of the devastation caused by the earthquake of 2009. The statistics are based on the information avaibable as of February 8, 2009
Thousands of Lives Devastated ESTIMATED DEATHS
HARDEST HIT POPULATION
Estimated Age of the Hardest Hit Population AGES 0-9
50%<20 years old
Already the Poorest Country in the Western Hemisphere PEOPLE LIVING IN POVERTY
HAITI GDP (USD)
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TOTAL POPULATION IN HAITI
HARDEST HIT POPULATION
Relief Efforts TOTAL HUMANITATIRAN FUNDING (USD)
TOTAL HUMANITATIRAN ASSISTANCE UNITED STATES GDP (USD)
$800 Million Uncommitted Pledges
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Hurricanes Hurricanes are a type of tropical cyclone, the generic term for a low pressure system that generally forms in the tropics. A cyclone is accompanied by thunderstorms, and in the Northern Hemisphere, a counterclockwise circulation of winds near the earthâ€™s surface. To assist you with your hurricane planning, please review the following information on this guide for your survival All Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastal areas are subject to hurricanes or tropical storms. Parts of the Southwest United States and the Pacific Coast experience heavy rains and floods each year from hurricanes spawned off Mexico. The Atlantic hurricane season lasts from June to November, with the peak season happening from mid-August to late October.
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These storms can cause catastrophic damage to coastlines and several hundred miles inland with winds in excess of 155 mph. Hurricanes and tropical storms can also spawn tornadoes and microbursts, create storm surges along the coast, and cause extensive damage from heavy rainfall. Hurricanes are classified into five categories (1-5) based on their wind speed, central pressure, and damage potential. Category Three and higher hurricanes are considered major; however, Category One and Two are still extremely dangerous and require your utmost attention. Remember a key element of your planning should be the collection of specific survival gear and critical hurricane supplies. While preparing for a hurricane may be your primary concern, preparation for other hazards should also be considered in your emergency planning process.
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Familiarize yourself with these terms to identify a hurricane
• Sustained Winds - Are defined as one-minute average wind measured at about 33 feet above the ground • Tropical Depression - An organized system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of 38 MPH or less. • Tropical Storm - An organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of 39-72 mph. • Hurricane - An intense tropical weather system of strong thunderstorms with a well-defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of 74 mph or greater. • Storm Surge - A dome of water pushed onshore by hurricane and tropical storm winds. Storm surges can reach 25 feet high and be 50-100 miles wide. • Storm Tide - A combination of storm surge and the normal tide. • Hurricane/Tropical Storm Watch - Hurricane/tropical storm conditions are possible in the specified area, usually within 36 hours. Tune to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio, or television for information. • Hurricane/Tropical Storm Warning - Hurricane/tropical storm conditions are expected in the specified area, usually within 24 hours. • Short Term Watches and Warnings - These warnings provide detailed information about specific hurricane threats, such as flash floods and tornadoes.
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If a hurricane is likely in your area:
• Listen to radio and TV for information. • Secure your home, close storm shutters, and secure outdoor objects or bring them indoors. • Turn off utilities (gas, water, electrical) at the main valves/switches if instructed to do so. Otherwise turn the refrigerator thermostat to its coldest setting and keep all the doors in the house closed at all times. • Turn off propane tanks. • Avoid using the phone except for serious emergencies. • Moor your boat if time permits. • Locate your Hurricane Kits. • Ensure a supply of water for sanitary purposes such as cleaning and flushing toilets. Fill the bathtub and other large containers with water.
You should evacuate under the following conditions: • If you are directed by local authorities to do so. Be sure to follow their instructions and take your Survival Kit(s) with you. • If you live in a mobile home or temporary shelter - such shelters are particularly hazardous during hurricanes no matter how well fastened to the ground. • If you live in a high-rise building - hurricane winds are stronger at higher elevations such as: hills and mountains • If you live on the coast, on a floodplain, near a river, or on an inland waterway. • If you feel you are in danger.
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Hurricane Katrina Destruction May 11, 2007
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comes from the Japanese, composed of the two kanji
(tsu) meaning “harbor” and (nami), meaning “wave”. Tsunami are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. In recent years, this term has fallen out of favor, especially in the scientific community, because tsunami actually have nothing to do with tides. The once-popular term derives from their most common appearance, which is that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Tsunami and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of tsunami the inland movement of water is much greater and lasts for a longer period, giving the impression of an incredibly high tide. Although the meanings of “tidal” include “resembling” or “having the form or character of” the tides, and the term tsunami is no more accurate because tsunami are not limited to harbours, use of the term tidal wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers.
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Before Find out if your home is in a danger area. Know the height of your street above sea level and the distance of your street from the coast. Evacuation orders could be based on these numbers. Be familiar with the tsunami warning signs, because big tsunamis can be caused by an underwater disturbance or an earthquake, people living along the coast should consider an earthquake or a sizable ground rumbling as a warning signal. A noticeable rapid rise or fall in coastal waters is also a sign that a tsunami is approaching. Make sure all family members know how to respond to a tsunami. Pick an inland location that is elevated. After an earthquake or other natural disaster, roads in and out of the vicinity may be blocked, so pick more than one evacuation route. Teach family members how and when to turn off gas, electricity, and water. Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1, police or fire department, and which radio station to listen for official information. It would be wise to develop an emergency communication plan. In case family members are separated from one another during a tsunami (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school), have a plan for getting back together. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the â€œfamily contact.â€? After a disaster, often itâ€™s easier to call long distance. Make sure everybody knows the name, address, and phone number of the contact person
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• Listen to a radio or television to get the latest emergency information, and be ready to evacuate if asked to do so. • If you hear an official tsunami warning or detect signs of a tsunami, evacuate at once. Climb to higher ground. A tsunami warning is issued when authorities are certain that a tsunami threat exists. • Stay away from the beach. Never go down to the beach to watch a tsunami come in. If you can see the wave you are too close to escape it. • Return home only after authorities advise it is safe to do so. A tsunami is a series of waves. Do not assume that one wave means that the danger over. The next wave may be larger than the first one. Stay out of the area.
• Stay tuned to a battery-operated radio for the latest emergency information. • Help injured or trapped persons.
Give first aid where appropriate. Do not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. Call for help.
• Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance--infants, elderly people, and people with disabilities. • Stay out of damaged buildings. Return home only when authorities say it is safe. • Enter your home with caution. Use a flashlight when entering damaged buildings. Check for electrical shorts and live wires. Do not use appliances or lights until an electrician has checked the electrical system. • Open windows and doors to help dry the building. • Shovel mud while it is still moist to give walls and floors an opportunity to dry. • Check food supplies and test drinking water. • Fresh food that has come in contact with flood waters may be contaminated and should be thrown out. Have tap water tested by the local health department.
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Immediate health concerns:
• After the rescue of survivors, the primary public health concerns are clean drinking water, food, shelter, and medical care for injuries. • Flood waters can pose health risks such as contaminated water and food supplies. • Loss of shelter leaves people vulnerable to insect exposure, heat, and other environmental hazards. • The majority of deaths associated with tsunamis are related to drownings, but traumatic injuries are also a primary concern. Injuries such as broken limbs and head injuries are caused by the physical impact of people being washed into debris such as houses, trees, and other stationary items. As the water recedes, the strong suction of debris being pulled into large populated areas can further cause injuries and undermine buildings and services. • Medical care is critical in areas where little medical care exists.
• Natural disasters do not necessarily cause an increase in infectious disease outbreaks. However, contaminated water and food supplies as well as the lack of shelter and medical care may have a secondary effect of worsening illnesses that already exist in the affected region. • Decaying bodies create very little risk of major disease outbreaks. • The people most at risk are those who handle the bodies or prepare them for burial.
The effects of a disaster last a long time. The greater need for financial and material assistance is in the months after a disaster, including
• surveying and monitoring for infectious and water- or insect-transmitted diseases; • diverting medical supplies from non-affected areas to meet the needs of the affected regions; • estoring normal primary health services, water systems, housing, and employment; and assisting the community to recover mentally and socially when the crisis has subsided.
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A Tsunami Dramatization
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Volcanoes Volcanoes are mountains that open downward to a reservoir of molten rock below the surface of the earth. Unlike most mountains, which are pushed up from below, volcanoes are built up by an accumulation of their own eruptive products. When pressure from gases within the molten rock becomes too great, an eruption occurs. Eruptions can be quiet or explosive. There may be lava flows, flattened landscapes, poisonous gases, flying rocks and ash. Because of their intense heat, lava flows are great fire hazards. Lava flows destroy everything in their path, but most move slowly enough that people can move out of the way. Intraplate volcanism has also been postulated to be caused by mantle plumes. These so-called â€œhotspotsâ€?, for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs from the core-mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth.
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Dangers of a Volcano Fresh volcanic ash, made of pulverized rock, can be abrasive, acidic, gritty, gassy, and odorous. While not immediately dangerous to most adults, the acidic gas and ash can cause lung damage to small infants, to older adults, and to those suffering from severe respiratory illnesses. Volcanic ash also can damage machinery, including engines and electrical equipment. Ash accumulations mixed with water become heavy and can collapse roofs. Volcanic ash can affect people hundreds of miles away from the cone of a volcano. Sideways directed volcanic explosions, known as â€œlateral blasts,â€? can shoot large pieces of rock at very high speeds for several miles. These explosions can kill by impact, burial, or heat. They have been known to knock down entire forests. Volcanic eruptions can be accompanied by other natural hazards, including earthquakes, mudflows and flash floods, rock falls and landslides, acid rain, fire, and (under special conditions) tsunamis.
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Where Can Volcanoes Be found? Active volcanoes in the U.S. are found mainly in Hawaii, Alaska, and the Pacific Northwest. Active volcanoes of the Cascade Mountain Range in California, Oregon, and Washington have created problems recently. The danger area around a volcano covers approximately a 20-mile radius. Some danger may exist 100 miles or more from a volcano, leaving Montana and Wyoming at risk.
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A LOOK AT VOLCANOES CALDERA
Volcanoes that is usually formed by the collapse of land following a volcanic eruption
A volcano that consist of two or more vents and width all associated volcanic dome.
Huge volcanoes that built by many layers of lava sheets which form a shield like form
A tall, conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash.
The anatomy of a stratovolcano/composite volcano CRUST STRAIN LAYERS
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Tornados Tornadoes have been reported in every state, and though they generally occur during spring and summer, they can happen any time of the year. While tornadoes can occur at any time of the day or night, they are most likely to occur between 3:00 and 9:00 p.m. There are no areas immune to tornadoes; they have been reported in mountains and valleys, over deserts and swamps, from the Gulf Coast into Canada, in Hawaii and even Alaska. Regardless of the location or time of year, if conditions are right, a tornado can happen. Over a thousand tornadoes are reported annually nationwide, and as our tornado detection systems improve, more are being reported each year. However, sometimes tornadoes will develop in areas in which there will be no tornado watch or warning is in effect, so stay alert for changing weather conditions.
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Before the Storm:
• Develop a plan for you and your family for home, work, , school and when outdoors. • Have frequent drills. • Know the county/parish in which you live, and keep a highway map nearby to follow storm movement from weather bulletins. • Have a NOAA Weather Radio with a warning alarm tone and battery back-up to receive warnings. • Listen to radio and television for information. • If planning a trip outdoors, listen to the latest forecasts and take necessary action if threatening weather is possible. • If a Warning is issued or if threatening weather approaches: • In a home or building, move to a pre-designated shelter, such as a basement. • If an underground shelter is not available, move to an interior room or hallway on the lowest floor and get under a sturdy piece of furniture. • Stay away from windows. • Get out of automobiles. • Do not try to outrun a tornado in your car; instead, leave it immediately. • Mobile homes, even if tied down, offer little protection from tornadoes and should be abandoned. • Occasionally, tornadoes develop so rapidly that advance warning is not possible. Remain alert for signs of an approaching tornado. Flying debris from tornadoes causes most deaths and injuries.
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WHERE TORNADOS HIT THE MOST All The Tornaodo Touchdowns In The Last Five Decades
MOST HIT STATE: TEXAS
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FORMATION Tornados form when two large air masses of varying temperature and humidity collide, with warm air in the lower layers and cold air in the upper layers
The initial funnel, which hovers over the surface, grows from a thunder cloud
If conditions are favorable (temperature swings, wind etc.) a tornado takes shape and reaches earth
GROUND SPEED OF MOVING TORNADO
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When the conditions start to change, the funnel narrows down and starts to rise graduallyh towards the clouds
TORNADO CLASSIFICATIONS WATERSPOUT The most common type
LAND SPOUT The diameter of this type of tornado can exceed its height
MULTIPLE VORTEX Most of these are powerful tornados that cause heavy damage
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HOW MUCH CAN WE TAKE? If you thought that was all, think again! In the previous chapter we only touched a handful of natural disasters. In this chapter you will learn how to survive the last few natural disasters. You and your family will have to be more proactive and assume more preemptive strategies for long term or even permanent survival. You need to realize that this will be a global event that will effect each and every living thing on the planet. Food and clean water will be scarce and public utilities will be nonexistent, The world governments can not and will not be able to assist in your continuing wellbeing and you will more or less be on your own. In this chapter you will learn how to survive during these following natural disasters: Floods Heat Waves Wildfires Winter Storms Landslides Thunderstorms
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Floods Floods are one of the most common hazards in the United States. Flood effects can be local, impacting a neighborhood or community, or very large, affecting entire cities, river basins and multiple states. To assist you with your flood emergency preparedness planning, review the following information. However, all floods are not alike. Some floods develop slowly, sometimes over a period of days. But flash floods can develop quickly, in as little as minutes and without any visible signs of rain. Flash floods often have a dangerous wall of water that carries rocks, mud and other debris that can destroy anything in its path. Flooding can occur when rivers or streams exceed their banks, or levees are breached. Excessive rainfall in a short period may also stress local drainage systems leading to localized flooding. Dams may also fail causing flooding. Be aware of the potential flood hazards where you live, especially if you live in a low-lying area, near water or downstream of a dam.
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Familiarize yourself with these terms:
• Flood Watch - Flooding is possible. Tune in to National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Weather Radio. • Flash Flood Watch - Flash flooding is possible. Be prepared to move to higher ground; listen to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio, or television for important and vaiable information. • Flood Warning - Flooding is occurring or will occur soon; if advised to evacuate, do so immediately. • Flash Flood Warning - A flash flood is occurring; seek higher ground on foot immediately until it becomes safe again.
If you must evacuate, part of your emergency preparedness plan should include being able to: Secure your home or office and If you have time, move important items and furniture to upper floors. Turn off utilities (gas, water, electrical) at the main valves/switches if instructed to do so. Then finaly, disconnect electrical appliances only if you are not standing in water and grab your survival gear.
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Please remember: DO NOT walk through moving water. Six inches of water can make you lose your footing and fall. If you must walk in water, walk where the water is not moving. Use a stick or any blunt object to check the firmness of the ground in front of you before stepping forward. DO NOT drive into flooded areas. If flood waters rise around your car, abandon the car and move to higher ground if you can do so safely. Six inches of water will reach the bottom of most passenger cars causing loss of control and possible stalling. A foot of water will float many vehicles and two feet of rushing water can carry most vehicles downstream, such as: SUVs and trucks
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The Damage Of A Flood
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Heat Waves Heat Waves can affect anyone. However, it is more likely to affect young children, elderly people, and people with health problems. For instance, people with a medical condition that causes poor blood circulation, and those who take medications to get rid of water from the body (diuretics) or for certain skin conditions, may be more susceptible to heat. Consult with a physician if you have any questions about how your medication may affect your ability to tolerate extensive heat. Consideration should also be given to your pet and animals. Ensure they have a cool place out of the direct sunlight to rest. Do not encourage excessive play or work activities for an animal during a heat wave. Make sure your animals have access to plenty of fresh cool water to keep them hydrated as well.
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Familiarize these terms to identify a heat related hazards.
• Heat Wave - Prolonged period of excessive heat and humidity. The National Weather Service steps up its procedures to alert the public during these periods of excessive heat and humidity. • Heat Index - A number in degrees Fahrenheit (F) that tells how hot it really feels when relative humidity is added to the actual air temperature. Exposure to full sunshine can increase the heat index by 15 degrees F. • Heat Cramps - Heat cramps are muscular pains and spasms due to heavy exertion. Although heat cramps are the least severe, they are an early signal that the body is having trouble with the heat. •
Heat Exhaustion - Heat exhaustion typically occurs when people exercise heavily or work in a hot, humid place where body fluids are lost through heavy sweating. Blood flow to the skin increases, causing blood flow to decrease to the vital organs. This results in a form of mild shock. If not treated, the victim may suffer heat stroke.
• Heat Stroke - Heat stroke is life-threatening. The victim’s temperature control system, which produces sweating to cool the body, stops working. The body temperature can rise so high that brain damage and death may result if the body is not cooled quickly enough. • Sun Stroke - Another term for heat stroke.
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If a heat wave is predicted or happening: Slow down. Avoid strenuous activity. If you must do strenuous activity, do it during the coolest part of the day, which is usually in the morning between 4:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. Avoid strenuous activity in the afternoon. Stay indoors as much as possible. If air conditioning is not available, stay on the lowest floor, out of the sunshine. Try to go to a public building with air conditioning each day for several hours. Remember, electric fans do not cool the air, but they do help sweat evaporate, which cools your body. Wear lightweight, light-colored clothing. Light colors will reflect away some of the sunâ€™s energy. Drink plenty of water regularly and often. Your body needs water to keep cool. Drink plenty of fluids even if you do not feel thirsty. Water is the safest liquid to drink during heat emergencies. Avoid drinks with alcohol or caffeine in them. They can make you feel good briefly, but make the heatâ€™s effects on your body worse. This is especially true about beer, which dehydrates the body. Eat small meals and eat more often. Avoid foods that are high in protein, which increase metabolic heat. Avoid using salt tablets unless directed to do so by a physician.
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WHEN DO THE FIRES OCCUR. Number of Fires & Types Throughout The Year
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6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000
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Wildwires Wildfire is any uncontrolled fire in combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or a wilderness area. Other names such as brush fire, bush fire, forest fire, grass fire, hill fire, peat fire, vegetation fire, veld fire, and wildland fire may be used to describe the same phenomenon depending on the type of vegetation being burned. A wildfire differs from other fires by its extensive size, the speed at which it can spread out from its original source, itâ€™s potential to change direction unexpectedly, and its ability to jump gaps such as roads, rivers and fire breaks. Wildfires are characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties such as speed of propagation, the combustible material present, and the effect of weather on the fire.
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If wildfire threatens your home, take the following precautions:
• Shut off gas at the meter. Only your gas company personnel can safely turn the gas back on after a wildfire. • Seal attic and ground vents with pre-cut plywood or other commercials seals. • Turn off propane tanks. • Place combustible patio furniture inside. • Connect garden hose to outside hose bibs. If you have a composite or wood shake roof, place lawn sprinklers on the roof and near above-ground fuel. • Wet or remove shrubs within 15 feet of your residence. • Gather fire tools such as a rake, axe, handsaw or chainsaw, bucket and shovel. • Back your car into the garage or park it in an open space facing the direction of escape. Shut doors and roll up windows. Leave the key in the ignition and the car doors unlocked. Disconnect automatic garage door openers. • Open fireplace damper and close fireplace screens. • Close windows, vents, doors, blinds or noncombustible window coverings, and heavy drapes. Remove flammable drapes or curtains. • Move flammable furniture into center of the home away from windows and sliding glass doors. • Close all interior doors. • Place valuables that will not be damaged by water in a pool or pond. • If advised to evacuate, do so immediately with your survival kit(s). Choose a route away from the fire hazard or follow emergency responder directions. Watch for changes in speed and direction of the fire and smoke
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A Wild Forest Fire
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DIRECT DOLLAR LOSS IN MILLIONS IN THE U.S.
1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
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2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
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Winter Storms Winter Storm is an event in which the dominant varieties of precipitation are formed that only occur at low temperatures, such as snow or sleet, or a rainstorm where ground temperatures are low enough to allow ice to form (i.e. freezing rain). In temperate continental climates, these storms are not necessarily restricted to the winter season, but may occur in the late autumn and early spring as well. Very rarely, they may form in summer, though it would have to be an abnormally cold summer, such as the summer of 1816 in the Northeast United States of America.
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Familiarize these terms to identify a winter storm hazard.
• Freezing Rain - Rain that freezes when it hits the ground creating a coating of ice on roads, walkways, trees and power lines. • Sleet - Rain that turns to ice pellets before reaching the ground. Sleet also causes moisture on roads to freeze and become slippery. • Winter Storm Watch - A winter storm is possible in your area. Tune in to National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Weather Radio, commercial radio, or television for more information. • Winter Storm Warning - A winter storm is occurring or will soon occur in your area. • Blizzard Warning - Sustained winds or frequent gusts to 35 miles per hour or greater and considerable amounts of falling or blowing snow (reducing visibility to less than a quarter mile.) • Frost/Freeze Warning - Below freezing temperatures are expected.
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During a winter storm or under conditions of extreme cold:
• Listen to your radio, television or NOAA Weather Radio for weather reports and emergency information. • Eat regularly and drink ample fluids to avoid dehydration, but avoid caffeine and alcohol. • Avoid overexertion when shoveling snow. Overexertion can bring on a heart attack which is a major cause of death in winter. If you must shovel snow, stretch before going outside and rest often. • Watch for signs of frostbite. These include loss of feeling and a white or pale appearance in extremities such as fingers, toes, ear lobes, and the tip of the nose. If symptoms are detected, get medical aid immediately. • Watch for signs of hypothermia. These include uncontrollable shivering, memory loss, disorientation, incoherence, slurred speech, drowsiness, and apparent exhaustion. If symptoms of hypothermia are detected, get the victim to a warm location, remove wet clothing, warm the center of the body first, and give warm, non-alcoholic beverages if the victim is conscious. Get medial aid as soon as possible. • Conserve fuel, if necessary, by keeping your home cooler than normal. Temporarily close off heat to some rooms. • Maintain ventilation when using kerosene heaters to avoid build-up of toxic fumes. Refuel kerosene heaters outside and keep them at least three feet from flammable objects. • Drive only if it is absolutely necessary. If you must drive, consider the following: • Travel in the daytime, don’t travel alone and keep others informed of your schedule and route. • Stay on main roads, avoid back roads and shortcuts.
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A Strong Winter Storm
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Landslides Landslides or landslips is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows, which can occur in offshore, coastal and onshore environments. Although the action of gravity is the primary driving force for a landslide to occur, there are other contributing factors affecting the original slope stability. Typically, pre-conditional factors build up specific sub-surface conditions that make the area/slope prone to failure, whereas the actual landslide often requires a trigger before being released.
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Protect yourself from the effects of a landslide or debris flow:
• Do not build near steep slopes, close to mountain edges, near drainage ways, or natural erosion valleys. • Get a ground assessment of your property. • Contact local officials, state geological surveys or departments of natural resources, and university departments of geology. Landslides occur where they have before, and in identifiable hazard locations. Ask for information on landslides in your area, specific information on areas vulnerable to landslides, and request a professional referral for a very detailed site analysis of your property, and corrective measures you can take, if necessary. • If you are at risk from a landslide talk to your insurance agent. Debris flow may be covered by flood insurance policies from the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). • Minimize home hazards. • Have flexible pipe fittings installed to avoid gas or water leaks, as flexible fittings are more resistant to breakage (only the gas company or professionals should install gas fittings). • Plant ground cover on slopes and build retaining walls. • In mudflow areas, build channels or deflection walls to direct the flow around buildings. • If you build walls to divert debris flow and the flow lands on a neighbor’s property, you may be liable for damages.
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Recognize Landslide Warning Signs
• Changes occur in your landscape such as patterns of storm-water drainage on slopes (especially the places where runoff water converges) land movement, small slides, flows, or progressively leaning trees. • Doors or windows stick or jam for the first time. • New cracks appear in plaster, tile, brick, or foundations. • Outside walls, walks, or stairs begin pulling away from the building. • Slowly developing, widening cracks appear on the ground or on paved areas such as streets or driveways. • Underground utility lines break. • Bulging ground appears at the base of a slope. • Water breaks through the ground surface in new locations. • Fences, retaining walls, utility poles, or trees tilt or move. • A faint rumbling sound that increases in volume is noticeable as the landslide comes to fruition • The ground slopes downward in one direction and may begin shifting in that direction under your feet. • Unusual sounds, such as trees cracking or boulders knocking together, might indicate moving debris. • Collapsed pavement, mud, fallen rocks, and other indications of possible debris flow can be seen when driving (embankments along roadsides are particularly susceptible to landslides).
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A Landslide In south America
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Thunderstorms Thunderstorms, also known as an electrical storm, a lightning storm, thundershower or simply a storm is a form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earthâ€™s atmosphere known as thunder. The meteorologically assigned cloud type associated with the thunderstorm is the cumulonimbus. Thunderstorms are usually accompanied by strong winds, heavy rain and sometimes snow, sleet, hail, or no precipitation at all. Those which cause hail to fall are known as hailstorms. Thunderstorms may line up in a series or rainband, known as a squall line. Strong or severe thunderstorms may rotate, known as super cells. While most thunderstorms move with the mean wind flow through the layer of the troposphere that they occupy, vertical wind shear causes a deviation in their course at a right angle to the wind shear direction.
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Facts About Thunderstorms All thunderstorms are dangerous. Every thunderstorm produces lightning. In the United States, averages of 300 people are injured and 80 people are killed each year by lightning. Although most lightning victims survive, people struck by lightning often report a variety of long-term, debilitating symptoms. Other associated dangers of thunderstorms include tornadoes, strong winds, hail, and flash flooding. Flash flooding is responsible for more fatalities—more than 140 annually—than any other thunderstorm-associated hazard. Dry thunderstorms that do not produce rain that reaches the ground are most prevalent in the western United States. Falling raindrops evaporate, but lightning can still reach the ground and can start wildfires. They may occur singly, in clusters, or in lines and some of the most severe occur when a single thunderstorm affects one location for an extended time Thunderstorms typically produce heavy rain for a brief period, anywhere from 30 minutes to an hour. Warm, humid conditions are highly favorable for thunderstorm development. About 10 percent of thunderstorms are classified as severe—one that produces hail at least three-quarters of an inch in diameter, has winds of 58 miles per hour or higher, or produces a tornado.
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A Thunderstorm With Lightning
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EPILOGUE Hopefully as you finish this book, I hope you get a better understanding of all the earthâ€™s natural disasters and what exactly 2012 means for us humans and the Earth. As the date comes near, it is up to us to make the choice to either follow everything youâ€™ve learned in this book or simply ignore it. What if something did happen in 2012 what will the survivors live for? The survivors of 2012, will be able to compensate for the mistakes that have been made, like those in the area of ecology. They will have at their disposal an ambitious construction project together with all the relevant scientific information. As a result of that, a paradise-like civilization can rule on earth within a few hundreds to thousands of years, if such an apocalyptic event should occur.
Published on May 16, 2011
Published on May 16, 2011
Name: Jose Villicana Instructor: Lian Ng Class: GR 330 - OL3: Typography 3: Complex Hierarchy Semester: Spring 2011 Book Title: 2012: T...