Julia Norris MA Graphic Design
PICK ME UP
USING BIOPHILIC DESIGN TO SUPPORT A POSITIVE SENSE OF PLACE
“Nature never did betray the heart that loved her” William Wordsworth
Fig. 1: Norris, J. (2018) Close up of a Blowflower (Dandelion)Photograph. Rossendale. England.
Alder Hey Children’s Hospital
Patiently Waiting House of Commons Statistics
Say it with Flowers
Feeling Nature with our Senses
Project 0ne: Dandelion Book Design
Project Two: Reality & Abstract Postcards
Project Three: Matchbox Worry Stones
Project Four: Sensory Postcard Designs
Potential application of designs
Fig. 2: Norris, J. (2015) Silver Birch Trees. Photograph. Finland.
Fig. 3: Norris, J. (2020) Tree Bark. Photograph. Rossendale. England.
Mind Map Nature
Mind Map Project Title
Norris, J. (2014) Weeds on pavement. Photograph. England.
The ‘PICK ME UP’ project began through a desire to improve a patient’s experience. Over the past few years I have found myself in the unfortunate situation of spending time in hospitals and waiting rooms. Which has meant I’ve done a lot of worrying but also a lot of waiting which has given me plenty of time to absorb my surroundings. Waiting rooms are often small, dense and sometimes without windows which can be depressing. Visual displays deemed appropriate to ‘inform’ patients of an illness (they may or may not have) that include graphic photographs and text, though informative seem a little insensitive and can cause unnecessary upset. Waiting times for pre-planned appointments can be unavoidably delayed, preparing for a medical examination or operation, being stripped of everything personal and items of comfort at a time when you’re most vulnerable, can all cause extra levels of stress and anxiety. Research has shown that just looking at nature can have a positive effect on health and well-being. This study offers an exciting opportunity to use biophilic design to improve these areas by providing a connection with nature, provoking the patient to find their own link with nature resulting in a positive effect and improving a patient’s experience.
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BIOPHILIA Humans have a natural instinct to seek out nature and organic forms, this is known as biophilia (Nayar, 2016). Research has shown that spending time in nature can benefit health, mental health, well-being and creativity (Wiking, 2016). Moreover, just looking at an image of nature can have a positive effect (Williams, 2017). In 2019 it was reported that the urban population in the United Kingdom grew to 83.65% (Worldbank, 2020). With this, grew our disconnection from nature and also the loss of its benefits which can have a detrimental effect on health and well-being. Designers have begun to embrace biophilic design and now engineer symbiotic relationships of functional biophilia within the foundations of architecture and interior design (Navarrete, D. et al, 2017). However, buildings that already exist also need to adapt to their surroundings in response to these findings. Especially in areas where biophilic design could aid healing, having a huge impact on health and well-being.
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Fig. 4: Norris, J. (2019) Tree Bark. Photograph. Lappeenranta. Finland.
BIOPHILIC DESIGN In England the NHS has a floor area of over 28 million square metres: that’s ten times the size of the City of London. Many of these buildings are reported to be in poor condition or not fit for purpose. (Edwards, 2011) Here are two contrasting hospitals. Below is Blackburn Royal Hospital opened in 2006. Although there is a window in this particular waiting room it still appears dark and there is no connection to nature. In 2018. Alder Hey Children’s hospital (right) was crowned ‘The BBC Building of the Decade’. Embracing nature by incorporating it within the design of the building. Although this is a children’s hospital, biophilia design is beneficial to everyone.
(Left) Fig.5: Norris, J. (2019) Waiting Room Blackburn Royal Hospital. Photograph. Blackburn. England. (Right) Fig.6: Presonstruct (2016) Alder Hey Children’s Health Park. CGI. (Online)
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Alder Hey Children’s Hospital Roost, a hundred birds by Lucy Casson (2015), is a hundred individually created characters that perch on six meter pine needles hanging in the four storey atrium. Casson also applied these colourful characters in other areas of the hospital from wayfinding graphics, a concrete wall relief, bronze animals, glass balustrades and textile design for curtains in the wards. Sharing stories from experiences in hospital, I spoke to a lady (Anon, 2019) who had a difficult task of supporting her daughter through major surgery. Thankfully the daughter is now well but at the time it was an emotional and challenging time. She explained how they were both comforted by the greeting of animals and bright colours throughout their medical journey. As she continued to share her story she vividly described the walk down the corridor to surgery, explaining how it was full of colour and animals that managed to take hers and her daughter’s mind away from the magnitude of what was about to happen. As her daughter was taken into surgery, mum was directed to a waiting room where she explained it was just a plain white room with some chairs in it. It was in that waiting room that she was brought back to reality, where she was going to sit while her daughter was in surgery with nothing to comfort her or even distract her. Even here, there seems to be areas of the hospital that could be improved.
(Far Left) Fig. 7: Casson, L. (2015) Roost, a hundred birds. Alder Hey. Liverpool. England. (Left) Fig. 8: Casson, L. (2015) A bird from Roost. Alder Hey. Liverpool. England.
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PATIENTLY WAITING The proportion of patients spending over 4 hours in A&E in England has increased substantially in recent years.
Waiting times for consultant led treatment has risen by 44% in the last five years of up-to 18 weeks.
Cancer patients urgently referred by their GP has increased by 26.6% over the past 5 years.
Delayed discharges are 31% higher than 6 years ago meaning that patients are staying in hospital beds longer
causes problems with patient flow and subsequently longer waiting times.
Inpatient and outpatient activity at hospitals in England have increased by 18.7% over the past 5 years. 1.5 million outpatients attendances and 1.1 million GP referrals.
During the past 5 years bed occupancy has risen to 90%.
Carl Baker House of Commons Briefing Paper Number 7281
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Say It With Flowers Floriography, the language of flowers, and “there is nothing that you can’t say with flowers - when you send flowers, it says everything” (O’Keefe, cited in Fone, 2020). Sending a bunch of flowers to say “get well soon” is more than just a nice thing to do. Research shows that flowers and flowering plants in hospitals can reduce intakes of medication, more positive responses, less pain, anxiety and fatigue. Patients have a more positive experience and recovery time is reduced (Sciencedaily, 2008). However, a ‘get well’ gift of flowers have not been welcome in hospitals since 2009 (Bazian, 2009). One study suggests it’s because of high counts of bacteria found in stagnent flower water. Even though there doesn’t seems to be any evidence that flower water has ever caused hospital aquired infections. Another survey found that it was hospital staff more concerned about the practical implications of managing the flowers.
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Norris, J. (2011) Flower in vase on bridge. Geiranger. Norway.
“It is curious thing to observe how almost all patients lie with their faces turned to the light, exactly as plants always make their way towards the light.” (Nightingale, cited in Williams. 2017)
The 1830’s the fear of cholera, typhoid and tuberculosis epidemics saw the idea to construct new parks to improve the health of the population. “A park... would diminish the annual deaths by several thousands, and add several years to the lives of the entire population.” (Thompson, 2011)
Fig. 10: Norris, J. (2019) Trees. Stubbylee Park. Bacup.
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SKETCHBOOK: NATURE MIND MAP
Fig. 10 & 11:
Norris, J. (2018) Mind Map. Sketchbook. Rossendale.
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Fig. 11, 12 & 13: Norris, J. (2019) Research FSDU. MY MA Show. UCLan. Preston
Above are the four postcards designed to invite people to share their experiences.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Using a phenomenological approach, I explored human connections with nature on a personal level. I set up a display at the MA Show in 2019, where there was a good mix of age groups and flowing traffic. The display mainly consisted of an A1 poster and four vibrant coloured postcards. I also created an A5 postcard and a notebook in case anybody had a lot of writing and/or wanted to draw an image. I provided an envelope for the postcards once filled out. I invited people to share their own experiences with nature that they felt had a positive effect in their life. For confidentiality and anonymity, contributors didn’t have to leave their name. I was present during the launch of the research therefore anybody that showed additional interest I was available to discuss my project at length. Something I wasn’t expecting but was pleasently surprised was the amount of people commenting how much they liked the postcards and asking to take a set home with them.
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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH SHARED EXPERIENCES AND MEMORIES
“Happiness in Nature. Working in the garden in different seasons of the year stopping to enjoy a cup of tea with my husband sitting at our garden table watching the butterflies and bees in summer. Listening and watching garden birds digging for worms or collecting twigs at nesting time. Walking in the hills and dales observing the continued changing vistas of colours in the hills and sky. Listening to water movement in waterfalls and rivers or the sound of the waves against the shore. The smell of a rose.” “The beach, quiet, just the sound of waves crashing on rocks and the shore. Reminds me of family days out and calms me.” “The sound of rain calms me and helps me sleep. I have a collection of things outside my bedroom window that make the rain sound louder.” The rain reminds me of my early school days. I remember my first day in school...it was heavily raining outside the school. Even now, whenever it rains, somewhere in my mind, those school days pop in and I feel like a child. Feels Happy.“ “I love the smell of the sand after the rain.” “I love a stormy night - the thunder is calming.” “I love the smell of the air after a storm.” “When struggling with anxiety I often listen to rain forest noises and love walking through the woods scrunching on the leaves beneath my feet. The cool breeze helps to cleanse my thoughts.” “Getting out in nature helps reset my mind when stressed out with uni work ‘smell of autumn’.” “I sit in the rain under a tree for shelter and my thoughts are carried away by the wind my worries and problems disappear as I enjoy the beach around me.” “I love listening to rain when I am in bed in Blackpool/Caravan. When I am outside it is mostly sunny. I love NATURE.” “Watching the rain hitting the window during a storm in France. The odd lightening strike shaking the caravan.” “Waking up to the chattering of birds, the babbling water in the stream close by and the cockerels crowing to mark the new dawn.”
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Fig. 14: Norris, J. (2019) Duck Feather. Photograph. Rossendale.
Fig. 15: Norris, J. (2019) Shell. Photograph. Rossendale. England.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH SHARED EXPERIENCES AND MEMORIES
“I like the sound of thunder and rain on the windows.” “Waking up to the chattering of birds, the babbling water in the stream close by and the cockerels crowing to mark the new dawn.” “The smell of grass reminds me of spending summer holidays playing with my friends.” “Being outside in nature encourages my creativity and it gives me with many inspirations.” “Nature is part of my spiritual path. Being in nature helps me connect to my deities and ancestors.” “Watching dragonflies on the Haslam Nature Reserve.” “Love love the sound of the dawn chorus.” “I’m not generally an outdoorsy person and struggle with hay-fever, however I do find it pleasant when driving in good weather during the summer, experiencing the warmth of the sun and enjoying the sights of nature, greenery and blue skies from the safety of my car.” “I have a lot of plants I enjoy seeing them grow. I also love spending time at the beach it helps relax my mind.” “It makes me feel happy because I can smell lovely flowers and it makes the earth look prettier.” “Hello, love the theme of your project. I have a very clear connection with nature.” “Having a slightly overgrown and rather ‘naturalistic’ garden helps me through bad times. Just sitting out there I tend to watch the wildlife (or watching my cat try and catch the wildlife) helps me put my problems into perspective - and this releases me. Without my garden (my own little and private bit of nature) I do not think I could survive. I find that simply sitting and watching wildlife is better than any drug in calming my soul.” “I like the feel of the cold morning air on my face and the smell of a fresh new day. J”
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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH SHARED EXPERIENCES AND MEMORIES
“To live next to a farm, which reflects a full moon, under the dark sky full of stars, with no artificial light. Heaven beneath the Heavens.” “Fishing, bird watching and scuba diving has helped to see what a huge and colourful world we live in.” “I would like to run along the river which makes feel life flow and the ocean opens my mind not to feel anxious about daily issues.” “I can remember lying next to the river in Appleby when I was a teenager feeling I had the world at me feet.” “The nature learn me how I can think about the route for everything & when I feel and use the nature to understand cycle of life from starting to end. The nature help me to change my mood.” “The best way to enjoy nature is to be still, even in a busy place we are all part of creation so don’t deny it.” “Growing up on a farm and the peculiar smells from the animals remind me of when I wasn’t stuck on a mac.” “Why does the grass on the tops of the hills not need cutting? It’s natures way of doing what it needs in its own time.” “Smell of fresh air on a cold, but sunny autumn morning surrounded by crisp leaves”. “I love frosty mornings when you can see your breath and everywhere is white crunchy.” “Jumping into cool open water, a river or lake, on a hot day - the instantly restorative power of water clears my mind.” “I love the smell of lavender flower, it helps me relax, feel cosy & good.” “Being in nature can really make me feel better and emotional because I feel so free and honest.” “A visit to the seaside exhilarating, calming and the fresh air benefits my health.”
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Fig. 16: Norris, J. (2019) Pebble. Photograph. Rossendale. England.
Fig. 17: Norris, J. (2019) Feather. Photograph. Rossendale.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH SHARED EXPERIENCES AND MEMORIES
“Being in nature clears my head and is a great escape from the busy city.” “The smell of stagnant canal water reminds me of walking the dog down the canal with my dad in the 90’s.” “The wind makes me feel nice and fresh.” “Nice hearing the tweeting of the birds in a morning.” “Love looking at a beautiful sunset in the heat of a summer night.” “I like nature because it makes me feel relaxed when I watch the clouds. Nature makes me happy. J” “Love going for a walk after a heavy day feeling relaxed with a warm sunny breeze.“ “It is nice.” “Swimming in the warm sea with fish running between my toes.” “Going for a walk in the hills is very relaxing.” “Love the smell of the morning dew.” “Grass between my feet, feels amazing.” “No matter what state of mind I am in, cold air comforts me, sunsets heal me and rain makes me feel relaxed.” “When it’s autumn it reminds me of having leaf fights with my family.” “Sunshine makes me happy. Reminds me of holidays abroad.” “Love going to centre parcs in the winter when its frosty and snowing as it makes Christmas more magical for my kids.” “Watching the sunrise in the morning and set in the evening.”
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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH KEY FINDINGS Overall, the experiences and memories that people shared for this study showed that their connection with nature did have a positive affect on their lives. 19.2% said it was a particular smell of nature that made a positive affect: Smell of a rose, smell of rain etc. 19.2% said it was something they could hear in nature that made a positive affect: sound of the morning chorus, rain on the window, waves in the sea etc. 15.8% said it was something in particular they could see in nature that made a positive affect: watching sunsets, dragonflies, birds nesting, seeing plants grow etc. 40% of people mentioned that nature created a positive emotion: calming, restorative, happy, relaxed, and less anxious. Over 80% mentioned one or more of the five senses: Sight, smell, hear and touch although nobody mentioned taste. 19.3% said in particularly that rain created a positive affect.
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Fig. 18: Norris, J. (2019) Landscape. Photograph. Lake District. England.
Fig. 19: Norris, J. (2011) Black Sand Beach. Photograph. Vik. Iceland.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH CONCLUSION
Sometimes being in nature can be taken for granted and the magnitude of health benefits is greatly underestimated. The human connection with nature is essential. Experiences of nature provide people with multiple benefits to health and well-being and also physical health that accrue through the five senses. The feeling of being outdoors reduces stress levels, lowers anxiety, opens the mind, increases positive feelings and help you rejuvenate your mind and body promoting happiness and well-being.
“Without my garden (my own little and private bit of nature) I do not think I could survive.”
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Fig. 20: Norris, J. (2020) Rose. Stubbylee Park. Bacup. England.
FEELING NATURE WITH OUR SENSES
SIGHT Research has heavily focused on vision, maybe because it is usually the dominant sense. We have already covered the benefits of viewing nature in hospitals benefits health and well-being. Also reducing anxiety, reduced stress and shorter recovery time. Colours in nature such as blues and greens evokes feelings of calmness making you feel safe and relaxed and organic lines in nature could also play a factor.
Sounds that are considered most pleasing include water: rainfall, sea, rivers, birdsong, Hearing appears to be the second most-studied of the human senses. Noise pollution has increased in the last decade and chronic noise contributes to stress, annoyance, cardiovascular problems and sleep disturbance. Since noise negatively affects our health and wellbeing, the respite from it found in nature is potentially an important benefit.
SMELL Smell is one of our weakest senses, yet nature abounds in smells from flowers, trees, shrubs, grasses and sea air. Smells can have profound effects on our mood, behavour evoking feelings of pleasure and positive feelings. Plant essential oils have long been thought to have physiological and psychological effects and fragrances have been used for their effects on health and mood. Essential oils have been shown to decrease depression, anxiety, stress and blood pressure. Different oils have been found to have varying effects.
TOUCH Contact is very important for humans but the tactile sense is often overlooked. I was unable to locate other research focused on this matter. However the share experiences showed that there were positive feelings having physical contact with nature: the wind on skin, grass between feet and the cold morning air.
TASTE Another sense that is taken for granted or maybe not considered by some a connection to nature. I did not receive any shared experiences regarding taste, taste is a fundamental sense that can not be avoided. Taste can have a positive affect as eating may reduce anxiety and other undesirable emotions. This could be improved further if the food was natural. Organic foods are perceived to taste better and providing a connection to nature as it’s a reminder of where the food comes from. Having strong links to mindfulness, foraging food would have even more benefits. Learning about health, plants and seasons benefits health on many levels.
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‘Nature-inspired elements that we can see, hear, smell or feel can positively impact our physical and mental well-being and also reduce stress.’ (Nayar, 2016)
Fig. 21: Norris, J. (2019) Dandelion. Photograph. Rossendale. England
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SKETCHBOOK: MIND MAPS PROJECT TITLE
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SKETCHBOOK: PROJECT IDEAS
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Fig. 22: Norris, J. (2019) Sycamore Tree. Photograph. Rossendale. England
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HAPA ZOME Hapa zome is a Japanese Art form meaning ‘leaf dye’. The process involves putting the chosen foliage between material then using a hammer to pumel the foliage until the pigment releases. The natural pigment from the leaves and petals onto the material. On the opposite page are four pages taken from my sketcbook. The top two images show the hapa zome process using dandelions. A lot of pigment was released from them providing a good depth of colour on the material. The bottom two images show the process using a tulip. There seemed to be an explosion of colour released however the pigment released only seemed to colour an outline of the flower rather than where the actual flower was. Although it was a bright vivid red the colour soon faded. Using this natural dyeing technique to release the pigment from the plants is a satisfying process and the images can be beautiful, however it’s very unpredictable.
From the Sketchbook: Above using dandelions and below using a tulip.
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CYANOTYPE The cyanotype process is able to capture the fragile detail in transluscent outlines that could otherwise be missed. Working directly with nature and sunlight is a great was to observe nature. It’s simple, yet satisfying that has endless possibilities. It’s a process that depends on different factors so is very experimental but forever satisfying to see the persian blue appearing through the running water after it has been exposed in UV light.
Fig. 23: Norris, J. (2020) Cyanotype Fabric. Photograph. Rossendale. England.
RAINY DAY CYANOTYPES
Cyanotype capturing a moment of summer, the rain. Mark making with direct rainfall onto paper and fabric, leaving a lovely mottled effect showing the random and unique raindrops.
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FEELING BLUE Using the cyanotpe process with dasies and dandelions to show different stages of it’s life cycle, created beautifully calming botanical prints.
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Fig. 24-29: Norris, J. (2019) Dandelion’s. Photographs. Rossendale. England.
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PHOTOGRAPHY & DIGITAL NEGATIVES Using a macro lens to achieve close-up photos of the dandelion. Combining the two processes using these photographs and creating a digital negative, I was able to create a cyanotype using transparency film.
THE DANDELION BOOK The book showcases the dandelion through stages of its life cycle, using cyanotype and close up photography. There is one image per double page spread and on the facing page is a different name that the dandelion is known by: dandelion, lion’s tooth, piss-in-the-bed, blow-flower, clock flower etc. The original book is bound with blue embroidery thread using a basic Japanese binding technique.
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POSTCARD SELECTION THE ABSTRACT & PHOTOGRAPHIC
The project directly looks at the shared experiences, including a different quote on each of the postcards. My initial thoughts were that these designs could be made into playing cards for patients and nurses, therefore the same image is on the back of all the postcards. Elements of this design represents the experiences in nature that was shared in the research: birds, rain, water, sunshine and plants.
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PHOTOGRAPHIC POSTCARDS These photographs represent the experiences that were shared in the research. Creating different layouts but always including the logo and the quote.
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Fig. 30: Nieuwenhuijzen, N.V. (2014) Zeeland 080414. Acrylic. 100x100cm. (Online)
Fig. 31: Nieuwenhuijzen, N.V. (2019) Summertime in my Dutch polder. Painting. (Online)
Fig. 32: Nieuwenhuijzen, N.V. (N.D.) Golden wheat under a cloud sky. Painting. (Online)
Fig. 33: Rothko, M. (1949) No.3. (Magenta, Black, Green on Orange). Oil on Canvas. Moma. New York.
“I’m interested only in expressing basic human emotions - tragedy, ecstacy, doom... if you are moved only by colour relationships, then you miss the point.” (Rothko, M. ND) Page 64 _ PICK ME UP | Julia Norris
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POSTCARD SELECTION THE ABSTRACT & PHOTOGRAPHIC
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WORRY STONE This project focuses on the anxiety patients sometimes feel while in hospital, which can be magnified by waiting. Rubbing a stone can calm nerves and relieve stress. Worry stones are often collected from beaches as weight, shape and texture changes when washed over time with water. This project looks at making worry stones with clay, then pressing flowers, leaves and shells to make an imprint and a matchbox size container to store it in. This could be developed into making kits, therefore allowing the owner to select the botanicals that means the most
to them. Then
at anxious times holding the stone will also provide memories of where the foliage came from and why they selected it.
Fig. 34: Norris, J. (2019) Dried Seed Heads. Photograph. Rossendale. England.
Fig. 35: Norris, J. (2019) Clay with pressed flower. Photograph. Rossendale. England.
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REFLECTION Adopting a tactile approach to primary research by immersing myself in nature and collecting organic forms. Then taking this approach and leading it into the designs by creating a section for tactility design. Project One: The Dandelion Book created a pick-me-up book that could be placed in any waiting room. If printing again would use thicker paper and an improved tactile cover. The each images would work on theirs own as a large format posters. The book is visual and tactile so only uses two of the senses. Project Two: The Abstract and Photographic Postcard Collection purposely used various styles and techniques. The abstract postcards work better as a set. Again as these are a visual and tactile response other senses aren’t stimulated. Using the abstract images from the postcard on a large scale would create a big impact on waiting room walls and would provide an outlet for patients to focus on. Project Three: The worry stone would make a useful distraction to any possible anxiety and also just nice to hold. Developing it into a ‘do it yourself’ kit would make it more personal. Project Four: Looks at combining these the ideas from projects one, two and three. Representing each of the five senses with respect to research and the qualitative data.
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SKETCHBOOK: DESIGN INSPIRATION
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Fig. 36: Norris, J. (2020) Culumbian Press. UCLan. Preston.
INDUCTIONS At the beginning of 2020 I attended screen printing, relief printing (Lino and etching) and lithography inductions to become more familiar with the equipment and processes used at UCLan. Each process inspired lots of ideas of how to incorporate them within my project. (Top Left) Fig. 37: Norris, J. (2020) Screen Printing Induction. UCLan. Preston. (Top Right) Fig. 38: Norris, J. (2020) Relief (Lino) Printing Induction. UCLan. Preston. (Left) Fig. 39: Norris, J. (2020) Relief (Etching) Printing Induction. UCLan. Preston. (Below Left) Fig. 40: Norris, J. (2020) Lithography Induction. UCLan. Preston. (Below) Fig. 41: Norris, J. (2020) Induction Group Mark Making. UCLan. Preston.
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SET BACKS Due to Covid-19, the complete shutdown of all UK Universities and social distancing made it impossible to see my designs through to completion. Unable to utilise the printing studio I invested in a screen and a few inks and started to experiment with screen printing. Although I enjoyed the process and was able to produce some good results, without an exposure unit I was aware that any finer detail couldn’t be achieved using this process alone. Nobody knew when or if we’d be able to return to the studio I designed digital images with different finishes therefore to experiment and implement once I could go back into the studio.
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Fig. 42: Norris, J. (2019) Rain on car window. Manchester.
LOGO DEVELOPMENT The logo was a long process, as the study progressed with each project so did the logo. The inital double meaning was always the same: a pick-me-up as in something to make you feel better and also something that can physically be picked up. Early designs reflected the botanical experimental processes.
LOGO DEVELOPMENT Evaluating what the logo brought to the project showed how it evolved to reflect how a connection with nature makes you feel so brought another element to the design by making the ‘U’ into a smile. The colour yellow symbolises happiness, optimism, enlightenment, positivity, joy and creativity.
The colour yellow
can be warmth, cheerfulness, increased mental activity, increased muscle energy. Yellow also helps activate the memory, encourage communication, enhance vision, build confidence, and stimulate the nervous system. When combined with black is one of the easiest colour combinations to read. However for the final design jet black is used (cmyk = 0, 0, 0, 80).
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Fig. 43: Norris, J. (2017) A week in a rainbow - green. Rossendale. England
“Colour is such a powerful tool in design. It’s probably one of the single most powerful communication tools, that influences usually about 80% of our purchasing decisions. A vast majority of human experience is filtered through the eyes so a visual cue is extremely important to getting a message across”. (Till. 2020)
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COLOUR Colour evokes memories, feelings, tastes, sounds, emotions, stimulates the mind and helps us feel secure. In nature, colour is everywhere, yet can be taking for granted, in such places of sterile environments, it is taken away. Using the colour is fundamental to the designs of this project. Pink is soothing and relaxing. Tickled pink (Delighted) Red is warming, stimulating and energising. Red’s positive connotations involve love, luck, passion end excitment. Paint the town red (Go out and enjoy yourself) Yellow has the highest luminosity after white. Yellow’s positive connotations include cheerfulness, happiness, vitality, hope, warmth, optimism and serenity. Mellow Yellow (Chilled, relaxed) Green brings balance and harmony. It’s the colour of good health, peace, harmony, fertility and nature. Blue is cool, calm, releasing tension and helps elevate creative thoughts and inspirations. Indigo and violet are cooling, calming and associated with sedation and rest. However they are the hardest colour to distinguish so use sparingly.
SENSORY POSTCARD COLLECTION This study aimed to use biophilic design by providing a connection to nature, provoking the patient to find their own link with nature having a positive effect and improving a patient’s experience. We have found that colour can alter and affect emotions therefore the first instance the postcard needs to appeal visually. Once it is physically picked up, other senses can come into play to create a pick me up, feel better, tactile postcard so an emotional connection can be made, The front of the postcards have visual artwork. On the reverse, there is the usual place for an address and stamp. Each postcard has personalised data: a sentence or two to explain the postcard and what benefits it can bring, therefore the words alone may evoke thoughts and emotions as they are all about improving health or well-being in some way or form. There is also a call to action. Each card also provides contact details for ‘Mind’ - The Mental Health Charity.
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SENSE: HEARING Subject: The Blackbird Nice to know: A blackbird represents knowledge and is considered good luck if a blackbird makes a nest in your home. Benefit: Listening to five minutes of tweeting a day can lower blood pressure, instil a sense of calm and improve your mental health for up to four hours. Design: A blackbird in flight, two musical notes are being held in it’s mouth, coloured red to represent berries. The yellow circle highlights the distinctive yellow ring around the eye and its yellow beak. Added Interest: This postcard has a QR code on the back. When scanned with a phone the link takes you to the RSPB website where there is an audio of the balckbird’s song. Printing Technique: Screenprint. Relief print (Lino)
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SENSE: HEARING Subject: The Robin Nice to know: A robin is a symbol of good luck and to see a robin in flight can symbolise renewal, passion and new beginings. Benefit: Listening to five minutes of tweeting a day can lower blood pressure, instil a sense of calm and improve your mental health for up to four hours. Design: A perched robin, a musical note represents it’s feet. The red circle highlights the robin’s distinctive red breast. Added Interest: This postcard has a QR code on the back. When scanned with a phone the link takes you to the RSPB website where there is an audio of the robin’s song. Printing Technique: Screenprint.
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SENSE: HEARING Subject: The Blue Tit Nice to know: A blue tit represents love, trust and hope and is associated with the arrival of a brighter future. Benefit: Listening to five minutes of tweeting a day can lower blood pressure, instil a sense of calm and improve your mental health for up to four hours. Design: A perched blue tit on what could be telephone wire or a staff for musical notes. A musical note represents it’s feet. Added Interest: This postcard has a QR code on the back. When scanned with a phone the link takes you to the RSPB website where there is an audio of the blue tit’s song. Printing Technique: Screenprint.
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SENSE: HEARING Subject: A Seashell Nice to know: It’s a folk myth that the sound of the ocean may be heard through seashells. The sound is the surrounding environment which is amplified through the shell. A similiar sound can be heard cupping your hand over your ear. However the symbolisation is to remind the reader of being near the ocean and listenneing to the waves. Benefit: Listening to sounds of the ocean may help to reduce stress, create a sense of calm and new perspective. Design: The conch shell laying on the beach, the blue swirl is in the shape of an ear horn connecting the shell to the ocean waves. Added Interest: This postcard has a QR code on the back. When scanned with a phone the link takes you to YouTube where you can listen to the ocean waves.
Printing Technique: Screenprint.
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SENSE: HEARING Subject: Chrysalism Nice to know: Chrysalism is the joy of being indoors during the thunderstorm listening to the rain pattering on the roof. Benefit: The sound of rain is meditative, helping you to concentrate and/or sleep, providing relaxation, calm and comfort. Design: Rain falling on three houses. The house in the middle is yellow showing that the people in that house enjoy the sound. Added Interest: This postcard has a QR code on the back. When scanned with a phone the link takes you YouTube where you can listen to the rain pattering on the window. Printing Technique: Screenprint.
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SENSE: SMELL Subject: Mint Nice to know: Mint symbolises virtue and patience. Mint increases the vibrations of a place and expels negative energy. If you keep it at home, it protects us. Benefit: Mint is rich in nutrients. It may help to relieve indigestion, improves cold symptoms and may mask bad breath. Design: Simply a house with mint in all of its window boxes. Added Interest: The postcard will smell of mint. Printing Technique:
Screenprint. Also mixing mint oil essence
with the ink so the postcard smells of mint.
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SENSE: SMELL Subject: Lemon Nice to know: The lemon scent promotes concentration and has calming and clarifying properties that can be helpful if you’re feeling angry, anxious or run down. Benefit: Lemon promotes hydration. It’s a good source of vitamin C. Improves skin quality, aids digestion and freshens breath. Design: An imagae of a lemon with the double meaning words ‘Lemonaid’ on the front. Added Interest: The postcard will smell of lemon. Printing Technique:
Screenprint. Also mixing lemon oil essence
with the ink so the postcard smells of mint.
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SENSE: SMELL Subject: Lavender Nice to know: Lavender oil is believed to have antiseptic and antiinflammatory properties which can help heal minor burns and bug bites. Benefit: Lavender oil is useful for treating anxiety, insomnia, depression and restlessness. Design: A line of lavender flowers. Added Interest: The postcard will smell of lavender. It also has a hole that can be pushed out so it can be used as a hanger for doors, or if in hospital on beds, especially as flowers are no longer allowed on most wards. Printing Technique: Screenprint. Also mixing lavender oil essense with the ink so the postcard smells of mint. Laser cutting so the postcard can be used as a hanger.
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SENSE: SMELL Subject: Thyme Nice to know: The word thyme relates to strength, spirit and courage - attributes thought to be imparted to anyone who sniffed it’s fragrant leaves. Medieval ladies sowed a spring of thyme into their knights sleeves to instill these virtues in them during travel and in battle. Benefit: Packed with vitamin C and a good source of vitamin A. Helps ward off colds. It’s also a good source of copper, fibre, iron and manganese. Design: A play on words in an illustrative style ‘Give Yourself Thyme’. Inside a heart of thyme. Added Interest: The postcard will smell of thyme. Printing Technique: Screenprint.
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SENSE: SMELL Subject: Petrichor Nice to know: Petrichor is the pleasant smell that accompanies the first rainfall after a period of warm, dry weather. Benefit: Connecting to nature by walking in the rain benefits stress relief and boosts endorphins. Design: Various sizes of raindrops, brightly coloured to reflect the warm sunny day it is following. Added Interest: The postcard will have a shiny finish on the raindrops to make it resemble water droplets. Printing Technique: Screenprint. Following a clear embossing technique for the water droplets.
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SENSE: SEE Subject: Rainbow Nice to know: A rainbow is a symbol of hope and peace. Often appearing when the sun follows heavy rainfall. Rainbows are usually a full circle however we are only able to see the top half above the horizon. Benefit: Seeing a rainbow can give a sense of joy and happiness. They remind us that there is hope and light to follow even after dark times. Design: A full rainbow with a line across the middle to show the half that we see and the half that is under the horizon. Added Interest: The postcard can turn into a spinning top. Printing Technique: Screenprint.
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SENSE: SEE Subject: Landscape Nice to know: Poets such as Wordsorth and William Blake credited a good walk as the cure to writers block. Benefit: Walking in the countryside can help boost self esteem. Natural elements are said to absorb negative energy. Walking through green space can put the brain into a meditative state creating calmness which helps to relieve stress. Design: A leaf repeat pattern using various colours to represent the tapestry of the countryside. Added Interest: This postcard will be printed with thermochromic ink so will change colours in extreme temperatue. Reflecting how the colours change in the landscape throughout the day and throughout the seasons. Printing Technique: Screenprint, experimenting with thermochromic ink
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SENSE: SEE Subject: Buttercup Nice to know: To hold a buttercup under the chin and your chin lights up yellow is supposed to show that you like to eat butter. Benefit: Not to be self medicated but the whole flowering plant is used to make medicine to treat skin disease, arthritis, gout, nerve pain, flu and meningitis. Design: A big bright buttercup with the double meaning words ‘chin up!’ around the top petal. Added Interest: After printing the postcard will be finished with gold foil stamping representing the reflective surface of the buttercup flower. Printing Technique: Screenprint. Foil stamping
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SENSE: SEE Subject: Ladybird Nice to know: The seven spot ladybird is the most common ladybird and a symbol of good luck. If you see a ladybird make a wish and wait to watch it fly away and your wish will come true. Benefit: Ladybirds are great for the garden getting rid of pests such as aphids. Being in the garden where you’re more likely to see them is great for our health too, reducing anxiety, stress and improving self esteem. Design: A seven spot ladybird with the letters ‘GOOD LUCK’. Added Interest: Once printed the wings could be added on and your wish can be written underneath. Printing Technique: Screenprint
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SENSE: SEE Subject: Butterfly Nice to know: The butterfly is a symbol of transformation and the ability to adapt to extreme change. Symbolising strength, vitality and life. If a butterfly lands on you, it is said to be good luck. Benefit: “Watching butterflies provides people with precious breathing space away from the stresses and strains of modern life.” (Attenborough, cited in Shersby, 2018) Design: Two butterflies amongst red and yellow flowers. Added Interest: Two circles can be popped out of this postcard, add a string to each side and spin, the butterfly will look like it’s trying to land on the red flower. Printing Technique: Laser cutting.
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SENSE: TOUCH Subject: Dandelion Nice to know: The dandelion is a symbol of true perseverance. The dandelion is known by many names, one of which is the ‘blowclock’. Blowing the dandelion seeds is supposed to tell you the time depending on how many blows it takes to blow all the seeds away is the correct time. Benefit: Dandelions have many healing properties: removes toxins from the body, boosts immune system, promotes liver function, kills cancer cells, the list goes on. Design: The design won’t really be seen, it needs to be touched. The design is of the dandelion seeds flying away. With the words ‘Make a Wish’ at the bottom. Added Interest: Two of the seeds can be popped out of the postcard enclosed in a circle. This can then be worn like a bracelet or taken with you for appointments or anywhere you may feel anxious. A nod to the worry stone but made out of the love of paper. Printing Technique: Blind Embossing. Laser Cutting.
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SENSE: TOUCH Subject: Four Leaf Clover Nice to know: A three leaf clover is said to stand for faith, hope and love. It is said to be lucky to find a four leaf clover. The fourth leaf is always smaller than the other three. Design: The conch shell laying on the beach, the blue swirl is in the shape of an ear horn connecting the shell to the ocean waves. Added Interest: A star shaped tag can be popped out of the postcard, a wish can be written on the back of the star and hung on a wish tree. So many connections to wishes, it has to come true. Printing Technique: Laser Cutting.
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SENSE: TOUCH Subject: Wildflower Nice to know: Wildflower attract bees and butterflies so a chance to improve and see the wildlife too. Benefit: Planting seeds and watching them grow has many health benefits, promoting exercise, improves mood, relieves stress and anxiety and prolongs attention span. Design: A large poppy, marigold and forget-me-nots. Added Interest: The postcard contains seeded paper that is attached after printing. Printing Technique:
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SENSE: TOUCH Subject: Tree Nice to know: Special relationship between human and trees. The trees being the lungs of the earth and the clean oxygen given to us to be able to breathe. Benefit: Being near and touching trees is good for both physical and mental wellbeing. It is proven to reduce stress hormone production, improve feelings of happiness and free up creativity, as well as lower the heart rate and blood pressure, boost the immune system and accelerate recovery from illness. Design: The rings of a tree with the word ‘breathe’ at the bottom. Added Interest: This card uses blind embossing so the postcard needs to be touched to be appriciated. Printing Technique: Blind Embossing
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SENSE: TOUCH Subject: Daisy Nice to know: It’s a tradtional childhood activity to make a daisy chain. Benefit: Daisies can brighten skin, lower dark spots, prevent saggy skin and effective for healing wounds. Design: Fifteen daisies: there are five rows of daisies on a green background, that once ‘popped’ out can be interlinked to make a daisy chain. Added Interest: Five lines of daisies can be popped out of the postcard, that will interlock and you can make a daisy chain, either to go around your head or around your wrist. Printing Technique: Laser Cutting Fig. 45: Diane A Broad (2013) Daisy Chain (Online) Available from: < http://www. dianeabroad.com/ tag/daisy-chain/> [Accessed 27 July 2020] Fig. 46: The Little Travelers (2009) Daisy Chain Making (Online) Available from: < https:// thelittletravelers.typepad.com> [Accessed 27 July 2020] Fig. 44: Toys Ahoy (2013) Daisy Chains (Online) Available from: < https:// www.toysahoyshop.co.uk/blog/18/Daisy-Chains> [Accessed 27 July 2020]
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SENSE: TASTE Subject: Nettles Nice to know: Nettles evolved stings to prevent them being eaten by animals. Despite their stings, nettles have provided a source of food for humans in the form of soups, broths and teas. Nettles are also used as a fibre to make string and cloths. Benefit: Nettle leaf is a gentle diurectic, helping the body to process and flush away toxins. It flushes the kidneys and bladder to prevent and soothe urinary tract infections. Nettle tea is ideal for sodium water retention and high blood pressure. Design: A pot of tea pouring nettles into a teacup.
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SENSE: TASTE Subject: Dandelion Nice to know: It’s name is derived from French - dents de loin – because the leaves resemble a lion’s teeth which helps with identification. Dandelions are best picked in spring and every part of the plant can be eaten. Benefit: Dandelions have countless health benefits and contain a treasure trove of minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants. They contain more calcium than milk and has more iron than spinach. The leaves contain more vitamin A than carrots. They are very high in antioxidants and contain essential minerals including potassium, folic acid, magnesium, fiber.Contain more beta-carotene than most fruits and vegetables. They have a high amount of lutein which is important in eye health and are a diuretic that can help to cleanse our body of toxins. Design: A bunch of dandelion flowers and leaves with the words ‘Spring Foraging’ in small white lettering at the side. Added Interest: This design along with the other three foraging designs will also be made into a calendar. Printing Technique: Screeprint
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SENSE: TASTE Subject: Wimberry Nice to know: Around the first couple of weeks in August that wimberries or bilberries are ready for picking. Wimberries juice can stain skin so you can end up with pruple finger tips and does the same to your mouth, therefore a Wimberry pie is also known as a ‘Mucky Mouth Pie’. Benefit: Rich in many nutrients and beneficial compounds. They’re linked to reduced inflammation and blood sugar levels as well as improve vision and heart health. Design: Four Wimberries on a bright yellow background, with the words ‘Summer Foraging’ in small white letters. Added Interest: This design along with the other three foraging designs will also be made into a calendar. Printing Technique: Screeprint
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SENSE: TASTE Subject: Heather Nice to know: The dried flowerheads make good tea. Nectar from heather flowers makes excellent honey, and local beekeepers often bring their hives on to the moors in late-summer when the heather comes into bloom. Benefit: Beneficial for coughs, colds, bladder and kidney disorders, cystitis, rheumatism, arthritis, gout, insomnia, menstrual discomfort, menopause, nervous exhaustion and wounds Design: A minimal design of a small part of the heather. Added Interest: This design along with the other three foraging designs will also be made into a calendar. Printing Technique: Screenprint
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SENSE: TASTE Subject: Mushrooms Nice to know: In English folklore, fairy rings were caused by fairies or elves dancing in a circle. There is also belief that they bring good luck and a sign of a fairy village underground. Benefit: All types of edible mushrooms contain varying degrees of protein and fibre. They also contain B vitamins as well as a powerful antioxidant called selenium, which helps to support the immune system and prevent damage to cells and tissues. Design: A two colour design. A collection of mushroom in a circle to represent a fairy ring. With the words ‘Winter Foraging’ in small white letters. Added Interest: This design along with the other three foraging designs will also be made into a calendar. Printing Technique: Screenprint.
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SENSORY POSTCARD COLLECTION
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HOSPITAL WAITING ROOMS The sensory postcards can be placed in the waiting rooms, displayed on the wall or in a book to place on tables dotted around. This gives each patient the opportunity to interact with the postcards.
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HOSPITAL CORRIDORS The majority of the designs also work in poster form, providing interest and links to nature on the journey through the hospital.
HOSPITAL WARDS The postcards can be given as a gift to patients during their hospital stay. As there is limited space around a hospital bed, the postcards can be displayed on a hanging mobile allowing the patient to benefit whilst laying in bed. The lavender postcard in particular is designed for the hospital bed as it can be used as a hanger and hung on the bed itself. The lavender aroma can also aid sleep and relaxation.
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Fig. 47: Norris, J. (2020) Sun through the trees. Photograph. Rossendale. England
References Bazian (2009) ‘You don’t bring me flowers anymore’ (Online) Available from: < https://www.nhs.uk/news/medicalpractice/you-dont-bring-me-flowers-anymore/> [Accessed 15 May 2020] Denzn, N. & Lincoln, Y. (2014) Handbook of qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications Inc. Edwards, N. (2011) NHS buildings: obstacle or opportunity? (Online) Available from: <www.kingsfund.org.uk/think> [Accessed 25 April 2019] Fone, M. (2020) Curious Question: Why do we say it with flowers? (Online) Available from: <https://www.countrylife. co.uk/gardens/curious-questions-why-do-we-say-it-with-flowers-211532> [Accessed 15 May 2020] House of Commons. Baker, C. (2020) NHS Key Statistics: England February 2020. CBP-7281 (Online) Available from: <www.statista.com> [Accessed 26 March 2020] McLeod, J. (2006) Colours of the Soul. John Hunt. Hants Navarrete, D. A, Witherspoon, B & Witherspoon, S. (2017) The Restorative Impact of Perceived Open Spaces. [Online] Available from: < https://www.skyfactory.com.au/files/The-Restorative-Impact-of-Perceived-Open-Space_102017.pdf> [Accessed 7 March 2019) Nayar, J. (2016) Natural Healing with Biophilia. (Online) Available from: <https://blog.interface.com/naturalhealing-with-biomimicry/> [Accessed 7 March 2019] Science Daily (2008) Flowering plants Speed Post-surgery Recovery. (Online) Available from: <https://www. sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/081229104700.htm. [Accessed 15 May 2020)Shersby, M. (2018) Attenborough says “watching butterflies is good for you”. (Online) Available from: < https://www.discoverwildlife.com/news/ attenborough-says-watching-butterflies-is-good-for-you/> [Accessed July 2020) Thompson C.W. (2011) Linking landscape and health: The recurring theme. Landscape & Urban Planning. 99(3-4) 187– 195. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2010.10.006. Till, F. (2020) The Colour Futures Sessions. Organic Matters. (Online) Available from: <https://www.gfsmith.com/ the-colour-futures-sessions> [Accessed 7 August 2020] Wiking, M. (2016) The Little Book Of Hygge. Printer Trento. Italy. Williams, F. (2017) The Nature Fix: Why nature makes us happier, healthier, and more creative. W.W. Norton & Company Ltd. London. World Bank (2020) Urban Population (Online) Available from: <https://tradingeconomics.com/united-kingdom/urbanpopulation-percent-of-total-wb-data.html> [Accessed Sep 2020]
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Plates Fig. 1: Norris, J. (2018) Close up of a Blowflower (Dandelion)Photograph. Rossendale. England. Fig. 2: Norris, J. (2015) Silver Birch Trees. Photograph. Finland. Fig. 3: Norris, J. (2020) Tree Bark. Photograph.Rossendale. England. Fig. 4: Norris, J. (2019) Tree Bark. Photograph. Lappeenranta. Finland. Fig.5: Norris, J. (2019) Waiting Room Blackburn Royal Hospital.Photograph. Blackburn. England. Fig.6: Presonstruct (2016) Alder Hey Children’s Health Park. CGI. (Online) Fig. 7: Casson, L. (2015) Roost, a hundred birds. Alder Hey. Liverpool. England. Fig. 8: Casson, L. (2015) A bird from Roost. Alder Hey. Liverpool. England. Fig. 9: Norris, J. (2011) Flower in vase on bridge. Geiranger. Norway. Fig. 10: Norris, J. (2019) Trees in the Park. Stubbylee Park. Bacup. Fig. 11, 12 & 13: Norris, J. (2019) Research FSDU. MY MA Show. UCLan. Preston Fig. 14: Norris, J. (2019) Duck Feather. Photograph. Rossendale. England. Fig. 15: Norris, J. (2019) Shell. Photograph. Rossendale. England. Fig. 16: Norris, J. (2019) Pebble. Photograph. Rossendale. England. Fig. 17: Norris, J. (2019) Feather. Photograph. Rossendale. England. Fig. 18: Norris, J. (2019) Landscape. Photograph. Lake District. England. Fig. 19: Norris, J. (2011) Black Sand Beach. Photograph. Vik. Iceland. Fig. 20: Norris, J. (2020) Rose. Stubbylee Park. Bacup. England Fig. 21: Norris, J. (2019) Dandelion. Photograph. Rossendale. England Fig. 22: Norris, J. (2019) Sycamore Tree. Photograph. Rossendale. England Fig. 23: Norris, J. (2020) Cyanotype Fabric. Photograph. Rossendale. England. Page 81 _ PICK ME UP | Julia Norris Fig. 24-29: Norris, J. (2019) Dandelion’s. Photographs. Rossendale. England. Fig. 30: Nieuwenhuijzen, N.V. (2014) Zeeland 080414. Acrylic. 100x100cm. (Online) Available from: < https:// www.saatchiart.com/NellyVanNieuwenhuijzen> [Accessed April 2019] Fig. 31: Nieuwenhuijzen, N.V. (2019) Summertime in my Dutch polder. Painting. (Online) Available from: < https://www.saatchiart.com/NellyVanNieuwenhuijzen> [Accessed April 2019] Fig. 32: Nieuwenhuijzen, N.V. (N.D.) Golden wheat under a cloud sky. Painting. (Online) Available from: < https://www.saatchiart.com/NellyVanNieuwenhuijzen> [Accessed April 2019] Fig. 33: Rothko, M. (1949) No.3. (Magenta, Black, Green on Orange). Oil on Canvas. Moma. New York. Fig. 34: Norris, J. (2019) Dried Seed Heads. Photograph. Rossendale. England. Fig. 35: Norris, J. (2019) Clay with pressed flower. Photograph. Rossendale. England. Fig. 36: Norris, J. (2020) Culumbian Press. UCLan. Preston. Fig. 37: Norris, J. (2020) Screen Printing Induction. UCLan. Preston. Fig. 38: Norris, J. (2020) Relief (Lino) Printing Induction. UCLan. Preston. Fig. 39: Norris, J. (2020) Relief (Etching) Printing Induction. UCLan. Preston. Fig. 40: Norris, J. (2020) Lithography Induction. UCLan. Preston. Fig. 41: Norris, J. (2020) Induction Group Mark Making. UCLan. Preston. Fig. 42: Norris, J. (2019) Rain on car window. Manchester. England Fig. 43: Norris, J. (2017) A week in a rainbow - green. Rossendale. England Fig. 44: Toys Ahoy (2013) Daisy Chains (Online) Available from: < https://www.toysahoyshop.co.uk/blog/18/ Daisy-Chains> [Accessed 27 July Fig. 45: Diane A Broad (2013) Daisy Chain (Online) Available from: < http://www.dianeabroad.com/tag/daisychain/> [Accessed 27 July 2020] 2020] Fig. 47: Norris, J. (2020) Sun through the trees. Photograph. Rossendale. England. Fig. 48: Norris, J. (2019) Tree in bloom. Photograph. Lake District. England. Fig. 49: Norris, J. (2019) Dandelion Seed. Photograph. Rossendale. England.
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Fig. 48: Norris, J. (2019) Tree in bloom. Photograph. Lake District. England.
MAKE A WISH
Fig. 49: Norris, J. (2019) Dandelion Seed. Photograph. Rossendale. England.
Acknowledgements Jane Souyave
MA, FHEA, PGCE | Senior Lecturer | University of
Central Lancashire Those who spared their time to contribute to qualititive research that inspired ideas for the study. Qualitative Research UCLan Preston MA Exhibition & Qualitative Research Childrens Entertainment Venue Royal Blackburn Hospital (ENT Department) for allowing me to photograph waiting rooms. All family and friends that have supported me not just throughout this project but in everything I do.
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