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Arches, Domes & Shells Arches -‐ Curved structures for spanning an opening, designed to support a vertical load primarily by axial compression -‐ Transform the vertical forces of a supported load into inclined components and transmit them to abutments on either side of the archway
Figure 1 Arches roof (chestofbooks.com)
Figure 3 dome type of construction (blog.lib.umn.edu) Figure 2 Arches force diagram
Domes -‐ A dome is a spherical surface structure having a circular plan and constructed of stacked blocks, a continuous rigid material like reinforced concrete, or of short, linear elements, as in the case of a geodesic dome. -‐ Similar to a rotated arch except that circumferential forces are developed that are compressive near the crown and tensile in the lower portion.
Figure 4 dome drawing
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Shells -‐ Thin, curved plate structures typically constructed of reinforced concrete -‐ Shaped to transmit applied forces by membrane stresses -‐ Compressive, tensile, shear stresses acting in the plane of their surfaces -‐ Can sustain relatively large forces if uniformly applied because its thinness, however, a shell has little bending resistance and is unsuitable for concentrated loads
Figure 5 shell type of structure (www.dezeen.com)
Figure 6 shell drawing
Detailing for heat and moisture For water to penetrate into a building, there are three conditions to meet: -‐ An opening -‐ Water present at the opening -‐ A force to move water through the opening To prevent the water penetrating into a building: -‐ Remove openings -‐ Keep water away from openings -‐ Neutralize the forces that move water through openings
Figure 8 detailing for moisture drawings
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Figure 7 detailing for moisture (lgsquaredinc.com)
Openings -‐ Planned: elements such as windows, doors, skylights -‐ Unplanned: poor construction workmanship -‐ Deterioration of materials Common techniques used to remove openings to prevent water penetration include seal the openings with: -‐ Sealants (e.g. silicone) -‐ Gaskets (e.g. preformed shapes made from artificial rubbers etc.) -‐ Both examples are heavily on correct installation and will deteriorate over time due to weathering.
Figure 9 unplanned opening (builtenv.wordpress.com)
Figure 10 unplanned opening drawing
Keeping water from openings It means that water is directed away from any potential openings in the building: -‐ Grading (sloping) roofs so that the water is collected in gutters which then discharge the water to downpipes and storm water systems -‐ Overlapping cladding and roofing elements and roof tiles -‐ Sloping window and door sills and roof/wall flashings -‐ Sloping the ground surface away from the walls at the base of buildings
Figure 11 keep water from openings (ching)
Figure 12 gutter to keep water from openings (www.orionrestoration.com)
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Neutralising the forces The most secure strategies for keeping water out of buildings are those based on neutralizing the forces which move water. The forces to be considered as: -‐ Gravity -‐ Surface tension and capillary action -‐ Momentum -‐ Air pressure differential
-‐ -‐ -‐
Figure 14 water out from gutter (www.orionrestoration.com)
Figure 13 neutralising the forces (ching)
Typically use slopes and overlaps to carry water away from the building using the force of gravity Use a drip or a break between surfaces to prevent water clinging to the underside of surface (such as a window sill or parapet capping) Gaps and breaks prevent water reaching and entering openings because the surface tension of the water is broken at the drip/ gap location. The capillary action movement of the water stops and the water is released in drop form
Momentum: windblown rain, moisture and snow can move through simple gaps To inhibit this movement, the gaps are often constructed in more complex fabyrinth shapes The complex shape shows the momentum of the moisture and helps to deflect the water away from the gap entry
Air pressure differential strategies -‐ Water can be moved through a complex labyrinth with gusts of wind if there is a difference in the air pressure between the outside and inside. -‐ Pumped from the high pressure to the low pressure Rain screen assemblies: -‐ Air barrier is introduced on the internal side of the labyrinth, a ventilated and drained pressure equalization chamber is created -‐ Then, water is no longer pumped to the inside of the assembly Ju Hyun Son-‐354978 5
Controlling heat: Heat gain/ heat loss -‐ Conducted through the building envelope -‐ The building envelope and building elements are subjected to radiant heat sources -‐ Thermal mass is used to regulate the flow of heat through the building envelope -‐ Effective control will save energy Controlling heat-‐ conduction: -‐ Thermal insulation to reduce heat conduction -‐ Thermal breaks made from low conductive materials like rubbers and plastics to reduce the heat transfer from outside to inside -‐ Double glazing or triple glazing so that the air spaces between glass panes reduces the flow of heat through the glazed elements
Figure 15 thermal insulation method (www.amitygroup.co.uk)
Figure 17 radiation definition (www.jamesrobertshaw.co.uk)
Figure 16 sustainable heat transfer in a building
Radiation It can be controlled by: -‐ Reflective surfaces: such as low-‐e glass, reflective materials to reduce building elements from becoming warm/ hot -‐ Shading systems like verandahs, eaves, solar shelves, blinds, screens and vegetation to prevent radiation striking the building envelope
Figure 18 radiation controlling drawing
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Thermal mass Large areas of exposed thermal mass can be used to absorb and store heat over a period of time. When temperature drops, the stored heat is released. This system works well when there are large differences in temperatures between day and night. Materials for thermal mass: -‐ Masonry -‐ Concrete -‐ Water bodies Controlling air leakage Airtight detailing is similar to watertight detailing: -‐ An opening -‐ Air present at the opening -‐ A force to move air through the opening Air will move through the building and the spaces will become drafty in cold weather, uncomfortable and it will be difficult to maintain adequate levels of heating because air is leaking out of the building envelope. Air leakage includes: -‐ Eliminating any one of the causes
Wrapping the building in polyethylene or reflective foil sarking to provide an air barrier weather stripping around doors and windows and other openings
Figure 20 forces causing air leakage
Figure 19 air leakage (ching)
Figure 21 examples of air leakage (airtestingsolutions.co.uk)
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LOGBOOK Rubber -‐ Hardness: harder rubbers resist abrasion, softer rubbers provide better seals -‐ Fragility: low. Generally will not shatter or break -‐ Ductility: high when in heated state. Varied in cold state -‐ Flexibility/ plasticity: high flexibility, plasticity and elasticity -‐ Porosity/ permeability: all rubbers are considered waterproof -‐ Density: approx. 1.5 times density of water -‐ Conductivity: very poor conductors of heat and electricity -‐ Durability/ life span: can very durable -‐ Reusability/ recyclability: high -‐ Sustainability & carbon footprint: embodied energy varies greatly between natural rubber and synthetic rubbers. Renewable if correctly managed -‐ Cost generally cost effective Commonly used in: -‐ Seals -‐ Gaskets & control joints
-‐ Flooring -‐ Insulation -‐ Hosing & pipoing Main types: -‐ EPDM: mainly used in gaskets and control joints -‐ Neoprene: mainly used in control joints -‐ Silicone: seals Weather related damage -‐ Can lose their properties when exposed to weather especially sunlight -‐ To protect the material, avoid or minimize sun exposure when it is possible
Figure 22 rubber material (e-‐learning)
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Moisture & thermal expansion Flashing refers to thin continuous pieces of sheet metal or other impervious material installed to prevent the passage of water into a structure from an angle or joint. -‐ Exposed or concealed -‐ Usually a sheet metal, such as aluminum, copper, painted galvanized steel, stainless steel, zinc alloy, terne metal, or copper-‐ clad lead -‐ Provide expansion joints on long runs to prevent deformation of the metal sheets -‐ Aluminum and lead react chemically with cement mortar -‐ Some flashing materials can deteriorate with exposure to sunlight
Figure 23 thermal expansion (ching)
Thermoplastics: mouldable when heated and become solid again when cooled. Can be recycled. -‐ Polyethelyne -‐ Polymethyl methacrylate -‐ Polyvinyl chloride -‐ Polycarbonate
Figure 24 thermal expansion crack in brick(inspectapedia.com)
Plastics It is made from elements such as: -‐ Carbon, silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and chloride combined by chemical reactions into monomers -‐ Combine with each other to form polymers -‐ Polymers are ong chains of monomers that make the substances we call plastics
Figure 25 polyethelyne, polycarbonate, perspex (e-‐learning)
Thermoplastic can only be shaped once -‐ Melamide formaldehyde (laminex) widely used for finishing surfaces -‐ Polystyrene (slyrene): mostly used in insulation panels
Figure 26 Extruded polystyrene (e-‐learning)
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Elastomers (synthetic rubbers): refer to separate e-‐module -‐ EPDM -‐ Neoprene -‐ Silicone Properties of plastic -‐ Hardness: med. To low. Depending on type -‐ Fragility: low to med. Generally will not shatter or break. Sunlight and high temperatures can degradate some plastics quite quickly. Can be fragile in degraded state -‐ Ductility: high when in heated state. Varied in cold state -‐ Flexibility/ plasticity: high flexibility and plasticity -‐ Porosity/ permeability: many plastics are waterproof -‐ Density: low 0.65 times density of water for polypropylene to 1.5 times for pvc -‐ Conductivity: very poor conductors of heat and electricity -‐ Durability/ life span: can very durable. Varies depending on type, finishing and fixing
Reusability/ recyclability: high for thermoplastics and elastomers/ very limited for thermosetting plastics Sustainability & carbon footprint: embodied energy varies greatly between recycled and not recycled. Plastics are petrochemical derives so not a renewable resource Cost: generally cost effective
Plastics degrade when exposed to weather especially sunlight and need to be checked and maintained. To prevent and manage the plastic, avoid or minimize sun exposure. Some plastics have very high expansion/ contraction coefficients.
Figure 27 plastic waste/ failure (e-‐learning)
Paints Components: -‐ Binder: the film-‐forming component of the paint (polyurethanes, polyesters, resins, epoxy, oils) -‐ Diluent: dissolves the apint and adjust its viscosity (alcohol, ketones, petroleum distillate, esters) -‐ Pigment: gives the paint its colour and opacity. Can be natural (clays, talcs, calcium carbonate, silicas) or synthetic
Figure 28 painted building (e-‐learning)
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LOGBOOK Paints-‐ types & uses 1. Oil based -‐ Used prior to plastic paints (water based) -‐ Very good high glass finishes can be achieved -‐ Not water soluble (brushed to be cleaned with turpentine) 2. Water based -‐ Most common today (except where particular finishes are desired) -‐ Durable and flexible -‐ Tools and brushes can be cleaned with water Properties of plastics: wide range depending on type: -‐ Colour consistency: should resist fading, especially when outside in ultra-‐violet light, red dyes tend to be less stable in sunlight -‐ Durability: need to resist chipping, cracking and peeling. Exterior painted surfaces have to resist the effect of rain. Air pollution and the ultra violet light in sunlight. Newer paint technologies such as powder
coating and PVF2 are harder and more durable Gloss: surface finishes can range from matt through to gloss: Flexibility/ plasticity: water based latex paint is more flexible than oil based paint. Gloss-‐ surface finishes can range from matt through to gloss.
Figure 29 painting process on the wall (prestigepaintingco.com)
No activity this week
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LOGBOOK Glossary 1. Drip -‐ is a form of abstract art in which paint is dripped or poured onto the canvas. 2. Vapour barrier -‐ is any material used for damp proofing, typically a plastic or foil sheet, that resists diffusion of moisture through wall, ceiling and floor assemblies of buildings and of packaging. 3. Gutter -‐ a narrow through or duct which collects rainwater from the roof of a building and diverts it away from the structure, typically into a drain. 4. Parapet -‐ is a barrier which is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, terrace, balcony, walkway or other structure. 5. Down pipe -‐ is also known as downspout, waterspout, drain spout, roof drain pipe, leader, or rone. It is a pipe for carrying rainwater from a rain gutter.
6. Flashing -‐ is also known as weatherproofing. It refers to thin pieces of impervious material installed to prevent the passage of water into a structure from a joint or as part of a weather resistant barrier (WRB) system. 7. Insulation -‐ refers broadly to any object in a building used as insulation for any purpose. While the majority of insulation in buildings is for thermal purposes, the term also applies to acoustic insulation, fire insulation, and impact insulation. 8. Sealant -‐ may be viscous material that has little or no flow characteristics and stay where they are applied or thin and runny so as to allow it to penetrate the substrate by means of capillary action.
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Geometry and moment of inertia The efficiency of a beam is increased by configuring the cross section to provide the required moment of inertia or section modulus with the smallest possible area, usually by making the section deep with most of the material at the extremities where the maximum bending stresses occur. -‐ Momentum of inertia is the sum of the products of each element of an area and the square of its distance from a coplanar axis of rotation -‐ Geometry property that indicates how the cross-‐sectional area of a structural member is distributed and does not reflect the intrinsic physical properties of a material -‐ Defined as the moment of inertia of the section divided by the distance from the neutral axis to the most remote surface
Doors & windows
Figure 30 examples of the moment of inertia of the beam (www.boeingconsult.com)
Figure 32 door frame terminology (ching)
Figure 31 momentum of inertia on the beam diagram
Figure 33 Door leaf (ching)
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Figure 34 Window & window frame terminology (ching)
Figure 35 window head details
Figure 36 examples of different types of windows (plus.google.com)
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LOGBOOK Glass Components -‐ Formers: the basic ingredient used to produce glass. Any chemical compound that can be melted and cooled into a class is a former -‐ Fluxes: help formers to melt at lower and more practical temperatures -‐ Stabilizers: combine with formers & fluxes to keep the finished glass from dissolving or crumbling
Figure 37 components of glass (e-‐learning)
Properties -‐ Porosity/ permeability: non-‐ porous/ waterproof -‐ Density: med. To high. Approximately 2.7 times more dense than water -‐ Conductivity: transmits heat and light but not electricity -‐ Hardness: high. Can be scratched with a metallic object -‐ Fragility: high. Differs depending on the type of glass (tempered glass is not as brittle as float glass) -‐ Ductility: very low -‐ Flexibility/ plasticity: very high flexibility and plasticity when molten/ low to very low when cooled -‐ Durability/ life span: typically very durable-‐chemical, rust and rot resistant -‐ Reusability/ recyclability: very high -‐ Sustainability & carbon footprint: typically high embodied energy and carbon footprint but ease of recycling/ reuse markets it a popular sustainable product
Cost: generally expensive to produce and transport
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Activity: In detail For this activity, Roof & ceiling of the function room needs to be drawn. Figure 39 Exterior of roof & ceiling
Figure 38 part that needs to be drawn
Note: Original A1 1:1 detail drawing folded to A4 size will be attached at the end of the logbook. In fact, from the site visit, roof & ceiling wasn’t able to observe or take photos. The following picture will show the actual building.
Glossary 1. Window sash -‐ is the framed part of the window which holds the sheets of glass in place. 2. Deflection -‐ is the degree to which a structural element is displaced under a load. 3. Moment of inertia -‐ is the mass property of a rigid body that defines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about an axis of rotation. 4. Door furniture -‐ Consists of the handles, lock, and other fixtures on a door. 5. Stress -‐ Pressure or tension exerted on a material object.
6. Shear force -‐ Is unaligned forces pushing one part of a body in one direction, and another part the body in the opposite direction.
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CONSTRUCTION DETAILING Joints and Connections The manner in which forces are transferred from one structural element to the next and how a structural system performs as a whole depend to a great extent on the types of joints and connections used. Structural elements are joined to each other in three ways such as: butt joints, interlocking or overlapping joints and molded or shaped joints.
connections, reinforced concrete and rigid or fixed joints.
Figure 42 bolted connections (news.utoronto.ca)
Figure 41 3 different joints drawing
Figure 40 Examples of the joints(www.metalstroy-ams.com )
The connectors used to join the structural elements may be in the form of a point, a line, or a surface. While linear and surface types of connectors resist rotation, point connectors do not unless a series of them is distributed across a large surface area. There are several types of connectors: point connector (bolt), linear connector (weld), surface connector (glue), bolted connections, precast concrete connections, pinned joints, welded steel
Figure 43 Bolted connections and pinned joints drawing
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Movement joints There are several types of movement joints: -‐ Expansion joints: continuous, unobstructed slots constructed between two parts of a building or structure permitting thermal or moisture expansion to occur without damage to either part. -‐ Control joints: continuous grooves or separations formed in concrete ground slabs and concrete masonry walls to form a plane of weakness and thus regulate the location and amount of cracking resulting from drying shrinkage, thermal stresses, or structural movement -‐ Isolation joints: divide a large or geometrically complex structure into sections so that differential movement or settlement can occur between the parts.
Figure 44 movement joint details (www.falconstructural.co.uk558)
Figure 46 movement joints drawing
Figure 45 Expansion joints (www.floorandwallsolutions.co.uk)
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Composite materials Monolithic or composite 1. Monolithic materials -‐ A single material -‐ Materials combined so that components are indistinguishable (e.g. metal alloys) 2. Composite materials -‐ Two or more materials are combined in such a way that the individual materials remain easily distinguishable A composite is formed from: -‐ Combination of materials which differ in composition or form -‐ Remain bonded together -‐ Retain their identities and properties -‐ Act together to provide improved specific or synergistic characteristics not obtained by any of the original components acting alone
Figure 47 examples of composite material (www.technologystudent.com)
There are four main types of composite materials such as: fibrous, laminar, particulate and hybrid.
Figure 49 composite material used (e-‐learning)
Figure 48 four main types of composite material (e-‐learning0
FRC (fibre reinforced cement) -‐ Made from: cellulose (or glass) fibres, Portland cement, sand & water -‐ Forms: commonly sheet & board products and shaped products such as pipes, roof tiles etc. -‐ Uses: commonly use in cladding for exterior or interior walls, floor panels -‐ Benefits: will not burn, are resistant to permanent water and termite damage, and resistant to rotting and warping. It is a reasonably inexpensive material
Fibreglass -‐ Made from: a mixture of glass fibres and epoxy resins -‐ Forms: commonly flat and profiled sheet products and formed/ shaped products -‐ Uses: commonly transparent or translucent roof/ wall cladding and for preformed shaped products such as water tanks, baths, swimming pools etc. -‐ Benefits: fiberglass materials are fire resistant, weatherproof, relatively light weight and strong
Figure 50 Fibreglass used (e-‐learning)
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Aluminium sheet composites -‐ Made from: aluminium and plastic -‐ Forms: commonly plastic core of phenolic resin lined with two external skins of thin aluminium sheet -‐ Uses: commonly as a feature cladding material in interior and exterior applications -‐ Benefits: reduced amounts of aluminium are required and lighter weight, less expensive sheets can be produced, which are weather resistant, unbreakable and shock resistant. A variety of finishes can be specified and seamless details can be achieved with careful cutting, folding, bending and fixing.
Timber composites -‐ Made from: combinations of solid timber, engineered timber, galvanized pressed steel -‐ Forms: commonly timbers top a bottom chords with gal. Steel or engineered board/ plywood webs -‐ Uses: beams and trusses -‐ Benefits: minimum amount of material is used for maximum efficiency, cost effective, easy to install, easy to accommodate services
Figure 52 timber composites use (e-‐learning)
Figure 51 aluminium sheet composites uses (e-‐ learning)
Fibre reinforced polymers -‐ Made from: polymers (plastic) with timber, glass or carbon fibres -‐ Forms: common often associated with moulded or pultrusion processed products -‐ Uses: commonly decking (&external cladding), structural elements such as beams and columns for public pedestrian bridges using glass or carbon fibres, carbon fibre reinforced polymer rebar -‐ Benefits: high strength FRP materials with glass or carbon fibre reinforcements provide strength to weight ratio greater than steel. FRP composite materials are corrosion resistant
Figure 53 Fibre reinforced polymers uses (e-‐ learning)
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Activity: off campus site visit Commercial building is constructed at 567collins street. The site entrance was available through 522 flinders lane. We had started getting information about some health & safety issues around the site and we were able to go up to 10th floor to have a look at the reinforced concrete of the slab processing.
Figure 54 before pouring the concrete
Figure 56 cranes at the site
Figure 55 pouring the concrete
Actually, there were working processes of casting of wet joints. The labours were making a hole into the exterior wall to prepare continuity bars of wet joints and set up formwork for casting.
Figure 57 casting of wet joints
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Figure 59 load transfer diagram for figure 191
The following diagram and picture will show the bolted connection in the real site. Figure 58 structures
In figure 191, people are working on the flooring of next level. It has steel column and it braced each other. It also consists of composite beam above.
Figure 61 bolted connection
Figure 60bolted connection drawing
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The following diagram and picture are showing the column at the ground. It is designed for the visibly sustainable as it supports the building.
Figure 62 load transfer through the column to the ground
Figure 63 visibly sustainable-‐designed columns
Figure 64 Insulation material
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LOGBOOK Glossary 1. Sandwich panel -‐ Aluminium composite panel also aluminium composite material, is a type of flat panel that consists of two thin aluminium sheets bonded to a non-‐aluminium core. ACPs are frequently used for external cladding of buildings, for insulation and for signage. 2. Bending -‐Shape of force into a curve or angle. 3. Skirting -‐ a wooden board running along the base of an interior wall. 4. Composite beam -‐ A steel beam, which has concrete decking above it, and which is connected to the concrete by shear connectors, which cause the steel and the concrete to act together. 5. Shadow line joint -‐ is designed for more stout panels around ¾” thickness, but mimics the standard shadow line
system when installed. This system allows for the use of thin laminates on a much sturdier backer and creates a stronger and longer-‐lasting panel. 6. Cornice -‐ is generally any horizontal decorative moulding that crowns a building or furniture element-‐ the cornice over a door or window, for instance, or the cornice around the top edge of a pedestal or along the top of an interior wall.
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Dynamic loads Dynamic loads are applied suddenly to a structure, often with rapid changes in magnitude and point of application. Under a dynamic load, a structure develops inertial forces in relation to its mass and its maximum deformation does not necessarily correspond to the maximum magnitude of the applied force. The two major dynamic loads are wind loads and earthquake loads.
Wind loads are the forces exerted by the kinetic energy of a moving mass of air, assumed to come from any horizontal direction. The structure, components, and cladding of a building must be designed to resist wind-‐including sliding, uplift, or overturning.
An earthquake consists of a series of longitudinal and transverse vibrations induced in the earth’s crust by the abrupt movement of plates along fault lines. The shocks of an earthquake propagate along the earth’s surface in the form of waves and attenuate logarithmically with distance from its source.
Figure 65 wind load
Figure 66 Wind diagram
Figure 67 structure moving diagram by earthquake Ju Hyun Son-‐354978 28
Building materials Consist the major types of building materials, their physical properties, and their uses in building construction. The criteria for selecting and using a building material include those listed below. Note: all the building materials properties and their uses in building construction have already been introduced in previous weeks logbook. Activity: In detail part2 Continuous from week 8 The finished details with sebastian’s part displayed in following picture:
Figure 69 Material used in drawing
Figure 68 roof & ceiling and function room drawing put together
My part of drawing is the bottom part and it is roof & ceiling. It consists of glass, timber, insulation material, sawn wood, glass and plywood.
Also 3D drawing is required in this workshop session by using a tracing paper. Also, we had visite the site to have a look at the part of the drawing, however, our part was roof & ceiling, therefore, and we weren’t able to see our part from the site. But, we were still able to see some other member’s part such as back of the oval pavilion and the frame of the door (window). Ju Hyun Son-‐354978 29
Figure 70 3D drawing of the roof & ceiling
Glossary 1. Shear wall -‐ is a wall composed of braced panels to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a structure. Wind and seismic loads are the most common load braced wall lines are designed to counteract.
2. Soft storey -‐ is a multi-‐storey in which one or more floors have windows, wide doors, large unobstructed commercial spaces, or other openings in places where a shear wall would normally be required for stability as a matter of earthquake engineering design. 3. Braced frame -‐ is a structural system which is designed primarily to resist wind and earthquake forces. Members in a braced frame are designed to work in tension and compression, similar to a truss. Braced frames are almost always composed of steel members. 4. Life cycle -‐ the series of changes in the life of an organism including reproduction. 5. Defect -‐ A shortcoming, imperfection, or lack 6. Fascia -‐ a board or other flat piece of material covering the ends of rafters or other fittings
7. Corrosion -‐ Damage caused to metal, stone, or other materials by corrosion. 8. IEQ -‐ Indoor environmental quality: encompasses IAQ, thermal comfort, daylighting, views, etc.
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Appendix Construction workshop I was placed in group 4 which we have to use the materials of 1200X3.2X90mm plyX1 and 1200X42X18mm pineX3.
We are also required to construct a structure that will span 1000mm and will take a point load at its centre. Also, the required maximum height of the structure is 400mm. For this construction workshop we are asked to use sundry nails and screws to assist with joining, and hammers, saws, screwdrivers and marking tools to assist in the process. We were planning to place plywood between two pine woods and place another cutted pine wood as a bracing to transfer the load as shown in following figures and drawings.
Figure 73 Load transfer from the top to bottom through the vertical bracing
As a load applied to centre of the structure, the structure started to deflect. As the load is getting larger, firstly plywood had a crack and pine wood finally got broken. The results of the load and the deflection at failure point will be displayed in the following table:
Figure 71 place plywood between two pine woods
Figure 72 Completed a structure
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Table 1 structure failure and the deflectionat certain load
Trial Load(kg) Deflec failure tion( mm) 1 110 15 2 115 20 3 168 45 Plywood crack 4 140 70 Pine broken Our structure was pretty strong but one of the other group placed pinewood as a truss had the strongest structure as shown in the following picture:
Figure 75 Other group's structure load transfer diagram
Figure 77 As a results of applying load
Figure 74 other group's structure
Figure 76 Applying load to the structure
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