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University of Stirling Department of English Studies

Spring 2008 Ć’

How language is used in the British press to form identities and representations 1313136

Honours Degree English with Film and Media Studies Semester 8 reduced dissertation Supervisor: Stephen Penn

Number of Words: Students Current Address: 271 Fraser of Allander University of Stirling

Department of English Studies University of Stirling 2008 i


Contents

Acknowledgements and Declaration

p. ii

Academic History

p. iii

Introduction

p. 1

Chapter 1: Representation of the Portuguese Press

p. 4

Chapter 2: Representation of the Portuguese Police

p. 11

Chapter 3: Representation of Gerry and Kate McCann

p. 23

Conclusion

p.

Appendices

p.

Bibliography

p.

i


Acknowledgements and Declaration

I would like to thank my advisor, Dr Stephen Penn, for his invaluable and greatly appreciated advice throughout this project.

I declare that this thesis is my own work and that all critical and other sources (literary and electronic) have been specifically and properly acknowledged, as and when they occur in the body of my text. Signed: Date:

ii


Academic History

Session Semester

Module Code

2004/5 Autumn

EDU9A1

Learners and Learning in Education

2D

22

08

22

2004/5 Autumn

ENG911

Author Reader and Text

1C

22

08

22

2004/5 Autumn

FMS911

The British Media

2D

22

08

22

2004/5 Spring

EDU9A2

Challenges and Trends in Education

2F

22

08

22

2004/5 Spring

ENG912

Texts and Contexts

2A

22

08

22

2004/5 Spring

FMS912

The Moving Image

2B

22

08

22

2005/6 Autumn

ENG913

Literary Tradition

2D

22

08

22

2005/6 Autumn

FMS913

Media Impacts and Influences

2C

22

08

22

2005/6 Spring

FMS9A4

Society Media and Culture

2C

22

09

22

2005/6 Spring

ENG9C4

Language and Literature

1C

22

09

22

2005/6 Spring

ENG914

Inventing the Modern

2C

22

09

22

2006/7 Autumn

ENG9QE

Language and Gender

2C

22

10

22

2006/7 Autumn

FMS9AW

Film and Television in Scotland

2B

22

10

22

2006/7 Autumn

ENG9B5

Critical Theory

2B

22

10

22

2006/7 Spring

FMS9AR

New Media and Society

2B

22

10

22

2006/7 Spring

ENG9QR

Language, Power and Ideology

2A

22

10

22

2006/7 Spring

FMS9AS

Gender and Representation

2C

22

10

22

2007/8 Autumn

ENG9RF

The Heroine in 19th Century Fiction

2A

22

10

22

2007/8 Autumn

ENG9QT

Discourse and Social Identity

1C

22

10

22

2007/8 Autumn

FMS9AT

Media Events

2A

22

10

22

2007/8 Spring

ENG9Z8

Reduced Project in Combined Degrees

0

10

44

Module Name

Grade

TOTAL CREDIT AWARDED

Credit SCQF SCQF Awarded Level Credit

440.0

iii


Introduction

Introduction

Rodger Silverstone (1999) states that “we cannot escape the media. They are involved in every aspect of our everyday lives” (cited O’Sullivan et al, 2003: 1). Today’s society is saturated by the media, which is recognised as greatly impacting on the consumer’s views and opinions. This is particularly significant in news media, with around 395 million newspapers being sold daily, world wide (World Association of Newspapers, 2005).With such a large audience, the potential influence for a newspaper is striking. Apart from the content, this influence is achieved through the construction and presentation of reports within the paper. This has a significant impact on how individuals and groups are perceived which consequently affects the perception and attitude of the reader. Fowler (1991: 54) identifies language as “a highly effective form of encoding representations of experience and values” and as such it plays an important role in influencing readers of newspapers. This study investigates how language is used in news reports to sustain or influence identities and representations and to discover how these change and adapt to various influences such as social pressure, audience expectation and market demands. I will be researching this in relation to the coverage of the Madeleine McCann case in the British press as this is a high profile investigation, which is likely to highlight different linguistic strategies. 1


Introduction

The main linguistic method that will be applied throughout this research is Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). CDA is a “method of analysing the way that individuals and institutions use language” (Richardson, 2007: 1) and the way in which this contributes to the understanding of the public. This is achieved through looking in detail at the linguistic structure of a text to expose those values that are embedded within the language which are often accepted by the reader as natural. Representations of individuals and groups of people are often conveyed in a linguistically subtle manner, requiring a detailed analysis to expose their hidden meaning.

The coverage of the Madeleine McCann case is particularly suitable for this type of analysis due to the prolonged coverage of the story, which provides a wealth of data. Madeline McCann disappeared from her family’s rented holiday apartment on the 3rd May 2007. The case was continually in the newspapers over the following month, although no real progress was made in the investigation. This was followed by a quieter period over June and July with fewer articles relating to the case appearing. However, August and September saw a renewed press interest in the investigation due to increased police activity and the announcement that Gerry and Kate McCann (Madeleine’s parents) were made arguidos – formal suspects. With the case remaining unsolved, the stories continued in the press. However, they began to dwindle again with no new evidence or leads to report. Throughout this time the lack of a clear criminal to vilify led the papers to seek others to fill the position. Those most frequently cast in this role were the Portuguese Press, the Portuguese Police and Gerry and

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Introduction

Kate McCann. The representation within the British Press of these three groups is especially revealing, with each being portrayed in roles such as victims, conspirator or perpetrators.

This study looks at the news coverage of the case in the British press from the 5th May 2007, two days after Madeleine McCann’s disappearance, until September 2007. This timeframe encapsulates both the initial representations of the Portuguese press, the Portuguese police and Gerry and Kate McCann while also covering their developing representations over the first few, crucial months. Reports referred to in this study are from The Times, The Daily Telegraph and The Sun newspapers. Although I feel these three newspapers give a good indication of the coverage in the British press at this time, I acknowledge that the study concentrates on a small cross section of newspapers that by no means encompasses the entire industry. While this limits the findings of my analysis, I hope to reveal in my study a trend which can be reflected in the wider press. I will be applying my analysis to the most revealing examples of linguistic strategy that seem to be motivated by a deliberate self conscious choice.

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Representations of the Portuguese Press

Chapter One Representations of the Portuguese Press

The Portuguese press has been widely criticised within British newspapers, most noticeably in the tabloids but also increasingly in the broadsheets. Early reports covering the Madeleine McCann story rarely refer to the Portuguese press. When they are mentioned it is not to attribute blame but instead to use them as a source to mitigate the support that the British papers are giving to theories they have printed. The British papers often printed theories where the agency was attributed to the Portuguese press. For instance: “Three of the tourists – a man and two women- were interrogated for nearly eight hours, the Correio de Manha Daily reported” (Appendix 3: 1). This backgrounding of agency acts as a disclaimer for the British paper, giving responsibility for the view to Correio de Manha. However, from the end of July subtle, and increasingly not so subtle, criticisms of the Portuguese press begin to appear, coinciding with the British media’s frustration surrounding the leaked information that the Portuguese press were apparently receiving from the local police.

The clear attribution of agency played an important role in establishing a more negative image of the Portuguese press in British newspapers. The

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Representations of the Portuguese Press

marking of agency allows the addressee to determine who is ‘the actor’ and who is being ‘acted upon’ or, alternatively, who is “the ‘doer’ and who is the ‘done to’” (Barker & Galansinski, 2001:73). Benwell and Stokoe claim that “one of the most striking uses of language… is through manipulations of agency at the grammatical level” (2006: 111), with clearly attributed agency allowing blame to be easily ascribed to the ‘actor’.

There are many instances within the news reports studied that foreground the Portuguese press as being responsible for different unconfirmed claims or allegations, for example: “Several Portuguese newspapers claimed… The Portuguese media has switched…The Portuguese reports have also…” (Appendix 6: 1-2). These examples place the Portuguese newspapers in an active role as the grammatical subject and as such, clearly lay the blame for the negative reports on them. Through constantly placing responsibility onto the Portuguese press, the British papers not only avoid responsibility for any claims that they have printed which turn out to be false, but they also begin to create and build up a much needed villain.

Agency is further used to discredit the Portuguese newspapers, not only by attributing wild speculations and untruths to them but also through contradictions. Van Dijk states that discourse structures such as “quoting credible witnesses, sources or experts” (1993: 264) are often used to help validate an assertion. Similarly, calling on reliable sources can also be used to discredit or weaken the argument of those who are perceived as less reliable. Often the British newspapers will present a piece of ‘evidence’, foregrounding

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Representations of the Portuguese Press

the agency of the Portuguese press and then discredit this with a counter argument from a specialist or authority on the subject. For example: Portuguese newspapers said “biological fluids” with an 80 per cent match of the toddler’s DNA were found underneath the upholstery in the boot of the McCanns’ rented Renault Scenic Appendix 13 Here the agency is fore-grounded giving responsibility for the contentious claim solely to the Portuguese press. This not only means that if the statement is proven wrong the paper faces no blame, but it also results in any backlash from the McCann’s being redirected to the foreign paper. The claim is then discredited by the article in a following paragraph: But according to Allan Scott, a Lecturer at the University of Central Lancashire’s School of forensic and Investigative Sciences, both claims are – at very least – questionable. Appendix 13 Here the Portuguese newspaper’s claim is discredited by using Allan Scott’s academic credentials to contradict the statement. The article uses the “presence of persons of high prestige, and the fact that they are named and given their titles: an important individuating feature” (Fowler, 1991:131), to give power to the counter claim and qualify its authority over the more vaguely identified ‘Portuguese newspapers’. This clear acknowledgment of status, and consequent creation of credibility, helps to discredit the Portuguese press and invites the addressee to doubt the accuracy not only of this claim, but also of other assertions made by the Portuguese press.

The British newspapers also use agency to criticise the Portuguese press by foregrounding negative phrases associated with them. The Portuguese press is often represented in an active role and using the active voice, with the news

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Representations of the Portuguese Press

reports highlighting their agency to emphasise their involvement, however, instances do occur when they are placed at the end of the clause, in a more passive role. For example, in an article from The Daily Telegraph, the sentence, “Meanwhile, speculation continued in the Portuguese press yesterday” (Appendix 7: 2), places the agent, the Portuguese press, in the adjunct, as a circumstantial detail. In this case the Portuguese press is placed here not to distance them from blame or downplay their involvement but instead to foreground the phrase “speculation continued”. This phrase questions the reliability and authority of the Portuguese press by strongly suggesting that the papers print ungrounded ‘speculation’ on a regular basis. The backgrounding of agency in this example is used to again criticise and undermine the Portuguese press by placing further emphasis on the unreliability of their reports.

Words like ‘speculation’ are often used by British news reports in connection with the Portuguese press. The vocabulary used within news reports is chosen very carefully because it can have a powerful effect on the reader which often goes unnoticed. Bakhtin believed that “language is not a neutral medium that passes freely and easily into private property of the speaker’s intentions; it is produced – over populated – with the intentions of others” (1996: 294). This is because words and phrases in our language are not new to us but ‘inherited’ from others and with these words come connotations and associations that are already entwined in their meaning. Ideologically loaded phrases are often attributed to the Portuguese press within British papers to create a sense of mistrust. In one article words such as “unconfirmed”, “speculation”, “claimed” and “according to” (Appendix 7: 1-2) are all used in

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Representations of the Portuguese Press

association with the Portuguese news papers. These are all ideologically encoded words which have various negative and untrustworthy associations strongly attached to them. The presence of these words has the effect of highlighting and drawing the readers’ attention to these negative connotations and consequently associating them with the Portuguese press.

Further more, verbs like ‘claimed’ are non-factive and enable the article to state a fact that the author does not necessarily believe to be true. Non-factive verbs “do not rely on the truth of the embedded clause” (http://web.gc.cuny.edu) but instead on the attitude in which the fact is presented. This enables a theory or suspicion to be printed in a way that messages are conveyed to the reader on more than one level. This blurs the true meaning of the clause so that the “hearer may be lulled into accepting both communications while listening to just one” (Bolinger, 1980: 82).

Other examples of ideologically loaded words being used within the British news reports are perhaps more subtle. When talking about a claim made by a Portuguese paper, The Daily Telegraph says: “Diario de Noticas, a tabloid newspaper” (Appendix 6: 2). While this could be construed on first reading to be a simple explanation of the type of newspaper that Diario de Noticas is, looking at it closer it can be seen that the word ‘tabloid’ not only describes the size and format of the paper but also remarks on the type of material it contains. ‘Tabloids’ have become synonymous for their “use of lurid features and sensationalized news” (www.britannica.com) stories which are often centred on celebrities and gossip, as opposed to world affairs. Consequently, by being

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Representations of the Portuguese Press

termed a tabloid, the Portuguese news paper becomes associated with these negative connotations which suggest to the reader that anything reported within the paper is likely to be exaggerated or based on little or no fact. This strengthens the negative image of the Portuguese newspapers that is being built up in the British press.

Many negative, ideologically-loaded words relating to the Portuguese press appear in various different British news reports. This negative portrayal is strengthened through several words from a common lexical fields appearing together. An example of the lexical fields in British news reports appears in an article in The Daily Telegraph in which two lexical fields can be identified. The first of these lexical fields could be characterised as being aggressive and or even child-like in their temperament, containing words such as: “Squabbling scrum”, “angrily demanding” (demanding appears twice in the article), “hostile questions”, “infuriated”, “bullied”, “persistent”, “hassling”, “confrontation”, and “attack” (Appendix 8: 1-3). This field of words, all relating to the Portuguese press, builds a very negative image of them as being confrontational and aggressive. If just one of these hostile words were used, then the article would not have such a negative outlook on the Portuguese press, but by scattering them throughout the article the addressee is continually taking them in, building up an almost unconscious image of the Portuguese press.

This is also true of other, smaller, lexical fields present in the article, the first of which draws vocabulary from a field connoting insinuation and slander. The field contains words such as “scurrilous stories”, “untruths and innuendos”

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Representations of the Portuguese Press

and “provocative” (Appendix 8: 1-3) which work together to strongly intonate that the Portuguese press recount only lies and fabrications. Other words mentioned in the article, such as “lurid” and “blunt”, also comment on the content of the Portuguese press as being insensitive. These individual words and phrases have obvious negative connotations that sub-consciously build on oneanother to create the image of the Portuguese press being unscrupulous and insensitive.

The negative image of the Portuguese newspapers being developed within the British press is again being created through careful vocabulary choice. This can be illustrated with the following extract: “With each day, the articles become more and more lurid: all a mangled fabrication of untruths and innuendos” (Appendix 8: 1-3). This sentence uses strongly negative language in direct reference to the Portuguese press and, as discussed above, is part of a larger lexical field. Furthermore, it has high modality to the statement being made which indicates a strong “commitment to the truth” (Fowler, 1991:85). This strengthens the negative image of the Portuguese press being created as it casts no doubt on the accuracy of the statement but instead portrays absolute confidence, leading the addressee to believe that what is being said is fact. The consequence in this example is that the article suggests through ideologicallyloaded words and high modality that the Portuguese press print nothing but lies and conjecture that are increasingly becoming more and more sensational.

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Representations of the Portuguese Police

Chapter Two Representations of the Portuguese Police

With the disappearance of Madeleine McCann capturing the prolonged attention of the British public, the Portuguese authorities dealing with the case have come under close scrutiny in the British media. From a very early stage in the investigation the British press had picked up and commented on the negative aspects of the conduct of the Portuguese police and the way in which they were handling the search. From the middle of May 2007 onwards, barely a couple of weeks after the disappearance of Madeleine McCann, the British papers were reporting various blunders and apparent incompetence of the Portuguese police. As early as the 10th May 2007, only seven days into the investigation, articles in the British Press began to appear which criticised the work of the Portuguese police. This was minimal at first, consisting of subtle references to their lack of ability, however, within days the Portuguese police were being continually scrutinised and having any mistakes regularly publicised in the British Press.

This shift in position of the British press is highlighted by the attribution of agency. Early on in the case, agency for any negative opinion of the Portuguese police is attributed to other sources, which distances responsibility from the British press. For example, in the clause “Local media are pessimistic

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Representations of the Portuguese Police

about the police investigation” (Appendix 2: 1) the ‘local media’ are the grammatical subject and agent of the clause and as such, they are responsible for the lack in confidence of the Portuguese police to solve the case, not the articles author. By doing this the article displaces responsibility for the comment, distancing itself from the negative view of the likely outcome of the case, while still voicing the opinion.

Lack of agency is also used within the same article to help distance the Portuguese police from blame. The article comments that “it was also claimed that Portuguese border police were not informed of Madeleine’s disappearance until 12 hours after the abduction” (Appendix 2: 1). By mentioning this criticism the article highlights the mistake made by the police, however, by using the passive voice, and consequently deleting the agency, the police’s involvement is mitigated and as such, the article lessens the blame assigned to them.

Other articles use vocabulary to represent the Portuguese police in a favourable way; however, again there is a level of negativity and criticism in the tone of these articles. This can be illustrated by looking at a report from the 12th May in which it is commented that “success now depends on very good detective work, a lucky break or both. Fairly or unfairly, there is doubt about the capacity of the Portuguese police to rise to the challenge” (Appendix 3: 2). The vocabulary in this statement belittles the effectiveness of the Portuguese police force, by having little faith in their ability, while simultaneously excusing them for not having solved the case yet. This is

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Representations of the Portuguese Police

achieved by using an extreme case formulation1 (‘very’) in association with ‘good detective work’ which suggests unusually good police work is needed to solve this case. Consequently, this creates the impression that it is out of their hands, making the task they have been asked to perform seem incredibly difficult. This is backed up by the article’s mention of ‘luck’ which again connotes that which is unlikely to happen, effectively excusing them for not having been able to solve the case yet.

This shifting representation of the Portuguese police is linked with the continued lack of evidence and resolution to the case. With no obvious perpetrator to vilify, the British press turn to questioning the skill and expertise of the Portuguese police. This is done both explicitly and in other, more subtle ways, the combination of which strengthens the image being portrayed. Coverage in the British press concentrates heavily on the incompetence of the police that are carrying out the investigation. Negative vocabulary plays a strong role in achieving this due to the ability for words to “convey the imprint of society and of value judgments in particular – they convey connoted as well as denoted meanings” (Richardson, 2007:47). This can be illustrated through looking at phrases such as “cops’ new favourite” (Appendix 9: 1) which is a reference to a new angle the police have adopted in their investigation. This phrase comments strongly not only on the author’s opinion of the new theory but also on how they view the Portuguese investigation in general. The vocabulary used here is very informal and this relaxed language, when used in

1

Extreme case formulations is a term I will be using to indicate words such as ‘very’, ‘tremendous’ or ‘extremely’ when they are used to reinforce or backup an argument.

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Representations of the Portuguese Police

close reference to the Portuguese police, associated itself with the investigation, making it also seem laid-back and complacent.

The word ‘favourite’ in the phrase also brings strong connotations with it which then become associated with the investigation. ‘Favourite’ evokes a feeling of favouritism, suggesting a prejudiced or biased attitude from the Portuguese police, as opposed to reasoned, impartial detective work. Similarly, the use of ‘new’ in the clause suggests that there have been ‘old favourites’. This presumption undermines the theory by weakening its validity and suggesting that there have been many other theories which have been discarded for this ‘new favourite’. This evokes further connotations of young children changing their ‘favourite’ toy everyday. This sense of arbitrariness further undermines the authority of the police, suggesting that there is no systematic plan underlying there invesigation. Although these negative feelings are never openly stated the vocabulary choice makes a clear indication as to how the new line of enquiry is viewed by the author of the article and it is this subtle ability to suggest so much with only three words that makes the vocabulary of an article so powerful.

Provocative language is used in many different articles in relation to the Portuguese police to emphasise their negative behaviour or apparent inaction. This is emphasised by the occasional use of dysphemisms; words such as ‘tortured’ are used when other words such as ‘hurt’ or even ‘beaten’ could have been used, both of which have very different and less serious connotations. This phrase appeared in many news reports relating to the Madeleine McCann case when it emerged that one of the police officers in charge of the case was himself

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Representations of the Portuguese Police

under investigation for concealing the evidence that his colleagues forced a confession out of a witness through use of violence. The witness was the mother of a missing girl who the police accused of killing her daughter and then covered up the murder by claiming she had been abducted. While many words could have been used to describe the action of the police officers involved, ‘tortured’ was widely used in the British press2. Words such as ‘beaten’, while still conveying the misconduct and corruption of the situation, do not have the same gravity as ‘tortured’, which connotes brutal treatment often associated with extremes such as wars or terrorists. These extreme connotations are associated with the Portuguese police and this creates an incredibly shocking and negative portrayal of them which inspires very little confidence in their reliability, particularly due to the similar circumstances of the two cases.

Another way in which the British press appear to find fault with the Portuguese police is through their use of quotations. The Portuguese police investigation is often criticised or sneered at in the British press but they are careful to avoid blame by attributing these comments to others. Nicholas Bagnall identifies several different ways in which quotations may be used, the first being to “show that the word or sentence is someone else’s, not the author’s” (Bagnall, 1993: 171). This technique of using quotations is prevalent in many articles and is often used in conjunction with displacement of agency to raise awareness of a particular issue. This clearly identifies who is being quoted which ensures that the critical comments are not directly assigned to the author 2

Headlines from other British Newspapers: The Daily Mail – Madeleine: Police on trial for torturing mother of another missing girl (15/9/07) The Times – McCann case detective faces ‘torture’ trial (14/10/07) The Mirror - Madeleine McCann detective in court over torture cover-up (12/02/08)

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Representations of the Portuguese Police

of the article. In an article in The Daily Telegraph on August 8th 2007 several disparaging comments are made about the Portuguese investigation but responsibility for these comments is clearly attributed to “Mark WilliamThomas, a former Surrey detective and now a leading child protection expert” (Appendix 5: 1). Here, the quotations are used to portray a particular opinion but without responsibility being attributed to the articles author. This avoidance of blame is one of the most common uses of quotations and is used in many articles relating to the case, enabling them to print accusations and speculation, while still avoiding blame.

Bagnall also suggests that quotations can be used to “distance the writer from what is being talked about” (Bagnall, 1993: 171). Often within a report quotations will appear which are not attributed to anyone in particular. These are often just single words or short phrases and are usually saying something controversial. For example “renewed criticism of an “inept” Portuguese investigation” (Appendix 5: 1). The word ‘inept’ is here quoted without being attributed to anyone. Instead, the quotation-marks are used to clarify that this is the opinion of others and not the writer of the article. This linguistic strategy is employed for its ability to make a statement or opinion seem natural, as can be seen in the previous example. By not attributing the adjective ‘inept’ to anyone in particular, the sentence reads as if it is fact, influencing the reader’s judgment, while the quotation marks distance the author from any blame.

According to Bagnall, quotation marks can also be used to cast doubt on a statement. This mocking tone is frequently seen in The Sun where quotation

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Representations of the Portuguese Police

marks are often used to undermine the authority of the Portuguese police. An example of this can be seen in an article published on September 29th 2007: Detectives are convinced Maddie was killed “before dinner” and that her body was “passed through various locations” before going in the boot of the couples hire car (Appendix 16: 1) The quotation marks here are used to not only distance the author of the article from the comments being made (The Sun persistently supported Kate and Gerry McCann) but they are also used to question the plausibility of the statements. The phrases are placed in quotation marks, or scare quotes, “in order to indicate their contentious nature” (Richardson, 2007, 102). The quotation marks therefore mock the phrases by drawing the reader’s attention to them and marking them as controversial or arguable while also attributing them to someone else. There are many uses for quotation marks and it is this variety and ambiguity of uses which make quotations within newspaper reports so subtle about the point they are promoting.

The British press not only comments on the work of the Portuguese police but also on their social habits as well. One article printed in The Times criticises the extended lunch breaks apparently taken by the detectives in charge of the Madeleine McCann case. The story, which was carried in several news papers, strongly chastises the police for their behaviour through the use of several language techniques.

The title of the article, “Madeleine officers defend their regular two-hour lunches” (Appendix 4) places the police officers as the active subject of the clause, highlighting their responsibility. The headline also uses ideologically-

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Representations of the Portuguese Police

loaded phrases to create a very negative image of the police officers. By saying “regular” the article suggests that this is a common occurrence and not just a one-off incident that could be excused and as such it emphasises the negative point being made by the article. Presupposition is also used here to persuade the readers as to what opinion they should take. Presupposition is “a taken for granted, implicit claim embedded within the explicit meaning of a text” (Richardson, 2007:63). This technique presents an idea to the reader as being fixed or previously established and as such, it encourages them to accept its truth without even thinking about it. The phrase “officers defend” presumes that the Portuguese police have done something wrong for which they are now required to justify their actions and defend themselves. Due to the defence of their actions being presented in this implicit manner, they are automatically presumed to be inappropriate or unethical and this assumption is used by the article to present the Portuguese police in an unfavourable light.

Choice of particular vocabulary is also used in conjunction with other linguistic features in the article to create a pessimistic representation of the Portuguese police. Vocabulary such as “enjoying a leisurely lunch” (Appendix 4) is associated with the police, suggesting a frivolous or relaxed attitude toward the investigation, which is then juxtaposed within the article next to a portrayal of hard work and dedication from Madeleine McCann’s Parents: “as her parents completed 13 gruelling interviews and meetings with politicians” (Appendix 4). The difference in language associated with the police and that with the parents is striking. The laidback attitude indicated by the article is emphasised by its position next to the relentless action taken by her parents.

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Representations of the Portuguese Police

This comparison is further emphasised in the article and again combines the use of ideological language and juxtapositioning between the Portuguese police and Madeleine McCann’s parents. The article’s use of emotive adjectives such as “gruelling” (Appendix 4) highlights the unpleasant experience and emotional exhaustion that Kate and Gerry McCann are going through in their effort to find their daughter. This is sharply contrasted with the casual language used to portray the Portuguese police who were described as “enjoying a leisurely lunch” (Appendix 4) which evokes connotations of carefree ease. This juxtaposing serves only to heighten the perceived lack of commitment from the Portuguese police through its contrast to the work being carried out by Madeline McCanns’ parents.

This casual language used in association to the Portuguese police is continued throughout the article which uses several words from a common lexical field to subtly outline specific character traits of the Portuguese police. Words such as “enjoying”, “leisurely”, “laughed”, “joked” (used twice), “laughing” (also used twice), “joking”, “in-joke” and “the party” (Appendix 4) form a lexical field which connotes a buoyant, carefree atmosphere. This lighthearted language along with other informal vocabulary such as “knocking back Johnnie Walker Black [label]” combines to build an image of the Portuguese police as relaxing and having fun which is certainly not what is expected of the senior officers in a high profile investigation. This apparent lack of commitment intimated by the vocabulary of the article suggests that the police are not only

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Representations of the Portuguese Police

disregarding their responsibility but also showing insensitivity for the family involved.

The repetition of certain words chosen from a particular lexical field adds to the emphasis that it already brings to an article. The repeated use of words such as ‘joke’ or ‘laugh’, along with different variants of these words, reinforces the impression they are creating. This can similarly be seen in a second lexical field present in the article which concentrates on the alcohol consumption of the police officers on their lunch break. This field includes words such as “bottle” which is mentioned twice, “wine” mentioned three times, “whisky” mentioned four times (along with a mention of a subordinate of the hyponymy whisky, Johnnie Walker Black, a well known whisky brand) and “drink” mentioned a total of six times as well as “drinking” and “drunk” (Appendix 4). The repetition of words from this common lexical field has the effect of emphasising the volume of alcohol consumed by the police officers, making it seem as if they had had a lot more to drink on their lunch break than they perhaps did. In particular, ‘whisky’ is repeated within the article four times. This particular word has strong connotations of heavy drinking – much more so than ‘wine’ and its frequent repetition implies heavy alcohol consumption not suitable for a working day.

The article again conveys a lack of confidence in the Portuguese police, further creating its disparaging attitude towards them through comparing them with the British police. This can be related to Van Dijk’s3 concept of the 3

Van Dijk constitutes the ideological square in four ‘moves’: “1 Express/emphasise information that is positive about Us. 2 Express/emphasise information that is negative about Them.

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Representations of the Portuguese Police

‘ideological square’ which he suggests is characterised by “a Positive SelfPresentation and a simultaneous Negative Other-Presentation” (Richardson, 2007: 51). This ‘square’ relationship is a technique which can be used to represent characters and their roles in relation to one another and is achieved through the foregrounding of ‘their’ negative qualities and ‘our’ positive qualities while also backgrounding ‘our’ negative qualities and ‘their’ positive ones. Consequently this presents ‘insiders’ in a positive, desirable light while ‘outsiders’ are cast in a disagreeable, negative way. This comparison can be seen in an article printed in The Times, with the final paragraph containing a quotation which comments that “if it were detectives from Scotland Yard there would be absolute uproar” (Appendix 4). This remark reinforces the behaviour of the Portuguese police as being inappropriate by contrasting and judging it by the standards of the British police force which is presented as the correct way of conduct.

However, the Police are reported in a more positive light at some points in the investigation. One article in The Daily Telegraph (Appendix 6) attributes agency to the Portuguese police not to discredit them, which is more common, but instead to use them as an authoritative source. This change in position is not necessarily to portray the police in a positive role but instead to discredit the claims of the Portuguese press. The article prints a claim made by a Portuguese newspaper, clearly attributing agency to them, immediately contradicted in a statement by the police: “However, Chief Insp Olegario Sousa, a Portuguese police spokesman, said last night…” (Appendix 6: 1). The credibility of the 3 Suppress/ de-emphasise information that is positive about Them. 4 Suppress/ de-emphasise information that is negative about Us.” (2000: 267)

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Representations of the Portuguese Police

Portuguese police is supported here through the use of the conversation marker ‘however’ to suggest a change in direction and also through the authoritative naming of the police officer.

The Portuguese police can also be seen to be portrayed in a more positive light not only in one-off instances, but also in several newspapers around the beginning of September when apparent evidence had emerged which suggested that Madeleine McCann’s parents could have been involved in the disappearance of their daughter. Several language techniques can be identified in an article in the Times Online published on September 11th 2007 which helps change the representation of the Portuguese police. Naming in the article is highly important in establishing the Portuguese police as an authoritative source after the papers have continually discredited them over the last couple of months. The officers are now referred to as “Portuguese detectives” (Appendix 14: 1) as opposed to ‘police’ as they were more frequently referred to in past articles. The difference in rank is an important factor in portraying the Portuguese police in a more favourable light because this subtle change in naming commands more respect and consequently increases the reliability of their opinion.

The Portuguese police are again portrayed more positively through naming by referring to them as “counterparts” (Appendix 14: 2) to British officers. This is again a subtle change from past reference where the Portuguese police were usually portrayed as being less competent or efficient than the British police force, which was always portrayed as being more respectable and

22


Representations of the Portuguese Police

accurate. By representing them as equals the article again enhances the representation of the Portuguese police by associating them with the same positive qualities of the British police, bringing them credibility.

This change in attitude shown in the article coincides with the apparent discovery of evidence which the Portuguese authorities believed to prove that Madeleine McCann’s parents were involved in her disappearance. The more favourable representation of the Portuguese police was used not only to show support for them, in case their theory was proved correct, but it also allowed the papers to distance themselves from the McCanns. This support, however, was short lived, with doubts being cast on the reliability of the evidence almost immediately and many papers returned to representing the Portuguese police as being incompetent and dysfunctional.

23


Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

Chapter Three Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

The parents of Madeleine McCann have found themselves at the centre of a media frenzy since the disappearance of their daughter at the beginning of May 2007. Their representation within the British press has been varied and often confusing, with conflicting views of their character being frequently portrayed, sometimes even within the same article. The British press were torn between wanting to print sensational stories which sell more papers, while at the same time not wanting to seem insensitive towards parents who have just lost their little girl. The Papers combat this issue through use of language techniques which surreptitiously convey other, more controversial views, while keeping a positive façade.

The conventional representation of a distraught family usually represented within the press after a child’s disappearance was disrupted in this case. This was because Madeleine McCann’s parents left their children sleeping in their holiday apartment while they went out for dinner and many people considered this to be irresponsible and negligent. In responce, the papers generally adopted an openly supportive role, while subtly portraying a more negative attitude through the discourse at the level of language. For instance, an

24


Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

article from The Daily Telegraph printed immediately after the disappearance of Madeleine McCann outwardly represents her parents in the typically sympathetic and compassionate manner. However, when the article is considered in more detail an additional, negative undertone can be detected.

The vocabulary within the article particularly illustrates this with the majority of terms associated with the McCanns seem supportive and sympathetic on the outside, while language choice places doubt in the reader’s mind. The first description of Kate and Gerry McCann is crucial in establishing how they, and their actions, are viewed by the public. The Daily Telegraph article firstly depicts them as worried parents which is expected but this is then subtly contradicted through explaining that: Three-year-old Madeleine McCann disappeared last night from her parent’s rented apartment in the Western Algarve, while they dined nearby (Appendix 1: 1) The revelation that her parents had left their children alone in their apartment, unsupervised, while they had dinner immediately affects the reader’s opinion of them and raises questions as to why their children were left alone. This negative attitude is downplayed in the article through the obscuring of agency – the article does not directly say that Gerry and Kate McCann left their children alone but instead backgrounds this to mitigate their role.

However, this negligent undertone is continued in the language of the following paragraphs, which again denotes a supportive attitude while carefully hinting at a more negative perception. The next paragraph in the article comments that Gerry and Kate McCann were “watching the hotel room and

25


Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

going back every half hour” (Appendix (5th May): 1), which portrays them as being vigilant parents who were keeping a close watch on their children. However, this sympathetic image is completely undermined through the extreme case formulation that precedes it. The clause actually reads “they were just watching the hotel room and going back every half hour” (my own emphasis Appendix (5th May): 1). The use of ‘just’ suddenly makes their precautions seem completely inadequate and suggests that they could have done a lot more to protect their children. The simple addition of one word has a great effect on the implication of the clause, while being almost undetectable. It is due to this subtlety that the addressee is lured into accepting the truth of such interpretations without questioning their validity.

The article continues in a more positive note to ensure that it maintains a compassionate appearance and does not seem insensitive. This is achieved through comments such as “they are very, very anxious parents” and “Madeleine’s parents are distraught” (Appendix 1: 1), which portrays the image of a caring and loving family, balancing the negative undertones expressed elsewhere in the article. However, this positive portrayal is again weakened by the suggestion that Gerry and Kate McCann were being negligent. Towards the end of the article the Hotel Manager is quoted as commenting that there was baby-sitting services available but “for whatever reason they were not being used” (Appendix 1: 2). This suggests that although there was a support system provided, Gerry and Kate McCann did not use it. The author clearly attributes this comment to the Hotel Manager, by quoting him, to “distance the writer from what is being talked about” (Bagnall, 1993: 170) and therefore avoid blame for

26


Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

the negative comments. However, this negative implication that the McCanns are irresponsible parents is also mitigated in the article through the deletion of agency which lessens the blame on the couple. The article does not directly accuse Gerry and Kate McCann of being negligent by saying, for example, ‘Gerry and Kate did not use the babysitting service’, but instead chose to delete the agent meaning that blame is not being so obviously assigned, merely implied.

This can be further illustrated in another article which presents an openly supportive image of Gerry and Kate McCann while also discreetly implanting doubt surrounding their decision to leave their children in the apartment on their own. The supportive front is again maintained through the use of specific vocabulary which portrays Gerry and Kate McCann as distraught parents, an image that the reader would expect after such an event. This is achieved through the use of words such as “emotional”, “faltering”, “clutching”, “tearful prayers”, “beg” and “broke down” (Appendix 2: 1), which are all from a common lexical field portraying a picture of an anxious, concerned family. In presenting the emotional turmoil of the parents, the article evokes sympathy and compassion for Gerry and Kate McCann from the addressee.

Again, the type of vocabulary chosen is used to further promote a positive representation with clauses such as “her parents were eating dinner a short distance away from the apartment and returned on a regular check to discover their daughter was gone” (Appendix 2: 1) minimising the possible blame being attributed to Gerry and Kate McCann. This is achieved by the use

27


Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

of casual language such as ‘eating dinner’ as opposed to something with more loaded connotations such as ‘out with friends’ or ‘enjoying tapas’. This word choice implies that ‘having dinner’ was a necessary act, as opposed to an enjoyable evening out, which discourages the reader from attributing them with too much responsibility.

This use of language, working the same way as a euphemism to avoid negative associations, can be seen to continue with the phrase ‘a short distance away’. This minimises the perception of the distance from the apartment to the restaurant where they ate and consequently minimises the irresponsibility of Madeleine’s parents for leaving their children on their own. This responsible representation is further endorsed in the article with the phrase “regular check”, which again promotes a perception of competence and responsibility on behalf of Gerry and Kate McCann. All these uses of vocabulary are supported through the high modality of the statement which includes no hedges or mitigating language to bring doubt on the statement.

However, subtle questioning of responsibility can be seen to creep in when the article discusses the opportunity that was presented to a potential kidnapper. The article comments that: Police sources said the suspect was most likely watching the apartment for some time and knew the parents left their children as they went for dinner (Appendix 2: 1) This subtle negativity is discreetly achieved through the use of loaded vocabulary and agency. The verb ‘left’ is used here in a highly contentious manner because it emphasises that Gerry and Kate McCann actively chose to

28


Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

leave their children on their own and does not try to background their role in making this decision. It also suggests that this was a regular occurrence rather than a one-off incident. This blame is further emphasised with the action being clearly attributed to ‘the parents’, again highlighting the crucial part they played. This offers the reader a chance to question why the children were left on their own and what role her parents played in allowing this to happen.

This can be compared to an article printed in the same newspaper two days later, when the representation of the same action is presented completely differently. This inconsistency is perhaps due to the date on which the articles were written, with the second being printed on Madeleine McCann’s fourth birthday - merely nine days after her disappearance. This second article does not lay any blame on her parents but instead supports them fully. This support is reflected in the article’s portrayal of the circumstances of the evening, commenting that “her parents had been dining nearby, checking on the children regularly. Her abductors must have been watching” (Appendix 3: 2). One way in which this clause shows support for Gerry and Kate McCann is through its use of expressive vocabulary. While the content of this statement and the one previously discussed is extremely similar the connotations of each are incredibly different. While the previous article conjured up suggestions of regular abandonment, this example portrays responsibility by mentioning that the restaurant where her parents ate was nearby and that regular checks were made on the children.

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Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

There is also a striking difference in the presentation of agency between the two examples. In the first example agency is clearly attributed to the parents and consequently they are portrayed as having presented the opportunity. However, in this example the attacker is the subject and as such, their role is foregrounded. This results in the suggestion that there was nothing that her parents could do, that the situation was out of their hands.

These two examples show that the balance between positive and negative representations within British news reports is extremely variable, even within the same paper. This variation can be dependent on various factors such as poignant dates (such as Madeleine’s birthday illustrated above), public opinion or developments in the case. Such fluctuations of representation are particularly evident in a case such as Madeleine McCann’s because of the longrunning and high-profile nature of the investigation. In June and July less is written about the case but August sees a renewed interest coinciding with a flurry of police activity around this time. It was also around this time that rumours began to circulate that the investigation was leaning away from the theory of abduction and towards Madeleine having been killed in the apartment and her body removed. These rumours generated doubt and suspicion of Gerry and Kate McCann which intensified when they were both declared official suspects and named as arguidos by the Portuguese police.

These rumours emerge in August and the articles from this time are markedly more negative than those that have appeared previously, but most continue portraying a positive façade. Vocabulary particularly demonstrates this

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Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

because of its ability to connote a different message from that which it denotes. For example, the Daily Telegraph quotes Chief Inspector Olegario Sousa as commenting that “the family are not suspects. This is the official position” (Appendix 6: 1). Outwardly, this quotation seems to support the McCanns. However, this is weakened by the inclusion of the second clause in this quote. This addition raises the presumption that there is an unofficial position which is likely to be in opposition to this one.

Suggestive vocabulary is again used in the article, this time to turn a negative comment into one which can be outwardly presented as supportive. The article comments that “Mr and Mrs McCann are expected to be re-interviewed as part of a review of evidence by British detectives” (Appendix 6: 1). At the core of this sentence is the fact that the McCanns are going to be interviewed again by the police, which raises immediate questions as to whether they are being considered as suspects. However, the vocabulary of the sentence, such as ‘expected’ and ‘as part of a review’, plays down this accusation by presenting their re-questioning as being a mere formality that is normal when carrying out such a review. This representation of normality does not entirely hide the negative accusations underlying the statement but it does cover them sufficiently to avoid any controversy. Vocabulary is used in these examples to raise several small doubts in the reader’s mind by subtly prompting the reader to question certain statements. This results in a subtle undertone being developed in the articles while still enabling them to portray an outwardly positive message.

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Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

However, not all newspapers made this subtle shift in their portrayal of the McCanns, with papers such as the Sun continuing to firmly support them. This can be illustrated through analysing the same story which was covered in two different papers. Both The Sun and The Daily Telegraph carried the story of Gerry McCann walking out of an interview with a Spanish television channel. However, the representation of Gerry and his behaviour is subtly, yet clearly, different in both articles.

This can be first identified through the type of expressive values attached to the words being connected with Gerry McCann in the articles. The two headlines outline the stance adopted throughout the rest of the article and immediately shape the direction of the piece because the headline “is the newspapers device… for describing briefly and legibly the salient points a story is to make” (Charnley, 1966: 160). The article in The Daily Telegraph is titled “Gerry McCann Storms out of TV interview” (Appendix 11: 1), while the Sun carries the headline “Maddie’s dad in TV walk-out” (Appendix 10). Both titles are at the same time similar while simultaneously noticeably different, exemplifying the striking effects that vocabulary can produce. The headline in The Daily Telegraph clearly foregrounds agency, allowing no mistake to be made as to who is responsible for the action. This is followed by the expressive verb “storms” which suggests unreasonable, moody behaviour, raising questions about the temperament and character of Gerry McCann.

This can be contrasted with the Sun article, which, although it sensationalises the story, is not at all accusatory and is much milder in its tone.

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Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

Its headline again attributes agency to Gerry McCann but by naming him as “Maddie’s dad” connects him with family life and fatherhood, immediately softening his image. The article also shows a more supportive attitude by distracting focus from his actions through obscuring the verb in the title by placing it in the adjunct position. This not only mitigates its importance but also disguises the subject of the action, minimising Gerry McCann’s accountability.

The Sun’s article centres on the emotional nature of the case and the strain that this must be placing Gerry McCann under. This is achieved through several words from a similar lexical field being present within the article, all of which highlight this emotional aspect. These include words such as “emotionally”, “distraught”, “fear”, “very upset”, “under great strain” and “visibly upset” (Appendix 10), the inclusion of which evokes sympathy and support from the reader because it excuses and accounts for his behaviour. This is in complete contrast with The Daily Telegraph article which also contains a lexical field but one which is likely to have a very different effect on the reader. The words and phrases in this article come from a common field which suggests someone who is short tempered or even violent. These include “storms out”, “lost his cool”, “mood turned sour”, “snapped”, “glaring” and “walked off” (Appendix 11: 1) all of which paint a negative image of Gerry McCann.

Working similarly to this is the effect of words such as “apologised” and “defended” (Appendix 11: 1) which appear in the article. These words presume that Gerry McCann has done something wrong for which he needs to make an apology and this presupposition or “implicit claim embedded

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Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

within the explicit meaning of a text” (Richardson, 2007: 63), clearly positions the article as also taking this view.

The length of the two articles also reveals the viewpoint that is being adopted. The Sun article is much shorter (131 words) than The Daily Telegraph article (558 words) and although articles in tabloids are often shorter than those in broadsheets the difference in coverage is pronounced. The short length of the Sun’s article reveals that they do not consider the story that important, whereas the lengthy report in The Daily Telegraph echoes the gravity with which they are treating the story and gives it importance.

Once Gerry and Kate McCann were officially declared arguidos, stories in the British press became markedly more critical but most articles continued to portray this criticism in a subtle way to avoid law suits for defamation of character or libel. Highly evaluative lexis is often used to make subtle value judgements about Gerry and Kate McCann and their actions at this time. Their decision to leave Portugal was generally portrayed negatively in the British press, as can be illustrated by an article from The Daily Telegraph. The opening sentence of the item reads “Kate and Gerry McCann left Portugal today – just 48 hours after they were declared official suspects in the hunt for their missing daughter Madeleine” (Appendix 12: 1). Ideologically loaded phases such as “just 48 hours after” connotes that this is an unusually short amount of time to be leaving the country after being made suspects. This is further suggested in this opening statement by the decision to write the time in hours not days,

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Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

making it seem like an even shorter period of time. This combines to create the feeling that the McCanns are acting in a manner that is unusual or suspicious.

This suspicious undertone is further developed in the following paragraph which states that “the couple caught the early morning easyjet flight” (Appendix 12: 1). The vocabulary choice of this clause connotes images of leaving in the dead of night and sneaking away without being seen – both of which are actions usually associated with guilty people who have something to hide. This is again implied in the clause by the verb “caught” which suggests the decision was unplanned and hastily made. Other phrases in the article such as “just two days since” and “despite their status as suspects” (Appendix 12: 1) further adds to the subtle suggestion being developed throughout the article questioning Gerry and Kate McCann’s reasons for leaving Portugal and also whether or not they should be allowed to leave.

An article in the Times, printed on the same day, also contains this same theme. The article states that the McCann’s had previously insisted they would return to Portugal if requested by police but their decision to consult a British expert in extradition law has led to speculation that they may fight an extradition order (Appendix ??: 2) This comment criticises the decision made by Gerry and Kate McCann to return home in several ways. By stating that the McCann’s had ‘previously insisted’ that they would return to Portugal creates the presumption that they are now not going to return, even although there is a quotation, printed later in the article, from a family friend insisting that they would return if required. However by

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Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

juxtapositioning this presupposition next to the detail that they have contacted an extradition lawyer, firmly suggest to the reader that they would not only fight an extradition order but also that they are likely to receive one.

This point is reinforced by the expansion of the point in the next paragraph which provides more details about the lawyer, including the fact that he has previously represented “Chilean dictator General Pinochet in his battle to avoid extradition on charges of torture and human rights abuses” (Appendix 12: 2). This additional detail to the narrative is not necessary but its inclusion serves to create a link between the General Pinochet and Madeleine McCann’s parents. These very negative connotations being associated with the McCanns are intensified by the loaded dysphemisms “dictator”, “torture” and “abuses”. This extreme language is consequently attached to the McCanns through the associations being forged, not in a literal sense, that Gerry or Kate McCann are dictators, but rather that the negative connotations conjured by such terms are associated with them to emphasise their culpability.

Other articles apply much more subtle connotations to suggest that Gerry and Kate McCann may be involved. One article from The Daily Telegraph opens with the statement that the Madeleine McCann case has been “subject to claim, counter-claim, conjecture and scurrilous rumour” (Appendix 15: 1) and continues to say that the article is going to piece together the “known facts about the fateful night, as reported by the McCanns themselves” (Appendix 15: 1). These statements appear to support Gerry and Kate McCann by not only giving them a voice and telling the story from their angle but by claiming to only report

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Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

the facts. However, subtle implications are made throughout the article which suggest that Gerry and Kate McCann may be lying. For example it is reported in the article that around nine o’clock “Gerry McCann left the table to check on his children, who were all sleeping soundly, he says” (Appendix 15:1). The addition of ‘he says’ at the end of the clause completely undermines his statement. Since the phrase is not needed to confirm agency, as this is clearly foregrounded at the beginning of the clause, its only purpose seems to be to bring doubt on his assertion. ‘He says’ can be seen as a subtler way of saying ‘so he says’, a phrase which is used to doubt the validity of another speaker’s utterance. By adding ‘he says’ to the end of this clause the article is discreetly encouraging the reader to question Gerry McCanns statement.

The article also uses various contradictions to suggest that the information given by the McCanns is flawed. For example, the article comments that the McCanns said their children were checked on by themselves and also other members of the party. However, this is immediately contradicted by Mrs Webster, Fiona Payne’s mother who was also on holiday with the families, who claimed that each couple was responsible for their own children. This contradiction raises questions as to the validity of Gerry and Kate McCann’s statement and suggests that they have lied about how often they checked on their children. The article does not mention, however, that Mrs Webster was the only adult within the party that did not have young children and so therefore was unlikely to know the arrangements made between the other couples. There are several other contradictions within the article (highlighted in the appendix) all of

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Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

which similarly cast doubt on the validity of the McCanns evidence. However, possible explanations for these discrepancies are not pointed out in the article.

The representation of Gerry and Kate McCann is even more complex with Kate McCann often being represented differently from her husband. Immediately after Madeleine McCanns disappearance the British press concentrated on Kate rather than Gerry McCann. This is typical in cases where family is involved as it conforms to gender stereotypes, highlighted in feminist critiques, where “the central icon of the caring person within western culture is the figure of the mother” (Macdonald, 1995: 133). This can also be illustrated by the headline “Mother’s appeal: Please do not hurt her” (Appendix 2: 1) which emphasises the female’s role as the matriarch and carer of the family. This is further emphasised in the article with phrases such as “emotional appeal”, “faltering voice”, “tearful” and “broke down” (Appendix 2: 1) all from a shared lexical field which embraces the social stereotype.

Gender inequality is further portrayed in the British Press through the naming of Gerry and Kate McCann. Identification is important because “the way that people are named in news discourse can have a significant impact on the way in which they are viewed” (Richardson, 2007: 49). An article from The Daily Telegraph printed the day after Madeleine’s disappearance describes her parents as “Gerald, a doctor, and Kate McCann” (Appendix 1: 2). The article chooses to omit Kate McCann’s occupation even although she too is a doctor. This conforms to gender stereotypes where women are often identified in their

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Representations of Gerry and Kate McCann

family roles, while men are related to their job or occupation, their “identity outside the home and family” (Fowler, 1991: 101). This is also reflected by the vast majority of articles which say ‘Kate and Gerry McCann’, placing the female first, highlighting her grief.

This inequality between genders is particularly illustrated in later articles where the McCann’s are no longer seen as one collective agent but instead Kate McCann is singled out for blame. This focus of the media’s attention is again due to her role as mother but not, as in the earlier reports, to play on the stereotype of the emotional mother but instead to intensify the horror of a woman, and worse a mother, possibly committing a crime involving children as barrister Helena Kenedy comments that there is a tendency “to perceive women criminals as more culpable than men” (Macdonald, 1995: 130). This is illustrated in an article in the Times which puts far more emphasis on Kate McCann’s supposed role in the disappearance of her daughter than Gerry McCann. The headline of the article, “Police push for charges against Madeleine McCann’s mother as case goes to prosecutor” (Appendix 13: 1), clearly emphasises Kate McCann’s role and does not mention that Gerry McCann has also been declared as an official suspect. In fact, Gerry McCann is not mentioned in the article until the forth paragraph and even here it merely mentions that he has been made a suspect. This is in comparison with the previous paragraphs which clearly outline the case against his wife but does not mention the role that Gerry McCann allegedly plays. This distinctly unequal portrayal of Gerry and Kate McCann is one that lends itself to a feminist critique of gender representation.

39


Conclusion

Conclusion

From my analysis of data collected within this study I have illustrated, through the application of CDA, that discourse often serves to highlight specific kinds of conscious or unconscious linguistic choices. This is particularly relevant when looking at the Madeleine McCann case, where the media was presented with a story where there was no resolution and a lack of a clear villain figure. The intense media attention, however, demanded that their should be a villain figure to comdemn and this led many papers to rely on rumor and hearsay for their content. The British press satisfied this lack of negative focus by turning to other groups and individuals to fill the role. Due to the lack of evidence in the case these negative representations were required to be carried out subtly to avoid law suits. By applying CDA I explored these covert implications and representations presented by the language use of the press and considers their strong impact on a reader.

The representaions of each group change throughout the course of the study relating to developments in the case but also to whom the article wants to vilify. For example, the Portuguese police are presented in a more favourable manner when Gerry and Kate McCann were made suspects, not because the British press wanted to portray them in a good light but instead to highlight the 40


Conclusion

negative image of the McCanns. Language choice and sentence structure enable the various articles studied to suggest certain attitudes and judgments about groups or individuals in a subtle manner. This not only mitigates any blame that can be attributed to the press for the material they are printing but it also means that negative connotations are posed in such a way that they are generally taken for granted and accepted by the reader. The subtle nature in which characters are represented makes it less obvious to the reader that identities within the articles are being constructed and manipulated and that, consequently, the reader’s own personal opinion of these characters is also being shaped by the text.

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Appendices

Appendices

These appendices are arranged in date order and contain the news articles referenced in this study.

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Appendices

Appendix 1 The Daily Telegraph 5th May 2007 By staff and agencies

Three year-old feared abducted in Portugal The parents of a British toddler who has gone missing while on holiday in Portugal say they fear she has been abducted. Three-year-old Madeline McCann disappeared last night from her parent’s rented apartment in the Western Algarve, while they dined nearby. Sniffer dogs have been brought in by Portuguese detectives to comb the Mark Warner resort where the girl was staying and the nearby seaside village of Praia da Luz. A family friend said the child’s parents, Gerald and Kate McCann, were certain she had been kidnapped. Jill Renwick, told GMTV: “They were just watching the hotel room and going back every halfhour and the shutters had been broken open and they had gone into the room and taken Madeleine. They went out about eight, went back in at nine, they were fine, went back in at 10 and she was gone.” She described the missing girl as a “very pretty, very blonde three-year-old” and said the couple, from Leicester, also had twins. Ms Renwick said of the holiday: “This is the first time they have done this. They are very, very anxious parents and very careful and they chose Mark Warner because it is a family-friendly resort.” The manager of the resort, John Hill said around 60 staff and guests at the complex had searched until 4.30am while local police notified border police, Spanish police and airports. “It was a very emotional and very frantic night and everyone did a fantastic job of getting involved and trying to search the area,” he said. “As you can imagine, Madeleine’s parents are distraught and not doing very well at all.” He said there was no physical evidence that the girl had been abducted from the apartment while they ate at the tapas restaurant 200 yards away. “It’s still questionable as to whether it’s an abduction,” he said. “We are hoping that Madeleine is found as soon as possible and safe and well. Everybody here is just wishing that she is found as soon as possible.” A Mark Warner spokesman said counsellors are being flown out to the resort, which the firm has run for two years, to support the McCanns. Members of their family would also be flown out if required. He said: “Our priority is to find the girl and to make sure that the parents are OK and there are masses of people working on that. “Our staff are looking after them at the moment in whatever way they can but we can only imagine how awful it is for them.

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Appendices

“We are all hoping that she is asleep under a bush somewhere and we will find her soon.” He said the apartment the family were staying in was surrounded by other apartments, all of which have “quite sophisticated” locks on the doors. Guests are being asked if they saw anyone acting suspiciously in the area, he said, adding that Mark Warner has never had cases of missing or abducted children before. “We are hoping it’s not that, though,” he said. “It’s the last thing we want but we have to investigate all avenues.” He said Mark Warner offers families a baby-sitting service where they can drop off their children for the night. “Those facilities were available but for whatever reason they were not being used,” he said. Madeleine lives with her parents, Gerald, a doctor, and Kate McCann, and younger sibling twins in Rothley, Leicestershire. Neighbour Penny Noble said: “We are absolutely devastated. They are a really nice family and good neighbours. “They are delightful. We see them take their bikes up and down and going for walks. “Madeleine is a very happy-go-lucky little girl”. It is understood Madeleine is due to start at school in September.

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Appendix 2 The Daily Telegraph 10th May 2007 By Paul Willis, Richard Edwards and Fiona Govan

Mother's appeal: 'Please do not hurt her' The mother of the missing three-year-old Madeleine McCann made an emotional appeal to her daughter's kidnapper today, telling whoever had taken her "please, please do not hurt her." In a television appeal Kate McCann, supported by her husband Gerald, said in faltering voice: "Please let us know where to find Madeleine or put her in a place of safety and tell somebody where." Madeleine, from Leicester, disappeared from the family's holiday apartment in Praia da Luz, Algarve, on Thursday night. Her parents were eating dinner a short distance away from the apartment and returned on a regular check to discover their daughter was gone. It emerged today that police are investigating the possibility the toddler was abducted by a British man. According to reports in Portuguese daily newspaper, Correio da Manha, police suspect a British man may have been behind the abduction. Broadcaster RTP also interviewed Barra da Costa, a former inspector in the Judicial Police, PJ, who said that contacts in the investigation team had told him that a working description detectives are using suggested someone of English appearance. Clutching a picture of Madeleine and her favourite soft toy, Mrs McCann today appealed directly to the person who had taken her daughter. "We would like to say a few words to the person who is with our Madeleine, or has been with Madeleine," she said. "Madeleine is a beautiful, bright, sunny and caring little girl. "She is so special. Please, please, do not hurt her. Please do not scare her, please let us know where to find Madeleine or put her in place of safety and tell somebody where. "We beg you to let Madeleine come home." Portuguese police later appeared to distance themselves from reports that a British man was being saught in connection with the kidnapping, with an unnamed police official telling Reuters it was "pure speculation". Yesterday Mrs McCann, 39, a Catholic, led tearful prayers as hopes faded in the search for her daughter. She attended a special Roman Catholic mass in Praia da Luz with her husband and broke down as she was given five pink and red roses at the church. Police sources said the suspect was most likely watching the apartment for some time and knew the parents left their children as they went for dinner. Local media are pessimistic about the police investigation as it was revealed that detectives do not have a known suspect in mind. It was also claimed that Portuguese border police were not informed of Madeleine's

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disappearance until 12 hours after the abduction, giving a suspect time to get across the border into Spain. Yesterday police said they believed Madeleine was alive and still in Portugal. They have not elaborated on how they came to these conclusions. However it is believed they are working on the assumption that she is alive only because they have yet to find any evidence to suggest she is dead, rather than because of specific intelligence. Thousands of empty, private holiday homes in the resort are making the search more difficult. Police want to search each one in case it is being used as a den by the abductor.

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Appendix 3 The Daily Telegraph 12th May 2007 By Martina Smit, Neil Tweedie and Richard Edwards

'Mark Maddy's birthday with renewed search' Madeleine McCann is - would have been - four years old today. No one except her kidnappers can be sure of the correct wording. For her parents, Kate and Gerry, it is the one simple, awful uncertainty. The McCann family should have returned to their home in the Leicestershire village of Rothley last weekend after a relaxing stay on the Algarve. This afternoon, Madeleine should have been enjoying her Dr Who birthday cake with friends - she loved Dr Who. Instead of preparing for the happy event, the McCanns released a statement this morning. They are the leading players in a drama acted out by other parents only in nightmares. "Today is our daughter Madeleine's fourth birthday," they said. "We would like to mark today by asking people to redouble their efforts to help find Madeleine." The huge effort this far and the daily offers of support kept them strong and gave them hope, they added. "On Madeleine's birthday, please keep looking, please keep praying, please help bring Madeleine home." Despite an official news blackout on the investigation because of Portuguese law, there has been intense police activity in recent days. Senior detectives have been working late into the night at the area's police headquarters in the town of Portimao. Some have even been sleeping at the office. Nine people, all thought to be British, have been questioned - including the McCanns, who were re-interviewed into the early hours of yesterday morning. Three of the tourists - a man and two women - were interrogated for nearly eight hours, the Correio da Manha daily reported. Quoting unnamed criminal police sources, the paper said the British tourists at the resort held "the key to the case" and that the abduction appeared to have been organised from Britain. The Britons are likely to have been shown CCTV images that centre around a blonde woman. Residents of the nearby village Burgau said they were shown stills of two separate groups of three people - both including a blonde woman. In one case, she was with a man of about 40 with shoulder-length brown hair and an older woman - perhaps in her 60s. The second set of stills featured a blonde woman with two men, both with short hair. Police also asked about a couple who stayed in an apartment in Burgau, again including a blonde woman. Sniffer dogs have been back in action around the apartment in Praia da Luz where Madeleine was snatched. According to local reports, the dogs returned to the same nearby apartment several times, prompting police to question the couple who lives there. Meanwhile Chancellor Gordon Brown voiced sympathy for the McCanns as he spoke on the campaign trail in Gillingham, Kent. "Every parent I know will be thinking about Maddie's family," he said.

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"Every parent will be thinking about what they can do to help the parents and will be sympathising with them in this hour of need. My thoughts, like the thoughts of all parents, are with Maddie's parents." Today a new reward of £1.5 million was offered by a group of businessmen, celebrities and a newspaper for information leading to Madeleine's safe return. Portuguese police endorsed the reward. Virgin tycoon Sir Richard Branson, BHS boss Sir Philip Green are among those who brought the total amount to £2.5 million after the owner of a Scottish spa offered £1 million earlier this week. Sir Philip said: "My wife Tina and I have children, and anything we can do to help to bring this beautiful little girl back we will of course do without hesitation. We are praying for Madeleine's safe return and can't imagine what Kate and Gerry are going through at the moment." Bill Kenwright, chairman of Everton Football Club, also contributed. Photos of Madeleine in an Everton shirt were published earlier this week in bid to raise support. Madeleine's father welcomed the offer. "We are very happy and pleased with what you are doing," he said. "Anything that can be done to publicise that Madeleine is missing and help with the search is very welcome." Last night the McCanns, showing the strain of more than a week of turmoil, were honoured with spontaneous applause by villagers after a packed late night vigil in the village church in Praia da Luz. Some 250 people attended the service, most of them wearing green clothes or carrying olive branches as a sign of hope. Madeleine was sleeping between her younger brother Sean and his twin sister Amelie when she was taken in the night from her bed. Her parents had been dining nearby, checking on the children regularly. Her abductors must have been watching. That was nine days ago. For the McCanns, the period since their terrible discovery has been an eternity. Yesterday Mr McCann, a cardiologist, looked tired and emotionally drained as he addressed a press conference in Praia da Luz. But he said he and his wife remained "positive and focused" on the investigation into their daughter's disappearance, promising to leave "no stone unturned" in the search for their little girl. With each passing day the chances of a happy outcome dwindle. Even as Mr McCann spoke, the Portuguese authorities were scaling down the search for his daughter in the scrub around Praia da Luz. Success now depends upon very good detective work, a lucky break or both. Fairly or unfairly, there is doubt about the capacity of the Portuguese police to rise to the challenge. Mrs McCann, a GP, watched in silence as her husband spoke. She looked gaunt and utterly distraught - friends warning yesterday that they were concerned for her wellbeing after more than a week of near intolerable strain. Back in Britain, a planned party for Madeleine at the Glasgow home of her uncle John McCann was postponed today until her safe return. "There was no point in having a birthday party without Madeleine, but the party has only been postponed, not cancelled," Madeleine's uncle said. "We are going to have it when she comes back and then it will be a massive party."

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Near Madeleine's former home in Queniborough, Leicestershire, close friends released 40 balloons today - including a pink one with a moving note from Kate and Gerry McCann. Read out by Madeleine's great uncle Bryan Kennedy, the message simply said: "Mummy and Daddy, Sean and Amelie - We'll see you soon," and ended with two kisses.

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Appendix 4 The Times 8th June 2007 By Davis Brown and Thomas Cat

Madeleine officers defend their regular two-hour lunches Senior officers involved in the search for Madeleine McCann have been seen regularly going out for two-hour lunches. As her parents completed 13 gruelling interviews and meetings with politicians in Berlin on Wednesday, two of the leading officers in the case were seen enjoying a leisurely lunch. Chief Inspector Olegario Sousa and Goncalo Amaral, the head of the regional Policia Judiciaria, joined two other men at a speciality fish restaurant called Carvi a few minutes’ walk from police headquarters. A fellow diner said the men laughed and joked as the McCanns appeared on a television news broadcast. “They asked for the Portuguese TV news to be switched on and sat at the table watching it,” he said. “Madeleine’s parents had given a press conference in Berlin . . . The police were laughing and joking among themselves while it was on. They seemed to be sharing some sort of in-joke. I thought that laughing like that in public was in really poor taste.” The party shared a bottle of white wine and there was what appeared to be a bottle of whisky on the table during the lunch, which lasted almost two hours. The fellow diner said: “Someone on another table seemed to know them and joked about them having two-hour lunches and knocking back Johnnie Walker Black [Label].” Mr Sousa, the official spokesman for the investigation, defended the officers when asked if he thought it was acceptable for them to drink wine and whisky in their lunchtime while involved in such a major investigation. “It is very, very sad but a person’s free time is for lunch,” he said. “The persons are in charge in the day, they are working in the day but they must eat and drink, it is normal. I drink what I want to drink when I can drink.” Asked whether it was normal for police to drink whisky at lunchtime, he replied: “I don’t have to answer that because the persons during lunchtime do what they want to do. It is free time. They are not working at that time.” When told that he had been seen drinking whisky and wine with colleagues, he replied: “I still say to you what I do in my free time is only responsible and in my interest. It is my lunchtime. What does it have to do with you what I drink or what I eat? Have you seen anyone drunk? Have you seen any action deterred by that?” Madeleine’s family reacted with shock at news of the police’s behaviour. Her grandmother, Eileen McCann, 67, said: “I’m not happy about that. My worries are for Kate and Gerry.” The missing girl’s aunt, Philomena, said: “If it were detectives from Scotland Yard there would be absolute uproar. But we have to let them get on with their work because that’s all we have to rely on.”

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Appendix 5 The Daily Telegraph 8th August 2007 By Richard Edwards

Madeleine McCann: Blood found in bedroom Police investigating the disappearance of Madeleine McCann are carrying out tests on blood traces found inside her apartment bedroom, it has emerged. The dramatic discovery was made by British detectives brought in to launch a review of evidence, and led to renewed criticism of an "inept" Portuguese investigation. The British team used specially-trained sniffer dogs and ultra-violet technology to scan for specks of blood inside the holiday apartment in Praia da Luz where Madeleine disappeared 96 days ago. Tests will now establish whether the traces are those of the four-year-old. vThe review, led by Leicestershire police, also focused this weekend on the home of Robert Murat, and is expected to be the final stage in clearing him of his status as the only formal suspect in the case. Samples have been sent away for urgent DNA testing and detectives believe the discovery could "change the direction" of the investigation. A Portuguese police source said: "If the results are positive, this will open up a completely new line of inquiry". The tiny traces of blood - invisible to the naked eye - were found at a low height on the wall in the bedroom of the McCann holiday apartment at the Ocean Club. Specially trained cocker spaniel sniffer dogs, which are able to detect blood up to seven years old, located an area of the bedroom in which to search. The windows were blacked out using a tarpaulin and a specialist ultraviolet torch pinpointed the specks of blood. Police sources played down reports in a Portuguese newspaper that the blood had been identified as Madeleine's. Previous forensic tests have taken a month to return from the national laboratory. The potential breakthrough led to immediate criticism of Portuguese police for missing key forensic evidence, and failing to bring in outside expertise earlier in the investigation. The apartment was searched this weekend even through it had been "released" as a crime scene by Portuguese authorities on June 11, cleaned and rented out to other families. Former detectives are mystified as to why it has taken more than three months to make the discovery. Mark Williams-Thomas, a former Surrey detective and now a leading child protection expert, said: "I am staggered that it has taken so long. "The police should have sealed the apartment immediately, on day one and then conducted a thorough forensic examination- this would have taken days and would have involved analysis

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for fluids and fibres and involved stripping the apartment bare. "Even if this proves not to be significant, it should have been discovered in the first few days and eliminated. This shows just how inept the Portuguese police were at carrying out the initial forensics tests. "Just imagine the impact it will have on Gerry and Kate so many months on - to find that something so vital was missed right at the beginning. "It is great that British police have finally carried out a review but you have to ask why has it taken three months for it to happen? "I called for a review within the first month, especially because of the relative lack of experience of the Portuguese team working on this. "It’s astounding that it has taken this long to bring in specialist help. It makes a mockery of the Portuguese investigation." British police dog handlers had offered expertise to Portuguese authorities in May. They were only invited to join a "review of evidence" - which is now commonplace in high profile investigations in Britain - last week. A two-day "final" search of Mr Murat’s villa - 150 yards away from where Madeleine disappeared - uncovered no new evidence. As many as 10 officers had spent Saturday clearing thick vegetation. They began digging today and two British police technicians used specialist "Pulsar" scanning equipment to detect whether any earth had been "disturbed" in the past few months. Mr Murat, 33, has been the only official "arguido", or suspect, since May 10, when he was detained by police. He was questioned for a second time last month but detectives have never found any evidence to arrest him formally. Members of the Murat family today drove four cars shared by Mr Murat with the family to a police headquarters for them to be searched again by the sniffer dogs. Mr Murat has welcomed the searches, which he believes will be the last step in proving his innocence. His mother, Jennifer Murat, 71, insisted: "He is going to be cleared. He is innocent." It has also emerged that police are also investigating possible links between Madeleine’s case and a suspected child abductor in Switzerland who committed suicide last week.

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Appendix 6 The Daily Telegraph 9th August 2007 By Richard Edwards

Madeleine McCann's parents deny suspicions The parents of Madeleine McCann last night reacted with fury to reports suggesting that they have become suspects in their daughter's disappearance. Several Portuguese newspapers claimed yesterday that detectives now believe the four-year-old girl was killed in her bedroom, either deliberately or by accident. It comes after police, using sniffer dogs, found traces of blood on the wall of the apartment bedroom where she disappeared 97 days ago. However, Chief Insp Olegario Sousa, a Portuguese police spokesman, said last night: "The family are not suspects. This is the official position." Gerry and Kate McCann hit back, insisting that Madeleine was abducted and reiterating their belief that she was still alive. Mr McCann, who could hardly hide his anger, said: "We're not naive, but on numerous occasions the Portuguese police have assured us they were looking for Madeleine alive and not Madeleine having been murdered. I don't know of any information that's changed that." Mrs McCann added: "Last week when we met with the police they said, 'We are looking for a living child.' " Separately, in a magazine interview published yesterday, Mrs McCann also said: "It is not us who committed the crime, but people will always criticise." Mr and Mrs McCann are expected to be re-interviewed as part of a review of evidence by British detectives. A car used by the couple was taken for forensic testing on Monday, even though it had been hired five weeks after Madeleine disappeared. The parents face a two-week wait for DNA test results to return to see if the blood found in the room matches their daughter's. However, it is known that the sniffer dogs can detect blood up to seven years old, and that hundreds of visitors have stayed in the two-bedroom apartment in Praia da Luz in recent years. Asked about the discovery, Mr McCann said he could not comment on the specific details but added he was aware "that developments were going to happen". He said: "We do know some information that, one, we're not allowed to tell, and, two, we would never ever put anything into the public domain that might put the investigation of Madeleine at risk." Mr McCann said the fact that he and his wife had come under scrutiny from detectives was "difficult" but insisted they were "more than happy" to co-operate. With the only formal suspect in the case, Robert Murat, expected to be cleared of his "arguido" status within days, the Portuguese media has switched its focus to the McCanns and their

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friends. Diario de Noticas, a tabloid newspaper, claimed yesterday that police were "definite" that it was not a kidnap and that Madeleine died in her room. A source close to the family said: "Kate and Gerry are well aware what these reports are inferring and that is that either they deliberately or by accident killed Madeleine. Gerry is absolutely livid about it all." The Portuguese reports have also turned their attention to the group the McCanns were on holiday with. One paper even suggested that they were now "under surveillance" in the UK, reports which were denied as "laughable" by Portuguese and British authorities. Meanwhile, results of DNA tests on a bottle used by a girl resembling Madeleine in Belgium are expected to be returned tomorrow. Police in Switzerland are also liaising with Interpol to see if there was a link with a Swiss paedophile who was holidaying in the Algarve when Madeleine disappeared. He committed suicide last weekend.

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Appendix 7 The Daily Telegraph 14th August 2007 By Richard Edwards

Vigil for Madeleine after 100-day search The parents of Madeleine McCann have marked the 100-day milestone since their daughter's disappearance at a church in Praia da Luz, while friends and family held a quiet vigil for her back in the UK. About 50 people gathered at the Sacred Heart Church in Rothley to say prayers and light candles for Madeleine. Her great uncle, Brian Kennedy, said: "It was a low-key service, which is exactly what we wanted and I think it was very much appreciated. "100 days is a landmark of sorts," he said. "At 50 days we hoped at the time that we would not be here another 50 days later but here we are and so it goes on. I hope the investigation produces a result at the end." Mr Kennedy said he hoped today would also mark an end to the high level of media attention focused on Madeleine's parents. He added: "It's been a very hectic up and down time. I do hope they won't continue to be subject to the same intense barrage of publicity after this weekend because I think they need a bit of quiet time. “I know they will continue with their efforts for missing children in general, as well as Madeleine." Kate and Gerry McCann joined a church congregation in Portugal to pray for her safe return. Today there were unconfirmed reports in a Portuguese newspaper that Madeleine died before her parents went to dinner on the night of May 3. Last night the McCanns voiced their anger and frustration that after 100 days of searching for their daughter, Portuguese police are back at "square one". Detectives leading the investigation have told them that Robert Murat, the only formal suspect, had been ruled out and would be released from his status of "arguido" shortly. Friends of Kate and Gerry McCann said last night that the couple felt as if the police had "not got a clue" and they had been wasting their time in the three months since Madeleine's disappearance. The McCanns also felt that police had changed their "tone" towards them and they were now being treated more "formally". They had told friends that they did not feel under suspicion, but were frustrated that their

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questions were going unanswered and that detectives seemed no closer to finding Madeleine. A friend said: "It looks like they are back to square one. It is very frustrating for Kate and Gerry. They have done and will continue to do all they can to co-operate with detectives but it appears to everyone that police have not got a clue." The police have been blamed for a string of blunders from the very start of their investigation. It is believed that a small team of British officers called in to help their Portuguese counterparts have now finished helping with a second review of evidence and are heading back to the UK. Privately, one of the Portuguese detectives leading the investigation told colleagues "not to get excited" about evidence uncovered this week by British sniffer dogs, including specks of blood from the apartment bedroom. British sources were "astonished" that they uncovered potential new clues that had been missed first time, but they fear the evidence will have been compromised because of the delay in calling them in. Police have finally managed to track down all 490 people who were staying in the Ocean Club complex when Madeleine disappeared, and interviewed them in person. But seemingly no leads have been thrown up. Mr and Mrs McCann were called to police headquarters on Wednesday for their weekly meeting with detectives. They were taken aback by the officers' "more formal" approach. Mr McCann said yesterday: "There has been a shift in the investigation and the way it was proceeding previously. If that means we are starting with a new slate, we've always said all scenarios are possible and we have always done everything to co-operate." But in a separate interview he said: "I think, as parents, if there is evidence then we need to know about it." Meanwhile, the McCanns continued to push their campaign to raise awareness of Madeleine's plight. The US First Lady, Laura Bush, the rugby player Jonny Wilkinson and the footballer David Beckham recorded messages of support for a new YouTube channel devoted to missing children. It attracted 15,000 hits in the first two hours. In a video on the site, at uk.youtube.com/dontyouforgetaboutme, Mrs Bush appealed for people to watch the videos of missing children and look out for them in their communities. A message of support from Wilkinson will also be played at England's international against France today and appeals will be screened before every Premiership match as the new football season starts. Meanwhile, speculation continued in the Portuguese press yesterday. It was claimed that police wanted to question a British man who was on holiday in Praia da Luz at the same time as the McCanns and helped in the initial search for Madeleine. The man arrived in Portugal on April 28, the same day as the McCanns, and left on May 6, the day they should have flown home, according to the Portuguese newspaper Jornal de Noticias. Police have recovered an Opal Corsa the 40-year-old rented in Faro, about 60 miles from Praia da Luz, it was claimed. A Portuguese police spokesman refused to confirm or deny whether the man was a potential suspect. But sources close to the family said they believed he had been ruled out weeks ago.

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Appendix 8 The Sunday Telegraph 14th August 2007 By Olga Craig

Madeleine McCann search gets nasty The Portuguese press and the people of Praia da Luz have turned against Kate and Gerry McCann, and the couple are becoming increasingly critical of the local police. The hunt for a missing child has turned into a bitter war. Olga Craig reports from the front line The persistent rapping on the door of the Portuguese villa that is now home for Kate and Gerry McCann in Praia da Luz was becoming more urgent and much, much louder. Inside, Kate, who was nervously preparing to be interviewed by a British reporter and television crew, was growing more and more upset. Outside, she knew from bitter experience, was a squabbling scrum of Portuguese press, angrily demanding to be let in. For the distraught and increasingly frail mother, who today faces the 101st day since her fouryear-old daughter, Madeleine, disappeared, it must surely have been one of the lowest moments in what had already been an unbearable week.

In the days before, the Portuguese newspapers had printed a series of scurrilous stories about the couple. With each day, the articles became more and more lurid: all a mangled fabrication of untruths and innuendoes. That morning they had hinted heavily that the Portuguese police investigating Madeleine's abduction on May 3 had, for some time, stopped treating the case as one of likely kidnap. Traces of blood and hairs - only discovered that week when British police were finally allowed to carry out forensic examinations in the apartment, three months after first offering to do so now led them to believe that the little girl may have been the victim of an accident, or that she had been murdered in the apartment. Now the local press were demanding that Kate explain why she and husband, both doctors, had left Madeleine and her two-year-old twin brother and sister, Sean and Amelie, alone while they dined at a tapas bar, five minutes' walk away, on the night she vanished. When Justine McGuinness, who co-ordinates the couple's publicity, went out to try to calm the situation, she was met with hostile questions. Infuriated by her answers, Paolo Marcilemo, the editor of Correio da Manha, which has printed the most provocative stories, said later: "We don't like to be patronised. She basically told us if we were very good little boys and girls we might get an interview at some stage." One of his colleagues was more blunt. "They want all the sympathy, but they tell us local reporters nothing. They left their kids alone. Why won't they explain exactly what happened that night? Who did the checks and exactly when did they do them? Everyone knows they think our police are inept, even if they don't say so in public. And the McCanns never speak to us. We have nothing to lose by hassling them. " There is no denying that the McCanns' relationship with the Portuguese press and police has

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become increasingly strained. Last week's confrontation was just one more example of how the couple, who were swamped with sympathy by the townspeople of Praia da Luz in the early months of the hunt for their daughter, are now under attack from that same community. Only the day before, Martyn Smith, a local barrister, condemned the couple in a letter to the Algarve's English language newspaper, the Portugal News. "The DPP should consider if there is a case to answer," he thundered, alluding to the fact that the couple had left their children alone. He questioned, too, the McCanns' decision to remain in Portugal three months after Madeleine's disappearance. "Why do they go to other European countries but not to the UK?" he asked. "It may be fear of prosecution."

The all-too-sad truth is that the wealth of goodwill that once buoyed the McCanns is turning against them. It is an open secret in Praia da Luz that, while in public they never criticise the Portuguese police investigation, in private the couple have their doubts about the manner in which Guilhermino Encarnação is heading the inquiry. His blunders have been well documented and the McCanns prefer to deal with Luis Neves, the third detective involved in the case. Even Encarnação's own officers joke that he "prefers long lunches to working". The harsh fact is that the public's compassion is fickle. "People here are finding it all a little tiresome,'' says Sheena Rawcliffe, the managing director of The Resident, the town's English language weekly magazine. "Of course our hearts go out to them. But people are asking the blunt question: why did they leave the children alone? Why remain here? The McCanns need closure, but so, too, do the people of Luz. A backlash has begun and I believe it could get ugly before long." Local business people continue to pay lip service to recognising the trauma suffered by the McCanns, but they point out that the sustained media eye on the resort is harming them. Hotels, restaurants and bars say takings are down and blame it on the negative image the town has. "The feeling is that they have outstayed their welcome,'' one said. "Everyone here has contributed to the find Madeleine fund but it bothers us that it is not a charity. And that is because it is solely aimed at one child. Only when her case is resolved would the money go towards other missing children." The McCanns, of course, see things differently. "I am not sure I will ever be able to return to our Rothley home," Kate admits. "I feel to leave Luz would be to abandon Madeleine. I can never, ever do that. " She insists she will not be bullied into leaving. But she must also be aware that the expatriate community has also become increasingly angry about the vilification of Robert Murat, the only suspect in the case. They don't blame the McCanns for the police's persistent interest in him - they again searched his house and cars and dug up his garden last week - but most believe he is innocent. Yesterday, as the McCanns made that now so familiar walk to the Lady of the Light church in Praia da Luz (which has become a macabre tourist attraction) for a service to mark "one hundred days of hope", the nearby beaches were packed with holiday-makers. Few even knew of the service.

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"How can I put this kindly?" asked Sidney Houston, who is holidaying in the resort with his wife, Alison, and four young children. "Don't get me wrong, if one of my brood vanished I would never get over it. But we save for our holidays. I didn't come here to be surrounded by doom and gloom. "That isn't the McCanns' fault. God knows the burden they are under. But I can't make it my family's burden, too. Maybe the harsh truth is that we don't want to be constantly reminded of the horrors of the modern world. We don't want to be reminded there are paedophiles out there. You just try to keep your family safe. What you don't do is leave them alone. "The McCanns are attracting criticism because they refuse to divulge the exact details and timings of what happened on the night Madeleine disappeared. They are doing so because, under Portuguese law, such information would be prejudicial to the inquiry. But hasn't the time now come for them to flout the law and clarify these details - in the hope that it somehow might help the investigation. Who is going to prosecute them for breaking a privacy law when their child's welfare is at stake?" While Mr Houston's view may be harsh it is, in Praia da Luz, commonly held. The McCanns, understandably and to their credit, continue to cling to the hope that one day soon they will return to Rothley with all three of their children. That one night soon they will put Madeleine to bed in her own bedroom, painted in her own choice of shocking pink. Their refusal to believe that she may be dead is borne of a deep religious conviction and their belief that mankind is humane. It may be the people of Praia da Luz who sadly might convince them otherwise.

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Appendix 9 The Sun 23rd August 2007 By Online Reporter

Fury at new Maddie Theory DETECTIVES searching for Madeleine McCann believe she died ACCIDENTALLY in her family’s holiday apartment, it emerged yesterday. The theory was revealed to be the cops’ new favourite sparking fresh anguish for the parents of the missing four-year-old. Sources close to the probe said the three Portuguese detectives leading the hunt had refused to elaborate on what “accidental” means. But it leaves the door wide open to wild speculation that the McCanns or their friends know what happened to the youngster. The new direction for the probe was agreed by investigators Guilhermino Encarnação, Goncal Amaral and Luis Neves days ago. One source said: “They are convinced Madeleine is dead and they are convinced she died in the apartment.The only factor they are not sure about for definite is whether she was murdered or died by accident. “At the moment they are leaning towards her death being a tragic accident.” It comes as research for the Find Madeleine Campaign found 97 per cent of MEPs want an EUwide sex offenders register. Politicians across Europe want crimes involving children to be treated the same way in all member states. Nearly nine out of 10 MEPs would support the introduction of a common EU policy on child abduction cases. The research also looked at attitudes of British MPs, 84% of whom believed sex offenders should be tracked as they move across Europe and forced to register with local police. Almost nine in 10 MPs felt that the UK’s Child Rescue Alert - an emergency scheme to publicise suspected child abductions within hours - should be extended across the EU. Madeleine’s parents ? who have remained in the Praia da Luz resort where Madeleine vanished 112 days ago ? branded the new police theory as “ludicrous”. Mum Kate, 38, of Rothley, Leics, said: “This does a lot of damage to the investigation and to the family.” Husband Gerry, 39, a heart specialist, said: “We can’t give any credit to this. We know the police must investigate all possibilities. “But I want to make this very clear we do not have any doubt about this, we trust our friends implicitly.” Pal Dr Russell O’Brien who was with the McCanns at a restaurant near the apartment where Madeleine vanished slammed reports suggesting cops were poised to arrest him.

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The dad of two spent part of the evening away from the table looking after his own daughter, who was sick. Dr O’Brien, from Exeter, dismissed the arrest claims as “completely untrue and extremely hurtful”. Yesterday Madeleine’s dad admitted for the first time the chances of getting his daughter back are slim. Gerry McCann said: “It’s possible Madeleine is dead, but it is also possible she is alive. “We have done a lot of research into missing children and the percentage of minors who have ever reappeared is very small. “Obviously a very long time has passed. But we will do everything we can to make sure Madeleine does not become a statistic."

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Appendix 10 The Sun 28th August 2007 By Peter Bell

Maddie’s dad in TV walk-out MISSING Madeleine McCann’s father Gerry has emotionally stormed oout of an interview on Spanish television. Gerry looked angry when asked about allegations about traces of blood being found on the walls of the Portuguese apartment Madeleine went missing from. Pulling his microphone from his shirt, the distraught father walked off camera explaining questions like that shoul be addressed to the police and he could not say anything for fear of compromising the investigation. The interviewer – for magazine programme La Noria, on channel Tele Cinco – carried on the interview with Kate McCann who had been seated at Gerry’s side. Kate explained to the interviewer that he was very upset and under great strain. Gerry later returned to finish the interview, but he remained visibly upset.

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Appendix 11 The Daily Telegraph 31st August 2007 By Caroline Gammell

Gerry McCann storms out of TV interview Gerry McCann walked out of an interview on Spanish television after being asked probing questions and left his wife Kate alone in front of the cameras. The 39-year-old cardiologist lost his cool during a tense encounter on a prime-time current affairs programme. When repeatedly questioned about the police investigation into four-year-old Madeleine's disappearance, he stood up, removed his microphone and walked off the set. An exhausted-looking Mrs McCann briefly tried to stop him before shifting uncomfortably in her seat and defending his behaviour. It is the first time that Mr McCann has publicly vented his frustration at the speculation surrounding his daughter's disappearance. The couple, from Rothley, Leics, were interviewed by Jordi Gonzalez on the weekly programme La Noria on Telecinco. Mrs McCann sat holding Madeleine's favourite toy, Cuddle Cat, but the mood turned sour halfway through the interview when Mr McCann was asked about reports that traces of blood were found in the couple's apartment. Gonzalez asked the McCanns: "You were the last people to see Madeleine alive, is that correct?"

Mr McCann replied: "That's part of the investigation and we are not going to divulge anything that might get in the way of the investigation." In response, the presenter said: "The investigation took a new turn this month when traces of blood were discovered in the room. When you heard that how did you react?" It was at this point that Mr McCann snapped and left the room, adding: "You have to talk to the police." Glaring at Gonzalez, he said: "Do you know what? This is all investigation, all these questions are about the investigation and we cannot comment." As he walked off, Mrs McCann reassured the presenter that he had not stepped out of line. "It is just pressure, don't worry," she told him. "It is difficult for him when we are asked about the investigation because we can't talk about it. It is very frustrating. There is so much written that is not true." After calming down, Mr McCann apologised and returned to finish off the interview, which was filmed last Thursday at the family's villa in Praia da Luz, the Algarve resort town where Madeleine disappeared 118 days ago. The full encounter was broadcast on Spanish television on Saturday night. Justine McGuinness, the couple's spokesman, defended Mr McCann. "It was a long interview in a very hot room," she said. "They were asked a series of questions about the investigation despite the fact that all the journalists had been told the McCanns cannot answer questions about it. They are not allowed to under Portuguese law. "Gerry gets frustrated when he gets repeatedly asked about the investigation. He apologised

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when he came back in and he is normally incredibly gracious." But a spokesman for La Noria said the McCanns had been warned about the style of questions that would be asked. Yesterday, the couple were also forced to defend their relationship after Mr McCann attended church in Praia da Luz without his wife on Sunday. She went to an English-speaking service the night before but Mrs McGuinness said Mr McCann did not go then because he had arrived in Portugal late that day after speaking in Edinburgh.

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Appendix 12 The Sunday Telegraph 10th September 2007 By Caroline Gammell, David Harrison and Andrew Alderson

Madeleine McCann's parents leave Portugal Kate and Gerry McCann left Portugal today – just 48 hours after they were declared official suspects in the hunt for their missing daughter Madeleine. The couple caught the early morning easyjet flight from Faro in the Algarve to East Midlands airport with their two-year-old twins Sean and Amelie. They are planning to return home to Rothley in Leicestershire to try and pick up the pieces of their life. It is just two days since they were questioned and named as "arguidos" by detectives investigating the disappearance of Madeleine from Praia da Luz on May 3. The McCanns, both 39, left Portugal with the full knowledge and agreement of the police, despite their status as suspects, their spokeswoman said. They are returning to the UK to "consider their response" to the allegations against them, and to reintroduce their twins to ordinary life, the spokeswoman added. "Despite there being so much that they wish to say, they are unable to do so, except to say this: they played no part in the disappearance of their beloved daughter," she said.

No bail conditions have been imposed or charges brought but the couple can be called back to the Algarve at any point to be re-interviewed. There was speculation that the couple may return as early as later this week to face questions from the local public prosecutor in Portimao. Just after 7am the McCanns left their villa in Praia da Luz, relying on two police cars to clear a path through the waiting camera crews. They were followed at speed along the motorway all the way to the airport by Portuguese media. Mr McCann drove his wife and two children in a silver Renault Scenic, the hire car at the centre of controversial forensic results. Portuguese police believe traces of Madeleine’s blood were found in the vehicle, while other sources claim the DNA sample was too badly contaminated to get a proper match. The McCanns plan to approach David Miliband, the Foreign Secretary, asking him to intervene in the case of their missing daughter Madeleine amid growing fears that they might become the victims of a "shocking injustice". The couple are "angry and horrified" that the search for the missing four-year-old has been halted as, they believe, police seek to blame them for killing her and disposing of her body. Some forensic scientists have begun to question some of the evidence against the couple supposedly samples of Madeline's blood found in the boot of the car they hired 25 days after the disappearance, and the "death smell" allegedly found on Mrs McCann's belongings by a police

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sniffer dog. There is suspicion that tiny DNA samples obtained from the McCanns' apartment - and compared with the blood found in the car boot - could have been contaminated.

One of Britain's leading forensic scientists, who asked not be named, said: "If they are spots of blood, it could not be from a car used by the McCanns 25 days later. That doesn't make sense. "The blood would have dried and it would not transfer as spots unless the child is alive. It would be fragments [of dried blood]. "But that is not what the police are saying they have. This is the prevailing view among other forensic scientists I have spoken to." John Barrett, a former Scotland Yard dog handler, also indicated that the trained dogs used in an attempt to detect a "death smell" on Mrs McCann's Bible and clothes were brought in too long after Madeleine vanished. The crucial scent lasts for no longer than a month, he said. The McCanns are expected to appear before the public prosecutor in Portimao, Portugal, this week. They could face restrictions on their movements and, possibly, charges. The McCanns, both 39-year-old doctors, are said to be "deeply alarmed" by the turn of events after they were interrogated separately by Portuguese police for a total of 24 hours on Thursday and Friday. Portuguese sources said police were using a "war of nerves" in an effort to make Mrs McCann "crack" and confess to killing her daughter. Her two interrogations last week - the second lasting 11 hours - were described as "aggressive", with officers said to be "exploring her weaknesses". Media reports said the couple used their right to remain silent and refused to answer "more than 40 questions". Friends insisted they answered all questions put to them. The couple, who spoke with Mr Miliband last month, will urge him this week to step in "with any help he can," said a friend of the couple. "There is a danger of a shocking injustice here," the friend said. "Kate and Gerry are appalled that anybody could think Kate would harm any of her children." Mrs McCann's mother, Susan Healy, defended her, saying: "She fought her corner in her interview with the police and I felt quite proud that she was able to do that knowing how distraught she was by Madeleine's disappearance." Philomena McCann, Mr McCann's sister, said of her brother: "He is a bit distressed and very tired. But he is adamant that he has done nothing wrong." Portuguese police believe that Mrs McCann killed Madeleine accidentally with a sedative overdose, and then hid the body. They think Mr McCann helped cover up her crime. The McCanns insist they have never used sedatives on their children and deny any involvement in Madeleine's death. They believe that she was abducted and is still alive.

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Police have indicated their case is based on DNA evidence, analysed by British forensic scientists. It is said to be blood from Madeleine found in the hired car. Investigators say further analysis is needed before any "definitive" conclusions. The couple spent yesterday at a rented villa in Praia da Luz with their two-year-old twins, Amelie and Sean. The Foreign Office was last night described as "firing on all cylinders" in its efforts to help the McCanns. Asked about the case yesterday, Mr Miliband said: "A little girl is missing. This is an independent judicial process we fully respect. Consular services are being provided. Above all, this is about a little girl."

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Appendix 13 The Sun 10th September 2007 By Online Reporter

Doubt cast on Maddie DNA BRITISH experts cast fresh doubt today over claims relating to the forensic evidence at the heart of the investigation into the disappearance of Madeleine McCann. As Gerry and Kate McCann spent their first full day at home after their return to Britain yesterday, yet more claims relating to the case were being reported in Portugal. Portuguese newspapers said “biological fluids” with an 80 per cent match of the toddler’s DNA were found underneath the upholstery in the boot of the McCanns’ rented Renault Scenic. There has also been growing speculation in recent weeks that forensic samples recovered from the family’s apartment in Praia da Luz and in the car indicated the presence of her dead body. But according to Allan Scott, a lecturer at the University of Central Lancashire’s School of Forensic and Investigative Sciences, both claims are - at the very least - questionable. “I have been speaking to DNA experts at the university - and these are some of the top DNA specialists - and we believe you cannot tell if DNA is from a dead subject. “It is about your blood group, which does not change because you have died. A person’s DNA profile does not change just because they die. “You can tell if the DNA has degraded but that could happen fairly quickly depending on the environment, if for example it is getting baked in the sun. “It may be possible to see that a DNA sample has degraded because of where it was or the length of time between it being deposited and recovered but that does not tell you if the person is dead or alive.” Sniffer dogs provided by British police were also used in the police investigation and were claimed to have “smelt death” in the family’s apartment and the hire car. Mr Scott, a career crime scene investigator and one-time head of scenes of crime at Merseyside Police, accepts this is a possibility but again says there is no way to be certain. “I have used one in the past and the dog did detect that a cadaver was there but it is only an indication."

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Appendix 14 The Times 11th September 2007 By Steve Bird and David Brown

DNA sample in McCanns’ car ‘has 100% match to Madeleine’ Parents have a lot of explaining to do, police source tells The Times, as a second discovery raises pressure on couple A forensic sample that has a 100 per cent match to Madeleine McCann has been discovered in the car hired by her parents five weeks after she disappeared, it was reported last night. Portuguese detectives are said to believe the findings, reported on Sky News, are evidence that Kate and Gerry McCann had carried the child’s body in the car. Samples sent to the Birmingham-based Forensic Science Service have been analysed and the results sent to the investigating officers. While the exact nature of the material remains unclear, it is believed to be either blood or biological fluid from Madeleine. A source linked to the investigation said: “It shows that the parents have a lot of explaining to do.” Another sample is believed to show an 80 per cent match to the genetic profile of Madeleine, who vanished from the Algarve resort just a few days before her fourth birthday. Both samples were found under upholstery in the boot of the Renault Scenic after police seized the vehicle last month. It was claimed that the sample could not simply have been transferred from clothing or a cuddly toy. But it remained unclear exactly what material the DNA had been retrieved from. If it was a hair or flakes of skin - the most easily transferrable form of material that yields DNA - it would not have a dramatic impact on the investigation. However, if it was blood, one of the most easily degradable forms of DNA, or internal fluids associated with a body, it would be a breakthrough. Technicians from the Portuguese forensic science laboratory who reportedly obtained the material from the car had expected to find a large quantity of samples linked to Madeleine because the vehicle had been used to carry all of the child’s belongings, including toys and clothing, when the family moved from the Ocean Club where she disappeared to a rented villa on the outskirts of Praia da Luz. The two important samples were accompanied with one partial match found on the windowsill of the apartment where the McCanns had initially stayed. Traces of Madeleine’s blood were found on the floor of the apartment but another sample found on the wall was thought to have come from a male, but was too degraded to secure an exact match. The Portuguese prosecutor, who will decide whether to charge the McCanns with killing their daughter, will today be handed a mass of police files about the case. Joao Cunha de Magalhães e Menezes, the district attorney in the Algarve, was handed accounts of the DNA and forensic evidence. The bundle also contained transcripts of the couple’s lengthy police interviews, said to include some 40 questions that they refused to answer.

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The files are also believed to include details from intercepted e-mails and tapped phone calls between the McCanns and friends. The public prosecutor is also expected to approve new searches of key locations in an attempt to try to find the girl’s body. Leicestershire police are now expected to play a more active role in the inquiry and senior officers may be called upon by their Portuguese counterparts to questions the parents. Mrs McCann was said to have said that claims that minute bloodstains in the apartment where Madeleine stayed could have got there if she had a graze or cut or even a nosebleed. She dismissed the suggestion that there was the scent of death on some of her clothes and the child’s soft toy by saying that any such smell found by sniffer dogs was a result of her job as a local GP where she encountered corpses, it was reported. Police are still trying to establish whether the child died after being hit or pushed by a parent. Another theory is that she overdosed on adult medicine which had been left within her reach or that she died from oversedation. They have not ruled out the possibility that someone helped the couple to dispose of the body. Newspaper reports in Portugal claimed the public prosecutor in Portimao had considered charging the couple, both 39, before they flew back to Britain on Sunday. But the Attorney-General, Pinto Monteiro, travelled from Lisbon to Portimao for a private meeting with the McCanns’ lawyer, Carlos Pinto de Abreu. Portuguese newspapers said some form of “deal” was struck. Detectives were said to be livid that the meeting had meant the move towards arrests and a court hearing to establish bail conditions was abandoned. They also felt that the McCanns’ decision to leave frustrated the investigation. New searches were due to be carried out on “specific locations” south of the Ocean Club where Madeleine disappeared from her apartment. The police would focus on an area of wasteland and a street where roadworks were being carried out. Officers are also expected to search the villa they left on Sunday. The couple were allowed to return because they gave police their home address in Rothley, Leicestershire. They must inform police if they plan to leave home for more than five days. They can remain formal suspects without charge for eight months before investigating officers have to approach a judge to apply for an extension.

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Appendix 15 The Daily Telegraph 12th September 2007 By Gordon Rayner

Madeleine McCann: Confusion over last hours The night of Madeleine McCann's disappearance, May 3, has been subject to claim, counterclaim, conjecture and scurrilous rumour. Today The Daily Telegraph pieces together the known facts about the fateful night, as reported by the McCanns themselves and key witnesses. 2:29pm The last picture of Madeleine was taken at the swimming pool at the Ocean Club resort in Praia da Luz, where the McCanns and the three other families with whom they were staying played together. 7:00pm Madeleine and the other children were put to bed. Reports of when she was last seen before this vary, with some accounts putting it as early as 6pm. This would be crucial as the police might put forward a theory that the McCanns killed Madeleine and hid her body before they went for dinner. 8:30pm Around this time, witnesses agree, the McCanns arrived at the tapas bar near their apartment, meaning there was a "window of opportunity" of up to 2hrs 40 mins for them to kill Madeleine and hide her body - a scenario dismissed as "ludicrous" by their family. The couple then settled down to dinner and take part in a quiz organised by the Ocean Club's aerobics teacher, Najova Chekaya. The McCanns say checks were made on their children every half-hour, sometimes by other members of the party, comprising Dr Russell O'Brien and Jane Tanner, from Exeter, Dr Matthew and Rachael Oldfield, from London, and David and Fiona Payne, from Leicester, together with Mrs Payne's mother Dianne Webster. Yet Mrs Webster has reportedly told police that each couple was responsible for checking their own children. 9:05pm Gerry McCann left the table to check on his children, who were all sleeping soundly, he says. Returning, he bumped into another British tourist, Jeremy Wilkins, with whom he had played tennis. They chatted for several minutes, as Mr Wilkins has confirmed. 9:15pm Jane Tanner told police that at this time she went to check on her daughter, who was ill, and recalled seeing Mr McCann talking to Mr Wilkins. As she went into the apartment, she saw a man aged around 35 carrying a little girl wrapped in a blanket. She thought nothing of it but is now convinced this was the kidnapper. The child's pyjamas matched the description of those Madeleine was wearing. Mr Wilkins apparently saw no such man, and does not remember seeing Miss Tanner. He has told police: "It was a very narrow path and I think it would have been almost impossible for anyone to walk by without me noticing." 9:30pm Dr Matthew Oldfield left the table and offered to check the McCann children. In his first police statement he said he merely listened at the door of apartment 5a but later said he had gone in and noticed that the room seemed lighter than the others, as if the shutters had been

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opened. He cannot be certain whether Madeleine was there. Gerry McCann invited Miss Chekaya to join the party at 9.30. Her account apparently contradicts Mr Oldfield, as she claims that no one left or returned to the table in the half-hour she was there. 10:00pm Kate McCann left the table at this time. One tapas bar worker has even claimed that only one person left the table during the evening, a tall man thought to be Dr O'Brien. There are also conflicting accounts of how much the party drank. One Portuguese newspaper claimed the nine friends downed 14 bottles of wine. The McCanns insist they drank three or four. Kate McCann ran back to the restaurant at 10pm, saying Madeleine was missing. 10:14pm Police were called after the friends made an initial search. Detectives are said to be intrigued by one witness report which quoted Kate McCann shouting out: "They've taken her, they've taken her!" They believe her immediate assertion that Madeleine had been snatched - and the implication that it was by more than one person - is suspicious. But other accounts have claimed Mrs McCann in fact said: "Madeleine has gone. Somebody has taken her."

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Appendix 16 The Sun 29th September 2007 By Clodagh Hartley

‘Maddie’s body was kept in fridge’ PORTUGUESE cops came up with their sickest slur yet against the McCanns yesterday – claiming little Maddie’s body may have been kept in a FRIDGE before being dumped. They are working on the extraordinary theory that Kate killed her daughter accidentally and that dad Gerry helped her cover up. And they make the bizarre claim that Maddie’s body was somehow stored in a fridge in one of the apartments at the holiday complex where she went missing in May. Detectives believe they moved the four-year-old’s body between apartments in the Portuguese holiday resort of Praia da Luz. They are said to be focusing on a “mysterious and fatal period” of 90 minutes when they claim Kate was alone in the apartment with her children while Gerry played tennis. Detectives are convinced Maddie was killed “before dinner” and that her body was “passed through various locations” before going into the boot of the couple’s hired car. Police sources revealed: “They are locating apartments with fridges.” The McCanns’ spokesman Clarence Mitchell last night dismissed the latest slurs as “utterly ridiculous” and begged for an end to the smear campaign. He said: “Each and every one of these nonsensical allegations causes real pain and hurt for both Gerry and Kate. It makes a most awful situation far, far worse.” Since naming them as official suspects, Portuguese police have leaked several allegations against Kate and Gerry, both 39-year-old doctors from Rothley, Leics. They claimed they could have disposed of Maddie’s body on a “suspicious” trip to Spain on August 3. And they say Spanish police were also examining CCTV footage of the day trip to the city of Huelva just over the border. But yesterday Spain’s civil guard denied any involvement, adding weight to the McCanns’ insistence that they are being smeared by unnamed police sources. Spokesman Antonio Castilla said: “We are not investigating the McCann parents in any way, shape or form. The reports are false.” Yesterday, daily newspaper Dia-rio de Noticias said detectives were pinpointing apartments in the area of Praia da Luz. A source told them: “Police believe the death happened before dinner in the period between 19.00 and 20.30. During this time, Madeleine’s father was seen playing tennis at the complex, therefore the child and her twin siblings were in the charge of the mother. “There are no registers nor witnesses who had seen Kate and Madeleine in that fatal and mysterious hour and a half.” The couple have always maintained they went to dinner after the children were put to bed in their apartment at the Ocean Club.

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A family friend yesterday said of the period between 7pm and 8.30pm: “Kate was not in the apartment alone with Maddie. They had both been playing tennis earlier. Then they put her to bed and were then down for dinner by 8.20pm.” And referring to the lurid fridge allegation, the friend insisted: “That is total rubbish. Have you seen the size of the fridges in those apartments? Of course they did not stuff her in a fridge.” Meanwhile, it emerged yesterday that Kate and Gerry had been threatened with a year’s jail if they break Portuguese secrecy laws by speaking out about Maddie. They fear this could mean no more TV appeals for information.  GERRY McCann last night backed a Portuguese move to create a Europe-wide alert system for missing children.

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Bibliography

Secondary Reading Bagnall, Nicholas. (1993) Newspaper Language. Great Britain: Focal Press Bakhtin, Mikhail. M. (1996) The Dialogic Imagination. USA: University of Texas Press Barker, Chris & Galasinski, Dariusz. (2001) Cultural Studies and Discourse Analysis: A Diologue on Language and Identity. Surrey: Sage Publications Benwell, Bethan. & Stokoe, Elizabeth. (2007) Discourse and Identity. Wilts: Edinburgh University Press Bolinger, Dwight. (1980) Language: The loaded Weapon. Hong Kong: Longman Charnley, Mitchell, V. (1966) Reporting. (2nd edn.) London : Holt, Rinehart and Winston Fowler, Roger. (1991) Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press. London: Routledge Macdonald, Myra. (1995) Representing Women : Myths of Femininity in the Popular Media. London : Arnold O’ Sullivan, Tim et al. (2003) Studying the Media. (3rd edn.) Italy: Oxford University Press Richardson, John, E. (2007) Analysing Newspapers: An Approch from critical Discourse Analysis. China: Palgrave Macmillan Van Dijk, Teun .A. (1993) ‘Principles of critical discourse analysis’ in Discourse & Society, 4(2), 249-283 Van Dijk, Teun. A. (2000) Ideology: A Multidiciplinary Approach. Trowbridge: Sage

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Swinford, Steven & Thompson, Christopher. ‘McCann case detective faces ‘torture’ trial’. The Sunday Times 14/10/2007 Rose, David. ‘Madeleine: Police on trial for torturing mother of another missing girl’. The Daily Mail 15/09/2007 ‘Madeleine McCann detectives in court over torture cover-up’. The Mirror 12/02/2008 Encyclopedia Britanica Online http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9383126 City University of New York http://web.gc.cuny.edu/linguistics/events/csn/2003/decuba_marusic.pdf World Association of Newspapers: ‘World Press Trends: Newspaper Circulation and Advertising Up Worldwide’ http://www.wan-press.org/article7321.html

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