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Archifilade City March Urban Design Research Cluster 17 / Large City Architecture Zhaoyue Zhang / Mengshi Fu / Chenyi Yao / Ren Wang RC 17 Tutors: Daniel Koehler / Rasa Navasaityte


This Design Report is the Outcome of the Project: BPro M.Arch Urban Design Research Cluster 17 Archifilade City The Bartlett School of Architecture University College London 22 Gordon Street London WC1H 0QB United Kingdom Team Members: Zhaoyue Zhang / Mengshi Fu / Chenyi Yao / Ren Wang RC 17 Tutors: Daniel Koehler / Rasa Navasaityte Academic Year 2018-2019


Acknowledgement RC 17 Tutors: Daniel Koehler / Rasa Navasaityte Technical Skills Tutor: Ziming He / Abo Saleh Sheghaf We would like to thank the Bartlett Prospective Urban Design program that gave us the chance to explore and research architecture in a new way. We also want to thank our tutors Daniel and Rasa who gave us inspiration and constant feedback with comments and guidance. Also, all the guest crits that helped us evolve our project.


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Table of Contents Chapter 01 Introduction

Chapter 02 Subjective_Internal Enfilade

Chapter 03 Objective_External Enfilade

Chapter 04 Air-jective Enfilade

Chapter 05 Proposal

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2 National Roman Art Museum in Merida, Spain Designed by Rafael Moneo


01 Introduction The design methods of the current and previous architecture are more based on social objective factors such as budgets, human circulations, general planes, technical space, functions and so on. This project intends to explore from another opposite perspective, the subjective view of human, whether such buildings and cities can be generated and how to design them. This study mainly looks at the transitional status of architectural composition of “less and more� as a form of thinking by associating classical architectural theory with typical cases, contemporary architectural concept and technology, advanced analysis in computational method and digital architecture, as well as the author’s own design project.

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01.01 Why Enfilade Concentrated - Sequences of Concentrated Space

Hallway in Munich Marinus Jouko

ShanghART YANG Zhenzhong, DING Yi, YU Youhan

The layers of rooms can arouse people’s attention and enrich visitors’ experience. Abstracting the compositional relationship of the mode of enfilade and the sequences of lines extracted from enfilade arrangement are the focus of organizing the series of enfilade spaces. 4


01.01 Why Enfilade Programming Space - Sequences of Traditional Space

National Museum William Wilkins London, UK, 1881

Blenheim Palace Sir John Vanbrugh Blenheim, Oxfordshire, England, 1772

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01.01 Why Enfilade Transparency - Space Visibility and Penetrability

Tama Art University Library, Toyo Ito, 2007 There are two good samples that show a flexible way of managing navigation as well as visibility. The enfilade space not only works in horizontal layers to provide the navigation but also design it in a vertical way for more visibility. And it will be worked in various dimension, and more complex and flexible.

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01.02 Concept History Concept - Classical Chinese Drawing

Peception

Cortile

Front Garden Corridor

Kiosk

Lounge Balcony

Traditional Chinese painting in ancient times, we can find sequences of the room will be linked with one corridor, different size of rooms may be contracted dramatically because of its various function.

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01.02 Concept Spatical Concept - Continous and Discontinous Space

Discontinous

Continous

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01.02 Concept Spatical Concept - Large and Small Space

Large

Small

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01.03 Shifting from Subjective to Objective What is Enfilade - Distance between Walls

4M 1.5M

3M

10M

20M

1.5M

3M

10M

20M

1.5M

3M

10M

20M

3M

2M

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M

40M

60M

120M

M

40M

60M

120M

M Works Doesn’t work

40M 60M 120M Based on mereological thinking, the study begins with small geometry. Enfilade form can be simply seen as an enfilade corridor synthesized by a series of doors. It can be found that the distance between the two doors determines the quality and effect of the enfilade. When the door width is fixed, the test of the distance between the two doors was carried out. The results show that the door distances produce different effects at different widths. 11


01.03 Shifting from Subjective to Objective Distance between Arrangement of Walls

The subjective judgment of enfilade means that people can have a subjective experience layer by layer through a wall.

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01.03 Shifting from Subjective to Objective Distance between Arrangement of Walls

The objective judgment of enfilade means that there are more intricate possibilities from the arrangement aspect to organize the overall layout.

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01.04 Computation Thinking from Objective Perspective How to Count Enfilades

Enfilade Count = 1

Enfilade Count = 2

Enfilade Count = 3

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01.04 Computation Thinking from Objective Perspective How to Count Enfilades

Enfilade Count = 4

Enfilade Count = 5

Enfilade Count = 6

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01.05 Urban Thinking

Layout of Urban Scale in Computational Way

The light black line grid is the main enfilade arrangement, the wall is generated around the order of the enfilade arrangement.

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G e n e ra te a li n e a ro u n d th e Walls are organized differently.


m a i n e nfil a d e a rra n g e m e nt,

Depending on the functional areaďźŒwalls are generated at different locations, and the arrangement void and mass area is set aside.

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01.05 Urban Thinking

Urban Element - Group Linking

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01.05 Urban Thinking

Urban Element - Group Linking

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01.06 Figure Figuration Void and Mass

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01.06 Figure Figuration Void and Mass

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01.06 Figure Figuration Void and Mass

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01.06 Figure Figuration Void and Mass

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01.06 Figure Figuration Orientation

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01.06 Figure Figuration Orientation

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01.06 Figure Figuration Public Space

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01.06 Figure Figuration Public Space

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01.06 Figure Figuration Continuous Space

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01.06 Figure Figuration Continuous Space

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01.06 Figure Figuration Navigation

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01.06 Figure Figuration Navigation

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01.06 Figure Figuration High-rise Residence Design

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01.06 Figure Figuration High-rise Residence Design

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01.06 Figure Figuration High-rise Residence Design

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02 Subjective_Internal Enfilade Habraken observed and criticized the so-called “mass housing.� In his view, housing that does not include a clear and direct role for inhabitants will be rigid, uniform, and unsustainable. To help combat this, Designers have started to explore the relationship between architecture and the human body. This kind of discussion refers not only to the scale and position of people in the building but also to how people will behave in a certain building. Here enfilade can be referred to as a type of space as the exploration of subject-oriented designing. Because enfilade is such a kind of oriented space. It gives people the right to choose which enfilade to enter. If a building is designed according to the composition of enfilades, then the building can be subject-oriented.

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02.01 Subjective View Human Activities Perspective

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02.02 Computational Thinking Depth Computation

1m

300m

(255,0,0)

(255,255,255)

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02.02 Computational Thinking Geometry to View

A

B

C

D

E

F

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02.02 Computational Thinking Geometry to View

G

H

I

J

K

L

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02.02 Computational Thinking View Collection

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02.02 Computational Thinking View Combination

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02.02 Computational Thinking View to Geometry

View Type

Geometry Selection

A

D

B

D

F

I

B

C

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02.02 Computational Thinking View to Geometry

Enfilade Combination

Enfilade View

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02.03 Arrangement View Study Enframing View

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02.03 Arrangement View Study Open View

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02.04 Enfilade Building Group Group Combination - Courtyard

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02.04 Enfilade Building Group Group Combination - Square

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The open enfilade in the building can be used as a landscape platform to effectively connect the on both sides of the building and integrate the building with the environment. Residents can enjoy the city’s69 borders and play and chat with each other.


02.05 Element Detailed Design 3D Skeleton Design

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02.05 Element Detailed Design Detailed Building Design

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02.05 Element Detailed Design Enfilade Group

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03 Objective_External Enfilade The architectural image seen by the human eye is formed by the joint action of points composed of several visual points. The set of these points is defined as the visual field of the volume of the building to the viewpoint. These points act on the human eye together to form the image of the building volume. In this chapter, we do some research on objective enfilade. the abstraction of the line in the spatial organization of enfilade allows us to analyze and organize computationally. The figure is an abstract result of several enfilade lines. At this time, the subjective visual effects of enfilade can be analyzed by an intuitive and computable line. When conducting a larger-scale group study, the following arrangements were mapped out. In this way, the organization of the enfilade can be abstracted in a line manner.

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03.01 Urban Thinking

Enfilade Thinking in Urban Scale

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03.01 Urban Thinking

Enfilade Thinking in Urban Scale

The continuous layers are generated, explaining the organization of the enfilade from an objective perspective. Each part of the building group is connected by an orderly sequence.

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03.02 Flexible Navigation and Space

Various Possibility of Navigation - Courtyard / Plaza / Room

One-Dimensional Space

Multidimensional Space

Multidimensional Space

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03.02 Flexible Navigation and Space

Various Possibility of Navigation - Courtyard / Plaza / Room

One-Dimensional Space

Various Dimension

Vertical Navigation

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03.02 Flexible Navigation and Space

Various Possibility of Navigation - Courtyard / Plaza / Room

Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

There are various types of group that have the same organizing form of “enfilade“. At the same time, we design it in different scenes, such courtyard, plaza. Every group can rotate in 3D dimension so that the route also works well.

Type 4

Type 5

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03.02 Flexible Navigation and Space The Possibility of Various Group

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03.03 Vertical Thinking

Void and Mass in Section Thinking

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03.03 Vertical Thinking

Void and Mass in Section Thinking

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03.04 Geometry Study Arch Study

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03.04 Geometry Study Incline Study

Different geometry shapes and arrangement affect the external tissue effects of the enfilade. The size and shape of the different geometry will affect the angle and direction of the formed enfilade line.

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03.04 Geometry Study Arch on Walls

Based on historical enfilade studies, the arch is a beautiful shape and a classical element. Especially, applying a classical element in premodern architecture must be a dramatic contrast and unique compared with common buildings. To study the diversity of arch views, one geometry of three-dimensional arches are designed as a basic element. There are arch holes opened on the floor and the wall. When elements connected, arch holes can form enfilade space from three directions.

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03.05 Arch Enfilade Line Abstract Lines from Enfilade

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03.05 Arch Enfilade Line Abstract Lines from Enfilade

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03.05 Arch Enfilade Line Abstract Lines from Enfilade

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03.05 Arch Enfilade Line Abstract Lines from Enfilade

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03.05 Arch Enfilade Line Abstract Lines from Enfilade

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03.05 Arch Enfilade Line Abstract Lines from Enfilade

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03.05 Arch Enfilade Line Abstract Lines from Enfilade

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03.06 Enfilade Intersections

Group Combination - Enfilade Intersections

According to the lines which have been made to a cluster, group combinations can be applied into lines. So the lines can have various types of group combinations, achieving diverse cluster design.

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03.06 Enfilade Intersections

Group Combination - View Intersections

View enfilades can be visualized as lines. How to arrange these view lines is another way to study combinations of enfilade. Lines can be played in all directions and can have diverse intersections.

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03.06 Enfilade Intersections

Group Combination - Enfilade Intersections

The basic element shape is connected to form an enfilade line, which is connected at a three-dimensional angle.

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Since the element shape i enfilade line, the organiza generated in the three-dimen


s formed according to the ation of this group is also nsional space.

The different organization of the geometry causes the enfilade line to form different connections, so the surrounding space feels different.

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03.07 Enfilade Diversity

Group Combination - Horizontal Combination

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03.07 Enfilade Diversity

Group Combination - Vertical Combination

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03.08 Architectural Type Research Enfilade Line Arragnement

Centripetal

Linear

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Centripetal-Linear


03.08 Architectural Type Research Enfilade Line Arragnement

Group

Persepective

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03.08 Architectural Type Research Enfilade Arragnement Type A

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03.08 Architectural Type Research Enfilade Lines Enfilade Line

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03.08 Architectural Type Research Enfilade Arragnement Type B

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03.08 Architectural Type Research Enfilade Lines Enfilade Line

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04 Air-jective Enfilade

With the continuous improvement of knowledge on the cost and environmental impacts of energy use, natural ventilation has become an increasingly effective way to reduce energy use and consumption, support eligible indoor environmental quality and keep a healthy, comfortable, and resultful indoor climate, rather than mechanical ventilation which is more commonly used way. In the advantageous climates and buildings types, natural ventilation can achieve the same effect with air-conditioning plants, and 10%-30% of the total energy consumption can be saved. In the case of the internal and external opening of the building through the hyperwriter, it is very beneficial for us to realize a mechanically free building through natural ventilation

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04.01 Ventilation Principle Wind and Thermal Pressure Analysis

Natural ventilation by wind pressure

Affleck House Gregor S. and Elizabeth B. Bloomfield Hills, Michigan 1985

Natural ventilation under thermal pressure

De Monfort University Short Ford Associates—Alan Short & Brian Ford Leicaster, England 1993

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04.01 Ventilation Principle Wind and Thermal Pressure Analysis

Air flues

Parallel

30 Angel

Combination

In order to ensure the natural ventilation effect of the building, the main inlet surface of the building should generally be 60°-90° with the dominant wind direction in summer, and should not be less than 45°, and set up the wind gallery, the air duct.

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04.01 Ventilation Principle Case Study

Step1: Chimney effect through the roof Parekh House Location: Ahmedabad. 1967-68 Cherles Correa

Step2: Roof stacking Tokyo Apartment Location: Tokyo Sou Fujimoto

Step3: Set Ventilation Layer Gando Campus Location: Gando Francis Kere

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04.01 Ventilation Principle Case Study

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04.02 Horizontal Circulation Wind through Windows and Doors

One Enfilade

Two Enfilade

Three Enfilades

Three Enfilades

Four Enfilades

Four Enfilades

Five Enfilades

Five Enfilades 122


04.02 Horizontal Circulation Wind through Windows and Doors

Three Enfilades

Two Enfilade

Four Enfilades

Three Enfilades

Four Enfilades

Five Enfilades

Six Enfilades

Eight Enfilades 123


04.02 Horizontal Circulation Wind through Air Corridors

Atrium

One Air Corridor

This wants to show how the wind moves in the outside combination. The main air duct is set in the project. The enfilade wind inside each room can enhance or weaken the wind due to the different directions. The plus sign represents the enhancement, the minus sign represents the weakening. In different positions can have a different feeling of the winds.

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04.03 Vertical Circulation 3D Wind Circulation

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04.03 Vertical Circulation Wind Path Visualization

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04.03 Vertical Circulation Wind Path Visualization

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04.04 Wind Calculation Inlet and Outlet of Wind

Where Vi represents the average indoor speed, x represents the ratio of the opening’s area to wall area where the opening is fixed, and Vr denotes the referential external wind speed.

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04.04 Wind Calculation Inlet and Outlet of Wind

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04.04 Wind Calculation Room Size

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04.04 Wind Calculation Chimney Size

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04.05 Ventilation Space In-wall and Between-wall Function

Element

Fresh Air Dirty Air Fresh Air Outlet Dirty Air Outlet

Ventilation

Section

In our enfilade project, there is a thin wall, the thin wall plays a supporting role, and then the thick wall we give it more functions. First of all, in the wind, the wind can pass through the thick wall, thus improving the wind pressure inside the house and adjusting the size of the wind. When the window and the door are transparent and the indoor wind speed is too large, we can manually adjust the switch of the darkroom, so that the wind pressure in the indoor and darkroom is different, and the wind can flow from the indoor to the darkroom, thereby weakening or enhancing the size of the indoor wind.

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04.05 Ventilation Space Between-Wall Functions

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04.05 Ventilation Space In-Wall Functions

The following picture illustrates the relationship between in-wall and the between-wall. In addition, the yellow area is space in the wall. The wind travels from here, but the space in the wall also has certain functionality. It can be a lounge, toilet, and laundry.

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04.05 Ventilation Space Geometry Analysis

Type A

Type B

Type C 136


04.05 Ventilation Space Geometry Analysis

Type A + B

Type A + C

Type B + C 137


04.05 Ventilation Space Geometry Analysis

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04.06 Wind Circulation in Buildings Three Methods

Wind Through the Wall

Wind Through the Room

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Wind Through the Solar Chimney


04.06 Wind Circulation in Buildings Different Sizes of the Room (In-Wall)

L=20 W=12

0.5a

L=18 W=12

L=14 W=12

0.61a

L=8 W=4

3.75a

L=30 W=16

0.25a

L16 W=8

0.93a

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0.62a


04.06 Wind Circulation in Buildings Different Combinations ( Between-Wall)

Group

Plan

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Wind Visualization


04.06 Wind Circulation in Buildings Different Combinations ( Between-Wall)

Group

Plan

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Wind Visualization


04.06 Wind Circulation in Buildings Different Combinations ( Between-Wall)

Group

Plan

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Wind Visualization


04.06 Wind Circulation in Buildings Different Combinations ( Between-Wall)

Group

Plan

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Wind Visualization


04.06 Wind Circulation in Buildings Different Combinations ( Between-Wall)

Group

Plan

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Wind Visualization


04.06 Wind Circulation in Buildings Arrangement Study

Type A

Type B

Type C

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04.06 Wind Circulation in Buildings Arrangement

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04.06 Wind Circulation in Buildings Arrangement

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04.06 Wind Circulation in Buildings Arrangement

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04.07 Air Pressure Geometry Wind Chimney Rotation

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04.07 Air Pressure Geometry Detailed Group

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04.07 Spatial Analysis Navigation Analysis

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04.07 Spatial Analysis Analysis of Public space

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04.07 Spatial Analysis Courtyard - Enfilade Areas

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04.07 Spatial Analysis Courtyard - Enfilade Areas

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04.07 Spatial Analysis Chimney Corridor - Courtyard

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04.07 Spatial Analysis Chimney Corridor - Courtyard

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04.07 Spatial Analysis Chimney Windy Arrangement

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04.07 Spatial Analysis Chimney Windy Arrangement

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04.07 Spatial Analysis Chimney Windy Arrangement

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04.07 Spatial Analysis Chimney Windy Arrangement

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04.07 Spatial Analysis Chimney Windy Arrangement

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04.07 Spatial Analysis Chimney Windy Arrangement

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04.07 Spatial Analysis Group Combination

Chimney Rotation - Courtyard Area

Chimney Rotation - Chimney Area

Inside place - Courtyard Area

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05 Proposal In the final proposal, we combine the objective, subjective and adjective. In the subjective, these long, unbroken passways create a physical, visual connection between the formal and informal ends of a home without influencing the feature or definition of the independent rooms. It gives people the right to choose which enfilade to enter. In addition to enabling a residence’s disparate parts to flow into one another, enfilade can also help break down the scale of the largest house and make it more livable. In the objective, it forms a certain order, which is the enfilade of the external perspective. Meanwhile, the brown platform (also called semi-open space) blurs the boundaries between interior and exterior. Also, these platforms can be defined as an intermediate point to two other points in time and space or indicate a linking relation or comparison. Space can be defined as “being in a space that is between one specified thing and another. In airjective, the entire building can be effectively ventilated through a reasonable arrangement of the solar chimney (which can also be an elevator).

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05.01 Site Analysis Texture of Hong Kong

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05.01 Site Analysis Hong Kong Fabric

Site

Hong Kong is chosen to be the proposal site, for the reason that density and quality are not inversely in cities, and the very high-density mixed-use development mode is the most efficient approach to land development. The combination of Enfilade and part-whole is an attempt to solve some of Hong Kong’s urban problems.

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05.01 Site Analysis Site Selection

W.114°15’, N.22°15’ Gaoshida Road, Hong Kong

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05.01 Site Analysis History / Culture / Traffic

History

Culture

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Traffic


05.02 Detailed Deisign Selected Element

Type A: Private space

Type B: Private space

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05.02 Detailed Deisign Selected Element

Type C: Public space

Type D: Public space

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05.02 Detailed Deisign Residence Group

Type combination: A+A

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05.02 Detailed Deisign Hotel Group

Type combination: B+B

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05.02 Detailed Deisign Residence Group

Type combination: C+C

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05.02 Detailed Deisign Office Group

Type combination: D+D

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05.02 Detailed Deisign Enfilade Group

Type combination: A+D

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05.02 Detailed Deisign Subjective View

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05.02 Detailed Deisign Enfilade Group

Type combination: B+C

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05.02 Detailed Deisign Subjective View

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05.02 Detailed Deisign Enfilade Group

Type combination: A+C

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05.02 Detailed Deisign Subjective View

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05.02 Detailed Deisign Enfilade Group

Type combination: B+D

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05.02 Detailed Deisign Subjective View

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05.02 Detailed Deisign Enfilade Group

Type combination: A+B

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05.02 Detailed Deisign Subjective View

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05.03 Proposal Design Arrangement Study

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05.03 Proposal Design Arrangement Study

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05.03 Proposal Design Arrangement Study

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05.03 Proposal Design Arrangement Study

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05.03 Proposal Design Arrangement Study

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05.03 Proposal Design Arrangement Study

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05.03 Proposal Design Large Arrangement

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05.03 Proposal Design Large Arrangement

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Profile for Zhaoyue Zhang_ Juanita

Archifilade City_Bartlett_UCL_2019_Silver Prize  

Archifilade City_Design Portfolio_RC17 largecityarchitecture_MArch Urban Design_Bartlett UCL

Archifilade City_Bartlett_UCL_2019_Silver Prize  

Archifilade City_Design Portfolio_RC17 largecityarchitecture_MArch Urban Design_Bartlett UCL

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