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PORTFOLIO WORK SAMPLES CASE STUDY FACSIMILE

JOHN PAGe CORRIGAN 400 GROVELAND AVE. NO. 708 MINNEAPOLIS MINNESOTA 55403 612.703.5444 jpagecorrigan@hotmail.com


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NUMERA LS

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1234 5678 90 FO UND NUMER I C E PH E M E R A


| PR OJ ECT SUM M AR Y

FAL L 2006

KEN BARBER

EXPER IM EN TAL

CHRISTIAN SCHWARTZ

TYPOGR APHY

BEN KIEL

J UDAIC

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P E R M A N E N T CA L E N DA R B A LT I M O R E — WAS H I N GTO N

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( I )

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S H E V A T

M A R C H

A D A R

2007 F E B R U A R Y

T E V E T

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D E C E M B E R

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K I S L E V

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A V

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T A M M U Z

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J U N E

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S I V A N

26

20 x 30”

1

I Y A R

M A Y

T W I L I G H T

D A T E

N I S S A N

A P R I L

S U N S E T

M O N T H

M A R C H

N O O N

H E B R E W

M O N T H

S U N R I S E

J A N U A R Y

M O N T H

D A T E

M O N T H

H E B R E W

S E C U L A R

2006

SOL AR CAL EN DAR S E C U L A R


MODULAR TYPOGRAPHY

MO D ULA R TYPE 4x M O D UL E S MO D ULA R NU M ER A L S


| PR OJ ECT SUM M AR Y

FAL L 2006

KEN BARBER

EXPER IM EN TAL

CHRISTIAN SCHWARTZ

TYPOGR APHY

BEN KIEL

WO RD S A M PL E S

POSTE R A PPLI CAT I ON


ARTISTS SPACE, NYC

Responsible for direction, production and photo editing. Book includes images provided by Artist Space photo archives. The book includes a running time lime of art shows, comments from both contemporary artists, as well as former members, past and present Director interviews. Images refer to any given exhibition on that given page. I also was responsible for editing and choosing pull quotes to be used throughout the book. Each spread, based on a grid made of a scalable rectangle in proportion to book dimensions, allows the time line to exist in a malleable set of information boxes. The surrounding text, artist comments, refer to the shows and general time frame connected to the exhibition date. The images were allowed to openly conform to the structure of the grid, while engaging the date in association. Pictures became integral in overlapping show dates, and connecting each page in the greater context of the many faces of Artists Space.


| PR OJ ECT SUM M AR Y

Compiled and designed 500 ARTISTS RETURN TO ARTISTS SPACE: 25

YEARS , with staff and editors at Design / Writing / Research, Fall 1998.


YOUTHFARM AND MARKET PROJECT


| Summer 2002 N ewsletter

Volunteered design time, services and resources. Designed WHAT’S

L a te Fa ll 2002 N ewsletter

SPROUTIN’, seasonal newsletter for volunteers, corporate sponsors,

Summer 2003 N ewsletter

area supporters, family and friends of Youthfarmers. The look and feel of newsletter had to incorporate the vastness of Minneapolis area youth. With neighbors and outreach among the Latino, Somalian, Hmong, and African American youth, it had to be playful enough to represent the youth yet appear to potential donors as the great organization that YouthFarm continues to be. The newsletter was also designed for the future installments to be created by the farmers themselves.


WORLD BANK AWARDS CEREMONY


| D ESIGN OFFICE: CKS

Nomination announcement brochure

Washington D.C. 1997 Event graphics; banners and catalogue for WB International Awards Ceremony


ROSALUX GALLERY

NE OGR APHY

Art Exhibition Poster, 11x17, 2004 Exhibition Postcard, 4x6, 2004


| N EITHER HER E N OR THEN

Art Exhibition Postcard Graphics, 2005


BOB’S JAVA HUT

PR OJ ECT SUM M AR Y

Applied logo to exterior building graphics and re-designed interior creating a cleaner and tighter space. Incorporated building tenants graphic identities into exterior signage, to apply a cohesive building system.


| PR OJ ECT SUM M AR Y

EXTER IOR SIGN AGE

Designed new logo in reference

ADV ER TISIN G CAM PAIGN

to old vintage car mechanics painted signage.

Advertising and marketing material for City Pages, and the Minnesota Motorcycle Monthly.


CRAIG BEDDOW, ARCHITECT


| PR OJ ECT SUM M AR Y

Sta tiona r y System

Stationary system for architect

2004

Craig Beddow consisting of letterhead, envelope and business card.


DESIGN LANGUAGE STUDIO

CAS E S T U DY


| POSTER APPLICATION SER IES

FAL L 2006

RICK VALICENTI DAVID PLUNKERT PAUL SAHRE

AL L P OS T E RS 2 0 ” x 3 0 ”


LEE ANNE SWANSON


| AR TIST PR OM OTION

Gallery 360, Announcement Postcard, 2002. Art Exhibition Postcards, 1998-2001. Swallow Gallery, NYC; Announcement Card, 2000. Swallow Gallery, NYC; Announcement Card, 2002. Art Exhibition Postcards, 2000.


NO NEGATIVE

P h o to g raph ic wo rks by Je ro me Pag e To bias

THIS PAGE

PONY Assateague S.P. Maryland 1998

COVER PHOTOGRAPH

COON Coon Rapids, Minnesota 1996

NO NEGATIVE PHOTOGRAPHIC WORK BY

Jerome Page Tobias

PREVIOUS PAGE

TIDE Assateague S.P. Maryland 1998

Photographs by Jerome Page Tobias Curated and Edited by John P. Corrigan

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without written permission from the publisher

Copyright Š 2007 John P. Corrigan



\\ CENTRAL AIR NOMADIC ART SPACE

PAGE S 2- 3

OR SEND A LETTER TO:

Central Air Nomadic Art Space 3302 E. Baltimore Street Baltimore, Maryland 21224 U.S.A

CENTRAL AIR NOMADIC ART SPACE


| PR OJ ECT SUM M AR Y

Independently published photographic art book featured in the upcoming GD MFA studio project INDIE PUBLISHING , due fall 2008, Princeton Architectural Press.

PAG E S 4 - 5

FOREWORD



All of the images in this exhibition were created using a Polaroid Land Camera. The photographs have been left unaltered, full framed and reflect a single moment. Using the immediacy of the Polaroid one knows whether the image is to be kept, or destroyed.

Central Air: Nomadic Art Space began in 1999. Initially started as Radiator Art Exhibition Company, with co-founder Lee Anne Swanson, its mission was to create a collective art space allowing founding members to exhibit and promote their work as well as the works of like minded artists. Radiator radically provided an exhibition space for group shows as well as thematic artist pairings. Radiator looked to reinvigorate the exhibition options in Minneapolis. Central Air was the next generation. I wanted to curate a scene or happening. I wanted to publish the collective findings in a thematic publication representing the involvement of multiple disciplined contributor’s. The nomadic essence of an art exhibition represents itself perfectly in a publication, avoiding the gallery atmosphere altogether.

\\ CENTRAL AIR NOMADIC ART SPACE

The context for No Negative came from the realization that these Polaroid images, taken by Jerome Page Tobias from 1992-1997, remain the only documentation of his experience with these seemingly obscure places. Jerome is repeatedly drawn to architectural anomalies, as well as his interaction with and memory of these places. These photographs identify obscure landmarks without direct reference. Yet Jerome can actively identify the moment and placement of each photograph. This collection celebrates the chosen limitations of using a Polaroid Land Camera. The photographic medium of the Polaroid, unlike any other camera, relies on the moment of observation. The final image implies the informal documentation of fleeting time. Polaroid images appear small, frail, and delicate in comparison to other photographic formats. The moments between the click of the shutter and the peeling of the emulsion paper consist of hope and anticipation; this represents itself in the final presentation of the image. The images of this photographic exhibition are snap shots of specific places at specific moments. The photographs are grouped according to repeated interest, and represent the collected memories of both place and space. NO NEGATIVE //



PAG E S 8 - 9

I.

FREE HBO

DOCUMENTED PLACE

Minneapolis, Minnesota 1995

NO NEGATIVE //

PAG E S 3 2 - 3 3

DEER ISLE Deer Isle, Maine 1994

3

\\ CENTRAL AIR NOMADIC ART SPACE



DRIVE IN Deer Isle, Maine 1994

NO NEGATIVE //

33

PAG E S 5 0 - 5 1

0

\\ CENTRAL AIR NOMADIC ART SPACE

WATCH TOWER

TANGLE TOWN

Minneapolis, Minnesota 1996

Minneapolis, Minnesota 1996

NO NEGATIVE //

1

NO NEGATIVE //



PAG E S 5 4 - 5 5

BRICK x BRICK Minneapolis, Minnesota 1994

8

\\ CENTRAL AIR NOMADIC ART SPACE


INDIE PUBLISHING: HOW TO DESIGN AND PRODUCE YOUR OWN BOOK

Cha p ter In t rod u c t i on PAGES 96- 9 7

By John P. Corrigan

exhibition catalogs

08_Exhibition.indd 96

5/23/08 9:47:20 AM

When artists or curators produce exhibitions, they put a lot of thought into how to display the works on view. How high should the pieces be hung, and in what order? Are the works framed or unframed, close together or spread far apart? Are the pieces in dialog with each other, or is each one a self-contained statement? Will the work be identified with labels on the wall or with a printed list? Similar design decisions go into making an exhibition catalog or any book of photographs and reproductions of works of art. Such books present and display reproductions in a manner that makes the works compelling and accessible to readers. An art or photography book is a document of works that exist elsewhere. Often, the photographs in a book are the only permanent record of an installation or performance. The printed page is no substitute for experiencing art in the flesh, even though the quality and availability of color reproductions has increased rapidly over the past decade. Just as a documentary film is an edited, authored depiction of reality, so an exhibition catalog or other art book is an edited, staged selection of images. The seemingly neutral, anonymous format of many art books has been deliberately designed in order to create an authoritative yet inviting atmosphere for looking at reproductions. Layout and typography serve to emphasize the work, as the book itself steps into the background.

08_Exhibition.indd 97

5/23/08 9:47:23 AM

L eft: PAGE 4 0 Design Basics | 43

40 | Indie Publishing

Display Faces In addition to typefaces intended for use in your body text, captions, subheads, and so on, you may want to add spice at larger scales with an additional typeface. Called display fonts, some faces are intended for use only as titles, headlines, logos, and other uses that involve just a few words.

thIS IS VINYl, A hOmEGROWN, hANDmADE DISplAY fACE.

In addition to c re a t i n g content a n d a vi su al exer-

Cover Gallery

cise, the b o o k a l s o u t i l i z e s a display t y p e fa ce t h a t I d esigned for li m i ted an d

Vinyl is a typeface created by John Corrigan, one of the authors and designers of this book. This DIY typeface exists only in capital letters.

personal u s e . T h e t y p e fa ce is used for c h ap ter h eadTony Venne

Design by Ryan Clifford; illustration by Tricia Chin

lines and t h e cove r o f t h e

Kristian Bjørnard

b ook.

chalet

R ight: PAG E 4 3

burin sans

The middle row r i g h t cover was d e s i g n e d a s a

trade gothic

Joo Ha

Ryan Clifford

John P. Corrigan

potential cove r s u b m i t te d

united serif thin

to Princeto n , u l t i m a te ly a different cove r w a s c h o s e n

fontin bold

for p ub licat i on . house spaceage round

dot matrix Danielle Davis

02_Design_Basics.indd 40

5/23/08 9:03:45 AM

02_Design_Basics.indd 43

Lindsey M. Muir

Helen Armstrong

5/23/08 9:04:42 AM


| P ROJECT

Ed ited b y Ellen L up ton

Page proofs and collaborative design tutorials created as both

S U MMARY

Princeton Architectural

inspirational and educational resources. The book was created as a

Press, Fa ll 2008.

studio project at the Maryland Institute College of Art.

98 | Indie Publishing

Exhibition Catalogs | 99

vertical format (right) Vertical pages are the most familiar to readers. This format works well for showing one image per page with a caption underneath. You might also put all your images on the right page and captions on the left page.

landscape format (below)

An art book is an invaluable tool for artists who want to document their work and share it with various audiences, including collectors, curators, collaborators, grants organizations, fellow artists, and the general public. Creating a clean, simple design that focuses attention on the work is a good place to start. Use scale, rhythm, sequence, and white space to present a selection of images in an inviting manner. Arrange works in a sequence that encourages dialogue and comparison between images. At the same time, understand that readers will free to flip through your book and stop where their interest takes them. A good art book or exhibition catalog creates opportunities to wander and rest— just like a good exhibition design. Pictures are often the dominant content of an exhibition catalog, although you may also want to include essays, captions, and a checklist. An essay by a critic or writer adds weight and value to your book. Commissioning an original text is a great way to collaborate with a writer and acquire fresh insight about an artist’s work. A checklist is a complete list of all the works that were featured in the exhibition, including those that may not appear in the catalog. This document, which typically includes titles of works, dimensions, media, and other basic information, becomes an official record of the exhibition’s content, valuable to curators, researchers, artists, and dealers in the future.

The extra page width in a horizontal publication easily accommodates multiple images, explanatory text, and captions. Try leaving white space around an image to emphasize its object-like quality.

study your pictures Look at all your pictures before choosing what shape your book will be. If most of your pictures are horizontal, for example, you may prefer a horizontal book. Also consider the length and importance of your captions. These take up more room on the page than you might expect.

choosing a format Your choice of format will be influenced by the printing method you choose to use as well as by your book’s content. Some pages sizes are more economical than others, and some printers only produce books in certain sizes. The horizontal format chosen for this book relates to the

08_Exhibition.indd 98

5/23/08 9:47:24 AM

08_Exhibition.indd 99

experience of walking through a gallery. The wide format also makes it easy to place two square or vertical images on a single page, while leaving plenty of room for captions. Designed by John P. Corrigan.

5/23/08 9:47:31 AM

100 | Indie Publishing

Exhibition Catalogs | 101

DOCUMENTED PLACE

Top : PAG E S 9 8 - 9 9 Bottom : PAG E S 1 0 0 - 1 0 1

designing a grid A grid consists of the columns and margins of your book as well as horizontal divisions. Designers use grids to create consistent yet varied pages, making their publications feel orderly and professional. They allow the designer to create many different layouts—you don’t have to stick everything in the middle of the page. To make a grid, begin by choosing

08_Exhibition.indd 100

how many columns your pages will have. Page layout programs such as InDesign will ask you to create columns when you open a new document. The grid shown here has five columns per page. Some elements, like captions, occupy just one column, while pictures and essays span multiple columns. This grid has five horizontal divisions as well as five

vertical columns. The grid serves to anchor different types of information, such as headlines, captions, running heads, and page numbers (also called folios). The grid creates order while allowing elements to be placed in a dynamic, changing pattern.

5/23/08 9:47:38 AM

image size and placement Each double-page spread of your book is a unit. Think about the relationship between the images on the left and right pages. Should each image be large or small? Do you need to show a detail of an image? Use the grid to determine both the size and position of images. Ignore the grid when you feel it’s necessary.

Also think about how big to make your images. Some artists want to make each picture as large as possible on the page. Others want to suggest the scale of the actual art works by making some reproductions smaller than others. You may also wish to create contrast among images that

08_Exhibition.indd 101

is unrelated to the art work’s actual size. For example, you could come in close on a tiny painting and show off its details, or your could zoom out to represent a sculptural object in a larger environment.

5/23/08 9:47:48 AM

Grouping of pages and spreads contributing to the

The chapter that I developed was intended to illustrate

studio publication at MICA. The book was intended to

some issues and design decisions that need to be

showcase, educate, and inspire the process of book

considered in publishing an exhibition catalog.

and publication design. Originally intended as and

As a former director of a gallery I choose to author

independent publication it was pick up and published

and design a catalog, and through this process include

by Princeton Architectural Press in the fall of 2008.

photographic editing with the purpose of a publication. I created a vertical and horizontal orientation (seen above) as a way to illustrate the choice of publication format relative to subject matter and intent.


BEYOND THE COMPASS BEYOND THE SQUARE

EXH I B I TI O N BA N N E R 14 F T. X 19F T. WALTE RS A R T M U S E U M Char les St re e t E n tra n ce


| PR OJ ECT

2007-2008

SUM M AR Y

EXHIBITION CATALOG

EXHIBITION DEVELOPMENT SEM IN AR

March 16

EXHIBITION DESCRIPTION

CONTEMPORARY ART & MAPPING

through May 20

Beyond the Compass, Beyond the Square, an exhibition installed in

2oo8

Mount Vernon Place, was conceived and curated by students in MICA’s Exhibition Development Seminar. Inspired by and exploring themes of The Walters Art Museum’s Maps: Finding Our Place in the World, it is a component of Baltimore’s city-wide Festival of Maps. Beyond the Compass, Beyond the Square features contemporary art by 10 emerging MICA artists that is interactive, explores new and abstract ways of understanding historical mapping concepts, and reflects myriad approaches to mapping and way-finding. Tours, lectures, activities, and educational programs for all ages enhance the exhibition experience. for further information and exhibitiion highlights www.mica.edu/beyond

mount vernon place landscape of baltimore from the top of the baltimore washington monument, february 2008.

mount vernon place

site-specific works by students in the maryland institute college of art class conversations as muse, curated and organized by mica’s exhibition development seminar, inspired by and exploring themes of baltimore’s city-wide festival of maps.

600 north charles street baltimore maryland 21201

mount vernon place ca. 1894-1906 courtesy of the maryland historical society

8A>:CITTTTT EGDD;TTTTT

9:H><CTTTTT

EGD9TTTTT

%-T:9HT6:m]^W^i^dc8ViVad\#_eX

Typically, when we think of maps we think

help you find your way. Maps no longer rely

of tools that help us get from one point

on this ornamentation, yet the ornamentation

to another. Cartographers and other

remains—inspiring a body of artwork with its

professional map makers invented systems of

roots in the tradition of symbols and evolution

symbols to use in the process of mapping the

of mapping. Now there is a choice when

world, to help convey its meaning to others.

deciding to adorn a map or to map by means

Now, the accessibility of information in our

of art. Whether that choice is made by an

contemporary digital age has globalized

artist or a map-maker, that choice is imbued

communication and science as much as it has

with artistic intent. While science analyzes the

influenced the creative process. Due to rapid

world and creates a map to aid our intellectual

advances in technology, such as satellite

and physical understanding, art attempts

imaging, contemporary maps need not rely

to synthesize these analyses with our own

on codes and symbols, and instead could use

experiences to produce something

solely automated, photographic imaging to

entirely its own.

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because of this versatility that they provide a rich starting point

exhibition development seminar CLASS STATEMENT

for artistic inquiry.

CURATORIAL STATEMENT

Beyond the Compass, Beyond the Square is organized around two central mapping themes: how maps contextualize and provide

inventive ways to install the works in the four parks of Mount Vernon

an opportunity to explore our place in the world; and how concepts

In the exhibition Beyond the Compass, Beyond the square, 10

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artists from Maryland Institute College of Art enter into a dialogue with

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an historic urban site—Mount

Beyond the Compass, Beyond the square was organized by the

Place and creatively address the issues surrounding public exhibitions

notion of place. Some pieces in the exhibit attempt to expose the

students of two Maryland Institute College of Art classes—the Exhibition

and the historic significance of the parks. The Graphic Design team

desire to find our place in the world by drawing attention to emotions

Development Seminar and Conversation as Muse. Inspired by The

established the graphic identity, press visuals, and catalogue and

relative to place. Others attempt to subvert traditional way-finding by

Walters Art Museum’s concurrent exhibition, Maps: Finding Our Place

collaborated with The Walters to create a “Map of Maps” to highlight

utilizing unexpected tools, playing with scale, engaging communities

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in the World, the artworks installed in the four parks of Mount Vernon

the exhibition spaces inside and outside of the museum. The Education

to collaboratively create works of art, or reframing a mundane act of

Place explore new and abstract ways of understanding and experiencing

team developed programs to supplement the exhibition and engage

walking through a park into an interactive art experience. K:GH>DC6

maps and way-finding. Beyond the Compass, Beyond the Square is

audiences of all ages as well as teachers, students, artists, and visitors

the first exhibit to be installed in the historic parks. Utilizing the rare

from Baltimore and beyond. The Website team worked to build the

of the city-wide Festival of Maps

Mount Vernon Place, we have had to navigate the politics of

opportunity to install their work off-campus, students created a site-

structure of the exhibit’s website and created a resource that serves as

celebration, which was initiated

our ‘gallery,’ a prized historic landmark. Creation and curation

specific exhibition using themes conceived within the walls of a museum

an interactive tool and archive for the artists. The Management team

by The Walters Art Museum’s

were simultaneous processes, an intellectual collaboration

and brought a contemporary perspective on those themes to a space

functioned as a resource for their peers and a liaison between the

accessible to a wider audience.

In curating an exhibition of contemporary art in

Vernon Place. The exhibition is part

exhibition, Maps: Finding our

between creative minds striving to respect the legacy of mapping

Place in the World. The conceptual

and the imprint of history, both of which inspire and form the

starting point for the works of

experience of our environment. Understandably, by creating

art installed in Mount Vernon

students, The Walters Art Museum, MICA, the Festival of Maps, and

The eighteen students of the Exhibition Development Seminar

many other participants in and supporters of the exhibit. Each team took

started the project by examining mapping concepts and themes through

on traditional as well as innovative and extraordinary roles. By doing so,

and showcasing interactive reinterpretations of the history of

time and place, and then by researching contemporary artists using

they brought together the student artists, the surrounding communities, MICA, The Walters Art Museum, and other institutions and individuals participating in the Festival of Maps.

Place reflects the tradition of map

mapping, these works add new and sometimes subversive voices

mapping in their work. Students used the seven themes of the museum

making, represented in the Walters

to a public arena. That voice is a struggle for power, a struggle

exhibition as a springboard for discussion. The themes of way-finding,

exhibition, which asserts that

that has always been the essence of this site, symbolized in the

mapping the world, mapping historical events, visualizing nature

maps help find your place in world.

Revolutionary War’s fight for freedom. It is that voice Beyond the

While typically used as tools for navigation, maps can also be used to

:9H///86I6AD<///787H:m]^W^i^dc8ViVad\ document history as well as creative and scientific exploration. It is

1300 mount royal avenue baltimore, maryland, 21217 www.mica.edu

of mapping can bridge disparate communities through a shared

For the MICA students, developing Beyond the Compass, Beyond

and society, mapping imaginary worlds, and consuming maps led to

the Square was an exciting opportunity to create work for a broad public

Compass, Beyond the Square hopes to amplify now, juxtaposed with this

investigations by which the students developed the framework for their

audience and to experience for themselves the work of museum and

historic site, along the quest to find our place.

exhibit. Through this initial work, they began to assert their individual

exhibition professionals.

visions and also develop a common thematic framework for their contemporary exhibition.

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Key to the learning experience of the students, as well as to the completion of the project, was the formulation of six working teams that this statement was written by the exhibition development seminar’s curatorial team. members of all teams, and their mentors are listed in the acknowledgements page

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lee B. Freeman is a senior interdisciplinary sculpture major. A native of New York City, he recently spent several months traveling through Europe and NorthGDJC96 Africa. His artwork is informed by his 8A>:CITTTTT EGDD;TTTTT 9:H><CTTTTT EGD9TTTTT experience in a place and his observations %-T:9HT6:m]^W^i^dc8ViVad\#_eX K:GH>DC6 of and reactions to his surroundings. Much of his work straddles the boundary between framing mount vernon place the obvious and the overlooked. Lee is always a gold chain link fence will temporarily frame investigating and questioning the context the four quadrants of mount vernon place. an opportunity to re-see and re-consider the space. of the site in which he works and has used Beyond the Compass, Beyond the Square to further his interest in creating art which is in Framing mount Veron plaCe is a reaction and relation to its surroundings. gold chain link fence that will wrap the :9H///86I6AD<///787H:m]^W^i^dc8ViVad\ four squares of Mount Vernon Place. This '%%-B>86:m]^W^i^dc9ZkZadeZbZciHZb^cVg:9H project, by artist Lee B. Freeman, has In the form of a scavenger hunt, three main actions. The first action is to deny access to this public space while exploring mount Vernon plaCe by simultaneously surrounding it in a golden Um-Gi Lee examines late 19th and early frame. This action will force the public to 20th century architectural treasures step back and consider the facets that make around Mount Vernon Place. Across from up this complex space. In the second act the special architectural and historic sites are fence gates open, timed with the opening miniatures of key buildings visible from of the Walter Art Museum’s exhibit Maps: Mount Vernon Place. Installed alongside Finding Our Place in the World. The third these models are stamps and miniature action is the removal of the fence, revealing maps. Participants can take a card and visit Mount Vernon Place as a stage for the each place indicated on the card to collect a exciting exhibition Beyond the Compass, stamp and learn about basic aspects of the Beyond the Square. Freeman vastly shifts historic architecture in the neighborhood. the space, presenting an opportunity to “re-see” this important park in a dialogue which speaks to this timeless social ground.

um-gi lee is a Korean-born senior studying conceptual sculpture and modelmaking. After two years of study at the Korean National University of the Arts, she came to MICA to study sculpture and 3D design. Um-Gi’s studio work regularly engages concepts of scale and time. She is also deeply interested in exploring her identity as an Asian woman practicing art in a Western world. She credits her parents, a cartoonist and animator, for her interest and talent in the arts.

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rebecca nagle wishes to thank

block party baltimore city department of recreation and parks, warren rowley '%%-B>86:m]^W^i^dc9ZkZadeZbZciHZb^cVg:9H midtown community benefits district new outFits places decorative madison park cloaks made by communities in improvement Baltimore over the monuments association marble hill in the parks of Mount Vernon community Place. These decorative cloaks association temporarily re-dress the mount royal improvement monuments of John Eager Howard, association Roger B. Taney, Severn Teackle neighbors of contee-parago park Wallis, General Lafayette, and George Peabody. New Outfits were resident action committee made in workshops by diverse pennsylvania avenue groups of Baltimore community redevelopment centers and resident groups, collaborative park in which the artist, Rebecca sisters together and reaching Nagle, acted as an educator and shie’rees saunders a facilitator. New Outfits gives antoine bennett people access to the power that george gilliam the monuments symbolize. charlie johnson lee bowers carolyn defastch roxanne thomas pauline squirrel evette moore jonathan haun jaon davis jean cole matthew tuttle

new outfits a rendering of what a cloak on john eager howard would look like

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MacKenzie peck wishes to thank donald hicken, baltimore school for the arts tolly wright, actor

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community organizations: city springs elementry school violetville elementary school saturday academy program spinster yarn and fiber shop the knitted bridge is a collaborative project by the artist and community organizations. the designs and colors are based upon maps and drawings created at these workshops.

Boundary BloCK party is an event that will bring neighborhoods in West Baltimore together to celebrate and share their unique cultures. The Boundary Block Party takes place on Saturday, April 19, 1-4 p.m. in the median park at the corner of Eutaw and McMechen Streets. Artists, educators, and community members will work collaboratively to plan the event. Hoping to bring distinctive neighborhoods together to share and build relationships and make permanent contributions to the public spaces, they will install community art projects made at the block party in each neighborhood. Artist Rebecca Nagle will work with others at the block party on a project to replace and decorate new wood planks to rehabilitate local park benches.

raChel Faller is a senior fiber major from Boston, Massachusetts. She explores concepts of sustainability, social justice, and education inspired by volunteer work both at home and internationally. She has worked on community art projects with the Revolving Museum in Lowell, MA, at several community centers in Baltimore, and at MICA. After graduation, Rachel plans to work in an HIV clinic in Cambodia teaching women to make handmade textiles that will contribute to their livelihood. Additionally, she plans to pursue a graduate degree in community arts.

dan allende is a sophomore artist currently studying interdisciplinary sculpture, art education, and historical pursuits. His dedication to exploration and discovering uncharted spaces drives his interest in history. Dan is pleased to participate in Beyond the Compass, Beyond the Square as an artist and historian. The exhibition has fueled his investigations into historical perspective and the many histories of Mount Vernon Place. Inspired by his expeditions throughout many regions of North America, Dan considers many elements of travel and exploration to be key to his practice. Nature, memory, and the preservation of historical records are themes prevalent in his work.

mapping history creative historian daniel allende hard at work in his study

mapping history In order to map out the rich history of Mount Vernon Place, historian Daniel Allende has unearthed a bounty of historical documents, records, and primary sources. Mapping History utilizes his findings as the basis of informational plaques. Through Allende’s interpretive plaques, visitors are invited to discover a new way of understanding this ripe historic landmark. Plaques with an accompanying audio cell phone tour educate visitors about some of the unknown history of Mount Vernon Place, suggesting that history has multiple layers and is more than meets the eye.

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Baltimore sweep aCtion: towards the Center is a cross-neighborhood project by Jonathan Taube that engages four distinct communities in the cleansing action of sweeping, participants perform a gesture counter to the expanding motion of gentrification. Pushing trash towards the center, participants will celebrate civic pride and crossing boundaries while being drawn towards Mount Vernon Place. The resulting trash is displayed openly to demonstrate the point that our social and environmental problems might be solved if we face them together and the viewer is confronted with a monumental relic of community collaboration. Jonathan tauBe is a sophomore interdisciplinary sculpture major. Originally from Covington, Louisiana, Jonathan’s work relates to his experience in Hurricane Katrina when communities came together to clean and rebuild the streets of New Orleans. Jonathan addressed the redevelopment of Covington in his 2006 solo show Post Katrina Growth in which he sowed pounds of salt, along the side of a highway, into construction sites intended for strip malls. He is extremely interested in performance art, public art, and theories of social sculpture. Presently, he focuses on the social potential of Baltimore by working to bridge divisions within the city.

dana solano is a senior interactive media major from Chester Township, New Jersey. Dana’s work largely focuses on themes of identity. Dana has participated in a number of exhibitions and has shown Theft and Rescue, a collaborative work dealing with psychogeography, on a number of occasions. It has been a part of several festivals including the Conflux Festival in Brooklyn, and the Enzimi festival in Rome. Dana’s professional experience revolves around web design and includes working with Chrysallis, a portfolio company involved with the growth of brands in health and beauty, as well as the Contemporary Museum in Baltimore.

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a monument to collective effort community leaders will create a monument of brooms to a collective civic effort. the debris collected in the sweep from the respective routes will be installed in the base of the monument.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 8A>:CITTTTT EGDD;TTTTT

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Beyond the Square has been developed and produced by students from MICA’s Exhibition Development Seminar in collaboration with artists from the Conversations as Muse studio course.

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Sarah Elek Michelle Herman Katherine B. Nammacher Daniel Wallace Mentor: Glenn Shrum (Flux Studio) gr aphic design team :

John P. Corrigan

Mentor: Rachel Faller '%%-B>86:m]^W^i^dc9ZkZadeZbZciHZb^cVg:9H Lee B. Freeman Emma Fowler Um-Gi Lee Rebecca Nagle MacKenzie Peck Michael Ries Dana Solano Jonathan Taube instructor :

Jann Rosen-Quearlt (Interdisciplinary Sculpture Dept., MICA) exhibition development seminar

Instructor: George Ciscle (Curator-in-Residence, MICA) art educ ation team :

Imen Djouini Emily Peters Elena Rosemond Mentor: Emily Blumenthal (Walters Art Museum) cur atorial team :

Samantha Gainsburg Suzannah Gerber Leslie-Morgan Frederick Lisa Rigby Mentor: George Ciscle

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public programs CALENDAR OF EVENTS

K:GH>DC6 A exhibition design team :

artists Jenn Julian :9H///86I6AD<///787H:m]^W^i^dc8ViVad\ Aaron Talbot Daniel Allende

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resonance uses interactive technology that through tonal sounds visually map the participant’s emotions. this image is of possible chladni patterns that can be created in sand as a result of a tone resonating through a sheet of metal.

miChael ries is a senior interactive media major from Baltimore, Maryland. Prior to returning to school to further his art education, he worked as a full time network engineer, and now specializes in new media and technology. His work engages technology as a medium with which he can achieve his artist vision. Through his work he hopes to expose the myth of the omnipotence of the computer and to demonstrate that our senses lead us to interpret our world. Michael has participated in the 2007 Enzimi Festival in Rome and the 2006 Jetlag: Traveling Art exhibition in Seoul, South Korea.

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rachel faller wishes to thank rachel nefcy, structural fabrication the davey tree expert company, wood chips

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michael and dana wish to thank ryan holsopple, 31 down radio theater, http://31down.org (31down.org) :9H///86I6AD<///787H:m]^W^i^dc8ViVad\

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the Knitted Bridge represents a community outreach endeavor in Baltimore by Rachel Faller and aims to encourage active participation by creating a structure that people can physically interact with. It is a steel structure with a suspended, knitted, rope bridge. The knitted section is the product of several knitting workshops taught in different areas in the city. After the completion of the rope bridge, the participants from the community are invited to paint the structure to complete the experience. The Knitted Bridge symbolizes the bridging of many communities in Baltimore, connecting with the themes of the exhibition in terms of how maps and geographic boundaries divide our communities and define us, and how extending beyond and crossing those boundaries is critical.

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brooklyn, new york for programming and technical advice '%%-B>86:m]^W^i^dc9ZkZadeZbZciHZb^cVg:9H netlogic, llc. bethesda, md

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reBeCCa nagle is a senior fiber major from Joplin, Missouri,

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resonanCe is an interactive sculpture by Michael Ries and Dana Solano that uses cell phones, the sound properties of resonance, and interactivity to invite Baltimoreans to think about themselves in relationship to their environment. The resonator contains a speaker that will play a tone and a plate 8A>:CITTTTT EGDD;TTTTT 9:H><CTTTTT EGD9TTTTT GDJC96 that will create visual patterns in sand through vibrations. Participants will hear a series of questions that will map the caller’s emotional state by calling %-T:9HT6:m]^W^i^dc8ViVad\#_eX K:GH>DC6 a phone number provided at the site. The resonator represents a single idea within this series, and the tone created by the resonator will be a translation of the participant’s answers to the questions. Depending on those answers, the tones played will create either harmonious resonances or disharmonious cacophonies, both audibly and visually.

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new outfits working in video, new media, performance, and community art. Her baltimore city forestry department work has been exhibited both nationally and internationally and was blank’s fabrics recently featured at the Conflux Festival in Brooklyn, New York and in 8A>:CITTTTT EGDD;TTTTT 9:H><CTTTTT EGD9TTTTT GDJC96 walters art museum staff involved in new the permanent collection of the Ssamzie Museum in Seoul, South Korea, outfits %-T:9HT6:m]^W^i^dc8ViVad\#_eX K:GH>DC6 where her work remains in a permanent collection. Rebecca was a part of house of ruth the team that designed and produced the 2007 exhibition At Freedom’s rose street community center Door: Challenging Slavery in Maryland at the Maryland Historical Society creative alliance and the Reginald F. Lewis Museum. Her interactive works engage viewers mica’s, performance garment class with issues of intimacy, the body, community, and power dynamics.

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right, left, or straight an open-ended, self-guided journey using a ceramic ball to navigate any space.

the parK, a video installation, by MacKenzie Peck, re-examines the ways in which Mount Vernon Place may be perceived. It asserts that maps can be understood as documents created in order to present information about a space, resulting in an expanded awareness of the location. Like a map, the installation expands the viewer’s understanding of this historical landmark by elaborating on conventional mapping. Because human perception cannot be transferred, all people will not perceive a site the same way. Peck promotes shifts in perception with a silent black and white video that is rooted in the life and natural rhythms of Mount Vernon Place, allowing the viewer to reflect on the space, how they move through it and how others may perceive that shared experience.

maCKenzie peCK is a junior general fine arts major from Danbury, Connecticut. Her paintings and multimedia work explore abstractions of the figure and have been featured in the MICA Juried Undergraduate Exhibition in 2005 and 2006, and in the 2007 York Arts Emerging Visions Undergraduate Student Exhibition. While focused on her artwork and studio practice, she is also interested in library science, athletics, physics, and politics. Recently, she traveled to Cabo Verde in Africa to study and work as a teaching assistant at the Center for Creative Youth’s cultural exchange program. She plans to attend the AICAD New York Studio Program in Brooklyn for one semester.

exploring mount vernon place represents five buildings of mount vernon place in miniature. participants use a passportlike card to collect a stamp at each model.

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emma Fowler is a sophomore ceramics major from Wauwatosa, Wisconsin. Her current studio work pushes the relationship between performance and ceramics. She also is interested in sound and has incorporated it into her investigations. Emma enjoys exploring Baltimore, as well as many other Eastern Seaboard cities, as a way to discover and learn from the history of the places around her.

the park maps the routine of one person walking in mount vernon place.

counterparts. The Exhibit Design team brainstormed and researched

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right, leFt, or straight consists of small spherical maps by Emma Fowler that invite viewers to embark on an adventure. They are designed with lines and grooves, signifying paths, peaks and valleys in a geography that exists only in the psyche of the viewer. Instead of designated roads on a route to a specific location, the balls take the viewer on a journey with limitless end points. These map balls propose that traveling without designated roads alters psychological and emotional connections to the places around us, and suggests new ways of navigating within our space.

this statement was written, with extensive input from the entire exhibition development seminar, by the management team.

performed the essential functions of their museum and professional

Gerry Greaney (Greaney Design) management team :

Natasha Bunten Emily Macenko Mentor: George Ciscle web design team :

Michael Milano Rachael Umbriano Mentor: Kevin Hoffman (MICA) Writing Mentor: Jennifer Wallace (MICA) EDS Video Archivist: Andy Shenker This project has been made possible through the generosity of the Baltimore Community Foundation, MICA’s Interdisciplinary Sculpture Department, the Walters Art Museum, and the Friends of the Exhibition Development Seminar. Festival of Maps is made possible by a Festival of Maps Mini grant from a Fund of the Baltimore Community Foundation and the Baltimore Cultural Development Council.

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special thanks goes to the Walter’s Art Museum staff including Gary Vikan, Greg Rago, Johanna Biehler, Terry Weisser, and especially Will Noel. Advice and guidance was provided by Commission for Historical and Architectural Preservation (CHAP), Friends of Mt. Vernon, Mt. Vernon Belvedere Association, and Baltimore City Parks and Recreation, in particular Jennifer Morgan. We are also indebted to MICA’s Communications and Development departments for their invaluable assistance. More information on Beyond the Compass, Beyond the Square, including detailed project credits, extended essays, images, bios of team members, lesson plans and a blog can be found online at www.mica. edu/beyond. © Copyright Maryland Institute College of Art, Baltimore, Maryland. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or used in any form by any means without the written permission of the artists or publisher.

College night at the walters

Teacher Tea Time: The world of Tea

March 27 6-9 pm Walters Art Museum FREE admission, includes special exhibit

April 10 4.30-6.30 pm Walters Art Museum $10 For members, $15 for nonmembers, includes admission to special exhibit

Friday night at the walters March 28 5-8 pm Walters Art Museum FREE, does not include special exhibit

Community Celebration For beyond the Compass, beyond the square March 29 1-4 pm Parks of Mount Vernon Place FREE, does not include special exhibit

artist panel For beyond the Compass, beyond the square March 30 3 pm Brown Center, Falvey Hall, MICA FREE

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family fesTival of exploraTion April 12 11-4 pm Walters Art Museum FREE, includes special exhibit

Boundary Block parTy April 19 1-4 pm Eutaw Place, at the corner of Eutaw and McMechen streets. FREE

BlasT from The pasT: Time Travel Through film April 26 8 pm West Park of Mount Vernon Place FREE

navigaTe This place: family scavenger hunT April 27 1-4 pm Parks of Mount Vernon Place and Walters Art Museum FREE


QUARTER ACRE LIFESTYLE


| P ROJECT S U MMARY

SPR IN G 2007 D OUBL ES AN D D OPPELGAN GER S

Three color memorial stones laid at Gemini Farms, Wadena, MN,


TH E FLAMINGOS’ SO CKS Horacio Quiroga’s fa ble

1

2

5

6

9


| P ROJECT S U MMARY

SPR IN G 2008

Work created for visiting artists Steven Farrell, project involved

GR AFT

grafting a fable with a non-related knowledge domain, recreating a secondary narrative structure where the narrative arch, and domain are both visible.

3

4. 5.

3.

6. 11.

2.

7. 12. 14.

15. 20.

10.

1.

13. 9.

16.

21. 22.

23.

19.

24. 17. 25.

18.

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END


NAZI ANTI-SEMITIC PROPAGANDA HISTORIC VISUAL SURVEY

V ISUAL CU LTU R E AN D TH E H OLO CAU ST NAZ I ANTI-SE MITIC PROPAGAN DA H ISTOR IC V ISUAL SU RV EY

VI S UAL C U LTU R E AN D TH E HOLO CAUST NAZI ANTI -S E M ITI C PROPAGAN DA H I STOR I C VI S UAL S U RVEY

John P Corrigan GD///MFA

AH5622 Visual Culture and the Holocaust Jennifer Hirsh Spring 2007

1 Fight for Freedom

logo, a British antiNazi campaign, c. 1941.

John P Corrigan GD///MFA

AH5622 Visual Culture and the Holocaust Jennifer Hirsh Spring 2007

2

| N A Z I A N T I - S E M I T I C P RO PAG A N DA

V I S UA L CU LTU RE A N D TH E H O L O CAU ST

| 3

4

| NAZ I ANT I-SEMIT IC P ROPAG AN DA

V ISUAL CU LT U RE AN D T H E H OLOCAUST

| 5

NAZI AGENDA

I NTRO DUC TI ON ANTI -SEMITISM LEADI NG TO TH E H O LO CAU ST

1933 JANUARY German government takes away freedom of speech, assembly, press, and freedom from invasion of privacy (mail, telephone, telegraph), and from house search without warrant. MARch The concentration camp at Dachau is established. JUlY Nazis pass a law requiring the forced sterilization of those found to have genetic defects.

3 The Wandering Jew

The film, The

Der-Ewige-Jude,

produced by

Horst Schlüter.1937.

was twisted by

(The Eternal Jew) Poster design by (Aynsley, 197)

Wandering Jew, Jewsih Zionists,

SepteMbeR German Jews are forbidden from owning land. OctObeR German Jews are forbidden from being newspaper editors.

Timeline events

letter forms. The text reads from left to

Semitic legislation

reads from right to left. The image of the

directed by the Nazi

Jewish figure is distortingly hunched, and

focus on antiand actions regime.

Jewish national identity has continually focused on their biblical Holy Land of

the ‘Chosen People,’ Palestine, Israel and the city of Jerusalem. This affection continued to provide them with a strong emotional and national pride. A people without land to

claim as their own, left Jews around the world to identify first with religious conviction,

and secondly with their national/state of occupancies. This conviction, to the ideological state of Israel, considered by residential communities to represent a lack of National

National pride of European nations intensified after the Great War. Germany

suffered great losses after the fall of World War I. Germany was severely severed and

fractured in social and economic depression. Germany looked to their National identity and government for answers as to the demise of their once powerful nation. The

National Socialist party looked to answer these questions, ending blame on the Jews.

1935

1932. (Heller, 64)

MAY German Jews are forbidden from serving in the military.

annihilate the contemporary German empire.

Established decades prior to the Nazi party,

The Protocols of Zion, popularized fictitious themes

supposedly answered questions to policies that beleaguered Germany after World War I.

7

All of Germany

listens to the Führer with the People’s

Receiver. Designed

TH E CAMPAIGN ’ S ON LY RATIO NALE wAS TO b LU NT TH E SEN SI b I LITI ES O f TH E PEOPLE R EGAR DI NG TH E CAMPAIG N Of PERSECUTION AN D MU R DER wH IC H wAS b EI NG CAR R I ED O UT…TH EY wER E N OT DESIGN ED TO U N ITE TH E G ER MAN PE OPLE I N TH E wAR EffORT …SU b DU E A NY DO U bT… RAC IAL PERSECUTION TO wH IC H TH E J EwS wER E TO b E SU bJ ECTED…

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SepteMbeR The German government enacts the Nuremberg Laws— depriving German Jews of citizenship and fundamental rights.

Jewish Conspiracy

Ministry for Public

Reich Ministry

Election poster,

Propaganda, by

Enlightenment and

1943. (Herf)

(Herf, 143)

Political posters from the begining of the

These posters represent a ‘lurking’ Jew,

Other Nazi sterotypes focused on religious

war, consistently depicted the Jewish man

Allied agreements between England,

beard, nose, ears, and lips in appoving

politcal force. The caricature of the Jewish

sterotypical caricatures of the overweight

depicted Jewish conspirators safely hidden

above, symbols of industrial and politcal

of the Jewish politican.

in America or England.

Powers: The Jew

the People’s Bloc,

Enlightenment and

1924. (Herf, 33)

Hans Schweitzer,

and politics. Through means of propaganda, the Ministry for

Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Reichsministerium für

against Europe,

Volksaufklärung und Propaganda) was to educate the people, (Herf, 6)

for Public

of the ‘true’ realities.

The mid-late 1930’s the political consensus led to the

Propaganda 1941.

Nuremburg Race Laws. The newly enacted laws would deny citizen-

ship, encourage economic impoverishment of Jews—the enemy to the sate and well being of Germany. Anti-Semitism rested on the belief Nazi regime, and through the end of the

as the mastermind behind all oppositional figure is consistenly positoned behinde, or

controling the political relationships of Russia and America. Nazi propaganda used British bourgeois and heavy forcefulness

that the Jews were a cohesive and politically active power that was

seeking the destruction of Germany. Nazi propaganda insisted that

Jews; these depictions exaggerated the

the powerful autonomous entity of International Jewry controlled

facial gestures. The Nazis commonly

stooges and political accomplices who served their evil interests. An

International Jewish political force was falsely exposed for effecting

away in the safety and luxury of influence

leaders in Great Britain, the Soviet Union (under the Bolsheviks,) and the United States. The Nazis made claims that Jews were masters of

8

| NAZ I ANT I-SEMIT IC P ROPAG AN DA

The Nazis intensify persecution of political dissenters and others considered “inferior,” including Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and homosexuals.

Before the official beginning and declaration of war in 1939,

V ISUAL CU LT U RE AN D T H E H OLOCAUST

AUgUSt Olympic Games begin in Berlin. To gain public favor, Hitler and Nazis temporarily stop actions against Jews.

allowed the proliferation of posters, uniforms, street graphics and

political banners en masse. The propaganda image both unified and

| 9

Hitler had been produced. Herf also specifies the color poster accompanying the film The

1936

propaganda had been used to propagate the new world order

according to the Nazis, and vilify the enemy. The industrial revolution

identified political opponents giving faces to the enemies of the Reich,

Eternal Jew was 23,000. (Herf, 59)

By January 1941, Herf lists the Propaganda Ministry claims that, “more

than seven million posters, two million pamphlets, sixty million periodicals and wall

newspapers, an sixty-seven million leaflets were produced.” (Herf, 34) This amount does not reflect film, demonstrations, slide shows, or political rallies. The quantitative mass was pre-dominantly implementing the solution to ‘The Jewish Question,’ addressing

creating solidarity amongst leaders, followers, as well as the crushed

the supposed subversive power of the Jews in Germany. The staggering numbers start to

opposition.

represent the other fact that these reports do not show, the six million Jews destroyed as

Leadership figures embodied the power and ideology of

the results of paranoia and murderous anti-Semitism.

Nazi Germany. For the first time, photographic representation

allowed images of Hitler to become icons. (Hollis, 108) Through photographic representation, the Jewish enemy would also be

vilified. Jewish faces could also be used to identify, misrepresent, and exaggerate anti-Semitic stereotypes, to the disadvantage of the Jews. Direct photographic representation was better suited to symbolic representation of the power of the Nazi party, and expose and propagate the negative connotations of the Jews.

Posters were used by the Nazi party to boost morale among

modern medium of propaganda was able to overwhelm viewers.

(Hollis, 109) Posters effectiveness depended upon the images ability to communicate instantly and sub due the potential for reactionary thought or consequences.

The statistical information offered by Jeffrey Herf, is a

staggering account of propaganda activity. In the initial years of the

The audience is directed at ‘the people’

1 “Judgement,”

Otto Dietrich

decendents. Both the visual tone and

criminals before the

Nuremburg Military

meetings from September 1939 through October 1940, a staggering

German Nationalism.

Tribunal (IMT), 14,

(Herf, 23)

ten million saw the German Weekly Newsreel each week. Herf reports,

the language is set to Fraktur, calling on

Behind the Enemy

Workers Vote for

Nazis believed they had uncovered deep secrets of modern history

its own, encourage war production, and dictate order to civilians. The

1

by Leonoid. 1936. (Aynsley, 179)

of Germany, which refer to Aryan

The Wire Puller:

Brain-and Manual

themselves and the rest of the world that they were the victims. The

6

wAR AND PROPAGANDA

Election poster,

to exterminate the Jews before they were able to

effecting German strength, The Protocols of Zion

self-pity of victimization, the Nazis used propaganda to convince 5

camouflage, able to unknowingly afflict its goals at the unsuspecting

V I S UA L CU LTU RE A N D TH E H O L O CAU ST

of Jewish conspiracy. Twisting historical events

Germany would use propaganda tactics to contradict

historical events, making simultaneous claims of a master race

and world domination. With world domination, paranoia, and the

4

influence.

8

to expose, identify, and destroy the supposed goal

launched the war against Germany, thus compelling the Nazi party to retaliate.

distribution of marketable goods.

| N A Z I A N T I - S E M I T I C P RO PAG A N DA

of German annihilation. Hitler personally sought

II. According to Hitler and the Nazi party, it was the Jews who had

International Jewish Diaspora to turn inward, relying on the extension of community and its cross-cultural connections incorporating academia, and the trade and

representing a broken fragmented Russia.

Germans. Nazi propaganda made its initial effort

claims of the diabolical intentions of International, and world Jewry. Nazis projected blame onto the Jews at the outbreak of World War

Russia, France, Germany, and England. This political and economic restriction forced the

The figure also carries a stone portion

6

projected his own paranoia, twisting historical world events to make

citizens continually resented the Jewish communities wealth and supposed economic influences. European Jewry previously had been denied land ownership rights in

paranoid rumors of espionage, and undercurrents of potential revolutionaries.

Even though the headline text is in

facial gesture have been exaggerated.

others. Propaganda initiatives portrayed the Germans innocence, turning the power relationships of the Jews upside down. Hitler

surrounding the French inquisition. The predominant historic attitudes of European

citizens and wrongfully encouraged ideologies of mistrust, questioned solidarity,

return to Palestine.

right, where as Hebrew is written and

merely responding to political threats, initiatives, and injustices of

MAY German Jews are forbidden from receiving national health insurance.

The undercurrent attitudes, extended anti-Semitic ideologies dating back

and the Balkan States. This apparent and deliberate lack of National pride provoked

Jewish quest for a

Nazi anti-Semitic propaganda presented Hitler and Germany as

1934

to Martin Luther’s protestant reformation, and the events and circumstances

pride in the host country, such as Germany, Italy, Poland, Bohemia, the Ukraine, Russia,

Nazi propagnda exploiting the

German, the type is stylized into Hebrew

Social and political reasoning uses predetermined national security to defend its position against European Jewry. Historic animosity, paranoia, and social fatigue led to false defensive actions against the Jews. Wrongful blame, according to socialist doctrines, both accelerated and intensified after the out come and Germany’s Nationalist position after World War I.

Trials of War

Nuremburg Military 565-576.

testified at the trial stating…

war the Propaganda Ministry was responsible for 200,000 political 29,674 slide show meetings consisting of nine productions, as nine to

9

10

Collaboration, USHMM

Call Number: 2004.264.1

Front divided into three panels with anti-Semitic caricatures in center panel. The poster refers to the meeting between

Henri Philippe Petain, French general and head of the Vichy

government in France, and Adolf Hitler in Oct. 1940 at Montoiresur-le-Loir, France, when Petain offered his collaboration with Nazi Germany. Language(s): In French.

“Text posters were printed in edition of 400,000-500,000 and picture

11

The Jew: Instegators

He Bears the

of the War,

Guilt for the War!

Prolonger of the

Ministry for Public

War, Ministry

Enlightenment and

for Public

Propaganda, by

Propaganda, by

1943. (Herf)

Enlightenment and

Hans Schweitzer,

Hans Schweitzer,

posters numbering 300,000. By the end of 1940, 700,000 photos of

1943. (Herf)

10 | NAZ I ANT I-SEMIT IC P ROPAG AN DA

V ISUAL CU LT U RE AN D T H E H OLOCAUST

QUESTIONING ANTI-SEMITIC REPRESENTATION / PROLIfERATION

Jeffery Herf’s book, The Jewish Enemy, lays out specific accounts and historical facts

that prove and identify Nazi propaganda to be falsely based, and politically skewed for public support. Herf’s specific numbers dramatically prove the ultimate purpose was

to falsely convince its own party, as well as the German citizens the supposed power of

International Jewry. Herf’s statistical information is based on the decreasing percentage of German Jews predating the Nazi regime. Herf’s figures state, “The percentage of

Jews in the German population had declined from it’s peak of just over 1 percent in 1880

(under the Weimar Republic) to .76 percent in 1933…” Herf continues, “Out of all German

Jews, 160,000 or 32.1 percent, lived in Berlin, a fact of considerable importance for Joseph Goebbels before and after 1933.” (Herf, 35) Previous anti-Semitic prejudices had limited

Jewish professions. Jews had been mostly removed from political and civil service. Jews

were not allowed to participate, nor be the head of large corporate business. Herf states, “Almost three-quarters of German Jews made their living from trade, commerce, or

banking, with strong concentrations in sales, white-collar jobs, and office work.” (Herf, 35) Remaining professions was law and medicine, which remained accessible for Jews to practice.

Anti-Semitic propaganda made unsubstantiated claims the Jews dominated

both the cultural and intellectuals of Berlin. These numbers were highly dramatized as

less than an average of six percent occupied positions of notable influence. The less than consistent positioning of the Nazis regime conspiratorial claims of Jewish involvement was fictitious.

Under the sanctioned Nuremburg laws, which eliminated both economic and

social standing for the Jews, continued deception strengthened the Germans disgust of the Jews supposed power. Herf writes, “By the end of 1933, 37,000 of the 525, 00 Jews in Germany had already left.” (Herf, 37)

From the onset of Hitler’s rise to power, his previous publication Mein Kampf,

which was written from prison, did not obsessively discuss racial biology, consuming

itself mostly with the affect International Jewry had on the economic depression that

afflicted Germany after World War I. The Jews were enemies because of their supposed

economic war, capitalism, and connection to the Bolshevik revolution started in Russia. Herf cites the continued pressure and activism in England and America towards

Germany for the increasing anti-Semitic policies towards Jews and the conspiracy of

| 11

12 1937 JANUARY German Jews are banned from many professional occupations including teaching Germans, accounting and dentistry. They are also denied tax reductions and child allowances. JUlY Many Jewish students are ordered to leave German schools and universities. NOveMbeR Jewish passports are declared invalid for foreign travel.

The Wire Pullers:

They Are Only Jews! Parole der Woshe,

Reich Propaganda Directorate of the Nazi Party, 1942. (Herf, 153)

The early use of

International Jewry. Herf writes, “The source of tension was therefore

faces of the enemy

themselves…” (Herf, 39)

photography put

for all passersby to see.

foreign criticism of the regimes anti-Semitic policies, not the policies Joseph Goebbels, second in command to Nazi propaganda,

frequently linked Bolshevism with Germany’s Jewish problem.

Both Goebbels’ and Hitler’s speeches would demonize the ‘Judo-

Marxist domination’ in its westward expansion of Germany, and

the Jewish quest for world domination. Hitler’s hatred of America

was continually obsessed with its connections to supposed Jewish influences. Outspoken American politicians, against the Nazis in

Germany, fueled Jewish implications. Herf states, that Nazis attacked F.D. Roosevelt’s New Deal, believing that it was common to National

Socialism in its encouragement of Liberal Democracy, a strong statehood and active public welfare system. Politics in America was

propagated by the Nazis proof of its alleged Jewish manipulation.

International outrage and criticisms of the Nazi policy of anti-

Semitism, provoked Hitler to ‘retaliate’ against the Jews of Germany and later the rest of Europe. Seen as an act of Jewish aggression

on Germany, Hitler enacted the anti-Jewish pogrom of November 1938, ‘the night of broken glass’ destroying Jewish business and

synagogues, killing and beating of Jews, and subsequently sending

many males to Dachau, at which time was a cap for prisoners of war.

PAGES 2-11


| P ROJECT S U MMARY

SPR IN G 2007

Research and design created for a graduate seminar class that

V isua l Culture a nd the

looked at the visual culture of the Holocaust. I chose to research the

Holoca ust

creation of Nazi anti-Semitic propaganda paying particular attention to the missing gap in the history of graphic design.

1 2 | N A Z I A N T I - S E M I T I C P RO PAG A N DA

V I S UA L CU LTU RE A N D TH E H O L O CAU ST

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1 4 | NAZ I ANT I-SEMIT IC P ROPAG AN DA

V ISUAL CU LT U RE AN D T H E H OLOCAUST

NAZI OffICES AND OffICERS

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PAGE S 1 2 - 1 5

ANTI-POLISH PROPAGANDA

Nazi anti-Semitic theories, were disseminated from the writings

OctObeR Law requires Jewish passports to be stamped with a large red “J.”

1938

of Adolf Hitler’s book Mein Kampf. Hitler’s chief conspirator in the

MARch Germany takes over Austria and all anti-Jewish laws are enforced.

proliferation of anti-Semitic propaganda was Joseph Goebbels. Through Hitler and Goebbels the Nazi party generated prolific

amounts of effective propaganda. First to win the popular election

NOveMbeR Kristallnacht: The Night of the Broken Glass, Nazis attack Jews throughout Germany—30,000 Jews are arrested; 91 are killed; 7,500 shops and businesses are looted; and more than 1,000 synagogues are burned. Nazis fine Jews one billion marks for the damages.

ApRil Nazis require Jews to register wealth and property.

of Hitler and secondly the anti-Semitic campaign aimed at the

destruction of European Jews. Nazi propaganda pioneered the use of modern communication methods, incorporating radio, aerial travel, and the novelty of film (Bytwerk, 11) was used to establish the Third

13

Reich as a strong and powerful political force. In the publication

Der Stürmer. “Jewish Murder Plan against

Paper War, Randall Bytwerk introduces Hitler’s clear identification

Gentile Humanity Revealed,” issue

of propaganda’s use to persuade the masses. Bytwerk quotes Hitler’s

accusing Jews of

writings in Mein Kampf, “The act of propaganda lies in understanding

practicing ritual

the emotional ideas of the great masses and finding, through a

murder to secure the blood of

psychologically correct form, the way to the attention and thence to

Christians to use

the heart of the broad masses.”

in Jewish religious

(Bytwerk, 11)

rituals. Special

Hitler’s anti-Semitic convictions was addressed, supported and

Issue: May 1934. (Calvin College

inflated by his closest party propagandists. His core of experienced

Archive)

supporters were Joseph Goebbels, Otto Dietrich, and Alfred Rosenburg. (Herf, 17) During the past Weimar Republic years, Nazi propagandists

JUlY Nazis require Jews over age 15 to apply for identity cards to be shown on demand to any police officer. Jewish doctors are prohibited by law from practicing medicine.

Jewish children are expelled from public schools.

AUgUSt Nazis destroy the synagogue in Nuremberg.

Hermann Goering takes charge of resolving the “Jewish Question.”

reporting of both political and military news worthy stories. Half-

for the truth always has the potential to be found.

process led to the expulsion of German journalists, including Jews,

political dissent. By the end of 1933, the Nazis controlled all remaining

16

Batty Publisher,

19

V I S UA L CU LTU RE A N D TH E H O L O CAU ST

Leaflet 8 back,

Bytwerk, Randall L.

7 back, “Paper

Batty Publisher,

8 back, “Paper

Translation: Leaflet

“Paper War,” Mark

War,” Mark Batty

p.39.

Publisher, p.37.

paramount, the group oversaw the theft of treasured Jewish objects The Nazi rhetoric sought to permanently expel the Jews, and all

Guilt for the War? Reich Propaganda Nazi Party, 1942.

the War! Parole

Ministry for Public Propaganda 1941.

their implied misery and suffering caused to the nation of Germany.

Accusations of international Jewish conspiracy, were explicity enacted by political opposition from England and America. The Jews were

For the first time, images of Roosevelt,

founding of their own statehood. This belief was propagated by Reich

Jewish co-conspirators in the International

believed to be searching for the destruction of Germany to create the

propaganda offices, encouraged by Hitler, and used to substantiate the destruction of European Jewry.

the Nazis advancement on Poland.

ApRil Slovakia passes its own version of the Nuremberg Laws.

regards to the other European nations. On October 23, 1939, the Nazi

Nazi anti-Polish propaganda declared the Pole an inferior,

claiming the insignificant accomplishments of the Polish nation in

Periodical Service officially dictated that future associations with the words: ‘Pole,’ ‘Poland,’ and ‘Polish’ to be indicative of sloppy and

Churchill and Stalin put faces to the

conspiracy of the Jews. The National

leaders were described by the Nazis as

figure heads fronting Jewish advance on

Germany. The size of Roosevelt represents his influence of Jewish advisors.

objectionable behavior. (Herf, 58)

Nazi racial purity condemned any mixture of German

bloodlines. Reported fraternization between German soldiers and

JUlY German Jews are forbidden the right to hold government jobs.

Polish women led to the directive stated by Jeffrey Herf, “Every bloodlinked mixture between Germans and Poles leads to racial decline in German blood.” (Herf, 58)

Adolf Eichmann is appointed director of the Prague Office of Jewish Emigration.

Nazi propaganda linked Poles, Gypsies and Jews, however they

did not assert that Poles were part of the International conspiracy,

that was specifically left prescribed to the Jews of Europe. As Hitler’s

SepteMbeR Nazis order Polish Jews into restricted ghettos and force them into slave labor.

army began to loose Polish ground in 1944, propaganda adjusted its

claims. Nazis leaflet ‘newspapers’ addressed the Poles as heroic dupes contracted by both the Americans and the Russians. Propaganda

German Jews are forbidden to own wireless radios.

frequently described the killings of thousands of Polish soldiers by

the blood red murderous hands of the Russian and Bolshevik army.

NOveMbeR Yellow stars are required to be worn by Polish Jews over the age of 10.

Nazis laid claims to encourage the Poles to stop fighting and go home, rejecting the leadership of International Jewry leading the Russian fight against them.

Propaganda directed at the Poles consisted of horrific accounts

DeceMbeR Adolf Eichmann takes over the section of the Gestapo dealing with Jewish affairs and evacuations.

of anti-Semitic atrocities. The visual tone implied Jewish control of the advancing Russian army. Often times, indicating International Jewry behind the scenes were enjoying their lives on English or

Russia. One could read into the swinging pendulum, and the

Jewish figure holding the string. The caricature is involved but

and tail is also exaggerated with a brief-case. The second visual

Nazi wall remains strong, all of this activity relates to the horrific

Star of David, as they are presumably controlled by the Nazi

references are specifically horrendous.

ideas of the Jews and the Russian army. The third visual reference

being led to pain and death, at the hands of the Jews. The language

the horrendous crimes against them. Nazi anti-Semitic propaganda used language to invert the roles of the Jews lying (sic.) false claims

to distort the true actions of the crimes against Jews on Polish land, in Poland.

beloved

fatherland

to both the Germans and the Russians, in effect, to doubt their

Directorate of the Nazi Party, 1941.

citing the mass population of and their ‘demented intentions’ against

(Herf)

the state of Poland. Prolonged anti-Semitic reasoning had created

18

contempt of the Jews by Polish citizens increasingly since the Nazi regime, justifying the killings and interment of thousands

POLISH FRIENDS!

Leaflet 8 front,

“Paper War,” Mark

DO YOU WANT TO DIE FOR THESE?

Batty Publisher, p.38.

of Polish Jews.

Anti-Polish propaganda used by the Nazis was an exaggerated

account of similar propaganda used in other countries to be

annexed and incorporated into the Reich. Poland was the first nation

Nazi propaganda visually mapped the

The first anti-Jewish measures are taken in Vichy France. AUgUSt Romania introduces anti-Jewish measures restricting education and employment, and then begins the “Romanianization” of Jewish businesses. OctObeR Vichy France signs its own version of the Nuremberg Laws.

aspects of Nazi anti-Semitic. The visual tone, paired with the

be a international conspirator either in England or in the United States. The visual tone of the seated man is also wrapped,

2 0 | N A Z I A N T I - S E M I T I C P RO PAG A N DA

V I S UA L CU LTU RE A N D TH E H O L O CAU ST

Any further usage of the swastika, beyond specific historical reference must be avoided at all costs. Steven Heller’s book, Swastika Beyond Redemption, lays out the increasing

potential of contemporary derivatives by examining the historical usage and origins of the swastika. Racial segregation appeared in Germanic Free Masonry cults dating back to the 1890’s. Swastika like images appeared on various forms of Aryan brotherhood literature, pre-dating the radical influences of the Nazis. Early symbol identification extended the Swastika symbol representing secret German folk nationalism. These secret orders expanded on the already prevalent symbols of mystic origins, further extending it once again to represent the pure order of Aryan supremacy.

Viennese-born Guido Von List, (1848-1919) asserted the Swastika with

supernatural power, (Heller, 51) linking it with Aryan’s strength and energy. List’s

idea was also responsible for the Gothic revival in Germany, encouraging Germanic

conservative art and architecture. List was responsible for the classic revival of writing with spiky Fraktur type because it glorified the past strength and resolve. (Heller, 54) The swastika image was used in World War I by a militarist German youth

movement. Hitler, like other World War I veterans, and secret Germanic brotherhood’s, believed the Jews, Communists, and Republicans betrayed and profited from Germany

of his brothers. Hitler’s book, Mein Kampf (My Struggle) was devoted to semiotics and

and Russia.

Germanic heroism. He had previously witnessed the strength and visual impact that

the Communist party used to create a political spectacle. Hitler’s first commission for

the Nazi movement was as its propaganda chief. As a former art student, Hitler easily

encouraged England’s involvement into World War II. As a bordering

misshapen facial features, and a racially stereo typical nose. The

country to Germany, and a country also seemingly plagued, in Nazi

understood the power of symbolism and propaganda in the effort of the war. He had

Poles. Historically the Poles had their own version of anti-Semitism

masses. As the newly formed leader of Nazism he choose to be its art director and

witnessed the new visual age and realized the impact propaganda could have on the

terms, with a similar scourge of Jews. The Nazi held contempt for the

image manipulator.

and had enacted their own pogroms of hate on the Jews. Germany

Hitler’s vision of the new German Reich imagined past glories and the ultimate

used its relationship with Poland in a constant state of manipulation.

destruction of its enemies—including of the Weimar Republic, Jews, and Communists.

Nazis consistently made claims that they were cleansing Jews of all

Hitler’s final design was stolen from Dr. Friedrich Krohn, a Völkish symbology scholar.

Europe at the betterment of Germans and Poles.

Through Mein Kampf, Hitler was able to strengthen the past symbol, changing the visual direction, a denotation of forward power. Without further debate, the Nazi symbol, with

| 21

22 | NAZ I ANT I-SEMIT IC P ROPAG AN DA

V ISUAL CU LT U RE AN D T H E H OLOCAUST

The War Aim of

25

Fraktur typefaces

World Plutocracy

Increasing usage by Aryan inspired anti-Semitic

FebRUARY 430 Jewish hostages are deported from Amsterdam after a Dutch Nazi is killed by Jews.

systematic usage, under the minister of propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, and architect Albert Speer, incorporated it into every aspect of Nazi

representation. Even the most vociferous opponents of Nazism agree

militias and white supremacist hate groups are to be kept in check. The reoccurring usage implies a

call to arms and the potential to cause a resurgence of hatred is to be considered intolerable. Every time

SepteMbeR German Jews are ordered to wear yellow stars.

that Hitler’s ‘identity system’ is the most ingeniously consistent

graphic program ever devised—is attributed to his visual mastery of the design and propaganda process. (Heller, 69)

I personally encounter the image of the swastika,

whether in Heller’s book, a flag in a Jewish historical museum, or commentary on contemporary

OctObeR Nazis forbid emigration of Jews from the Reich.

On September 15, 1935, Hitler enacted the first Nuremburg

laws, making the Swastika Germany’s only national flag. (Heller, 71)

On the same day, the next laws were against the Jews, removing the

rights and citizenships, and prohibition of them from ever flying the

German national flag. (Heller, 72) Over the next few years the swastika was codified into national icon—ultimately denoting it as the symbol synonymous with evil.

After the destruction of the Nazi regime, as the Nazi symbol

During a cabinet meeting, Hans Frank, Gauleiter of Poland, says “Gentlemen, I must ask you to rid yourselves of all feeling of pity. We must annihilate the Jews wherever we find them.”

21 Graphic artists in

retreats into mythic memory, the danger remains for its usage to

the Hitler Youth

represent some new abhorrent form or resurgence of Nazi anti-

supremacist power, as telling illustration I am left in shock and horror. Contemporary usage

NOveMbeR The Theresienstadt Ghetto is established near Prague as a model ghetto for Nazi propaganda purposes.

c. 1938. (Heller, 60)

Semitic intolerance—or even worse an effigy of a destroyed dictator.

of the swastika, newly describing the American Fascist or Republican Party does not serve as

an appropriate aesthetic, even to describe the

current political regime. The usage of the swastika

23

represents everything that I find offensive. Heller

Down with Enslavement! Vote National Socialist! Nazi Election

(Herf, 32)

22 As the Nazis intensified mass murders,

Reich Propaganda

Nazi Party, 1942.

has already gone from them.’ Hitler

Directorate of the (Herf, 168)

1943 JANUARY Ernst Kaltenbrunner succeeds Heydrich as head of RSHA.

Reich Propaganda

MARch In New York, American Jews hold a mass rally at Madison Square Garden to pressure the U.S. government into helping the Jews of Europe.

Directorat of the Nazi Party, 1942. (Herf)

29 Ludwig Hohlwein,

27 posters were produced from January 1942 to July

poster for

begun full operation, twelve poster were devoted

Lufthansa, 1936.

ApRil At the Bermuda Conference, the United States and Great Britain discuss the plight of refugees from Nazi-occupied countries, but nothing is decided about the plight of the Jews.

the Deutsche (Meggs, 263)

As many Germans have made claims after

the war that they did not know, it is difficult to

believe that the propaganda efforts made no lasting

OctObeR Himmler talks openly about the Final Solution at Posen.

affects at the Germans response to anti-Semitic

actions. The direct ratio of posters, with or without

anti-Semitic claims, is relative to the Nazi pogroms

Massive escape from Sobibor as Jews and Soviet POWs break out, with 300 making it safely into nearby woods. Of those 300, 50 survive. Exterminations then stop at Sobibor, after 250,000 deaths. All traces of the death camps are removed and trees are planted.

enacted upon the Jews, as well as the annexing of ghettos, and the murder of German and European Jews.

Herf also lists the subscription requests from

30

the outlying areas of the German population. The

German people. The request comes from a complete representation of local governing forces: hospitals, factories, schools restaurant associations, war

veterans, and Nazi party officials to name a few.

26

Nazi law. The distribution was statewide and mandatory. Labor and

And You?

Ludwig Hohlwein, recruiting poster, early 1940s.

NOveMbeR The U.S. Congress holds hearings on the U.S. State Department’s inaction regarding European Jews, despite mounting reports of mass extermination.

(Meggs, 263)

This shows the complete effectiveness of Nazi propaganda.

2 8 | N A Z I A N T I - S E M I T I C P RO PAG A N DA

Outdone! Parole

der Woshe, Reich

pedestrians came to convergence in centralized public spaces. The

vast and repeated message of sanctioned anti-Semitism.

The Word of the Week (Parole der Woche) wall newspapers

became crucial and pervasive forms of visual propaganda. From

1937-1943, in all of Nazi Germany, its images were unified everywhere.

Holocaust. Visual aspects of Nazi propaganda are formulations of racially spirited anti-Semitism.

Jeffrey Herf quotes Walter Benjamin, “The Word of the Week wall

publically announced his ordering and implimentation the extermination of

newspapers were stunning examples of the work in propaganda in the era of mechanical reproduction.” (Herf, 29)

EVACUATION TO TH E EAST

J EwISH R ESI DENTIAL D ISTR ICT MERCY K I LLI NG

SH OT— wH I L E TRYI NG TO ESCAPE

have shown prolific biological racism enacted upon

fI NAL SOLUTION TO TH E J EwISH Q U ESTION

Herf suggests that, anti-Semitism is more specific to Hitler’s paranoia of International Jewry. The

research presented here, reveals a more specific

and directed verbal communication of slander and

miss-representation of the Jews. Verbal accusations, made by the Nazi regime, proved to be filled with

hatred and malice. As my research unfolded, I easily realized that the verbal language used by the Nazis was far more incriminating. Carefully articulated words were chosen for their capacity to carry a

desired message. Specific words could encourage hatred, propel fear, or quell victims into silent

submission. The heavily ironic words, posted in the

R ESETTLEMENT

Words of

propaganda used

by Nazis to obscure acts against

Jews. The Jewish

Heritage Museum (installation) New York, New York

HAI R DR ESSER SELECTION

SPEC IAL TR EATMENT DISI N fECTION SH OwER

‘wOR K LI b ERATES,’ GATE S Of AU SC H wITZ .

‘ HARVEST f ESTIVAL , ’ ExTER MI NATION O f 4 3 ,0 0 PO LISH J EwS, N OVEM b ER 1 943. ALS O S PEC I f IC TO J EwISH H OLI DAY O f S U KKOT.

‘ L AK E fOR EST,’ USED AS A fAK E R ETU R N ADDR ESS ON POSTCAR DS S ENT f ROM AU SC H wITZ .

| 25

that a modern Germany, even under National Socialism, needed a

Philip Meggs, a respected design historian, negates even the negative impact the Nazis

official propaganda.” (Aynsley, 180)

With minor exception, Nazi propaganda has been left out of the design continuum. had on European graphics. Meggs’ book, A History of Graphic Design, all but alludes

Hitler initially rejected Gothic styled modern letterforms, associating their prevalence on Swashbacher type styles associated with the Jews

Nazi rallies, was strengthened by the various

propaganda ministries. Even the language chosen, to identify the varied propaganda ministries, were specific to methods of propaganda.

Hitler’s consistent usage of ‘extermination,’ and

‘exterminate,’ indicated that he had ordered the

in the graphic forms presented by the Bolshevik’s.

Jeffrey Herf adds significant anti-Semitic representation in

The Word of the Week in its direct reinforcement, specific to anti-

anti-Nazi book of writing calling for

Semitism as well as the greater reports of the Holocaust. Herf report

persecution of the Jews. The book

the quantity of anti-Semitic wall newspapers coincided with varying

was wrongly linked for its influence

Nazi programs against the Jews. Herf writes, “Between 1936 and 1940,

on American political and intellectual policies against Germany.

anti-Semitic themes were infrequent. In 1940, only three of the wall

newspapers broached them. From 1941 to winter 1943, about a quarter

V ISUAL CU LT U RE AN D T H E H OLOCAUST

| 27

PAGE S 2 4 - 2 7

of Weimar representation, Nazi artistic representation claimed

graphic time line cites, “The poster reached its zenith of its importance as a medium introduction and conclusion offer three brief paragraphs introducing the design work

of Ludwig Hohlwein, citing two posters produced for the Nazis, one in 1936, the second

was inherent in the propaganda itself. Beyond the total rejection

comparative consideration of the magnitude of graphics supplied by the Nazis, and extended grandness of its architectural extremes. In

heavy handed graphic symbolology, depicting the mythological and formal gestures

incorporated the Bauhaus Modernism specific to publicity.

by Hohlwein. The effective propaganda, used Hohlwein’s artistic representation of

often implied in Nazi propaganda, he also used an integrated combination of text and

the proprietary interest of National Socialist system, graphic evidence After the Nazi election in 1933, all arts and media control

imagery. While these two posters are militaristic in tone, neither depict elements of

was under the jurisdiction of the Reich’s Ministry for Education

potential for Nazi propaganda to be in effect. Meggs’ consistently fluctuates with High

concerned with the display of German art, film, and sport; while

anti-Semitism. None of Meggs’ reproduction or text show, or inform the reader of the German art, Allied propaganda with the WPA poster projects, and the inclusion of

design movements prior to Nazi occupation of Europe. He is proficient at representing

and Propaganda. Under Goebbels international responsibilities

domestic responsibility controlled festivals, the press, radio, education, art, and music. All design efforts consisted of official commissions,

the Bauhaus both in Weimar and in Dessau. Other than the admission of the Nazis

heavy restrictions forced many Jewish artists out of Germany, and

representation consist of Allied posters for the war effort. Surely the negation, at least

were murdered (Aynsley, 189) those lucky enough to emigrate did

forcing the Bauhaus out of Germany—he quickly moves on to the Russians. Meggs’ main from a historic mode of inclusion is to be dually noticed.

Jeremy Aynsley’s book, Graphic Design in Germany 1890-1945, specifically

Diary entry by Hans Frank, Gauleiter of Poland, concerning the fate of 2.5 million Jews originally under his jurisdiction, “At the present time we still have in the General Government perhaps 100,000 Jews.”

modernization for their own. This testament remains intact when

in 1940. Meggs’ cites the like minded graphic approach, favored by Hitler and visualized

others consequently were attacked as cultural Bolshevik’s and

so quickly. Aynsley documents, “The last exhibition of graphic art,

31 Gebrauchsgraphik Magazine cover, designed by

Herbert Bayer, October 1938. (Aynsley, 193)

entitled The Jewish Poster, took place at the Jewish Museum in Berlin

confronts the ideological Nazification of propaganda. While non-specific to anti-

in March 1937, before the final devastating stage in the obliteration

Semitism, it does analyze the mythology of German artifacts.

of the Jewish Germans in the Kristallnacht pogrom of November 9

Aynsley makes immediate mention of lacking analysis of Nazi strategies of

TIME LINE Material based on information from the Jewish Community Relations Council of Minnesota and the Dakotas, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, the Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation, and A Teachers Guide to the Holocaust, Produced by the Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida © 2001

Alternate words and phrases disinfected

and 10, 1938.” (Aynsley, 190) The Reich Advertising Division declared

clever deceptive devices for the continued community and encourage idealistic

favoritism among Germans.These word phrases were used to deflect the blame

away from the Nazis intent of persecuting the Jews.

MARch President Roosevelt issues a statement condemning German and Japanese ongoing “crimes against humanity.” MAY Himmler’s agents secretly propose a trade to the western Allies: Jews for trucks and money. The deal is rejected. JUNe A Red Cross delegation visits Theresienstadt after the Nazis have carefully prepared the camp and the Jewish inmates, resulting in a favorable report.

France, and with great interest an emphasis in the popular Fascist design of Italy. An International

attitude invited Herbert Bayer to create its cover in October 1938. (Aynsley, 193) Aynsley makes a final

cautionary note saying, “The continuing pluralism in Gebrauchsgraphik after 1933 should not mislead ITS I NTOL E RA NT ATTITU DE C E RTA I N LY COR R E SPON DS I N PA RTIC U L A R TO TH E GE R MA N I NC L I NATION TO TH E A bSOLUTE ; ITS MI L ITA RY wI L LTO -OR DE R A N D ITS C L A IM TO SOL E POwE R COR R E SPON D TO THOSE fEAR fU L COMPON E NTS Of GE R MA N-N E SS wH IC H U N L EASH E D H ITL E R’S R U L E A N D SE CON D wOR L D wA R. 2

While Herbert Bayer work does not represent

While National Socialism held fast to neo-classical

“Glaube und

to perfectly

Wirklichkeit,”

encapsulate his

with a quote from

No.6, June 1946.

(Aynsley, 214)

for questionably effective communication. Aynsley writes, “Often pragmatic recognition

styles not allowed by the Nazi regime, yet still covering International

Aynsley studies the language and graphic representation of

Mitteilungen, 65,

active verbs directly negating association to the causality of his actions. Herf specifies,

“the Nazi faithful understood that Hitler was telling them in language by then familiar that the Nazi regime was at the moment murdering the Jews.” (Herf, 167) If the oration

of his speeches remained ambiguous to its audience, it was redistributed in mere weeks following the political rally in a varied form of propaganda mediums. This combination of word and image would have clarified any doubt of his intentions.

Hitler conveyed tyrannical words of hate and anti-Semitism by dissemination,

through the Reich Press Office under Joseph Goebbels. Jeffrey Herf writes, “…a

fanatical, but not small, minority embedded in or hovering around front organization of the Nazi party adopted the anti-Semitic narrative…these fanatics were surrounded by a society in which milder forms of anti-Semitism had become commonplace.” (Herf, 277)

The Nazis manipulated language for the explicit means of obscuring their answer to ‘the Question of the Jews.’ Increasingly aggressive actions against the Jews was twisted to

reflect back upon their victims, the supposed conspiracy of International Jewry. The Nazi

leaders knew, that they could not rely on a popularized backing for the total annihilation of the Jews, without reprisals from England and America. The truth of what is not

said—and lies remain—in the words broadcast loudly. The repetitious and paranoid

language of the Nazi regime again forces blame upon its victims. Through persuasive

words of convoluted propaganda, the Nazis influenced Germany’s social and emotional support in the advancement of national and anti-Semitic support. While visual aspects of Nazi propaganda leaned toward obscure racial stereotypes, the ‘true’ war, consisted

to justify the destruction of the Jews. The purpose of this research is to display both the

visual characteristics, and the ultimate methodical use of language by the Nazi regime. The lasting affects forever changed the visual representation of the Jews.

that Nazi power was to identify itself with.

academic analysis Jan Tschihold,

PAGE S 2 8 - 2 9

implementation of the destruction of the Jews. Hitler avoided the use of first person, and

This research catalogues specific and deliberate results generated by the Nazi regime

fascinated by the industrial and cultural revolution

Nazi regime. The magazine continued to represent contemporary

| 29

of language the Nazis overwhelmingly communicated its contempt of European Jews.

used to propagate, as Aynsley writes, “an image

representations its process and attitudes are still

Graphische

a unification of leadership for the direction of political, cultural, and

Similar to the staged propaganda of the

Olympic Games held by the Nazis in Berlin in 1936, Herbert Bayer’s exhibition and design work was

demystifies the conflicted history of Nazi design.

Aynsley seems

Schweizer

diversity of the message. Many contradictory methods were explored for the total search

of official design events warns against this reading. (Aynsley 195)

anti-Semitic propaganda, it both establishes and

2 Jan Tschihold,

Gebrauchsgraphik, a newly converted graphic magazine under the

and its ephemeral response to the informative needs of the people’s reaction towards

distinct ideological nature of the overall coverage

of national economic potential for domestic and

economic concerns.

adaptive strategies of marketing (Aynsley, 180) citing specific practice of graphic design

the historian into believing that there was an open editorial policy, unchanged by political events. The

foreign audiences alike.” (Aynsley, 205)

regime announcements. The response was less controlled and oddly dependent on the

advertising published in the English language. Aynsley relates political propaganda to

the hands of the Nazi elite. Words became need to simultaneously pacify the Jewish

foreign work from the United States, England,

JANUARY In response to political pressure to help Jews under Nazi control, Roosevelt creates the War Refugee Board.

Aynsley argues that the effectiveness of Nazi propaganda,

of communication during World War I (1914-1918).” (Meggs, 258) Meggs’ beginning

design styles. The magazine was allowed to show

1944

sustained consumer economy was disguised by party rhetoric and

stating its ‘own’ claim on völkish ideas and return to neo-classical

strongest asset to the slaughter of the innocent Jews. Through systematic and radical use

soothed gassing victims. These would be the last set Hitler’s specific use of language, at

Initial Nazi posters featured Germanic völkisch type. Contemporary Germans at first had a difficulty grasping antiquated letterforms.

26 | NAZ I ANT I-SEMIT IC P ROPAG AN DA

From a design history perspective, anti-Semitic propaganda has been well avoided.

of rhetorical, manipulative, and slanderous propagated discourse, becoming the Nazis

changing rooms in Aushwitz-Birkenau, initially of words administered by the Reich.

resisted ‘degenerate art’ created by German émigrés. Nazi propaganda revisited past German glorification of the mythological Aryan hero.

the International retaliation for the

SPEC IAL ACTION

C LEAR I N G U P TH E J EwIS H QU ESTIO N

AUxI LIARY E QU I PMENT

the Jews. Subsequent research written by Jeffrey

dogmatic works of Bauhaus and DaDa artists, Nazi propaganda

Hitler personally appointed Hans Schweitzer with the task

to the Nazi domination of graphics produced during the Second World War. Meggs’

V I S UA L CU LTU RE A N D TH E H O L O CAU ST

Formal attributes twist previous stereotypes of the European Jew. Historical studies of the Holocaust

In stark contrast to the previous political posters of the Weimar

Republic, which advocated for high modernism incorporating

Jewish author Nathan Kaufman, self

TR EATED A P PROPR IATE

the visual properties of Nazi anti-Semitic

use of Nazi influenced colors

published Germany Must Die, an angry

LIVI N G S PAC E

propaganda leading to the horrific results of the

design to be read by everyone, to the distribution handled by party

members. The visual tone of the poster utilized bold type and strong

Nazi Party, 1942.

QUARANTI N E D ISTR ICT

The initial research of this paper was to examine

about the campaign became a political activity, from the message by

Directorate of the

PROTECTIVE CU STODY

PAROLE DER WOSHE: SPRACHE CONCLUSION: QUESTIONING LANGUAGE

The Jew Kaufman

According to Jeffrey Herf, specific production actualities of

on March 16, 1936. By January 1941, eight million copies had been

distributed, approximately 125,000 a week.” (Herf, 30) Everything

DESIGN HISTORY PERSPECTIVE

28

Rulers in the U.S.A.! Parole der Woshe,

subscription figures account the attitudes of the

‘once laughed,’ or ‘if the laughter

V I S UA L CU LTU RE A N D TH E H O L O CAU ST

The Mask Falls!

partly or wholly to anti-Semitic attacks.” (Herf 31)

extermination. Hitler repeatedly

the Jews.

They Are the Real

1942, at a time when the extermination camps had

Nazi directives place all forms of political posters through

an array of national, state, provincial, local, and specific bureaus of

been used by the Weimar Republic.

exposed to the political agenda prescribed by the Nazis, including the

reference the jews as ‘them laughing,’

of wall posters included attacks on Jews… moreover

especially in the highly developed city of Berlin, making posters noticeably present and highly visible to all Germans.

the people at the local level. This system of evaluation had previous

DeceMbeR The British Foreign Secretary Eden tells the British House of Commons the Nazis are “now carrying into effect Hitler’s oft repeated intention to exterminate the Jewish people of Europe.” The United States declares those crimes will be avenged.

truly amongst the people. Every German citizen that could read was

Poster text quoted from a Hitler speech regarding his early proficy of Jewish

der Woshe, Reich

2 4 | N A Z I A N T I - S E M I T I C P RO PAG A N DA

pedestrian traffic. Public transportation was used by most Germans,

(Herf, 111)

Propaganda

(Herf)

The Word of the Week campaign; “the first edition was distributed

ministries. The predominant form of transportation was propelled by

political poster was favored to film and radio due to its prevalence

They Will Stop

Directorate of the

every German citizen with news generated from the propaganda

graphic street ‘wall newspapers’ was crucial for the Nazis to bombard

wrongfully addresses ideas of anti-Semitism.

Laughing!!! Parole

Nazi Party, 1941.

Hitler’s strict criteria for judgment was, its effectiveness. The Nazi

propaganda offices where supplied with the actions and reactions of

SepteMbeR Food rations for Jews in Germany are reduced.

Ministry was responsible for the direction and national

Propaganda

be Exterminated,

Parole der Woshe,

(emphasis) political events important to the people of Germany.

implementation of the propaganda machine. The placement of

JUNe Jews in France, Holland, Belgium, Croatia, Slovakia, and Romania are required to wear yellow stars.

The Active Propaganda Division in the Propaganda

professional organizations were required to respond and post all

Same Goal:

accusational of the Jewish politcal agenda.

industry led to the direct and immediate form of the printed visual

Nazi party dictated materials. Under the Third Reich, the nation of

Posters of the Week became increasingly

Germany Must

The Word of the Week poster campaign was directed to ‘document’

ApRil German Jews are banned from using public transportation.

political poster.

and hurtful in any context. Its representation is

24

Always the

of translating Nazi ideology to the uniforms, stamps, and posters.

1942

especially dangerous in political usage—even if it

and concentration camps reached their

maximum efficiency, the language of The

(Herf)

en mass. The commercial and industrial strength of the printing

information. The influx of active political members was required by

is to describe our current state of affairs. Its usage

poster, by Hans

Schweitzer, 1924.

1935. (Hollis, 66)

Propaganda 1941.

Of the anti-Semitic propaganda used by the Nazis, predominantly the most effective form of communication was that of printed matter—

questions the symbols potential redemption, and I believe he would agree that any usage is wrong

Financial

PAGE S 2 0 - 2 3

Nachrichten Berlin

Enlightenment and

NAZI PROPAGANDA DESIGN ObJECTIVES

REACTION

1941

creation for the sole usage as the true Nazi identity. The swastika’s

| 23

27

advertised in Graphische

Ministry for Public

its white, black, and red flag was implemented for the Nazi regime.

PAGE S 1 6 - 1 9

co-opting the symbol for his own usage, unifying his anti-Semitic beliefs with those

political intellectuals with Roosevelt,

Churchill, and Stalin in America, England,

text is also filled with anti-semitic rhetoric.

Hitler debuted his creation in 1920, encouraging and mandating his

| 19

at the end of the war. Hitler strongly identified and was inspired by the national style,

Jewish conspiracy falsly linking outspoken

misleadingly led into the war with Germany, and subsequently

Military propaganda directed towards the Polish army contained

consideration of the Polish Army as the direct audience, the

ideas of Jews central influence of the Bolshevik revolution in

der Woshe, Reich Propaganda

fighting the Russian advance. Anti-Semitism added fuel for hate

anti-semitic depiction of the seated Jewish man is assumed to

claims made in the text, specific to the Poles addressed. The text

The Jewish

Conspiracy Parole

implications in the war. Germany needed the Poles assistance in

text, indicates the female figure is not of Jewish heritage. With

SLOGAN: GO HOME!!

the wall of Germany has nothing to do with the blood shed. The

20

Nazi propaganda persuaded the Poles, historically skeptical

would you like to know how your nearest and dearest are, what they think of the war, and how they are yearning for you? If you do – come to us. we assure you an instant return to your fatherland. and

JUlY Eichmann proposes his Madagascar Plan, which would deport all European Jews to the island of Madagascar, off the coast of east Africa.

radical language twists the fate of German Jews, subjecting them to

namely the establishment of both concentration and death camps

Your families, like our, are really feeling the effects of the war. They have to work hard, and they have recognized the red disease approaching from the East. Your families do not believe that Stalin’s victory can make Poland happy.

children

1940

insists that Jews were making millions off the continual war with

Germany and toasting to the defeat of both Germany and Poland. The

THE JEwS ARE GETTING THE bEST OUT Of IT. You are wandering far from your close ones, in a faraway country. Thew swindlers are imposters of the war are away from the front, enjoying every comfort, surrounded by their families. but they are pushing you to war whilst sitting in their warm houses where they do not want for anything. At the cost of your pains and toils, at the cost of your blood, they are collecting millions. They do not care that you are disappearing, because gigantic profits are more important to them.

Your wives, await you!

V ISUAL CU LT U RE AN D T H E H OLOCAUST

THE ULTIMATE ANTI-SEMITISM SYMbOL

DEAR POLISH fRIEND! You are fighting, but those who are toasting to the defeat of Poland, who are contributing to the mass murder of a nation, do not know anything about the pains and anxieties of war, and do not appreciate the effect of 5 years’ struggling. You are suffering because they are looking after their own dirty business at your cost. And the war goes on…

And you, Polish Officer and Soldier, want to give up your life for the murderers of your people who, together with England in a close alliance, are, without scruples, selling your country to Stalin? THINK ON IT, YOU’RE bETRAYING YOUR OwN COUNTRY!

1 8 | NAZ I ANT I-SEMIT IC P ROPAG AN DA

War,” Mark Batty Publisher, p.39.

TO POLISH OffICERS AND SOLDIERS!

These same bolsheviks who got rid of Polish Officers, tortured, using long and atrocious methods, nearly 3 million poles in Siberia, in concentration camps by the North Sea and Kazakstan Steppes, telling them to die slowly, far from their fatherland.

| 17

American soil. The formal language addresses the heroic fighter

Translation: Leaflet

The whole world learner with horror of the terrible bestialities bestowed on the Polish people by the blood-thirsty bolsheviks.

is the head smashing into a Swastika / German brick wall, as if

distortion is the ‘Bolshevik’ red army soldiers, with the blatant

international impact of the Jews on economic, political, and cultural

men are solely responsible for the consistent messages of hate. The

Bytwerk, Randall L.

blood shed, as well as the color of the red army. The three striking

indirectly responsible. Large exaggerated rat-like nose, mouth

(Herf)

propaganda as their chief reasoning for existence. At the core of these

17

short length of rope into the tenacious relationship of the Nazis

symbols specific to anti-Semitic propaganda is firstly the remote

Enlightenment and

(Herf, 153)

Batty Publisher,

COME TO US! EVEN IN THE 5TH YEAR Of THE wAR, wE PROMISE YOU A RETURN TO YOUR fATHERLAND. THERE, YOU wILL bE AbLE TO SERVE YOUR NATIONALS. The visual tone has a heightened use of red–indicating Polish

der Woshe,

Directorate of the

Leaflet 7 back,

Practically none of the Officers of the Polish Army, who in 1939 were imprisoned by the Soviets, survived. whether General or Second Lieutenant – it made no difference – all shared the same fate in the forest at Katyn in April 1940. They fell, shot in the backs of their heads by the Red Commissar. This crime, committed by the bestial Soviet Regime, was confirmed by the International committee and the horror displayed to the whole world. 12,000 Polish Officers, the bloom of Polish youth, Poland’s pride, were murdered by bandits from the Kremlin, victims of the madness of the Reds, aspiring to control the whole world.

p.36.

Parole der Woshe,

from all over Nazi occupied Europe.

offerings regarding ‘the Jewish Question.’ According to Herf, the

FebRUARY Nazis force Jews to hand over all gold and silver items.

list: Adolf Hitler, Joseph Goebbels, Otto Dietrich, and Alfred Rosenburg.

p.37.

Leaflet 7 front,

life of modern nations…” (Herf, 28) With continuing active debate

Beobachter (VB), and Das Reich. Herf writes that, “Das Reich focused

ministries of propaganda, a small frequently reported set group of

and propaganda accusations of blood libel.

“Paper War,” Mark

“Paper War,” Mark

publications. He formerly had been editor of Der Angriff (The Attack)

Jeffrey Herf places a large influence of anti-Semitic rhetoric

papers and free press, also enacting laws forbidding Jews as editors,

1 6 | N A Z I A N T I - S E M I T I C P RO PAG A N DA

15 The Jews Wanted

of the multiple Nazi ministries, all of which maintained anti-Semitic

Semitic. Der Stürmer often ran obscene

Under the Office of Active Propaganda, the Institute zum

14

worked in Hitler’s office everyday. To a large extent, his specific

materials such as anti-Semitic caricatures

supposed answers to ‘the Jewish Question.’

Aktion that Die Judenfrage, authored ideological and theoretical

Who Bears the

Office of Active Propaganda produced pamphlets and posters.

Goebbels was directly responsible for many academic and scholarly

in the Nazi regime’s climb to power, specific propaganda was aimed at

the Polish, specifically leading to the introduction of World War II with

Jews are forbidden rights as tenants and are relocated into Jewish houses.

propagators of the continued hatred and oppression, and offered the

anti-Semitic topics included, “the Jews as a race; the national and

engagements, political rallies, cultural events, radio, and film. The

mission was to enrage the Germans against the Jews. Herf accounts

significant part of the Nazi propaganda machinery and was vehemently anti-

Whether it be the Office of Active Propaganda, Propaganda

Ministry, or the Reich Press Office, the continuity remained,

Studium der Judanfrage, and its bi-weekly journal, Antisemitische

Ministry, was director of press divisions, mass speaking

on Otto Dietrich. He was the Reich press chief, and unlike Goebbels,

the end of World War II in 1945. It was a

Social Democrats, Communists, political writers, and other forms of

head of the propaganda chain, its chief Adolf Hitler, who along with

Goebbels directed the anti-Semitic hatred and war against the Jews.

(Herf, 21)

Der Stürmer (The Stormer) was a weekly Nazi newspaper published from 1923 to

By January 1933, the Nazi party confiscated, destroyed,

eliminated, and closed all opposing newspaper and publications. This

their intentions regarding ‘the Jewish question’ known to all. At the

exclusively on the Jews, and anti-Semitic motifs were ubiquitous.”

truths selected, omitted, and downplayed historical facts, slanting fact and fiction. Most effective propaganda does not consist of blatant lies,

officially directed from the Nazi ministries. All information was now

the official National daily newspaper of the Nazi party, Der Völkische

SepteMbeR Jews are prohibited from all legal practices.

learned the importance and influential methods to distort the

Mein Kampf. Under both ministries, Nazi ownership and influence

of all remaining privately owned newspapers had to attest to orders

in the control of a hand selected few from the Nazi party. Each, in their

created racist propaganda directed at all of its declared enemies. Early

JANUARY Goering orders the emigration of Jews speeded up.

ran by Max Amann, a close friend of Hitler, who helped publish

own right, had made public testimonies to party members making

While anti-Semitic propaganda remains a constant, the Nazis also

1939

The Nazi Press Office in Propaganda Ministry was run

by Otto Dietrich. Both the Reich Press Chamber and German

Association of Newspapers and Periodical Publishers was

Goebbels who was now in charge of the Propaganda

DeceMbeR A law is passed calling for the Aryanization of all Jewish businesses.

Nazis require all Jewish women to add “Sarah” and all men to add “Israel” to their names on all legal documents, including passports.

and banning those married to Jews from practicing journalism.

2 Czech Jews wore stars after 1941.


GRAPHIC EXPRESSION OF INTERNMENT

This graduate thesis looks to infuse graphic design, historical analysis, and curated subject matter in a self published book form. This research heavy thesis similarly looks to use my unique design sensibility to study a form of designed objects introducing them to a previously negated field of design history. My aim was to study/uncover works created by Jews during World War II beyond Holocaust studies. Initial research revealed a negation of WW II designed artifacts and an even larger absence of work created by Jews during the war years. The goal of this research is to illuminate the contents and the importance of the graphic medium while allowing the contents to present its self with room for interpretation. With this, I ask that further questions arise that can be expounded on. This is the medium of Holocaust studies—question, counter question. While each of the three albums illuminate similar themes of the Holocaust such as: remembrance, bearing witness, dedication, memorial, and renewal, they each represent experience in diverse manifestations. Each album produced for specific communities documents an optimistic view, defiant of the experience of camp life. Unlike clandestine works documenting hardship or perseverance, these albums provide insightful awareness to the personalized characteristic in each ‘internment’ camp.


| P ROJECT S U MMARY

MFA GRADUATE

Sample spreads from graduate thesis book GRAPHIC EXPRESSION

THESIS BOOK

OF INTERNMENT ; presenting historic design analysis of three photo albums from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.


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Viviana Cordova. Processing for Designers PFont font;Universe doc setup(){ size(8.5,8.5); textAlign(RIGHT); page >R< odd page {15} >Introduction< _Yeohyun.Ahn

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It was my first semester in the Graphic Design Graduate Program at the Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA) when Ellen Lupton, my former graduate director, introduced me to Processing. Processing is a programming language for the electronic arts and visual design community created by Ben Fry and Casey Reas. With Processing, designers can create posters, typography, information visualization, interactive design, motion graphics, animation, etc. Using coding in Processing helps designers to extend and explore their creativity in terms of mathematic rules based, algorithms based, and libraries oriented designs. The following website, www.processing.org, allows designers to download Processing for free, take free tutorials, and share their codes. As a part of a proposal, Contemporary Ornament, for PRINT, American’s Graphic Design Magazine, I created a simple code, ellipse(), creating circles, in Processing. I then added a semi control mouse event into my code, that whenever clicked and dragged on screen in Processing, it creates logically but visually unexpected and fresh intricate designs, using only circles. I was fascinated by the semi randomness and the complexity generated by ellipse(), and mousePressed, in Processing. Soon my design was accepted by PRINT, American’s Graphic Design Magazine, in March, 2006, and it was chosen for the cover design for the upcoming book, Graphic Design: New Basics, written by Ellen Lupton and Jennifer Cole Phillips, in 2008. Throughout my past two years as a graduate student at MICA, I spent all of my time exploring new ways to create with Processing to be included into the book, Graphic Design: New Basics. It is a new book refocused on the study of the fundamentals of form and ideas in a critical, rigorous way, informed by contemporary media, theory and software systems. It was directed and written by Ellen Lupton and Jennifer Cole Phillips in the contribution with the students at Maryland Institute College of Art. When I read the book draft, I intuitively realized that it would be very useful and practical for current graphic designers and graphic design majors since all of Ellen Lupton’s previous books such as Thinking with TYPE, Design Writing Research, D.I.Y Design It Yourself, etc, have been demonstrated before. The common graphic design manuals such Armin Hofmann’s Graphic Design Manual is a timeless tutorial book, but it is classic and modern, so I thought that we as a graphic designer need a new manuals to reflect contemporary graphic design phenomenon.

Darrk Light typeface

Type + Code

Processing for

Type + Code

Designers

page >L< even {20} page

Processing for Designers

page >L< even page >R< odd

Yeohyun Ahn.

{60} page

page {21}

Viviana Cordova.

page >R< odd Yeohyun Ahn.

page {61}

>Type Generation<

>Y—system<

void setup() { size(800, 800); background(255); } void draw() { Y-system(400, 600, 400, 550, 30,3);

angle level 2

}

x2,y2

void Y-system(float sx, float sy, float ex, float ey, int angle, int level) {

level 1

int new_level = level-1; line(sx,sy,ex,ey); if(level>0)

x1,y1

{float dist = sqrt( (sx-ex)*(sx-ex)+(sy-ey)*(sy-ey) ); float dx = (ex-sx)/dist; float dy= (ey-sy)/dist; float R = radians(angle); float new_dist = 0.9*dist*cos(R); float new_cx = ex+dx*new_dist; float new_cy = ey+dy*new_dist;float final_dist = 0.9*dist*sin(R); float dx1 = -dy; float dy1 = dx; float dx2 = dy; float dy2 = -dx; float new_ex1 = new_cx+dx1*final_dist; float new_ey1 = new_cy+dy1*final_dist; float new_ex2 = new_cx+dx2*final_dist; float new_ey2 = new_cy+dy2*final_dist; Y-system(ex, ey, new_ex1, new_ey1, angle, new_level); Y-system(ex, ey, new_ex2, new_ey2, angle, new_level); } return; }

Y-system(x1, y1, x2, y2, angle,level)

Spike typeface

Type + Code

Type + Code

Processing for page >R< odd

Yeohyun Ahn. Viviana Cordova.

Processing for Designers

page >L< even

Designers

page >L< even {48} page

page {49}

{64} page

page >R< odd Yeohyun Ahn.

page {65} >Y—system<

>Basic Functions<

Center Rotation

void setup() {

For() and Rotate() This function is comparitively exclusive to Processing. Generates random numbers. Each time the random() function is called, it returns an unexpected value within the specified range. The random() function can be added to any of the existing basic code structure.

size(800, 800); background(255); } void draw() A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

{ Y-system(400, 10, 400, 50, 30,10); } void Y-system(float sx, float sy, float ex, float ey, int angle, int level) {

PFont myFont;

int new_level = level-1; line(sx,sy,ex,ey); void setup() {

if(level>0) {float dist = sqrt( (sx-ex)*(sx-ex)+(sy-ey)*(sy-ey) );

size(800, 800);

float dx = (ex-sx)/dist; float dy= (ey-sy)/dist; float R = radians(angle);

background(255,255,255);

float new_dist = 0.9*dist*cos(R); float new_cx = ex+dx*new_dist;

// String[] fontList = PFont.list();

float new_cy = ey+dy*new_dist;float final_dist = 0.9*dist*sin(R);

// println(fontList); M

N

O

P

Q

R

If students want to change the font

textFont(myFont,272);

styles, please delete // on the above

translate(400,400);

float dx1 = -dy; float dy1 = dx; float dx2 = dy;

myFont = createFont(”Times-Roman”,48);

float dy2 = -dx; float new_ex1 = new_cx+dx1*final_dist; float new_ey1 = new_cy+dy1*final_dist;

code, all of available fonts will be displayed on the bottom window

for(int i=0;i<6;i=i+1)

in Processing. And then, if you want

{

float new_ex2 = new_cx+dx2*final_dist; float new_ey2 = new_cy+dy2*final_dist;

to change the font, Times-Roman,to

fill(0,0,0);

Helvetica , please change myFont

textAlign(CENTER);

= createFont(”Helvetica”,48);

pushMatrix(); rotate(PI*i/3); text(”A”,0,0);

Y-system(ex, ey, new_ex1, new_ey1, angle, new_level); S

T

V

W

X

Y-system(ex, ey, new_ex2, new_ey2, angle, new_level); }

pushMatrix and popMatrix

Alter the letters in

is introduced on page 45.

return; }

text(“S” .0.0);

popMatrix();

from A to Z

} }

U

Y

Z

Asymetric pattern design.


| P ROJECT S U MMARY

Yeohyun Ahn

Type + Code, explores the aesthetic of experimental code driven

V ivia na Cord ova

typography, with an emphasis on the programming language Processing which was created by Casey Reas and Ben Fry. This book includes examples using Processing on basic, intermediate and advanced levels.

Slinky typeface

This independently published book revised Yeohyun Ahn’s graduate thesis project. I collaborated with

Processing for Designers page >R< odd 800,0 0,0

page {69} >Y—system<

Yeohyn Ahn and Viviana Cordova to create a new interpretation of Ahn’s work with Processing, intended for designers to provide instructional tools to be able

400, 400

to promote processing as a viable design tool. With limited understanding of the language and usage I was 0,800

able to direct Ahn to create tutorials and examples that

800,800

Y-system(400, 400, 400, 490, 30, 13); //up Y-system(400, 400, 400, 310, 30, 13); //down Y-system(400, 400, 310, 400, 30, 13); //left Y-system(400, 400, 490, 400, 30, 13); //right

Nested pattern designs establish the tone and contrast of the base pattern, and the full page design.

best identify the design possibilities. Previously Ahn had created a number of separate but highly visual and independent letter forms. Using my design and editing Type + Code

skills I was able to articulate Ahn’s intentions and vision

page >L< even {88} page Yeohyun Ahn. Viviana Cordova.

encouraging her to create specific letter forms and examples that would expand her content. By working closely with her I was able to recontexualize the richness and depth offered by Processing to generate complex and biomorphic random designs. Two seperate Caligraft code structures are combined to create a striking contrast of line qualities. While Processing does not effectively support multiple samples, flatened frames can be combined in print applications. The “M” belongs to code structure 2, while “fear” uses code structure 1.

Type + Code page >L< even {116} page

Processing for Designers page >R< odd

Yeohyun Ahn. Viviana Cordova.

Chain typeface

page {117} >Type Generation<


NATIONAL PORTFOLIO DAY Mar yl a n d I n sti tu te C o lle g e o f Art


| P ROJECT S U MMARY

Atla nta , GA

A grouping of unused National Portfolio Day posters designed for the

Ba ltimore, M D

Maryland Institute College of Art communications office.


BROADSIDES

Q u a r rel

My Mother D re ss e s i n Ensemb les


| P ROJECT S U MMARY

L etter p ress

Printed broadsides with visual and concrete poetry.

Sc reen p r ints

fla sh burst b la ze


CENTRAL AIR Nomadic Art Space Presents February 10th through 26th

The Mayor of Uptown Mission Statement:

Artist Reception Friday 18 February, 2005 6-11 pm GALLERY HOURS: Thur. and Fri. 1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;7 pm Sat. and Sun. 1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;6 pm I N T H E O L D L O B BY O F T H E C A L H OU N H O T E L 14 2 8 W E S T 3 1 S T S T.

PRESS KIT: For Immediate Release Contact: J. Page Corrigan, T. 612.703.5444

As curator and observer, my intentions are to bring together seemingly disparate artists interpretations under the confines of what makes a GREAT collection of ideas vs. a good group show. I look at artists objectives, and render a visual connect between the artist and the eyewitness and postulate what the two may create together. The idea of CENTRAL AIR, a preset, a control, a distinctive set of variables enabled to create a level of comfort. The energy it takes to cool, is that much greater than to actively heat a space. Set the temp. to an easy comfort level. Relax, let the air blow. ENJOY. J. Page

Under the coolness of CENTRAL AIR, former co-founder and co-curator of Radiator Art Exhibition Company, John Page Corrigan, curates a brief showing of exceptionally diverse and astute visual artists. From flower arrangements, lighting design, furniture, jewelry, the medium of paint and collage, and through photographic allure. The Mayor of Uptown, might reflect on the changing nature of attitudes and architecture of the Uptown neighborhood. The Mayor of Uptown, might connect a variety of south Minneapolis artists that crave a voice in the insular Minneapolis art community. The Mayor of Uptown, will offer artistic variance of similarly like-minded artists with the chance to run a visual campaign in the center of historic Uptown Minneapolis.


| P ROJECT S U MMARY

THE M AYOR OF UPTOW N

Established Central Air Nomadic Art Space, Curated the Mayor

Press Release

of Uptown , February, 2005 Installation of 18 artists work;

Announcement cards.

photography, painting, sculpture, performance, flora, furniture and jewelry.


CENTRAL AIR Nomadic Art Space Presents


Page | J. John Diebel John Page Corrigan Former co-founder and co-curator of Radiator Art Exhibition Company

City Pages 2000 Best of the Twin Cities BEST GROUP ART SHOW

City Pages 2001 Best of the Twin Cities BEST NEW ART TREND

Radiator’s UltraNormal at the MinnPar Building

Invasion of the Young Turks

Oh, to be a new “nomadic” arts organization like Radiator bursting on the scene, heart all aflutter with its first show! This exhibition from late September of last year was a colorful, energetic, and witty conglomeration of work by ten young local artists. And its mere existence indicates that good art continues to be made in the Twin Cities despite the relatively difficult time young artists have in making their mark. The work in all manner of media—painting, drawing, sculpture, photography, installation, and points in between—was vibrant and humorous, full of exuberance and color. Curator Lee Anne Swanson’s smallish paintings were dense with cake-frostingcolored swirls and depicted ironically idealized scenes of ducks, ponds, and the like; Carol Swiszcz’s faux-naif scratchy drawings—on paper, on the wall, on whatever was at hand—presented personal stories culled from her own Middle American life. That the show was exhibited in the far-off and grimy confines of an empty warehouse, the MinnPar Building, is indicative of the lack of money available to new art groups and young artists—and their ingenuity in facing that fact. That not much has been heard from Radiator nearly six months later gives one pause—and inspires prayers for another such burst of fresh energy in the often staid local art scene.

John Urste Dan Keefe George Mahoney David Foley Michael & Abigail Mouw Robert Roscoe Terence P. Brashear Flaneur Productions John Veda Nissa Hagstrom Signe Albertson Terrence Payne Stacey Meyer John Nelson Clea Feline Kate Pabst Alissa Valdovinos anyone else...

Much like the fin-de-siècle Ottoman Empire, today’s art world is stagnant and unproductive, a victim of the bloated success at the upper echelons (Manhattan’s art scene being a distant and inaccessible sultan’s palace, so to speak). Fortunately for the Ottomans, a collection of transnational army officers, dubbed the Young Turks, led a successful coup and after 1908 instituted a sweeping program of modernizing reforms. Our dismal local art scene is ripe for just the same sort of updating, so it is fortunate that a new class of brash young artists and gallery owners-Joe Del Pesco, John Corrigan, J. Heikes, Jennifer Murphy—are settling into town just as indicators point the fine-art world toward oblivion. Our Young Turks, like those of yore, come from all over-New Jersey, Delaware, Oregon, Georgia—apparently attracted to the high local standard of living by a sense of adventure, and, perhaps most important, our local sultanate of arts-funding institutions. The past few months things have been looking up in the art scene, as the Young Turks have opened new galleries such as the Waiting Room and the Radiator Art Exhibition Co. In the process, they’ve reinvigorated the exhibition options for an artist pool eager for new places to show work. We can only hope that our Young Turks stick around longer than the originals, whose ten years of inept rule eventually helped bring about World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman state.


RADIATOR ART EXHIBITION COMPANY


| Co-founder+Director+Curator of gallery and

September, 1999

ex h ibitio n s pace , prov iding sup p or t for emerging

December, 2000

co nte mpo rary artists .

April, 2001 September, 2001

.001_ultranormal .002_industry standards .003_save the robots .004_the underside of heaven


RADIATOR ART EXHIBITION COMPANY


| December, 2001 October, 2002 December, 2002

.005_ephemera melancholia Bird x bird .006_duped


Ivy + C e n t ra l A i r p re s e n t

IVY Lounge

IVY LOUNGE A r t S ca p es Je nn i f e r D av i s

S TAT E M E N T : C o l l e ct i n g f ou n d i mag es i s an ob s es s i on f or me. I am i n s p i red b y t he s a t i s f act i on t ha t I g et f rom c om b i n i n g p a i n t w i t h i mag es t or n f rom mag a z i nes an d ne w s p a p e rs an d g i v i n g t he m ne w l i f e. P a i n t i n g i s a da i l y r i t u a l f or me an d b y f i n i s h i n g mo s t o f m y w ork s i n one s i t t i n g I am a bl e t o u s e ar t as a jou r na l f or m y i deas , e x p e r i e nc es an d me mor i es . T he re i s l i t t l e or no p lann i n g i n v o l v ed i n an y o f m y p a i n t i n g s , ra t he r t he y de v el op s p e c i f i ca l l y t hrou g h t he ar t ma k i n g p ro c es s . T he nar ra t i v es b e c ome

a p p are n t

t hrou g h

c u t t i n g,

p as t i n g

an d

p a i n t i n g.

Ma k i n g ar t i s a rel eas e f or me. I t i s m y hop e t ha t ot he rs w i l l f i n d w on de r i n m y i mag es w h i c h ma y t he n s p ark t he i r ow n i mag i na t i on s . BIO: Je nn i f e r D av i s has l i v ed a l l o f he r l i f e i n M i nnes ot a . S he d i s c ov e red he r p as s i on f or p a i n t i n g an d d ra w i n g a t t he U n i v e rs i t y o f M i nnes ot a an d g rad u a t ed w i t h a B ac hel or o f F i ne A r t s de g re e i n 1 9 9 8 . Je nn i f e r has s how n he r w ork i n s e v e ra l g a l l e r i es i n M i nnes ot a , Ne w York , Ve r mon t an d Nor t h C aro l i na an d has b e e n a me m b e r o f R o s a l u x G a l l e r y i n M i nnea p o l i s s i nc e 2 0 02 . For more i n f or ma t i on p l eas e v i s i t : w w w. j e nn i f e rdav i s ar t . c om

i v y l ou n g e c u ra t ed b y CENTRAL AIR::: Nomadic Art Space

IVY

ivy lounge A rt Sc ap es Roxa n na Wa r ren

S T AT E M E N T: I first started using Polaroid films in an experimental photo class when I was in college. Along with other experimental methods, I was intrigued by the limitless creative possibilities that this film offers. The curiosity was forever changed when my Grandmother handed me an old leather pop up Polaroid Land Camera.

Now, I stalk the sun and wait. With my bag of tools—toothpicks, dull pencils & knitting needles. It is the world of SX-70, where you look to subjects not only for that certain Je ne c’est quoi, but for the subjects ability to melt and transform. In the time it takes the emulsion to harden there is a vast creative workspace. Sometimes I feel that the subject reveals itself in that space of time. Is it a cartoon, a childhood memory, or a dream that I can’t quite remember…? There are times when I start getting too serious or tight—so I take a walk with my Polaroid. It calms me, reminds me to slow down and look at the world around me. There is so much beauty. There is A poetic quality to things that starts to appear. It is the light hearted old romantic side my artist—the part of me that wants to be reminded of simpler times… or maybe it’s the part of me that wants to live outside reality—where things are not quite as they seem—where lines begin to blur and the magic appears. iv y lou nge curated by CENTRAL AIR ::: Nomadic Art Space


| July, 2005

Press Release, Announcement cards, T-shirt design

August, 2005

Series of announcement post cards, 4 x 6”

September, 2005 October, 2005

Jennifer davis roxanne warren j. page_Ms. matched amy rice

IVY LOUNGE

+

NOMADIC ART S P A C E

MS. MATCHED Marguerite and Fred Tobias My grandfather and grandmother intentions were to document their own lives, and the family member around them. Occasionally, they were also to capture the catastrophes of the region. My grandfather managed to be almost drawn to the later, the great river flood of 1960 something, a downtown warehouse fire, the tornado destruction in Hopkins, MN. He also was seeming drawn to the mundane aspects of a squirrel, or perhaps a cake at a funeral or anniversary. My grandmother, with good intentions—labeled boxes of Kodak Ektachrome™, having listed dates, places, occasions, and the very family members that included them both apparently as voyeur. These gatherings, and happenings, allowed them to exchange the camera and note taking. They seem to move freely, and gather images as a nonparticipant, document librarians askew. As with any photographer, volume is the key towards the potential of a great image. By pairing up several photos, a new context increases the potential accuracy, or questioning(?) of events. A second generation historians take on unknown events. With so many images, and badly mislabeled groupings, without the matriarch and patriarch, I intend to create a new story, part fiction, part truth. The time to create my own (his)story, from the past that I come from, and have believed to be incorporated into my very own truth. ENJOY ! © 2005 J Page ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

IVY LOUNGE

ARTIST STATEMENT

PRESENTS

THIS SIDE TOWARDS SCREEN

PRESENTS

A R T SC A P E S C U R AT E D BY

Wo me ns fas h io n bo utique , Minneapolis, MN.

AMY RICE 1226 Adams St. NE #2 Minneapolis MN 55413 612 379 0192 amyr@amyrice.com

Most of my work is created using large plastic stencils that I design and cut myself. Often 3-4 different layers (each layer representing a different color) are needed to complete an image. I will sometimes cut a stencil of just an outline of an image and use watercolors, acrylics or house paint to color it in. Although this medium is basically a form of printmaking, I have the freedom to experiment with color, surface texture, and grouping of objects and thus mood and tone, making each piece unique. As an art instructor/advocate for adults with severe and persistent mental illness, I am a true believer in the powerful healing tool that art can be. I am inspired in my life and in my art

1:1 2:1

by the struggles and successes of my clients. I am additionally inspired by the urban community in which I live, childhood toys, vintage botanical prints, my

3:1 1:4

dog Ella, bicycles, street art, and random found objects, collective endeavors that challenge hierarchy, acts of compassion, downright silliness and things with wings. Grow flowers. Ride a bike. Love an animal. Learn something new. Find your wings. Make art of it all.

curated by


Ivy + C e n t ra l A i r p re s e n t

November 2005

IVY Lounge

IVY LOUNGE P R E S E N T S

ELLEN FITZGERALD Minneapolis Minnesota 612.327.1258 ladydarth@mac.com Recent work by Ellen Darth Fitzgerald. Ellen recently received her MFA from the Minneapolis College of Art + Design, and will be teaching photography in the following semester. Her portraits, from friends to strangers looks at the potential distance of the viewer and the observed. Heavy breath and coldness capture a womans unusually unique beauty. ARTIST STATEMENT

Ellen was raised in the swamps of Florida, sandwiched between space shuttles and theme parks. As a teenager, she saw the work of Rineke Dijkstra, and

1:1 2:1

subsequently moved to the icy Midwest to study photography. After a brief stint

3:1 1:4

in New York, where she was bullied by art stars, Ellen eventually returned to the south. When the gators and tourists became too much to bear, she migrated north to Minnesota. When she isn’t taking photographs, she is learning how to play the drums and planning trips to far off places.

ELLEN D. FITZGERALD Untitled from ”Outside” series C-Print 20”x16” 2003-2004 $125 per image $1500 for series

curated by

ellen fitzgerald


| IVY Fashion Boutique

Sp ec ia l event d esign a nd ma r keting colla tera l

denim exchange PRE-HOLIDAY SALE SUMMER SALE


NEW VIEWS Poster S ubmissions


| P ROJECT S U MMARY

Self-Authored

Poster design for submission to New Views 2, an international conference held at the London College of Communication, July 2008.


MS. MATCHED


| P ROJECT S U MMARY

Self-Authored

DOCUMENTATION ASKEW: Marguerite and Fred Tobias digital prints of slides from grandparents, manipulating grandmothers handwritten labels of slide contents with mismatched descriptions of relatives, places, and events.


TITLE Size W” x H” YEAR Description

NUMERALS TYPE DESIGN 20”x 30” 2006

BOB’S JAVA HUT signage 2004 Exterior signage, advertising

Poster design and typeface (numerals only 0-9) Digital photography MODULAR TYPOGRAPHY TYPE DESIGN 11” x 17” 2006 Typeface (Sovada ƒ) and poster design ARTISTS SPACE BOOK book DESIGN 8.5” x 11” 1998

CRAIG BEDDOW 2004 Stationary System Letterhead, Business card, envelope DESIGN LANGUAGE STUDIO 20” x 30” 2006 Digital photography, collage, non-digital film collage, photography, illustration

Book design; interior page spreads YOUTH FARM publication DESIGN 14” x 8.5” Tri-fold legal size 2002-2003

LEE ANNE SWANSON artist promotions 6” x 4.25” Landscape 1996-2002 (assorted) Promotional and exhibition announcement postcards

Newsletter WORLD BANK publication DESIGN, event graphics 1997

NONEGATIVE book DESIGN 9” x 7” Landscape 2007

Call for submissions; Award ceremony event graphics

Black and white Polaroid Land Camera

ROSALUX artist promotions

INDIE PUBLISHING: Exhibition Catalogs book DESIGN 7” x 8.5” Princeton Architectural Press, 2008

Neography 18” x 24”, 6” x 4.25” 2004 Neither Here Nor Then 11” x 17”, 6” x 4.25” 2005 Exhibition announcement posters and postcards

Instructional tutorial and case study


| © 2 0 0 9 JO H N P. C O RRI GAN.

SPECIFICATIONS

NovaC l utch Typo g raph ic Annex.

PROJECT LISTING

Al l rig h ts re s e rve d.

BEYOND THE COMPASS BEYOND THE SQUARE publication DESIGN, event graphics Banner 14’ x 19’ 2008 Catalog 5.5”x 8.5” 2008

NATIONAL PORTFOLIO DAY 18” x 24” 2007 Unused poster designs for MICA BROADSIDES 12” x 17” 2007 Letterpress, screen print

QUARTER ACRE LIFESTYLE (Size from left to right) 12” x 16” x 2”, 10.5” x 15” x 2” 8” x 12” x 5”, 12” x 17” x 2.5” 2007

CENTRAL AIR // NOMADIC ART SPACE CURATOR The Mayor of Uptown 2007

Three color screen printing on stone monuments

Curation, Art Direction: postcards, press release, exhibition design

THE FLAMINGO’S SOCKS publication DESIGN 5.5” x 8.5” 2008

RADIATOR :: ART EXHIBITION COMPANY CURATOR 6” x 14.25” 1999-2002

Grafting

Exhibition postcards

ANTI-SEMITIC PROPAGANDA book DESIGN 8.5” x 11” 2007

IVY LOUNGE CURATOR 4.25” x 6”; 8.5” x 11” 2006

Research Publication

Curated artist exhibitions, postcards, press release

GRAPHIC EXPRESSION OF INTERNMENT book DESIGN 13” x 11” Spring 2008

Marketing and Sale announcement cards

MFA Thesis Publication

NEW VIEWS POSTER SUBMISSIONS 20” x 30” 2008

TYPE + CODE book DESIGN 8.5” x 8.5” © 2009

MS. MATCHED 19” x 13.9” 2005

Processing for Designers, book design

Self generated photographic/text prints


|

Graphic Design Portfolio, circa 2009  

PORTFOLIO / WORK SAMPLES CASE STUDY / FACSIMILE The work presented here represents the current active design portfolio for John P. Corrigan...

Graphic Design Portfolio, circa 2009  

PORTFOLIO / WORK SAMPLES CASE STUDY / FACSIMILE The work presented here represents the current active design portfolio for John P. Corrigan...

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