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THE GRAMMAR IN FILM!

All there is to know about grammar By: Joshua Gonzalez Joshua Gonzalez Page 1


Table of contents Intro…………………………………………………………………………………. 3 I. Parts of Speech……………………………………………………………….. 4 a) Nouns………………………………………………………………… 4-7 b) Pronouns……………………………………………………………… 8-9 c) Verbs………………………………………………………………… 10-12 d) Adjectives……………………………………………………………. 12 e) Adverbs………………………………………………………………...13 f) Conjunctions……………………………………………………………14 g) Prepositions………………………………………………………… 14-15 h) Interjections……………………………………………………………16-20 II. Phrases…………………………………………………………………………21 III. Clauses………………………………………………………………………22-24 IV. Sentences……………………………………………………………………25 a) Sentence Parts……………………………………………………… 25 b) Sentence Types…………………………………………………… 26 c) Sentence Patterns……………………………………………… 26 d) Sentence Errors…………………………………………………… 27 V. Paragraphs…………………………………………………………………….27-30 VI. Essays………………………………………………………………………… 30 a) Types…………………………………………………………… 31 VII. Capitalization………………………………………………………………….31-33 VIII. Punctuation……………………………………………………………………33-35 IX. Commonly Confused/ Misused Word Choices……………………………. 35-38 Answers to the quizzes………………………………………………………………….. 38

INTRODUCTION This grammar book’s theme is about the great FILM! Joshua Gonzalez Page 2


“It is not our abilities that show what we truly are… it is our choices.” Dumbledore, from Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets For me films have always been a part of my life and I have taken three years of it, I decided to make my grammar book based on the world of FILM! Enjoy!

Section 1: PARTS OF SPEECH I. Nouns : A noun is a part of speech that names a person, place, thing, or idea. A. Types of nouns: 1. Common Nouns(name a class of people, places, things, or idea) Ex: LIGHTS, CAMERA, ACTION! 2. Proper Nouns(give name or title of a particular person, place, thing, or idea (must be capitalized)) Ex: Rear Window by Alfred Hitchcock is believed to be a classic film. Joshua Gonzalez Page 3


3. Compound Nouns(consists of words used together to form a single noun: Ex: Cameraman, Soundman,Boomman 4. Concrete Nouns(refer to material things, to people, or to places) Ex: Camera, Studio, Set 5. Abstract Nouns(name ideas, quality, emotions, or attitudes) Ex: Fear, Suspense, Drama B. Noun identifiers: 1. Noun endings: Creativity, Movies, Filmed. 2. Following a noun marker (NM) a, all, an, both, each, every, her, his, my, our, several, some, that, their, these, this, those, one, two, three, etc. Bolded words are pronouns that function as noun markers only when they act as adjectives. Ex: The studio is old. Ex: The old studio is filled with many talented actors daily. 3. Plural form (to make a noun plural, add -s or -es if the noun ends with a -s Ex: Directors, Actors, Extras 4. Possessive form(which is used to show that an object belongs to someone or something else. In order to use this strategies, you must attach (‘s) at the end of the noun.) Ex: Directors,’ Actors’, Extras' 5. Following a preposition: Ex: The actors performed when the director screamed “action”. Ex: The director yelled “Cut!” at everyone as soon as they had to do a retake.

These are some common prepositions: Aboard

In behalf of

About

Including

Above

In front of

According to

In place of

Across

In regard to Joshua Gonzalez Page 4


Across from

Inside

After

Inside of

Against

In spite of

Along

Instead of

Alongside

Into

Alongside of

Like

Along with

Near

Amid

Near to

Among

Notwithstanding

Apart from

Of

Around

Off

As

On

As far as

On account of

Aside from

On behalf of

At

Onto

Away from

On top of

Back of

Opposite

Because of

Out

Before

Out of

Behind

Outside

Below

Outside of

Beneath

Over

Beside

Over to

Between

Owing to

Beyond

Past

But (except)

Prior to Joshua Gonzalez Page 5


By

To

By means of

Toward

Concerning

Under

Despite

Underneath

Down

Until

Down from

Unto

Except

Up

Except for

Upon

Excluding

Up to

For

Versus

From

Via

From among

With

From between

Within

From under

Without

In

Within

In addition to

Add-on

C. Functions (How nouns are used): 1. Subject(The subject of the sentence usually comes before the verb does, and it is the main object in the sentence.) Ex: I spoke back to the film director. He fired me from my role unprofessional. 2. Direct Object(The direct object comes after the verb and it answers what or whom.) Ex: Hitchcock, threw a script at the actor for his audition. Ex: The actor impressed Hitchcock with his convincing acting. 3. Indirect Object(The indirect object answers to who or to whom.) Ex: Chaplin gave laughter to many generations. 4. Adverbial Object(adverbial object comes after the verb and answers when.) Ex: Men trained their skills to hone them for an audition. Ex: Directors used this to improve their films or recruit the best they can get. 5. Object of the Preposition(The object of preposition follows a preposition.) Ex: Actors went to the filming studio to audition the best they can. Joshua Gonzalez Page 6


Ex: Directors went there to see those who wanted to partake in the upcoming film. 6. Subject Complement(The subject complement, which is a function that follows a linking verb.) Ex: Chaplin became the star of comedy due to his hard work and fine acting. 7. Object Complement(The object complement follows a direct object and renames it.) Ex: Chaplin was named one of the best actors of all time. 8. Appositives(The appositives rename nouns, which are separated by commas.) Ex: Mr. Rodriguez, my teacher, has taught me many things about film making. Ex: Mr. Rodriguez will eventually make me a better film creator, I have faith. 9. Adjectival(Adjectival is an adjective that describes the noun following it.) Ex: The crew walked on set to signify the beginning of the filming process. 10. Noun in Direct Address( usually in the first or second person point of view.) Ex: Frankly, my dear, I don't give a damn. 11. Object of the gerund(The object of the gerund{a gerund is a noun formed from a verb} is the noun that follows the gerund.) Ex: Stress and tiredness came over the producers and directors as they were filming the pressured sequel of the Avengers. 12. Object of the participle(, a noun that follows a participle.) Ex: Speeding into the alleyway, Spiderman swooped up Mary Jane saving her from the clutches of the Green Goblin. 13. Object of the infinitive(the noun follows an infinitive. The infinitive is just “to + verb”) Ex: To act on the set of 300, Gerard Butler exercised insanely to achieve the fitness of the role of King Leonidas.

II. Pronouns - A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. There are 6 different pronouns: personal, relative, interrogative, reflexive, demonstrative, and indefinite pronouns.

1. Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a person/people. Here is a chart: Nominative

Objective

Possessive

I/we

Me/us

My, mine, our, ours

You/you

You/you

Your, yours, your, yours

He, she, it, one/they

Him, her, it, one/them

His, her, hers, its, one’s, their, theirs Joshua Gonzalez Page 7


EX: I enjoy filming with my crew as we are very productive and create the best films we can. 2. Relative pronouns begins a subordinate clause and connects that clause to another noun that precedes it in the sentence. Here is a chart: Nominative

Objective

Possessive

Who

Whom

Whose

That

That

Of that

Those/this EX: Who is the actor that made it to the film? To what character was he assigned to? 3. Interrogative pronouns used to begin or introduce interrogative sentences. Examples of these pronouns are who, which, what, whatever, whoever. EX: Whoever made it onto the film set, is a great actor already. Whoever screws up the scene will be put on a warning, next time they will be fired. 4. Reflexive:refer back to the subject of the sentence of clause. Reflexive pronouns end in -self (singular) and -selves (plural) and are used when an action verb is directed toward a subject of the construction or to intensify a point. EX: The crew had to set up at five in the morning. They pushed themselves to finish setting up before seven. 5. Demonstrative points out a noun or pronoun such as person, places, things, or ideas. "This" and "these" refer to things that are nearby in space or time while "that" and "those" refer to something far in time or space. EX: Those actors had been filming in the hot sun for the past 12 hours. 6. Indefinite Pronouns that do not refer to any specific person, place or things. They replace nouns without specifying which nouns they replace. EX: Everyone on the set of The Matrix decided to end the day by heading out to the bar to get wasted. Here is a list of indefinite pronouns: All

Many

Another

Much

Anybody

Neither

Anyone

Nobody Joshua Gonzalez Page 8


Anything

None

Both

No one

Each

Nothing

Either

Other

Everybody

Several

Everyone

Somebody

Everything

Someone

Everywhere

Such

Few

III. Verbs A. How verbs are identified: 1. Verb ending: -es, -s, -ness a. Acting b. Directors c. Editors d. Filming 2. Tense: 1.Simple past- I auditioned today. Filmed 12 different scenes and had enough time for my family. 2.Past- I finished making the script for the film Gladiator. 3.Past perfect- I had acted, I had filmed and I had created. 4.Past progressive- We were filming. We went to the filming studio. We were acting shakespeare in the park. 5.Simple Present- I love filming. I love acting. I love being an actor 6.Present- We film action scenes, I quote famous actors, I act with passion. 7.Present perfect- I have known actors in my life, I have take a total of three years of film in my life. 8.Present progressive- We are going to act World War II, We are going to reenact the battles. 9.Present perfect progressive- We have been working on several plays, We have been rehearsing since July. Joshua Gonzalez Page 9


10.Future- I will learn the ups and downs of film making, I will discover the reasons why even exists in the first place. 11.Future present- I will be designing a storyboard for tomorrow’s meeting. 3. Forms a. Forms of “to be”, am, are, is, was, were, be, been, being (these verbs can be used as helping verbs or main verbs when used as main verbs, they are always linking verbs-true linking verbs= all forms of be, become, and seem). i. EX: Actors are insanely creative; acting is a competitive workline; in the past we were seeing who can be the best filmmaker of all time. ii. Forms of “to do”, do, does, did, done, doing (these verbs can be used as helping verbs or main verbs). iii. EX: Mario Bava, the italian film director, does a lot of filming; He has done more than of the filmmakers of his time. b. Forms of “to have”, have had, has, having (these verbs can be used as helping verbs or main verbs). EX: Directors have make sure everything is perfect. 4. Types a. auxiliary verbs (helping verbs) - verbs that convey the other events that writers want to express while the main or base verb indicates the type of action or condition . i. EX: Be, Have, Will, Do b. Linking verbs (verbs that do not describe action, but connect the subject of a sentence to other parts of the sentence - usually the predicate) True linking verbs are forms of become and seem. Linking verbs: appear, grow, look, smell, sound, and taste. i. EX: Is, Am, Are, Was, Were c. Lexical verbs (main verbs) - they are all verbs except auxiliary verbs. Lexical verbs are the main verbs or phrases in a sentence. Lexical verbs represent actions, events, and states. i. EX: Arrive, Am, Be, Do d. Dynamic verbs (indicate action) - Dynamic verbs sometimes referred to as "action verbs" and usually describe actions we can take of things that can happen. i. EX: Act, Go, Create e. Stative verbs (describe a condition) usually refer to a state or condition which is not changing or likely to change. They usually relate to thoughts, emotions, relationships, senses, states of being. i. EX: Need, Understand, Realize f. Finitive verbs (indicate tense)- has a subject shows tense (past or present forms w/o ing or ed); can function as an independent clause and can stand alone as a complete sentence. i. EX: Filmed, Directed, Planned g. Nonfinitive verbs (infinitives or participles) - takes form of past or present participles (ing, ed) , they don't have mood, tense, number, aspect, gender, or person. Nonfinitive verbs are gerunds, infinitives, and participles. i. EX: Will Shoot, Will prepare, Will hesitate h. Regular verbs (weak verbs) - verbs that add -d or -ed to their present form to form the past tense are regular verbs. i. EX: Clapped, Pedalled, Programmed Joshua Gonzalez Page 10


i. Irregular verbs( strong verbs)- have unpredictable forms in past tense; don't add -d or ed to the present form to make the past tenses. i. EX: Ride, Swim, Win j. Transitive verbs (verbs followed by direct object) incomplete without a direct object, can take one or more objects, a doable activity. i. EX: Will fight, Will lead, Will protect k. Intransitive verbs (verbs that do not take direct objects) an action verb that does not have a direct object. i. EX: Runs, Play, Has batted 5. Voice: Active(the subject performs the action denoted by the verb)- Jordan scored the final basket of the game Passive(the subject is being acted upon by the verb)- The final basket of the game was scored by Jordan 6. Verbals: (verb forms not used as verbs, but rather like nouns or an adjective)

a. Gerund(word ending in “-ing” used as a noun.): The team was scoring amazing goals. The runners were attempting to in the final race of their session. The varsity runner, Chris,overlapping the rest of the runners. b. Participle(· word ending in “-ing” or “-ed” used as an adjective.): The camera crew had filmed the most amazing film ever. Training was one of the requirements that each actor had to do in order to prepare for a role. c. Infinitive(verb preceded by the word “to” (to go, to jump) used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. ): The runners needed to run over Spring break. The swimmers at practice needed to swim. The football team needed to jump over the stack of tires to pass the final test to join the team. IV. Adjectives Adjectives modify, describe, limit, and identify nouns and pronouns. 1. Kinds: a. Demonstrative- Are primarily adjectives, and they point out the words omitted in a sentence or emphasize their importancei. this, that, these, and those; b. Common- is an adjective that is not written with a capital letteri. triangular, narrow, husky, and cautious; c. Proper- an adjective, typically capitalized, derived from a proper nouni. American actors, English film makers, Paris scenes 2. Endings: -al, regional; -ary, customary; -ful, successful; -ic, filmic; -ical, problematical; -ish, publish; -less, motionless; -like, lifelike; -ly, intensively; -ous, ferocious; -y, gory 3. Conversations: You would need to add one of the previous endings to a word. – gore→gory, motion→motionless, -film→filmic 4. Articles: There are three articles: “a”, “an” and “the”. These adjectives are used in front of most nouns to specify the noun.— Joshua Gonzalez Page 11


a. The film began. (without the it isn’t specific- fil beg??); The actor handed a script. (without “the” and “a” it would sound weird, actor handed script??); The camera filmed. ( with “the”, camera filmed??, awkward) 5. Comparatives/Superlatives: A comparative adjective is used to compare two things. A superlative adjective is used when you compare three or more things. The comparative ending (suffix) for short, common adjectives is generally “-er”; the superlative suffix is generally “-est”. a. – comparatives: louder, faster, quieter ; b. – superlatives: loudest, fastest, quietest

V. Adverbs Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs a) Endings: a. –ly(suffix that forms adverbs from adjectives), creatively b. -wards(suffix that shows temporal direction), goalward c. -wise(suffix that forms adverbs denoting manner), filmwise b) Conversions: -- Adjective or verbs can be converted to adverbs by adding -ly. a. quick- quickly; rapid- rapidly; motionless- motionlessly; c) Types: a. Manner(describes how the action was answered)- The actor answered the questions seriously. The crew quickly ran to get everything in place. b. Frequency(describes how often)- Chaplin was consistently filming his own stunt scenes. c. Degree(describes how good/bad it is)- Buster Keaton often acted really well, but sometimes was stumped with a bad role. d. Place(describes where)- The directors were at the studios early in the morning. They wanted to get a clear view of how the movie would come out. e. Time(describes when)- Acting starts early in the morning and ends late at night. d) Intensifiers: There are several types of intensifiers: those that show emphasis, those that amplify and those that play down or downtone the actions of verbs. : a. The camera man simply went to the other side for a better angle. e) Comparatives/Superlatives: i. adverbs can show degrees of quality or amount with the endings -er and -est or with the words more and most or less and least. The comparative form is the greater or lesser degree of the quality named. ; ii. With adverbs ending in -ly, you must use more to form the comparative, and most to form the superlative. a. comparative- more quietly, more slowly, more seriously; b. superlative- most quietly, most slowly, most seriously; Joshua Gonzalez Page 12


VI. Conjunctions A. Coordinating, a conjunction that is placed in between clauses, (FANBOYS): for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so; a. The crew all got a nice dinner for their hard work on the film. B. Correlative, conjunctions that connect two things that are grammatically equal,: Either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also, both/and, whether/or, as/so; a. The films either win an Oscar or not, either way, the directors are happy to see their creations be open to the public. C. Subordinate, a secondary form of conjunctions that deal with connecting two unequal grammatical parts,: after, though, as, as if, as long as, as thought, because, before, if, in order that, provided that, since, so, so that, that, though, till, unless, when, where, whereas, while; D. Relative pronouns, take on the place of the noun in order to become the subject or the object, depending upon circumstances,: who (refers to people), which (refers to nonliving object or animals), that (may refer to animals or nonliving objects); VII. Prepositions Prepositions link nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other parts of the sentence. Prepositions are NEVER followed by verbs. These are some common prepositions: Aboard

But (except)

On

About

By

On account of

Above

By means of concerning

On behalf of

According to

Despite

Onto Joshua Gonzalez Page 13


Across

Down

On top of

Across from

Down from

Opposite

After

Except

Out

Against

Excluding for

Out of

Along

For

Outside

Alongside

From

Outside of

Alongside of

From among

Over

Along with

From between

Over to

Amid

From under

Owing to

Among

In

Past

Apart from

In addition to

Prior to

Around

In behalf of

To

As

Including

Toward

As far as

In front of

Under

Aside from

In place of

Underneath

At

In regard to

Until

Away

Inside

Unto

From

Inside of

Up

Back of

In spite of

Upon

Because of

Instead of

Up to

Before

Into

Versus

Behind

Like

With

Below

Near

Within

Beneath

Near to

Without

Beside

Notwithstanding

Between

Of Joshua Gonzalez Page 14


Beyond

Off

VIII. Interjections - An interjection or exclamation is a word used to express a particular emotion or sentiment on the part of the speaker Interjections are the final part of speech. List of Interjections A

Aha, ahem, ahh, ahoy, alas, arg, aww

B

Bam, bingo, blah, boo, bravo, brr

C

Cheers, congratulations

D

Dang, drat, darn, duh

E

Eek, ehh, encore, eureka

F

Fiddlesticks

G

Gadzooks, gee, gee whiz, golly, goodbye, goodness, good grief, gosh

H

Ha-ha, hallelujah, hello, hey, hmm, holy buckets, holy cow, holy smokes, hot dog, huh, humph, hurray

O

Oh, oh dear, oh my, oh well, oops, ouch, ow

P

Phew, phooey, pooh, pow

R

Rats

S

Shh, shoo

T

Thanks, there, tut-tut

U

Uh-huh, uh-oh, ugh

W

Wahoo, well, whoa, whoops, wow Joshua Gonzalez Page 15


Y

Yeah, yes, yikes, yippee, yo, yuck

Key associated terms to know for Parts of Speech: viii. Antecedents - A noun or pronoun to which another noun or pronoun refers. ix. Complements - A word or group of words added to a sentence to make it complete. x. Objects - In a sentence the nouns or noun phrases which the verb or preposition is directed towards.

1. Direct(are the nouns or noun phrases in which the action (verb) is directed upon.)a. Entity acted upon - The train in “The General” fought against both the union and the confederacy.

2. Indirect(are objects that do not have the verb directly on them; rather, a preposition may be considered “enacted” upon them, and the indirect object is usually in between the verb and the actual direct object)a. Entity indirectly affected by the action - The general gave the army the plans which they didn’t pay attention to it. xi. Modifiers - A word, especially an adjective or noun used attributively, that restricts or adds to the sense of a head noun. - Modifier as adjective- Modifier as adverbsxii. Transitions - Transitions are words or phrases that show the relationship between paragraphs or sections of a text or speech. Transitions provide greater cohesion by making it more explicit or signaling how ideas relate to one another. EX: The actor Tom Hanks had to go through serious changes for the role in the movie “Cast away”

Here is a list of transition words:

Addition

Milder

Stronger

a further x and and then then also too

further furthermore moreover in addition additionally besides Joshua Gonzalez Page 16


next another other nor

again equally important first, second finally, last

Comparison

just as ... so too a similar x another x like

similarly comparable in the same way likewise

Contrast

but yet and yet still otherwise or though but another rather

however still nevertheless on the other hand on the contrary even so notwithstanding for all that in contrast alternatively at the same time though this may be otherwise instead nonetheless conversely

Time

then now soon afterward later shortly earlier recently first, second, third next before after today tomorrow

meanwhile at length presently at last finally immediately thereafter at that time subsequently eventually currently in the meantime in the past in the future

Purpose

to do this so that

to this end with this object Joshua Gonzalez Page 17


for this purpose for that reason because of this x Place

there here beyond nearby next to

at that point opposite to adjacent to on the other side in the front in the back

Result

so and so then

hence therefore accordingly consequently thus thereupon as a result in consequence

Example

that is specifically in particular for one thing

for example for instance an instance of this this can be seen in

Summary and Emphasis

in sum generally after all by the way in general incidentally naturally I hope at least it seems in brief I suppose

in short on the whole as I said in other words to be sure in fact indeed clearly of course anyway remarkably I think assuredly definitely without doubt for all that on the whole in any event importantly Joshua Gonzalez Page 18


certainly

xiii. Expletives - A word or phrase used to fill out a sentence or a line of verse without adding to the sense. They start off with here, there, or it, followed by a corresponding verb form of “to be”. There on the set the stuntman jumped off the car and was able to land on the road safely. xiv. Agreements - .

1. Subject - Verbs( A singular subject takes a singular verb whereas a plural subject takes a plural verb.): a. The Oscars are available to all, the film just needs a nomination and votes. 2. Noun - Pronoun( Just like subjects and verbs, nouns and pronouns should agree in number within a sentence.): a. When Alfred Hitchcock made the film “Virdigo” he didn't realize he had made a classic.

Joshua Gonzalez Page 19


Section 2: Phrases I. Phrases- Groups of words that function as a part of speech 1. Prepositional: A group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun, and is used as an adjective or an adverb A. Between 1900s and the 2000s, the film industry greatly developed over the years. B. In addition to industry, technology has drastically sharpened the growth of interest in filmmaking. 1. Appositive: A group of words that include all the words or phrases that modify an appositive. a) Hitchcock, a magical filmmaker, is a genius among men. b) Chaplin, a brilliant actor, is one of the greatest of all time. 3. Verbal: A group of words that begin with a verbal and ends with a noun. a) The stage crew was fighting time so that the set was ready.. b) Setting up the cameras and the mics created mass amounts of stress.

Joshua Gonzalez Page 20


Section 2: Quiz 1 1. What is a prepositional phrase? A. A group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun, and is used as an adjective or an adverb B.Group of words that can stand on its own as a sentence that contains a subject, verb, and a complete thought. C.A group of words that begin with a verbal and ends with a noun. 2. Which shows a prepositional phrase? A. Between 1900s and the 2000s, industry has dramatically increased over the years. B. Bava, an italian filmmaker, is a powerfully man in the film industry. 3. Which is an appositive phrase? A. A group of words that include all the words or phrases that modify an appositive. B. Groups of words that function as a part of speech C.A group of words that begin with a verbal and ends with a noun. 4.Which is an example of an appositive phrase? A. Chaplin, a brilliant actor, is one of the greatest of all time. B. Film, a creative genre, is critical in entertainment. 5. True or False. Prepositional a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with ,a noun, and is used as an adjective or an adverb

Joshua Gonzalez Page 21


Section 2: Quiz 2 1. What is a clause?

2.

3.

4.

5.

A) group of words with an adjective B) group of words with a pronoun C) group of words with a subject and a verb. D) all of the above What is a noun clause? A) used as the pronoun in the sentence B) used as the noun in a sentence and may function as a subject C) includes a noun D) none of the above What is an adjective clause? A) includes an adjective B) A and D C) none are shown D) used to modify a noun in an independent clause. What is an adverb clause? A) used to modify verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in an independent clause B) used to change a noun to a verb C) used to change a verb to an adverb D) B and C What must a clause include? A) a period and a comma B) a subject and a verb C) a verb and a adjective D) a pronoun and a preposition

Joshua Gonzalez Page 22


Section 3: Clauses II. Clauses B. Groups of words with a subject and a verb. 1. Independent: Group of words that can stand on its own as a sentence that contains a subject, verb, and a complete thought. a) Casting directors carefully chooses the lead roles for their films. b) Seen too obscured, the movie censored the romantic sex scene of the main characters. 2. Subordinate:- Cannot stand alone as a complete sentence and must being with a subordinate conjunction. i. Noun: Used as the noun in a sentence and may function as a subject, a predicate noun, a direct object, and object of a preposition, an indirect object, or an appositive. ii. Adjective: Used to modify a noun in an independent clause. iii. Adverb: Used to modify verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in an independent clause, introduced by a subordinating conjunction and used to indicate time, place, cause, purpose, result, condition, and/or concession. iv. Essential: Clauses necessary to the meaning of the sentence. v. Nonessential: Clauses that are not necessary to the meaning of the sentence. vi. Relative: Dependent clause that begins with a relative pronoun vii. Elliptical: Adverb clauses in which part of the clause is omitted.

SENTENCES Joshua Gonzalez Page 23


Sentence Parts 1. Subject- The subject is what (or whom) the sentence is about. a. Complete- A complete subject is the simple subject, or the main word or words in a subject, along with any of the modifiers that might describe the subject. b. Simple- A simple subject is the main word or words in a subject. It does not include any of the modifiers that might describe the subject. c. Compound- A compound subject consists of two or more simple subjects that share a verb or verb phrase. These subjects are joined by a conjunction such as and, or, or nor. Because a compound subject consists only of simple subjects, it does not include any of the words that modify the subjects. 2. Predicate- The predicate tells something about the subject. a. Complete- Whereas a simple predicate refers only to the verb or verb phrase in a sentence, a complete predicate includes not only the verb or verb phrase but also all the words that give more information about it. In this way, the predicate is complete. Remember that a complete predicate includes the verb or verb phrase plus all the words that accompany it. b. Simple- A simple predicate is a verb or verb phrase. It doesn’t give any more information about the verb or verb phrase, which is why the predicate is considered “simple.” c. Compound- A compound predicate is two or more verbs or verb phrases that share the same subject and are joined by a conjunction. A compound predicate may also include additional words that give more information about the verbs or verb phrases in the sentence. Note that, although a conjunction joins a compound predicate verbs or verb phrases, it is not part of the compound predicate. Sentence Types 1. Declarative- A declarative sentence (also known as a statement) makes a statement and ends with a period. It's named appropriately because it declares or states something. 2. Interrogative- An interrogative sentence asks a question, and it always ends with a question mark. 3. Imperative- An imperative sentence gives a command. It usually ends with a period, but it may also end with an exclamation point. 4. Exclamatory- An exclamatory sentence expresses strong emotion and it ends with an exclamation mark. Sentence Patterns: 1. Simple Sentences- A sentence consisting of only one clause, with a single subject and predicate. 2. Complex Sentences- A sentence containing a subordinate clause or clauses. 3. Compound Sentences- A sentence with more than one subject or predicate. A sentence with multiple independent clauses, but no dependent clauses Joshua Gonzalez Page 24


4. Complex-Compound Sentences- A sentence having two or more coordinate independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. A sentence with multiple independent clauses and at least one dependent clauses. 5. Loose Sentences- Is a type of sentence in which the main idea is elaborated by the successive addition of modifying clauses or phrases. Is a type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) is elaborated by a subordinate construction 6. Periodic Sentences-A sentence in which the independent clause is given at the end of the sentence in order to creepy interest or generate suspense. 7. Balanced Sentences- Is a sentence that employs parallel structures of approximately the same length and importance. 8. Parallel Structure Sentences- Is the repetition of a chosen grammatical form within a sentence. Parallel structure (also called parallelism) is the repetition of a chosen grammatical form within a sentence. By making each compared item or idea in your sentence follow the same grammatical pattern, you create a parallel construction 9. Chiasmus Sentences- A sentence that includes a repetition of ideas (words, phrases, or clauses) in inverted (reversed) order. 10. Asyndeton Sentences- A sentence that leaves out conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses for a rhetorical purpose. 11. Polysyndeton Sentences- A sentence that uses multiple conjunctions in close proximity to each other between words, phrases, or clauses for a rhetorical purpose. 12. Anaphora Sentences- A sentence that features the purposeful repetition of a word, words, or a phrase at the beginning of several successive clauses in order to place emphasis and draw attention. 13. Epistrophe Sentences- A sentence featuring several phrases or clauses ending with the same word or words. Sentence Errors: (Incomplete/Incorrect Types) 1. Run-On/Rambling- A run-on is a sentence in which two or more independent clauses are joined without an appropriate punctuation or conjunction. 2. Fused- A fused sentence occurs when two independent clauses are joined without any punctuation or connecting word between them. 3. Fragment- A sentence fragment fails to be a sentence in the sense that it cannot stand by itself. It does not contain even one independent clause. 4. Misplaced Modifier- A misplaced modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that is improperly separated from the word it modifies / describes. 5. Double Negative- A double negative is a grammatical construction occurring when two forms of negation are used in the same sentence. 6. Comma Splice- A comma splice is the use of a comma to join two independent clauses. Section 5:Paragraphs Paragraphs: Joshua Gonzalez Page 25


1. Introductory Paragraphs (Introductions) a) Hook (Lead) I. Anecdotal (Brief story to set the mood and intro the topic) 1) Ex. Throughout filming history, many great creators came and went but many are forever put into our hall of fame with their classical movies and hits. II. Query Base (Question that brings the reader to the topic) 1) Ex. Have you ever considered what the life of a filmmaker or actor can be like? b) These Statements (the purpose of a piece of writing- usually one sentence in length- and something that is arguable) I. Assertion (claim) 1) Ex. Knowing the history behind the films we have today is an essential role in the industry II. Fact (empirically verifiable) 1) Ex. most of the films today were inspired by films from the 30’s III. Opinion (personal positional on a topic) 1) Ex. Film is the most interesting and essential industry for entertainment IV. Belief (social, religious, or political in nature – an opinion held by many to be a fact, though it is not necessarily) 1) Ex. Some films go against god as they present lust and other sins V. Generalization (uses absolute or statistical pronouns: all, always, every, never, none, most, half _ avoid using this type of thesis statement) 1) Ex. Most filmmakers in the beginning were very successful. VI. Document Based (cities a specific source and its position on a topic) 1) Ex. The positive reviews stated by famous magazine critics increased the box office revenues of the movie. VII. Theory (a statement that can be tested and potentially proven) 1) Ex. In the popular film Back to the future, scientist Doc Brown believed his invented machine the DeLorean could travel back in time. 2. Body Paragraphs (must have the echoes of the thesis in each and present evidence to support or expand on the thesis) a) Topic Sentences (must specifically indicate the topic of the paragraph and focus on one subject and area of evidence or support) 1) Ex. Chick flicks to most people is the stupidest movie genre because of its sappy characters and gooey-romantic plots. b) Evidence from quotations (quotes should NEVER be used individual sentences – quotes should be embedded within sentences) Joshua Gonzalez Page 26


1)

Ex. Many directors and screenwriters use their vivid imaginations to create movies, “I don’t dream at night, I dream at day, I dream all day, I’m dreaming for a living.”- Steven Spielberg II. Paraphrase (rewording quote into other words of the same length without quotation marks, but still citing the source) 1) Ex. Film Quote- “ You don't understand! I coulda had class. I coulda been a contender. I could've been somebody, instead of a bum, which is what I am..”-On The Waterfront 2) Ex. PARAPHRASE- The character is distraught because he wasn’t able to accomplish what he wanted in life. III. Summary (condensing larger quotes or sections) 1) ORIGINAL QUOTE- “Whether in success or failure, I’m proud of every single movie I’ve directed.”- Steven Spielberg 2) Ex. SUMMARY- Every movie has its pride no matter what. IV. Abstract Examples (hypothetical, “what if” example- AVOID) 1) Ex. History sadly wouldn’t be a subject in schools we would lose sight of was has happened. happened. V. Concrete Examples (actual, reference- able examples) 1) Ex. There has vastly been documentation (documents, witnesses, and writings) of wars, plagues, and revolutions been taken throughout our past time. c) Closing Sentences (must end the discussion of the topic within the paragraph with a transitional or or culminating word – possibly an adverb – and should echo the thesis of the easy) 1) Ex. If the constantly learning history wasn’t so important they why even wright anything down, we do it to learn from our past so we can look to the future. 3.

Closing Paragraphs (Conclusions – should not be mere summaries of the previous paragraphs of your essay)

a) Statements of Extension (extending the thesis statement using the consequences of disregarding the implications of the thesis – could be one or more sentences) 1) Ex. If war, famine, and prejudice didn’t happen the past would greatly be nicer. b) Final Sentence (connects to the hook) 1) Ex. Given all the conflictions rooted in the past maybe the problems of man without them would be better off and more peacefully stable today.

Quiz Time 1. A. B. C. 2.

What is an Anecdotal? an opinion held by many to be fact, though it is not necessarily brief story to set the mood and intro the topic question that brings the reader to the topic What is a Final Sentence? Joshua Gonzalez Page 27


A. B. C. 3. 4. 5.

connects to the hook actual, reference- able examples Question that brings the reader to the topic True or False? Is a query base question that brings the reader to the topic? What should never be used individual sentences? True or False? Concrete Examples are actual, reference- able examples.

Section 6:Essays 6. Essays A. Types I. Persuasive 1. (Argumentative)-Genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner. Purpose: This essay is used to defend a debatable position on a particular issue with the ultimate goal of persuading readers to accept the argument. 2. Interpretive- Closely read and write about your understanding of a text. Purpose: This essay help the reader better understand the text II.Expository Joshua Gonzalez Page 28


1.Definition or Description-an organized piece of writing which explains a specific topic of set of ideas to a defined audience. 2.Process/How-to- Introduction, Body, Conclusion 3.Compare and Contrast - Topic Sentence, Major, Minor, Conclusion 4.Cause and Effect -Transfer, Meeting, Acquistion III.Analytical/Critical 1.Evaluate-subjective writing because it expresses the writer's opinion or evaluation of a text. 2.Interpretive-analysis= break down of the text 3.Steps-Two steps when writing critical papers, 1. critical reading 2. critical writing IV.Narrative(Tells a Story) 1.Personal Anecdote - a story written about a personal experience. 2.Purpose-provides an opportunity to get to know and understand yourself better. V. Research 1.MLA Format-Choose a topic and then do research on your topic 2.APA Format-Format for documents such as journal articles and books. VI.Timed 1. Document Based Question(DBQ)-Series of short-answer questions using one's own knowledge combined with support from several provided sources. 2. Prompt Based- Statements that focus on a topic or an issue, followed by questions. Grammar Section 7 7.Capitalization Rule 1: Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all important words in a title. EX: Looking Backward Rule 2: Capitalize Mother, Dad, and other titles when they serve as a replacement for the person’s name. EX: Father, can you help me write the script? Rule 3: Capitalize the name of organizations. EX: MGM Rule 4: Capitalize names of day, month, holidays, and special days. EX: On Monday, the crew needs to set up for the shoot. Rule 5: Capitalize a proper adjective but not the noun it modifies unless the nouns is a part of a title. EX: I will be attending auditions to see those who audition. Rule 6: Capitalize brand names but not the product(s). EX: I had just bought a camera for filming. Rule 7: Capitalize business names. Joshua Gonzalez Page 29


EX: The next scene will take place in the Southwest. Rule 8: Capitalize institution names. EX: The USC School of Cinematic Arts is one of the top schools for film. Rule 9: Capitalize names of particular geographic places. EX. In this next scene the Jedis will explore the Ewok inhabited Bright Tree village. Rule 10: Capitalize historical events, periods of time, and historical documents. EX: The American Revolution gives directors and filmmakers ideas on what to create next. Rule 11: Capitalize religions, religious denominations, religious documents, names of churches, and names of a supreme being. EX: Most of the crew members are Protestant. Rule 12: Capitalize languages EX: The crew speaks French fluently. Rule 13: Capitalize specific names of structures. EX: The scene takes place in the eiffle tower. Rule 14: Capitalize names, initials, and titles appearing with names. EX: Buster Keaton starred in The General, a Civil War movie. Rule 15: Capitalize the first letter of the first word in a sentence. EX: The film crew decided to move the location eastwards 5 miles.. Rule 16: Capitalize the pronoun I. EX: I won the academy award for best sci-fi movie of the year. . Rule 17: Capitalize the first letter of the first word in most lines of poetry. EX: Sabers are Red, Sabers are blue, I killed all the Jedi just for you. Rule 18: Capitalize Roman numerals and the letters for the first major topics in an outline. Capitalize the first letter of the first word in an outline. EX: 1. Movies a. Genres i. Horror Rule 19: Capitalize the first letter of the first word in a direct quotation. Joshua Gonzalez Page 30


EX: Officer Gordon asked, “Who are you?”, “I’m Batman,” replied the mysterious man in the dark suit. Rule 20: Capitalize government bodies and departments EX: The Galactic Republic had a Senate. Rule 21: Capitalize races and ethnic groups. EX: The cast of the earlier Star War films was mostly White or Caucasian. Rule 22: Capitalize North, South, East, West, Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest when they refer to a region of the country or world. EX: Ironman or secret identity of Tony Stark was taken hostage to East of Russia. Rule 23: Capitalize political parties and their members. EX: Most people would say that Captain America is part of the Freedom Party. Rule 24: Capitalize the first letter only in most hyphenated words that begin a sentence. EX: Twenty-two actors came to audition, but only one would be given the part. Rule 25: Capitalize the first word of the greeting and closing of a letter. EX: Dear You, My friend, love

Section 8:Punctuation 8.Punctuation

A. [ ] i. Brackets ([]) are the squared off notations used for technical explanations. At the bottom of each definition page, brackets surround a technical description of where the word originated. ii. EX: 1. The glamor [attractive or exciting quality that makes certain people or things seem appealing or special.] of the actors audition astounded the spectators. 2. The oblivious [not aware of or not concerned about what is happening around one.] director didn’t give him the role and lost a grammy because of his action. 3. Parentheses ( () ) are curved notations used to contain further thoughts or qualifying remarks. However, parentheses can be replaced by commas without changing the meaning in most cases. iii. EX: 1. Modern Times (a film starring Charlie Chaplin) is my favorite films yet.

b. . i. The period (.) is placed at the end of declarative sentences, statements thought to be complete and after many abbreviations. Joshua Gonzalez Page 31


ii. EX: 1. 2.

The movie moguls are the powerhouses of the industry. Censorship in the early times of cinema was crucial to the way movies are made today.

c. , i. The comma (,) is used to show a separation of ideas or elements within the structure of a sentence. Additionally, it is used in letter writing after the salutation and closing. ii. EX: 1. The actors were exhausted, they have been filming constantly for weeks. 2. The Director oversees the set, he made sure everything was to his liking.

d. i. A hyphen (-) is the same symbol as the dash. However, it has slightly different usage rules. A hyphen is used between the parts of a compound word or name or between the syllables of a word, especially when divided at the end of a line of text. ii. EX: 1. The camera-ready actors are usually the ones who receive awards like “best acting”

e. – i. An (–) is a symbol that is used in writing or printing to connect numbers or to connect elements of a compound adjective

ii. The (—) looks like the dash but has more complicated grammatical use. The symbol of is used to:

1.

iii. EX: 1.

• Indicate a break in thought or sentence structure • Introduce a phrase added for emphasis, definition, or explanation • Separate two clauses The screenwriter—the one who people hardly recognize— try harder to get recognized.

f. : i. A colon (:) has two main uses: After a word introducing a quotation, an explanation, an example, or a series. It is also often used after the salutation of a business letter.

ii. EX: people such as: Buster Keaton, Charley Chaplin, and Douglas Fairbank, left a mark on the world of film.

g. ; i. The semicolon (;) is used to connect independent clauses. It shows a closer relationship between the clauses than a period would show.

ii. EX: 1. 2. iii. EX: 1.

Jean Renoir was an amazing filmmaker; he wrote “La Grande Illusion”. Use a question mark (?) to indicate a direct question when placed at the end of a sentence. Are we going to film tonight as well? Joshua Gonzalez Page 32


2.

Are the auditions held here?

h. ! i. The exclamation point/mark (!) is used when a person wants to express a sudden outcry or add emphasis.

ii. EX: 1. 2.

Quiet on the set! Hurry up we haven’t got time to waste! We still need to shoot two more scenes before lunch

i. ‘ i. An apostrophe (‘) is used to indicate the omission of a letter or letters from a word, the possessive case, or the plurals of lowercase letters. ii. EX: 1. The movie’s movement resulted in the large increase in bug names.

j. “ i. Quotations marks ( “” ) are a pair of punctuation marks used primarily to mark the beginning and end of a passage attributed to another and repeated word for word. They are also used to indicate meanings and to indicate the unusual or dubious status of a word. ii. EX: 1. The “greatest film” was a complete bust.

k. … i. The ellipses mark (. . .) is generally represented by three periods, although it is occasionally demonstrated with three asterisks (***). Ellipses are used: 1. • In writing or printing to indicate an omission, especially of letters or words. 2. • Within quotations to jump from one phrase to another, omitting unnecessary words that do not interfere with the meaning ii. EX: 1. Charlie Chaplin, after many years of work. . . passed away December 25, 1977. Commonly Confused/Misused Word Choices Section 9

A. Who/Whom a. he-who: Who/Whom wrote this script? He wrote the script. Therefore,who is correct. b. him-whom: Who/Whom will the lead go to? Should the lead go to him?Therefore, whom is correct.

B. Their/There/They’re a. "There" refers to a place. Examples: There is the camera, be sure to not look at it directly.

b. "They're" is a contraction of "they are" Example: They’re filming a movie in the streets!. Joshua Gonzalez Page 33


c. "Their" is the possessive pronoun. Example: Their equipment is much more expensive than ours. Hint: If you can substitute "our" you have it right!

C. Lie/Lay a. Lie and lay both have many definitions, but they’re most often confused where lie means to recline and lay means to put down. But the distinction is simple: Lay needs an object— something being laid—while lie cannot have an object. b. Example: I lay the foundation for this project. I lie down while others film.

D. Laid/Lain a. Laid is the past tense of lie. Laid means to lie down something. b. Lain is the past tense for lay. Lain means to put down. c. Example: I laid down for the death scene. I have to be lain on the floor. E. Affect/Except a. Affect is usually a verb, and effect is usually a noun. To affect something is to change or influence it, and an effect is something that happens due to a cause.

b. EX. Many filmmakers made great affects on the world c. EX. The after effects of the filmmakers can still be seen with batman.

F. Accept/Except a. To accept is to receive, and except is to exclude. b. The director accepts only one person per audition. G. C/W/Should have vs. C/W/Should of a. They should have not signed the contract without reading it first, now they are ruined. H. Loath/Loathe a. Loath means to be unwilling or reluctant about something b. Loathe, on the other hand, means to strongly dislike someone or something or find it disgusting c. Humans loath to see failure. They loathe the fact that others are better than them. .

I. Infer/Imply a. To imply is to suggest something indirectly. b. To infer is to gather, deduce, or figure out. c. Everyone inferred that they will not be going home tonight for they will not finish filming by then. Joshua Gonzalez Page 34


J. Weary/Wary a. To be wary is (1) to be on guard against something, or (2) to be watchful or cautious. b. Weary means physically or mentally fatigued c. After a long night of filming, the actors went home weary but as wary as possible. K. Proceed/Precede a. Precede is to go before. b. Proceed means to move ahead, to continue. c. I proceeded with the filming while everyone was setting up and I caught something paranormal.

L. Discrete/Discrete a. Discrete remains closer to its roots, meaning individual, detached, separated b. discreet is to be politely private about something and to be aware of consequences if everyone finds out what you're doing c. Everyone tried to be as discreet as possible but eventually, drama started and broke up the cast.

M. Conscience/Conscious a. Conscious means being aware of yourself or the world around you. It also means being sensitive to something or being awake, asleep or insensible

b. Conscience is a moral understanding, an inner feeling, of right and wrong. If you were a cartoon, your conscience would be that little angel on your shoulder, telling you the right thing to do (and to ignore the little devil on the other side) c. EX. The conscience of many filmmakers was clean as they did not intend for the actors to get into a rawl.

N. Can/May a. Can expresses what the speaker believes is a general truth or known fact, or a strong possibility. May is only expressing a weak possibility.

b. The ruthless directors can fire and rehire anyone they want. c. Among other things, directors may not show sex as a daily thing. O. At least five (5) other ones a. b. c. d. e.

The man felt self-conscious about his horrible decisions in life. Emperor Caesar wanted to be discreet in how he will defeat his invaders. The colonists wanted to proceed to ridding the U,S, of Britain. France implied that they might conquer North Africa. The Aztecs loathed the Spaniards for soiling their sacred land.

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Answers: Quiz 1 1.A. 2.A. 3.A. 4.A. 5.True Answers: Quiz 2 1.C. 2.B. 3.A 4.D. 5.C.

Key Answers 1. B. 2. A. 3. True 4. Evidence from Quotations 5. True

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The Grammar In Film